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1.
Food Chem ; 340: 127942, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890859

RESUMO

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil (SI) is appreciated for its nutritional and sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate SI changes during French fries deep-frying at 170 °C or 180 °C up to 119 and 50 min, respectively; commercial soybean oil (SO) was tested as control. SI had high α-linolenic acid (53.8%), linoleic acid (33.4%) and total tocopherols (2540.1 mg/kg). During frying tocopherol content, oil stability and antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH) decreased following zero-order kinetics; γ-tocopherol showed the strongest decrease. Notwithstanding the high SI unsaturation and the commercial antioxidant (TBHQ) in SO, SI showed slightly higher or similar hydrolysis (free fatty acids and diacylglycerols), similar primary (K232, oxidized-triacylglycerols) and lower secondary (K268, triacylglycerol oligopolymers) oxidation. Because of the high tocopherol content, SI showed lower degradation than SO. Thus, SI is suitable for short-term deep-frying; additionally, it may enhance the nutritional value and the flavour of fried foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Culinária , Euphorbiaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Oxirredução
2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127771, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777564

RESUMO

Faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) is an emerging Brazilian plant, with seeds rich in edible oil. This study investigates physicochemical properties, chemical composition, thermal and oxidative stability, in vitro and in vivo toxicity, antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of faveleira seed oil. It was observed that the oil has low acidity, value of peroxide, chlorophyll, carotenoids, ß-carotene and high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition to presenting thermal and oxidative stability and high total phenolic content, with vanillin, eugenol and quercetin were predominating. The oil showed no toxicity in vitro and in vivo, and presented antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These findings provide relevant and appropriate conditions for processing of faveleira seed oil as functional food.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Brasil , Carotenoides/análise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/análise , Euphorbiaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/prevenção & controle , Fenóis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(18): 4510-4518, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164382

RESUMO

The names, basic sources, medicinal parts, efficacy and standards of the medicinal materials in Euphorbiaceae were systematically collated and analyzed by the textual research for Yao medicine monographs in this paper. The results showed that there were great differences in the names, basic sources, medicinal parts and efficacy of some medicinal materials recorded in different literatures. There were 19 genera and 60 species(including varieties) of Euphorbiaceae of Yao medicine, involving 50 kinds of medicinal materials. Among them, there were 42 kinds of single basic sources medicine, 8 kinds of multi basic sources medicine, 28 kinds of root medicine, 26 kinds of whole plant medicine, 25 kinds of unique Yao medicine, accounting for 50%, 11 kinds of cross with Chinese medicinal materials, accounting for 22%. There were 21 kinds of Yao medicine standards at all levels, but only 1 kind of Laoban medicine and 2 kinds of Yao medicine standards. The Yao medicine in Euphorbiaceae could be named by means of transliteration of Yao language/Yao language transliteration/Chinese medicine name, Laoban medicine, plant morphology, medicinal properties, color and smell of medicine, while the medicinal parts and efficacy of the same medicinal name were different from those of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, the name and basic sources of the medicinal materials in Euphorbiaceae were not standardized, and the quality standard is not perfect. The above results provided a reference for the construction and improvement of quality standard system, the promotion of the production of medicinal materials and clinical medication standards, and the further development and utilization of Euphorbiaceae.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Euphorbiaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Registros , Padrões de Referência
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4589-4597, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164422

RESUMO

The plants of the Trigonostemon sp. genus(Euphorbiaceae family) comprising about 50 species worldwide are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia, 10 species of which can be found in southern of China. Phytochemical studies on the plants in the genus have demonstrated a large amount of terpenoids and alkaloids. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity, antivirus, antibacterial, anti-inflammation and other pharmacological activities. In this paper, chemical compositions and biological activities of Trigonostemon genus at home and abroad over the past decade were summarized, in order to provide scientific basis for the further development and utilization of Trigonostemon plants.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Euphorbiaceae , Ásia , China , Compostos Fitoquímicos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140452, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886966

RESUMO

Invasive plant environments differ along latitudes and between native and introduced ranges. In response to herbivory and abiotic stresses that vary with latitudes and between ranges, invasive plants may shift their secondary chemicals to facilitate invasion success. However, it remains unclear whether and how invasive plant chemical responses to herbivory and chemical responses to abiotic environments are associated. We conducted large scale field surveys of herbivory on the invasive tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) along latitudes in both its native (China) and introduced ranges (United States) and collected leaf samples for analyses of tannins and flavonoids. We used data on climate and solar radiation to examine these chemical responses to abiotic environments and their variations along these latitudes and between ranges. We also re-analyzed previously published data from multiple common garden experiments on tallow tree to investigate genetic divergence of secondary chemical concentrations between introduced and native populations. We found foliar tannins and herbivory (chewing, sucking) were higher in the native range compared to the invasive range. Allocation to tannins versus flavonoids decreased with latitude in the native range but did not vary in the invasive range. Analyses of previously published common garden experimental data indicated genetic divergence contributes to chemical concentration differences between ranges. Our field data further indicated that the latitudinal patterns were primarily phenotypic responses to herbivory in China while in US they were primarily phenotypic responses to abiotic environments. The variation of tannins may be linked to flavonoids, given tannins and flavonoids share a biosynthesis pathway. Together, our results suggest that invasive plants adjust their secondary metabolism to decrease chemicals that primarily defend against herbivory and increase those that help them to respond to their abiotic environment. These findings deepen our understanding of how invasive plants adapt to biogeographically heterogeneous environments through trade-offs between secondary chemical responses.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Herbivoria , China , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas
6.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(3): 100-103, jul.-set. 2020. fig
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129411

RESUMO

O Pantanal é a maior planície inundável do planeta. A população humana da região utiliza vegetais que encontram no dia a dia e, com o tempo, isso os levou a descobrir diferentes finalidades alimentares e até usos terapêuticos dessas plantas. Este estudo tem como objetivo compreender a popularidade do pinhão-roxo (Jatropha gossipifolia L.) e seu uso como planta medicinal em duas comunidades ribeirinhas do município de Corumbá (MS), Brasil, com ênfase nos envenenamentos causados por arraias de água doce, frequentes na área. Mais da metade dos entrevistados utilizou o pinhão-roxo em várias doenças, especialmente no controle de sangramentos e na cicatrização de feridas. O uso de infusões em úlceras crônicas causadas por peixes peçonhentos é amplamente mencionado pelos pescadores entrevistados, particularmente em envenenamentos com necrose cutânea causada por arraias de água doce. Outras indicações citadas são o tratamento de micoses cutâneas e odontalgias, que não são mencionadas nas referências anteriores, indicando a necessidade de estudos clínicos e farmacológicos adicionais para avaliar esses propósitos.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Rajidae , Euphorbiaceae , Jatropha , Grupos Populacionais
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750082

RESUMO

Drug resistant Salmonella species and shortcomings related to current drugs stress the urgent need to search for new antimicrobial agents to control salmonellosis. This study investigated the antisalmonellal and antioxidant potentials of methanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola and Alchornea cordifolia as potential sources of drugs to control Salmonella species and to reduce related oxidative stress. The antisalmonellal activity was assessed using the broth microdilution, membrane destabilization and time-kill kinetic assays. While, the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays were used for the determination of the antioxidant activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 125 to 1000 µg/mL, with the methanolic root extract of G. kola being the most active. The time kill kinetic assay revealed a concentration-dependent bacteriostatic activity for promising extracts. Potent extracts from G. kola showed the ability to destabilize S. typhi outer membrane, with the methanolic root extract presenting the highest activity; two-fold higher than those of polymyxin B tested as reference. In addition, this methanolic root extract of G. kola also provoked nucleotide leakage in a concentration-dependent manner. From the antioxidant assays, the hydro-ethanolic extract from the stem bark of A. cordifolia presented significant activities comparable to that of Vitamin C. The methanolic root extract of G. kola also presented appreciable antioxidant activities, though less than that of A. cordifolia. Overall, the phytochemical screening of active extracts revealed the presence of anthocyanins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. These results provide evidence of the antibacterial potential of G. kola and offer great perspectives in a possible standardisation of an antisalmonellal phytomedicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Garcinia kola/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Camarões , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, different traditions of symbolic statements in graveyards can be found. However, studies on sub-Saharan Africa are rare. For BaKongo cemeteries, it is only known that they traditionally do not exhibit plants for decoration purposes. Our study wanted to inspect the influence of Portuguese culture due to the long shared colonial past. METHODS: During 2015 and 2019, plant use in 87 graveyards in 13 municipalities of the province Uíge was documented. Five expert interviews with the village eldest in five municipalities completed the data collection. RESULTS: While 24% of the graveyards didn´t have any planting, 27 plant species were found in the remaining ones, including a high percentage of alien species (59%), mainly from the Americas. The most abundant plant species are Euphorbia tirucalli (23%) and Agave sisalana (22%). With increasing distance from the city Uíge (especially towards the Democratic Republic of the Congo), the utilization of living plants in cemeteries is decreasing except along the road. In most of the cases, just one plant species per gravesite was found. CONCLUSIONS: This unexpected high number of plants might be interpreted as a strong evidence of outside influence. Cultural symbols of the BaKongo cosmology and Christianism appear to coexist or coalesce. Furthermore, plants are used as a marker for graveyards. Modern influences like the use of concrete in proximity to urban areas indicate a certain wealth.


Assuntos
Cemitérios , Etnobotânica , Angola , Asparagaceae , Comparação Transcultural , Características Culturais , Euphorbiaceae , Rituais Fúnebres , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Espécies Introduzidas , Portugal/etnologia
9.
Phytochemistry ; 179: 112487, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847772

RESUMO

The stem bark and root bark extracts of Croton dictyophlebodes (Euphorbiaceae) yielded seven undescribed ent-clerodanes: 15,16-epoxy-17,12(S)-olide-ent-cleroda-1,3,13(16),14-tetraen-18-oic acid methyl ester (crotodictyo A), 3ß,4ß:15,16-diepoxy-ent-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-20-al (crotodictyo B), 3ß,4ß:15,16-diepoxy-ent-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-19,20-dioic acid (crotodictyo C), 3ß,4ß:15,16-diepoxy-ent-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-20,19-olide (crotodictyo D), 3ß,4ß:15,16-diepoxy-20,12(R)-olide ent-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-19-oic acid methyl ester (crotodictyo E), 15,16-epoxy-ent-cleroda-3,13(16),14-trien-12-oxo-18-oic acid (crotodictyo F) and 15,16-epoxy-ent-cleroda-1,3,13(16),14-tetraen-12-oxo-18-oic acid (crotodictyo G), in addition to 15,16-epoxy- ent-cleroda-3,13(16),14-trien-12-oxo-18-oic acid methyl ester (crotodictyo H), reported previously as a synthetic derivative, and acetyl aleuritolic acid. The root extract yielded two ent-trachylobanes, ent-trachylobane-18,19-diol, the undescribed ent-trachylobane-2α,19-diol, along with ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid and 2-methoxybenzyl benzoate. Compounds were evaluated against the NCI 60 panel of human tumour cell lines at a single dose of 10-5 M, but showed no significant activity.


Assuntos
Croton , Diterpenos Clerodânicos , Euphorbiaceae , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diterpenos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Phytochemistry ; 178: 112455, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692659

RESUMO

The leaf extract of Croton haumanianus J. Léonard (Euphorbiaceae) yielded twenty-six compounds, including eight previously reported ent-kauranes and an ent-labdane and eight undescribed ent-kauranes, ent-16R-kauran-17-al, ent-3ß-hydroxy-16R-kauran-17-al, ent-16S,17-epoxykauran-19-ol, ent-16S,17-epoxykauran-3ß-ol, ent-17-palmityloxykaurane-3ß,16ß-diol, ent-17-palmityloxykauran-16ß-ol, ent-3α,18-cyclokaurane-16ß,17-diol and 19-nor-16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-4(18)-ene and three undescribed ent-clerodanes, dimethyl ent-15,16-epoxy-6ß-hydroxy-1,3,13(16),14-clerodatetraen-20,12S-olide-18,19-dioate (saniolide A), dimethyl ent-15,16-epoxy-6ß-hydroxy-1,3,13(16),14-clerodatetraen-20,12R-olide-18,19-dioate (12-epi-saniolide A), methyl ent-15,16-epoxy-1,3,13(16),14-clerodatetraen-18,6R:20,12S-diolide-19-oate (saniolide B). The stem bark extract yielded the ent-clerodane crotocorylifuran, and five undescribed ent-isopimaranes, ent-isopimara-8(14),15-dien-18-al, ent-18-hydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-7-one, ent-isopimara-7,15-dien-18-oic acid, ent-isopimara-7,15-dien-18-ol and ent-isopimara-8,15-dien-7-oxo-18-oic acid. Three compounds, ent-kaurane-3ß,16ß,17-triol, ent-17-palmityloxykaurane-3ß,16ß-diol and ent-17-palmityloxykauran-16ß-ol, showed selective activity against three of the NCI 60 cancer cell lines, the colon (HCT-116), the melanoma (M14) and the renal (786-0) cancer cell lines at a concentration of 10-5 M.


Assuntos
Croton , Diterpenos de Caurano , Diterpenos , Euphorbiaceae , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta
11.
Food Chem ; 331: 127338, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569970

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of roasting on the formation of furan in nuts was investigated. Nut samples were roasted at 150-200 °C for 5-25 min. As the roasting temperature and roasting time increased, the levels of furan in the nuts increased up to 348 ng/g. The concentration of furan was 2.76-224, 0.71-69.0, 1.46-348, 2.68-87.0, and 3.70-94.4 ng/g in almonds, peanuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, and sacha inchi, respectively. In kinetics analysis, the chemical reaction responsible for the production of furan in nuts followed the zero-order kinetic model, with reaction constants of 3.26 × 10-9 to 16.5 × 10-9mol/L.h at 200 °C. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was 125.0, 93.6, 86.5, 62.0, and 70.1 kJ/mol for almonds, peanuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, and sacha inchi, respectively. These results can be used to predict or to calculate furan formation in roasted nuts.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Furanos/química , Nozes/química , Anacardium/química , Arachis/química , Corylus/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Cinética , Prunus dulcis/química
12.
Arch Virol ; 165(8): 1877-1881, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447620

RESUMO

Codiaeum variegatum (common name, garden croton) is an ornamental plant grown for its bright yellow variegated leaf morphology. Two C. variegatum plants with upward leaf curling and vein swelling symptoms were collected in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sequencing of clones obtained by PCR amplification with specific primers showed one plant infected with the monopartite begomoviruses pedilanthus leaf curl virus (PeLCV) and papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV) and the other to be infected with only PeLCV. Both plants also harboured a betasatellite that was distinct from all previously identified betasatellites, for which the name "codiaeum leaf curl betasatellite" (CoLCuB) is proposed. This is the first identification of a begomovirus and an associated betasatellite infecting C. variegatum in Pakistan. Both PeLCV and PaLCuV cause problems in a number of crop plants, and C. variegatum may act as a reservoir for these agriculturally important viruses. The precise impact and geographical distribution of the newly identified CoLCuB will be investigated.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/genética , Euphorbiaceae/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Vírus Satélites/genética , Carica/virologia , DNA Satélite/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Paquistão , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343717

RESUMO

The Amazon region is rich in genetic resources such as oilseeds which have potentially important local commercial exploitation. Despite its high concentration of bioactive compounds, cacay (Caryodendron orinocense Karst.) oil is poorly investigated and explored. Thus, this study focuses on the physicochemical characterization (moisture, density, and saponification, iodine, and acidity values), fatty acid composition as determined by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC/MS), total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay) of cacay oil, coconut oil and a coconut/cacay oil blend, also known as cacay butter. The antibacterial activity of cacay oil was additionally evaluated. Our study demonstrated that cacay oil presents a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (58.3%) with an emphasis on linoleic acid and a lower acidity value (2.67 ± 0.01 cg I2/g) than butter and coconut oil, indicating a low concentration of free fatty acids. In contrast, cacay butter and coconut oil presented higher saturated fatty acid percentages (69.1% and 78.4%, respectively) and higher saponification values (242.78 and 252.22 mg KOH/g, respectively). The samples showed low moisture and relative density between 912 and 916 kg/m3. The hydrophilic fraction of cacay oil was highlighted in the quantification of TPC (326.27 ± 6.79 mg GAE/kg) and antioxidant capacity in vitro by DPPH radical scavenging assay (156.57 ± 2.25 µmol TE/g). Cacay oil inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus (44.99 ± 7.68%), Enterococcus faecalis (27.76 ± 0.00%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.81 ± 3.75%). At long last, this is the first study reporting the physicochemical characterization and bioactive properties of cacay butter. Coconut oil and cacay butter showed great oxidative stability potential due to higher contents of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, cacay oil presents as an alternative source of raw materials for cosmetic and biotechnology industries due to its high concentration of PUFA and for being a rich source of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Phytochemistry ; 174: 112360, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229336

RESUMO

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the n-butanol extract from the branches and leaves of Reutealis trisperma resulted in the isolation of six undescribed (crotignoids L ~ Q) together with two known (12-deoxyphorbol-13-hexadecanoate and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-myristate) tigliane diterpenoids. Their structures, especially the absolute configurations, were determined from extensive spectroscopic studies, including 2D NMR spectra, CD data analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All isolates were tested for anti-HIV activity against HL4-3 virus in MT4 cells. Except for crotignoid Q, the remaining seven tigliane diterpenoids exhibited potent anti-HIV activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.0023 to 4.03 µM.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Euphorbiaceae , Forbóis , Estrutura Molecular
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(5): 437-448, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281560

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ultrasonic operating conditions, i.e., ultrasonic mode, amplitude, total ultrasonic duration time, and emulsifier system in producing an optimum oil-in-water of sacha inchi oil nanoemulsions (SIO-NEs). Physicochemical characteristics (including average droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, and viscosity) were the evaluated response variables. Smaller droplet size was obtained from SIO-NEs prepared by ultrasonic pulse application (15s ON and 10s OFF) with an ultrasonic amplitude level of 60%. In contrast, excess energy produced by ultrasonication amplitudes of more than 60% resulted in larger average droplet size and PDI. A decrease in the absolute value of zeta potential and a lower viscosity of SIO-NEs were also observed in conjunction with the high amplitude level of the ultrasonication process. An ultrasonication duration time of longer than 10 minutes did not significantly reduce the droplet size. Five emulsifier systems were evaluated in this study, including Pluronic®L-31, Brij®C-10, Tween®80, Tween®80/Pluronic®L-31, and Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31. The results revealed that the Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31 mixture produced the smallest droplet size (148 nm) with the lowest PDI (0.210), viscosity (3.35 cPs), and zeta potential (-31.09 mV). The concentration of the Brij®C-10/Pluronic®L-31 mixture, used as an emulsifier of SIO-NEs, varied from 1.5% to 9%. Based on the present findings, the most suitable concentration of mixed emulsifier used was deemed as 3% (w/v). The selected SIO-NEs were stored under room temperature to determine their droplet size stability, with the constant slightly increasing within 90 days of storage.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Emulsões , Euphorbiaceae/química , Nanopartículas , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 573-585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158209

RESUMO

Introduction: A comparative study of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. seed extract and developed silver nanoparticles (PJSNPs) for improving bioavailability that enhance their anti-cancer activity against HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), PANC-1 (pancreatic carcinoma), MDA-MB 231 (breast carcinoma) cell lines was performed. Materials and Methods: The green synthesis of PJSNPs (Putranjiva silver nanoparticles) was performed using PJ (Putranjiva) extract, and characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was accomplished through UV-Vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy. Results: The results revealed that PJSNPs are homogeneous, spherical in shape, ~8±2 nm in size, and negatively charged with a zeta potential of about -26.71 mV. The cytotoxicity pattern observed was AgNO3 > PJSNPs > PJ extract. The morphological changes of the cells were observed by flow cytometry and also by the DNA ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis, which indicated that the process of cell death occurred via the apoptosis mechanism and PJSNPs were exerting late-stage apoptosis in all the tested cell lines. The small size and negative value of zeta potential could be the factors responsible for greater bioavailability and thus increased uptake by the tumor cells. Conclusion: The MTT assay and morphological changes observed by various methods indicate that the novel PJSNPs are a better anticancer agent than PJ extract. All the above properties make biologically synthesized PJSNPs an important target in the field of anti-cancer drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Euphorbiaceae/química , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Prata/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
17.
Planta ; 251(4): 80, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185506

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The underutilized, oleaginous crop Plukenetia volubilis L. has a remarkable lipid composition and a large potential for further domestication, alleviation of malnutrition, and integration into sustainable food production systems. Current global challenges include climate change, increasing population size, lack of food security, malnutrition, and degradation of arable lands. In this context, a reformation of our food production systems is imperative. Underutilized crops, or orphan crops, can provide valuable traits for this purpose, e.g., climate change resilience, nutritional benefits, cultivability on marginal lands, and improvement of income opportunities for smallholders. Plukenetia volubilis L. (Euphorbiaceae)-sacha inchi-is a 'lost crop' of the Incas native to the Amazon basin. Its oleaginous seeds are large, with a high content of ω-3, and -6 fatty acids (ca. 50.5, and 34.1%, of the lipid fraction, respectively), protein, and antioxidants. Culinarily, the seeds are nut-like and the crop has been associated with humans since Incan times. Research has particularly been undertaken in seed biochemistry, and to some extent in phylogeny, genetics, and cultivation ecology, but attention has been unevenly distributed, causing knowledge gaps in areas such as ethnobotany, allergenicity, and sustainable cultivation practices. Recently, seed size evolution and molecular drivers of the fatty acid synthesis and composition have been studied, however, further research into the lipid biosynthesis is desirable. Targeted breeding has not been undertaken but might be especially relevant for yield, sensory qualities, and cultivation with low environmental impact. Similarly, studies of integration into sustainable management systems are of highest importance. Here, present knowledge on P. volubilis is reviewed and a general framework for conducting research on underutilized crops with the aim of integration into sustainable food production systems is presented.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carboidratos/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Filogenia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Paladar
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 145: 106738, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001365

RESUMO

We investigated species relationships in Astraea, a primarily Neotropical genus of tribe Crotoneae centered in Brazil, using data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS, and the plastid trnL-trnF and psbA-trnH spacers. With all species of Astraea sampled, along with representatives from across Crotoneae, the evolutionary history of Astraea was interpreted in a broader framework, as well as divergence time estimates and reconstructions of ancestral areas and morphological character states for Crotoneae. Our results show that Astraea is monophyletic, consisting of three main clades, and that most of its diversification took place from the Oligocene to the Pliocene, coincident with the formation of the South American "dry diagonal". As for Crotoneae, our data show incongruent phylogenetic positions between the nuclear and chloroplast data for most of its genera, and that the ancestor of the tribe was probably arborescent and might have occupied the Amazon Basin, most likely in moist forest, from which it spread throughout South America in the early Eocene. Ancestral state reconstruction recovered deeply lobed leaves and staminate petals bearing moniliform trichomes as putative synapomorphies for Astraea, whereas the absence or strong reduction of pistillate petals is widespread in Crotoneae and may be a synapomorphy for the tribe.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Euphorbiaceae/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Euphorbiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Euphorbiaceae/genética , Florestas , Íntrons , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plastídeos/genética
19.
Plant Reprod ; 33(1): 21-34, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907610

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Cytokinin might be an important factor to regulate floral sex at the very early stage of flower development in sacha inchi. Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, Euphorbiaceae) is characterized by having female and male flowers in a thyrse with particular differences. The mechanisms involved in the development of unisexual flowers are very poorly understood. In this study, the inflorescence and flower development of P. volubilis were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We also investigated the effects of cytokinin on flower sex determination by exogenous application of 6-benzyladenine (BA) in P. volubilis. The floral development of P. volubilis was divided into eight stages, and the first morphological divergence between the male and female flowers was found to occur at stage 3. Both female and male flowers can be structurally distinguished by differences in the shape and size of the flower apex after sepal primordia initiation. There are no traces of gynoecia in male flowers or of androecia in female flowers. Exogenous application of BA effectively induced gynoecium primordia initiation and female flower development, especially at the early flower developmental stages. We propose that flower sex is determined earlier and probably occurs before flower initiation, either prior to or at inflorescence development due to the difference in the position of the female and male primordia in the inflorescence and in the time of the female and male primordia being initiated. The influence of cytokinin on female primordia during flower development in P. volubilis strongly suggests a feminization role for cytokinin in sex determination. These results indicate that cytokinin could modify the fate of the apical meristem of male flower and promote the formation of carpel primordia in P. volubilis.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Flores , Compostos de Benzil/farmacologia , Citocininas/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/classificação , Flores/fisiologia , Flores/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/ultraestrutura , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Processos de Determinação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112233, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911267

RESUMO

Eight previously undescribed and 15 known components, including six neolignans, two monolignan, three sesquineolignans, three dineolignans, eight phenylpropanoids, and one steroid were identified from the seed testa of Vernicia fordii. Their structures were established based on the comprehensive analysis of NMR and ECD data. The anti-neuroinflammatory effects of the isolates were evaluated through nitrite assays in LPS-induced BV2 cells. As a result, isodiverniciasin A, diverniciasin B, diverniciasin C, isoprincepin, princepin, 3, 3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol, (+)-7-epi-sesamin-dicatechol, isoamericanin A, americanin B, 7S, 8R-americanin D, 4-hydroxyl cinnamic aldehyde, 3-hydroxyl-4-methoxyl cinnamic aldehyde and 24R-6ß-hydroxy-24- ethylcholest-4-en-3-one exhibited significant inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production and isoprincepin, princepin, americanin B, and 4-hydroxyl cinnamic aldehyde suppressed the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in over-activated microglia. The results suggested that bioactive ingredients from the seed testa of V. fordii can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/antagonistas & inibidores , Nitritos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
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