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1.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114200, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609207

RESUMO

Various species of Southern African plants and their edible seeds have gained huge importance due to positive health aspects, and there is increasing interest to introduce such seeds as Novel Food on the international market. Especially the seeds of Schinziophyton rautanenii (manketti) and Guibourtia coleosperma (ushivi) could have great potential as a food and food ingredient. Hence, extensive analyses on the chemical composition of manketti nuts and ushivi beans including the analysis of total solids, protein and fat content, soluble carbohydrates, ash, total and free amino acids, biogenic amines and polyamines, fatty acid profile as well as the content of certain B-vitamins and tocopherols were performed. Results obtained showed a valuable nutritional composition, e.g., a true protein content of 22.6% with a ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acid composition of 48% in manketti nuts, while ushivi beans had a true protein content of 8.2% with a similar ratio of essential to total amino acids (45%). Lipid content was 54.1% in manketti nuts, ushivi beans had a value of 7.7%. In both, linoleic acid was the most abundant. Furthermore, ushivi beans had high amounts of vitamin B1 and B2.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Fabaceae , Nozes , Sementes , África Austral , Aminoácidos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5627, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454096

RESUMO

Plant extracts are actively being used worldwide due to the presence of biologically active constituents helping in the preservation of food, and to aid against various diseases owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. The present research work was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activity, and antioxidant activity of different extracted samples of Euphorbia parviflora. Anti-microbial studies were carried out by Agar well diffusion while the DPPH method was employed for investigating anti-oxidant activity. Three samples from methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extract were tested against five different bacterial strains comprising two species from Gram-negative bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and three species from Gram-positive bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia along two fungal strains i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The results of the qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that methanolic, chloroformic, and ethylacetate extract of Euphorbia parviflora consist of alkaloids, reducing sugars, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, and saponins. The total phenol and flavonoid content of E. parviflora showed that the methanolic extract of E. parviflora had a significantly higher total phenolic content (53.73 ± 0.30 mg of GAE/g) and flavonoid content (44.62 ± 0.38 mg of than other extracts. The content of total phenolic and flavonoids was more in methanolic extract as compared to other extracts of E. prolifera. The HPLC analysis showed that in the chloroform extract of E. parviflora Cinnamic acid (4.32 ± 2.89 mg/g) was dominant, in methanol extract quercetin (3.42 ± 2.89 mg/g) was dominant and in ethyl acetate extract of E. parviflora catechin (4.44 ± 2.89 mg/g) was found dominant. The antimicrobial activity revealed that amongst all the extracts the highest antibacterial activity was shown by methanolic extract against B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus as compared to the other extracts. The antioxidant activity revealed that methanolic extract of E. parviflora demonstrated higher antioxidant activity (82.42 ± 0.02) followed by chloroform extract (76.48 ± 0.08) at 150 µg/mL. The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate the potential of this plant as a reliable source of antimicrobials and antioxidants that may be used for the treatment of various infectious diseases in the future. The study provides evidence that this plant can act as a reliable source of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and might be used against several infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças Transmissíveis , Euphorbia , Euphorbiaceae , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Metanol/química , Clorofórmio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14248, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488424

RESUMO

The Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) is an economically important plant on account of its ornamental value and oil-producing seeds. Leaf colour is a key characteristic of T. sebifera, with yellow-, red- and purple-leaved varieties providing visually impressive displays during autumn. In this study, we performed metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying leaf colour development in purple-leaved T. sebifera at three stages during the autumnal colour transition, namely, green, hemi-purple, and purple leaves. We accordingly detected 370 flavonoid metabolites and 10 anthocyanins, among the latter of which, cyanidin-3-xyloside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside were identified as the predominant compounds in hemi-purple and purple leaves. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that structural genes associated with the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, chlorophyll synthesis pathway and carotenoid synthesis pathway were significantly differential expressed at the three assessed colour stages. Additionally, transcription factors associated with the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex, including 22 R2R3-MYBs, 79 bHLHs and 44 WD40 genes, were identified as candidate regulators of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, on the basis of the identified differentially accumulated anthocyanins and key genes, we generated genetic and metabolic regulatory networks for anthocyanin biosynthesis in T. sebifera. These findings provide comprehensive information on the leaf transcriptome and three pigments of T. sebifera, thereby shedding new light on the mechanisms underlying the autumnal colouring of the leaves of this tree.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Euphorbiaceae , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clorofila , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metaboloma , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cor
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 173: 116290, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458010

RESUMO

Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. So, a topical gel containing the hydroethanolic extract of its leaves was developed and evaluated for its anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and antiophidic properties in mice. First, the chemical profile of different parts of the plant was characterized by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using molecular networking. In the leaf extract, 11 compounds were characterized, with a particular emphasis on the identification of flavonoids. The gel efficiently inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, as well as acute and chronic croton oil-induced ear edema models, thereby reducing inflammatory and oxidative parameters in inflamed tissues. Besides anti-inflammatory activity, the herbal gel showed significant wound healing activity. The edematogenic, hemorrhagic and dermonecrotic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom were effectively inhibited by the treatment with J. mollissima gel. The association with the herbal gel improved in up to 90% the efficacy of commercial snake antivenom in reduce venom-induced edema. Additionally, while antivenom was not able to inhibit venom-induced dermonecrosis, treatment with herbal gel reduced in 55% the dermonocrotic halo produced. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of the herbal gel containing J. mollissima extract, which could be a strong candidate for the development of herbal products that can be used to complement the current antivenom therapy against snake venom local toxicity.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos , Euphorbiaceae , Jatropha , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Camundongos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Jatropha/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Veneno de Bothrops jararaca , Cicatrização
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 194: 108028, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342161

RESUMO

Myrmecophytic plants utilise defensive services offered by obligate ant partners nesting in their domatia in a novel means of survival in tropical habitats. Although much is known about the ecology of myrmecophytism, there aren't enough empirical examples to demonstrate whether it substantially influences evolutionary patterns in host plant lineages. In this study, we make use of the species-rich Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) ant-plant symbiosis distributed in the Southeast Asian Sundaland to delve into the evolutionary dynamics of myrmecophytism in host plants. We generated the most comprehensive dated phylogeny of myrmecophytic Macaranga till date using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). With this in hand, we traced the evolutionary history of myrmecophytism in Macaranga using parametric biogeography and ancestral state reconstruction. Diversification rate analysis methods were employed to determine if myrmecophytism enhanced diversification rates in the genus. Our results demonstrate that myrmecophytism is labile and easily lost. Ancestral state reconstruction supported a single origin of myrmecophytism in Macaranga âˆ¼18 mya on Borneo followed by multiple losses. Diversification rate analysis methods did not yield sufficient evidence to support the hypothesis that myrmecophytism enhanced diversification rates in Macaranga; we found that topographical features on Borneo may have played a more direct role in the divergence of clades instead. Our study provides evidence that while the acquisition of domatia clearly functions as a key innovation that has enabled host plants to exploit the environment in novel ways, it may not necessarily enhance diversification rates. In fact, we hypothesise that overly specialised cases of myrmecophytism may even be an evolutionary dead end.


Assuntos
Formigas , Euphorbiaceae , Animais , Formigas/genética , Mirmecófitas , Filogenia , Plantas , Simbiose/genética
6.
Genetica ; 152(1): 43-49, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349466

RESUMO

Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) are highly repetitive sequences that occur in virtually all eukaryotic genomes and can undergo rapid copy number and nucleotide sequence variation among relatives. After chromosomal mapping of the satDNA JcSAT1, it was found a large accumulation at subtelomeres of Jatropha curcas (subgenus Curcas), but an absence of these monomers in J. integerrima (subgenus Jatropha). This fact suggests a dynamic scenario for this satellite repeat in Jatropha genomes. Here, we used a multitasking approach (sequence analysis, DNA blotting and chromosomal mapping) to investigate the molecular organization and chromosomal abundance and distribution of JcSAT1 in a broader group of species from the subgenus Jatropha (J. gossypiifolia, J. mollissima, J. podagrica, and J. multifida) in addition to J. curcas, with the aiming of understanding the evolution of this satDNA. Based on the analysis of BAC clone sequences of J. curcas, a large array (~ 30 kb) of 80 homogeneous monomers of JcSAT1 was identified in BAC 23J11. The monomer size was conserved (~ 358 bp) and contained a telomeric motif at the 5' end. PCR amplification coupled with a Southern blot revealed the presence of JcSAT1-like sequences in all species examined. However, a large set of genome copies was identified only in J. curcas, where a ladder-like pattern with multimers of different sizes was observed. In situ hybridization of BAC 23J11 confirmed the subtelomeric pattern for J. curcas, but showed no signals on chromosomes of species from the subgenus Jatropha. Our data indicate that JcSAT1 is a highly homogeneous satDNA that originated from a region near the telomeres and spread throughout the chromosomal subtermini, possibly due to frequent ectopic recombination between these regions. The abundance of JcSAT1 in the genome of J. curcas suggests that an amplification event occurred either at the base of the subgenus Curcas or at least in this species, although the repeat is shared by all species of the genus studied so far.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Jatropha , Jatropha/genética , Euphorbiaceae/genética , DNA Satélite/genética , Filogenia , Heterocromatina , Telômero/genética
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 73(4): 429-435, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171737

RESUMO

Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil is constituted with macronutrients and the health benefit fatty acids. In this context, the efficient of Sacha inchi oil for anti-aging product is presented. The light-clear yellowish seed oil of Sacha inchi was revealed on its physicochemical properties that are in the same range of the commercializing plant-oil supplied for topical products. The oil was GC/MS exhibited to be constituted with α-linolenic (51.72%) and linoleic (24.3%) acids, with unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio of 21.26. The oil was noted onto its potent in vitro antioxidant activity assessed by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. In addition, the oil (1-3%) was proved to be safe in normal human fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the oil exhibited cellular antioxidant with inhibitory effect against MMP-2. Sacha inchi oil is therefore highlighted as a potential source of nutraceutical especially for anti-aging product. The oil is specified for the product development in terms of physicochemical, chemical and biological profiles. Innovative processing of Sacha inchi is therefore encouraged as the promising plant for anti-aging product.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Humanos , Ácidos Graxos , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/química , Envelhecimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química
8.
Biointerphases ; 19(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270483

RESUMO

In this study, we describe the fabrication of hydrogen gas sensors in the form of nanocomposites containing metal oxides such as copper oxide (CuO), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and polyaniline (PANI) using a green synthesis method. We used Macaranga indica (M. indica) leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent to prepare copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs). The sample was analyzed using various techniques to determine its physicochemical, morphological, and elemental composition. The XRD data showed that the sample is a CuO/PANI/MWCNT nanocomposite by the best match with the reported data. SEM images revealed a uniform distribution of MWCNTs and spherical CuO nanoparticles of 30-40 nm throughout the CNT network. EDX confirmed that the prepared sample is a pure and inline combination of Cu, O, C, and N. Due to the presence of bioactive elements and PANI, we observed 17% and 25% weight loss for CuO and CuO/PANI/MWCNTs. It was found that this combination of materials can detect H2 gas in concentrations ranging from 110 to 2 ppm at temperatures of 200 and 250 °C. As H2 concentration increased, sensitivity varied from 5% to 20%, but response and recovery times were about 290 and 500 s, respectively, for 40 ppm H2 gas. A logistic function fit to Ra/Rg versus H2 was performed using Y = A2 + (A1 - A2)/(1 + (x/x0)p). The energy bands among the CuO/PANI/MWCNT heterointerfaces were used to demonstrate enhanced H2 gas-sensing properties.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina , Euphorbiaceae , Nanotubos de Carbono , Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais
9.
Microsc Res Tech ; 87(2): 291-305, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37772334

RESUMO

Euphorbia L., one of the largest genera of angiosperms, is represented by the subgenera Esula Pers. and Chamaesyce Raf. in Turkey. Subg. Esula is confined mainly to Eurasia, especially in the Mediterranean region, and has not yet been studied in detail palynologically. In the present study, the pollen morphology of 14 taxa belonging to the sections Helioscopia Dumort., Myrsiniteae (Boiss.) Lojac., Pithyusa (Raf.) Lázaro, Patellares (Prokh.) Frajman, Exiguae (Geltman) Riina & Molero, Paralias Dumort., and Esula (Pers) Dumort. of Euphorbia L. subg. Esula Pers. from European Turkey was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains were found to be trizonocolporate, isopolar, radially symmetrical, medium in size, and oblate spheroidal and suboblate in shape. Ectoapertures were elongated colpi with distinct margins, widened at the equatorial region, and tapered at the ends; margo was present in all samples as a smooth exine surrounding the colpi. The endoapertures were lolongate pori with distinct costae. The exine was tectate-perforate. The ornamentation was perforate, microreticulate-perforate, microreticulate-perforate with rugulose, or microreticulate-perforate with a heterobrochate pattern. The sexine was generally thicker than the nexine, with some exceptions where the sexine was almost equal to the nexine. Pollen size, pollen shape, and exine ornamentation have taxonomic importance in distinguishing species; however, these features do not provide strong support for grouping or delimitating the taxa at the sectional level. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Pollen size, pollen shape, and exine ornamentation are taxonomically important for distinguishing Euphorbia species. The exine ornamentation was observed to be perforate, microreticulate-perforate, microreticulate-perforate with a rugulose pattern, and microreticulate-perforate with a heterobrochate pattern.


Assuntos
Euphorbia , Euphorbiaceae , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Turquia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Phytochem Anal ; 35(1): 28-39, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37571866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous species of the Euphorbiaceae family, including Euphorbia maculata, Euphorbia humifusa, and Acalypha australis, have been used to manage bleeding disorders. However, few investigations have demonstrated their hemostatic potential, and their procoagulant compounds remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the most active procoagulant extracts from the three species' crude extract (CE) and fractions in order to screen out the active compounds and to analyze their possible mechanisms of action. METHODS: An integrative approach, comprising prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time evaluations and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) inhibitory assessment, followed by bio-affinity ultrafiltration paired with UPLC/QTOF-MS targeting uPA and docking simulations, was used. RESULTS: The extracts with highest procoagulant activity were the CE for both E. maculata (EMCE) and E. humifusa (EHCE) and the n-butanol fraction (NB) for A. australis (AANB). The most promising ligands, namely, isoquercetin, orientin, rutin, and brevifolin carboxylic acid, were selected from these lead extracts. All of these compounds exhibited pronounced specific binding values to the uPA target and showed tight intercalation with the crucial side chains forming the uPA active pocket, which may explain their mode of action. The activity validation substantiated their hemostatic effectivity in inhibiting uPA as they had better inhibition constant (Ki) values than the reference drug tranexamic acid. CONCLUSION: Collectively, the integrative strategy applied to these three species allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects on bleeding disorders, resulting in the fast detection of four potential hemostatic compounds and their mode of action.


Assuntos
Acalypha , Euphorbia , Euphorbiaceae , Hemostáticos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/química , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Euphorbiaceae/química , Ultrafiltração , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massa com Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 397(4): 1935-1956, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37796311

RESUMO

The plant Acalypha indica L. is a well-known traditional plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Traditional practices of the plant claim to treat asthma, pneumonia, wound healing, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, and skin disorders. The major phytochemicals reported are cyanogenic glucosides, tannins, coumarins, flavonoid glycosides, fatty acids, and volatile oils. To summarize the anti-inflammatory potential of Acalypha indica extract and its phytochemicals through preclinical studies. The search terms include anti-inflammatory, Acalypha indica, and Acalypha indica extract independently or in combination with pro-inflammatory markers using various databases, including Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, and Google Scholar. The results of preclinical studies confirm that Acalypha indica exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity. Most of the experimental studies that have been conducted on plant extract are protein denaturation, human red blood cell membrane stabilization assay, and carrageenan-induced inflammation models. However, the molecular mechanism in these studies is still unclear to demonstrate its anti-inflammatory effects. Acalypha indica possesses anti-inflammatory effects that may be due to the presence of phenolic compounds especially flavonoids present in the Acalypha indica. Thus, further research is needed, to understand mechanistic insights of the plant phytochemicals to represent anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Acalypha , Euphorbiaceae , Humanos , Acalypha/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Carragenina , Glicosídeos , Flavonoides
13.
Protoplasma ; 261(3): 513-525, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114665

RESUMO

The galls can offer shelter, protection, and an adequate diet for the gall-inducing organisms. Herein, we evaluated the structure of Manihot esculenta leaves and galls induced by Iatrophobia brasiliensis in order to identify metabolic and cell wall composition changes. We expected to find a complex gall with high primary metabolism in a typical nutritive tissue. Non-galled leaves and galls were subjected to anatomical, histochemical, and immunocytochemical analyses to evaluate the structural features, primary and secondary metabolites, and glycoproteins, pectins, and hemicelluloses in the cell wall. The gall is cylindric, with a uniseriate epidermis, a larval chamber, and a parenchymatic cortex divided into outer and inner compartments. The outer compartment has large cells with intercellular spaces and stocks starch and is designated as storage tissue. Reducing sugars, proteins, phenolic compounds, and alkaloids were detected in the protoplast of inner tissue cells of galls, named nutritive tissue, which presents five layers of compact small cells. Cell walls with esterified homogalacturonans (HGs) occurred in some cells of the galls indicating the continuous biosynthesis of HGs. For both non-galled leaves and galls, galactans and xyloglucans were broadly labeled on the cell walls, indicating a cell growth capacity and cell wall stiffness, respectively. The cell wall of the nutritive tissue had wide labeling for glycoproteins, HGs, heteroxylans, and xyloglucans, which can be used as source for the diet of the galling insect. Manihot esculenta galls have compartments specialized in the protection and feeding of the galling insect, structured by nutritive tissue rich in resource compounds, in the cell walls and protoplast.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Euphorbiaceae , Manihot , Transtornos Fóbicos , Animais , Protoplastos , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Parede Celular , Tumores de Planta , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
14.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 88(11): 1956-1969, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38105212

RESUMO

Euphorbiaceae, also known as the spurge family, is a large group of flowering plants. Despite being tropical natives, they are now widespread. Due to its medicinal and commercial importance, this family of plants attracted a lot of attention in the scientific community. The distinctive characteristic of the family is production of milky latex, which is a rich source of several lectins, the proteins that bind carbohydrates. Although their function is unclear, they are believed to defend plants against damaging phytopathogenic microorganisms, insects, and predatory animals. Additionally, they serve as crucial metabolic regulators under a variety of stressors. Detection, separation, purification, and characterization of lectins from the Euphorbiaceae family - mostly from the latex of plants - began over 40 years ago. This effort produced over 35 original research papers that were published. However, no systematic review that compiles these published data has been presented yet. This review summarizes and describes several procedures and protocols employed for extraction and purification of lectins belonging to this family. Physicochemical properties and biological activities of the lectins, along with their medicinal and pharmacological properties, have also been analyzed. Additionally, using examples of ricin and ricin agglutinin, we have structurally analyzed characteristics of the lectin known as Ribosome Inactivating Protein Type II (RIP-Type II) that belongs to this family. We anticipate that this review article will offer a useful compendium of information on this important family of lectins, show the scientists involved in lectin research the gaps in our knowledge, and offer insights for future research.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Ricina , Animais , Ricina/química , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Látex/química , Plantas
15.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 101: 106704, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37988956

RESUMO

An aqueous enzymatic-ultrasound cavitation extraction (AEUCE) method was developed to separate Sapium sebiferum seed kernel oil. In this process, neutral proteinase was screened as the propriate enzyme. The Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs were employed to optimize AEUCE. We determined the optimal extraction conditions, producing an oil yield of 84.22 ± 3.17 %. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the S. sebiferum seed kernel oil was abundant in unsaturated fatty acids (>92 %) and that the compositions of the fatty acid profiles extracted by AEUCE were similar to those obtained from Soxhlet extraction, but their contents were slightly different. The physicochemical properties analysis showed that the oil extracted by AEUCE was comparable to that obtained from Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the developed AEUCE is an efficient technique that can separate high-quality plant oils. The S. sebiferum seed kernel oil obtained from this extraction method is a promising substitute for vegetable oils used in biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Água/química , Óleos de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 50(12): 9859-9873, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37848759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Castor (Ricinus communis L.) seeds contain a large amount of oil that has several biological activities. In the current research, phytogeographic distribution, seed morphological characteristics, molecular genetic diversity and structure, and fatty acid composition were investigated in nine Iranian castor populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol was used to extract the nuclear genomes. These were later amplified using 13 SCoT molecular primers. The phytogeographic distribution was determined based on the Zohary mapping, GC apparatus determined the fatty acid composition of the seeds. GenAlex, STRUCTURE, GenoDive, PopGene, and PopART software were used for the statistical analyzes. On phytogeographic mapping, the harvested populations belonged to different districts of the Euro-Siberian and Irano-Turanian regions (Holarctic kingdom). Most of the quantitative morphological traits of the seeds differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) between the populations. The AMOVA test demonstrated a large proportion of significant genetic diversity assigned among populations, which were approved by some estimated parameters of genetic diversity such as Nm, Ht, Hs, and Gst. Nei's genetic distance and structure analysis confirmed the existence of two main genotype groups and some intermediates. However, there was no isolation by distance between the genotypes. Unsaturated fatty acids were detected as the main component of seed oil with linoleic and ricinoleic acids. Significant correlations were detected between the main fatty acids of seed oil with seed morphological traits, geographic distance and the geographic parameters of habitats. According to the composition of the seed fatty acids, four chemotypes groups were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The classification patterns of the populations based on molecular genetic data, fatty acid composition, and phytogeographic mapping were not identical. These findings indicated that Iranian castor populations had unusual seed fatty acid composition which strongly depended on habitat geographic factors and seed morphological traits. However, the identified chemotypes and genotypes can be used in future breeding programs.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Melhoramento Vegetal , Óleo de Rícino/análise , Ricinus/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/química , Biologia Molecular
17.
J Insect Sci ; 23(5)2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656822

RESUMO

Myrmecophytes have mutualistic relationships with symbiotic ants. Although myrmecophytic Macaranga (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) species are well protected by aggressive Crematogaster (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ants, some bug species occur on the myrmecophytes. To clarify the associations of these bugs with the plants and the ants, we studied the food habits of 3 bug species, Pilophorus lambirensis Nakatani et Komatsu, 2013 (Hemiptera: Miridae: Phylinae), Phylinae sp. 1, and Arbela sp. 1 (Hemiptera: Nabidae). We conducted field observations in a Bornean rainforest. First, we located these bugs and studied their behavioral responses to the ants on Macaranga species; we then conducted stable isotope analyses. All bugs avoided direct contact with ants, but they occurred only on trees with active ants. Pilophorus lambirensis and Phylinae sp. 1 were most commonly observed on the apical parts of host trees, whereas Arbela sp. 1 was mainly in areas distant from the apical parts where ants were sparse. The stable isotope ratios indicated that Phylinae sp. 1 fed on food bodies, which are nutrient-rich spherical bodies produced by Macaranga trees on the apical parts for ants. Although the main diet of the other 2 species remains unclear, nitrogen isotopic signatures demonstrated that P. lambirensis is herbivorous, whereas Arbela sp. 1 is carnivorous. However, the distant location from ants and its isotopic signatures indicated that Arbela sp. 1 rarely fed on the ants. At least 2 mirid bug species might obtain enemy-free space in addition to the food provided by the myrmecophytes.


Assuntos
Formigas , Euphorbiaceae , Heterópteros , Malpighiales , Animais , Herbivoria , Comportamento Predatório
18.
Zootaxa ; 5311(1): 123-134, 2023 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37518652

RESUMO

A new genus and new species of tangle-veined flies of the tribe Hirmoneurini (Nemestrinidae), Bernardia xenomorpha gen. et sp. nov., is described from the highland savannas of Brazil. This represents the first record of this tribe from the Southern Hemisphere. The new taxon is compared with the related genera and species of Hirmoneurinae. Bernardia xenomorpha gen. et sp. nov. fits perfectly in the diagnosis of the subfamily, especially by the reduction of the hypandrium and by having the proboscis reduced and, in the tribe Hirmoneurini, by having the frons projected forward and covered by dense pilosity. Bernardia xenomorpha gen. et sp. nov. is distinguished from the other species of Hirmoneurinae, mainly by the length of the proboscis, which reaches the first pair of coxae, while in the other species the proboscis does not exceed the length of the head and, by the U-shaped genital fork, with simple (not bifurcate) arms. An identification key for the American subfamilies, tribes, and genera of Nemestrinidae is also included.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Euphorbiaceae , Animais , Distribuição Animal , Tamanho Corporal , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 90: 117366, 2023 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37329676

RESUMO

Hura crepitans L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a thorn-covered tree widespread in South America, Africa and Asia which produces an irritating milky latex containing numerous secondary metabolites, notably daphnane-type diterpenes known as Protein Kinase C activators. Fractionation of a dichloromethane extract of the latex led to the isolation of five new daphnane diterpenes (1-5), along with two known analogs (6-7) including huratoxin. Huratoxin (6) and 4',5'-epoxyhuratoxin (4) were found to exhibit significant and selective cell growth inhibition against colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2 and primary colorectal cancer cells cultured as colonoids. The underlying mechanism of 4 and 6 was further investigated revealing the involvement of PKCζ in the cytostatic activity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diterpenos , Euphorbiaceae , Humanos , Látex , Células CACO-2 , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Fitoterapia ; 169: 105593, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37355051

RESUMO

From the bioactive extract of the euphorbiaceous Croton niveus Jacq., three previously unreported ent-rosane diterpenes have been isolated and characterized by conventional methods, in addition to the known compounds lupeol, cajucarinolide and some phytosterols. Two of the ent-rosane diterpenes displayed activity against HCT-15 and PC-3 cancer cell lines, and the results of docking calculations of these compounds with NF-κB and STAT3 receptors agreed with the proposed mode of action of diterpenes against PC-3 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Croton , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Diterpenos , Euphorbiaceae , Estrutura Molecular , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia
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