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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(4): 128, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630347

RESUMO

Multi-host pathogens that infect various animal species and humans are considered of great importance for public and animal health. Leishmania spp. parasites are a characteristic example of such pathogens. Although leishmaniosis in humans is endemic for about 100 countries around the world it is classified as a neglected tropical disease. There are three main forms of leishmaniosis in humans: cutaneous (CL), visceral (VL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniosis (MCL). Each year, about 30,000 new cases of VL and more than 1 million new cases of CL are recorded. In Europe L. infantum is the dominant species with dogs being reservoir hosts. Apart from dogs, infection has been recorded in various animals, which suggests that other species could play a role in the maintenance of the parasite in nature. Herein we provide an in-depth review of the literature with respect to studies that deal with Leishmania infantum infections in domestic and wild animal species in Europe. Given the fact that domesticated and wild animals could contribute to the incidences of leishmaniosis in humans, the aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review which could potentially be used for the development of measures when it comes to the control of the Leishmania infantum parasite.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum , Parasitos , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Animais Selvagens , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Ment Health ; 27(1)2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health disorders (MHDs) are associated with physical health disparities, but underlying excess risk and health burden have not yet been comprehensively assessed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden of comorbid physical health conditions (PHCs) across serious MHDs in Europe. METHODS: We estimated the relative prevalence risk of PHCs associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD), bipolar disorder (BD), depressive disorders (DD) and schizophrenia (SZ) across working-age populations of 32 European countries in 2019 based on a targeted literature review. Excess physical health burden was modelled using population-attributable fractions and country-level prevalence data. FINDINGS: We screened 10 960 studies, of which 41 were deemed eligible, with a total sample size of over 18 million persons. Relative prevalence of PHCs was reported in 54%, 20%, 15%, 5% and 7% of studies, respectively, for SZ, DD, BD, AUD or mixed. Significant relative risk estimates ranged from 1.44 to 3.66 for BD, from 1.43 to 2.21 for DD, from 0.81 to 1.97 for SZ and 3.31 for AUD. Excess physical health burden ranged between 27% and 67% of the total, corresponding to 84 million (AUD), 67 million (BD), 66 million (DD) and 5 million (SZ) PHC diagnoses in Europe. A 1% reduction in excess risk assuming causal inference could result in two million fewer PHCs across investigated MHDs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive study of the physical health burden of serious MHDs in Europe. The methods allow for updates, refinement and extension to other MHDs or geographical areas. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The results indicate potential population health benefits achievable through more integrated mental and physical healthcare and prevention approaches.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Alcoolismo/complicações , Saúde Mental , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 973, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European epidemic intelligence (EI) systems receive vast amounts of information and data on disease outbreaks and potential health threats. The quantity and variety of available data sources for EI, as well as the available methods to manage and analyse these data sources, are constantly increasing. Our aim was to identify the difficulties encountered in this context and which innovations, according to EI practitioners, could improve the detection, monitoring and analysis of disease outbreaks and the emergence of new pathogens. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study to identify the need for innovation expressed by 33 EI practitioners of national public health and animal health agencies in five European countries and at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). We adopted a stepwise approach to identify the EI stakeholders, to understand the problems they faced concerning their EI activities, and to validate and further define with practitioners the problems to address and the most adapted solutions to their work conditions. We characterized their EI activities, professional logics, and desired changes in their activities using NvivoⓇ software. RESULTS: Our analysis highlights that EI practitioners wished to collectively review their EI strategy to enhance their preparedness for emerging infectious diseases, adapt their routines to manage an increasing amount of data and have methodological support for cross-sectoral analysis. Practitioners were in demand of timely, validated and standardized data acquisition processes by text mining of various sources; better validated dataflows respecting the data protection rules; and more interoperable data with homogeneous quality levels and standardized covariate sets for epidemiological assessments of national EI. The set of solutions identified to facilitate risk detection and risk assessment included visualization, text mining, and predefined analytical tools combined with methodological guidance. Practitioners also highlighted their preference for partial rather than full automation of analyses to maintain control over the data and inputs and to adapt parameters to versatile objectives and characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the set of solutions needed by practitioners had to be based on holistic and integrated approaches for monitoring zoonosis and antimicrobial resistance and on harmonization between agencies and sectors while maintaining flexibility in the choice of tools and methods. The technical requirements should be defined in detail by iterative exchanges with EI practitioners and decision-makers.


Assuntos
60713 , Surtos de Doenças , Animais , Humanos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Inteligência
5.
Euro Surveill ; 29(15)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606570

RESUMO

Since the end of November 2023, the European Mortality Monitoring Network (EuroMOMO) has observed excess mortality in Europe. During weeks 48 2023-6 2024, preliminary results show a substantially increased rate of 95.3 (95% CI:  91.7-98.9) excess all-cause deaths per 100,000 person-years for all ages. This excess mortality is seen in adults aged 45 years and older, and coincides with widespread presence of COVID-19, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) observed in many European countries during the 2023/24 winter season.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Adulto , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia
7.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 440, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600171

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are influenced by interactions between host and pathogen, and the number of infected hosts is rarely homogenous across the landscape. Areas with elevated pathogen prevalence can maintain a high force of infection and may indicate areas with disease impacts on host populations. However, isolating the ecological processes that result in increases in infection prevalence and intensity remains a challenge. Here we elucidate the contribution of pathogen clade and host species in disease hotspots caused by Ophidiomyces ophidiicola, the pathogen responsible for snake fungal disease, in 21 species of snakes infected with multiple pathogen strains across 10 countries in Europe. We found isolated areas of disease hotspots in a landscape where infections were otherwise low. O. ophidiicola clade had important effects on transmission, and areas with multiple pathogen clades had higher host infection prevalence. Snake species further influenced infection, with most positive detections coming from species within the Natrix genus. Our results suggest that both host and pathogen identity are essential components contributing to increased pathogen prevalence.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Animais , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Hotspot de Doença , Serpentes/microbiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Prevalência
8.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606913, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572495

RESUMO

Objective: Identification of SCD risk is important in the general population from a public health perspective. The objective is to summarize and appraise the available prediction models for the risk of SCD among the general population. Methods: Data were obtained searching six electronic databases and reporting prediction models of SCD risk in the general population. Studies with duplicate cohorts and missing information were excluded from the meta-analysis. Results: Out of 8,407 studies identified, fifteen studies were included in the systematic review, while five studies were included in the meta-analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model was used in thirteen studies (96.67%). Study locations were limited to Europe and the United States. Our pooled meta-analyses included four predictors: diabetes mellitus (ES = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.93, 3.76), QRS duration (ES = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.06, 1.26), spatial QRS-T angle (ES = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.27, 1.69) and factional shortening (ES = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.64). Conclusion: Risk prediction model may be useful as an adjunct for risk stratification strategies for SCD in the general population. Further studies among people except for white participants and more accessible factors are necessary to explore.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6255, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491097

RESUMO

Accurately predicting population mortality rates is crucial for effective retirement insurance and economic policy formulation. Recent advancements in deep learning time series forecasting (DLTSF) have led to improved mortality rate predictions compared to traditional models like Lee-Carter (LC). This study focuses on mortality rate prediction in large clusters across Europe. By utilizing PCA dimensionality reduction and statistical clustering techniques, we integrate age features from high-dimensional mortality data of multiple countries, analyzing their similarities and differences. To capture the heterogeneous characteristics, an adaptive adjustment matrix is generated, incorporating sequential variation and spatial geographical information. Additionally, a combination of graph neural networks and a transformer network with an adaptive adjustment matrix is employed to capture the spatiotemporal features between different clusters. Extensive numerical experiments using data from the Human Mortality Database validate the superiority of the proposed GT-A model over traditional LC models and other classic neural networks in terms of prediction accuracy. Consequently, the GT-A model serves as a powerful forecasting tool for global population studies and the international life insurance field.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
10.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1301825, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435289

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite the improvements in European health systems, a large number of premature deaths are attributable to treatable mortality. Men make up the majority of these deaths, with a significant gap existing between women and men's treatable mortality rate in the EU. Aim: This study aims to identify the healthcare-related factors, including health expenditures, human and physical resources, and hospital services use associated with treatable mortality in women and men across European countries during the period 2011-2019. Methods: We use Eurostat data for 28 EU countries in the period 2011-2019. We estimate a panel data linear regression with country fixed effects and quantile linear regression for men and women. Results: The results found (i) differences in drivers for male and female treatable mortality, but common drivers hold the same direction for both sexes; (ii) favorable drivers are GDP per capita, health expenditures, number of physicians per capita, and (only for men) the average length of a hospital stay, (iii) unfavorable drivers are nurses and beds per capita, although nurses are not significant for explaining female mortality. Conclusion: Policy recommendations may arise that involve an improvement in hospital bed management and the design of more specific policies aimed at healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Lineares
11.
Mov Disord ; 39(3): 571-584, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive disability. Cost studies have mainly explored the early stages of the disease, whereas late-stage patients are underrepresented. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to evaluate the resource utilization and costs of PD management in people with late-stage disease. METHODS: The Care of Late-Stage Parkinsonism (CLaSP) study collected economic data from patients with late-stage PD and their caregivers in five European countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, UK, Sweden) in a range of different settings. Patients were eligible to be included if they were in Hoehn and Yahr stage >3 in the on state or Schwab and England stage at 50% or less. In total, 592 patients met the inclusion criteria and provided information on their resource utilization. Costs were calculated from a societal perspective for a 3-month period. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator approach was utilized to identify the most influential independent variables for explaining and predicting costs. RESULTS: During the 3-month period, the costs were €20,573 (France), €19,959 (Germany), €18,319 (the Netherlands), €25,649 (Sweden), and €12,156 (UK). The main contributors across sites were formal care, hospitalization, and informal care. Gender, age, duration of the disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale 2, the EQ-5D-3L, and the Schwab and England Scale were identified as predictors of costs. CONCLUSION: Costs in this cohort of individuals with late-stage PD were substantially higher compared to previously published data on individuals living in earlier stages of the disease. Resource utilization in the individual sites differed in part considerably among these three parameters mentioned. © 2024 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Transtornos Parkinsonianos , Humanos , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Alemanha
12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(2)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rising midlife mortality in the USA has raised concerns, particularly the increase in 'deaths of despair' (due to drugs, alcohol and suicide). Life expectancy is also stalling in other countries such as the UK, but how trends in midlife mortality are evolving outside the USA is less understood. We provide a synthesis of cause-specific mortality trends in midlife (25-64 years of age) for the USA and the UK as well as other high-income and Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. METHODS: We document trends in midlife mortality in the USA, UK and a group of 13 high-income countries in Western Europe, Australia, Canada and Japan, as well as seven CEE countries from 1990 to 2019. We use annual mortality data from the World Health Organization Mortality Database to analyse sex- and age-specific (25-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years) age-standardized death rates across 15 major cause-of-death categories. RESULTS: US midlife mortality rates have worsened since 1990 for several causes of death including drug-related, alcohol-related, suicide, metabolic diseases, nervous system diseases, respiratory diseases and infectious/parasitic diseases. Deaths due to homicide, transport accidents and cardiovascular diseases have declined since 1990 but saw recent increases or stalling of improvements. Midlife mortality also increased in the UK for people aged 45-54 year and in Canada, Poland and Sweden among for those aged 25-44 years. CONCLUSIONS: The USA is increasingly falling behind not only high-income, but also CEE countries, some of which were heavily impacted by the post-socialist mortality crisis of the 1990s. Although levels of midlife mortality in the UK are substantially lower than those in the USA overall, there are signs that UK midlife mortality is worsening relative to that in Western Europe.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Expectativa de Vida , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Causas de Morte , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6657, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509130

RESUMO

Feasibility constraints limit availability of validated cognitive assessments in observational studies. Algorithm-based identification of 'probable dementia' is thus needed, but no algorithm developed so far has been applied in the European context. The present study sought to explore the usefulness of the Langa-Weir (LW) algorithm to detect 'probable dementia' while accounting for country-level variation in prevalence and potential underreporting of dementia. Data from 56 622 respondents of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, 2017) aged 60 years and older with non-missing data were analyzed. Performance of LW was compared to a logistic regression, random forest and XGBoost classifier. Population-level 'probable dementia' prevalence was compared to estimates based on data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. As such, application of the prevalence-specific LW algorithm, based on recall and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, reduced underreporting from 61.0 (95% CI, 53.3-68.7%) to 30.4% (95% CI, 19.3-41.4%), outperforming tested machine learning algorithms. Performance in other domains of health and cognitive function was similar for participants classified 'probable dementia' and those self-reporting physician-diagnosis of dementia. Dementia classification algorithms can be adapted to cross-national cohort surveys such as SHARE and help reduce underreporting of dementia with a minimal predictor set.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Demência , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(7): 644-651, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515957

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer ranks third globally, with a high mortality rate. In the United States, and different countries in Europe, organized population screenings exist and include people between 50 and 74 years of age. These screenings have allowed an early diagnosis and consequently an improvement in health indicators. Colon and rectal cancer (CRC) is a disease of particular interest due to the high global burden associated with it and the role attributed to prevention and early diagnosis in reducing morbidity and mortality. This study is a review of CRC pathology and includes the most recent scientific evidence regarding this pathology, as well as a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of CRC. Finally, the recommendation from a public health perspective will be discussed in detail taking into account the context and the most current recommendations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Colo/patologia
15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 152: e49, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425215

RESUMO

Migrants in Europe face a disproportionate burden of HIV infection; however, it remains unclear if this can be prevented through public health interventions in host countries. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate post-migration HIV acquisition (PMHA) as a proportion of all HIV cases in European migrants. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, HMIC, and Cochrane Library were searched with terms capturing 'HIV', 'migration', and 'Europe'. Data relating to the proportion of HIV acquired following migration were extracted and random-effects model (REM) meta-analysis was undertaken to calculate a pooled estimate for the proportion of PMHA in European countries. Subgroup meta-analysis was undertaken for PMHA by migrant demographic characteristics and host country. Fifteen articles were included for systematic review following retrieval and screening of 2,320 articles. A total of 47,182 migrants in 11 European countries were included in REM meta-analysis, showing an overall PMHA proportion of 0.30 (95% CI: 0.23-0.38). Subgroup analysis showed no significant difference in PMHA between host country and migrant demographic characteristics. This work illustrates that migrants continue to be at high risk of HIV acquisition in Europe. This indicates the need for targeted screening and HIV prevention interventions, ensuring resources are appropriately directed to combat the spread of HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Migrantes , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
16.
Gene ; 911: 148320, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence rates vary between European and Asian populations. The reasons remain unclear. This two-sample two-step Mendelian randomisation (MR) study aimed to investigate the causal relationship between anthropometric indicators (AIs) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) and the possible mediating role of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in Europe. METHODS: We used the following AIs as exposures: body mass index (BMI), whole-body fat mass (WBFM), whole-body fat-free mass (WBFFM), waist circumference(WC), hip circumference(HC), standing height (SH), and weight(Wt). DLBCL and FL represented the outcomes, and BMR was a mediator. A two-sample MR analysis was performed to examine the association between AIs and DLBCL and FL onset. We performed reverse-MR analysis to determine whether DLBCL and FL interfered with the AIs. A two-step MR analysis was performed to determine whether BMR mediated the causality. FINDINGS: WBFFM and SH had causal relationships with FL. A causal association between AIs and DLBCL was not observed. Reverse-MR analysis indicated the causal relationships were not bidirectional. Two-step MR suggested BMR may mediate the causal effect of WBFFM and SH on FL. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a causal relationship between WBFFM and SH and the onset of FL in Europeans, Which may explain the high incidence of follicular lymphoma in Europeans.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Incidência , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
17.
Parasite ; 31: 20, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551578

RESUMO

The heterophyid trematode Metagonimus romanicus (Ciurea, 1915) (Digenea) is redescribed on the basis of type material from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in Romania, vouchers from experimentally infected cats (Felis catus) and adults recovered from golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with metacercariae from scales of chub (Squalius cephalus) and common nase (Chondrostoma nasus) (Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) in Hungary. This trematode, endemic to Europe and neighbouring regions (northwestern Türkiye), was previously misidentified as M. yokogawai (Katsurada, 1912), a zoonotic parasite of humans in East Asia. However, the two species differ considerably both genetically and morphologically, e.g., in the position of the ventral sucker, the presence of the prepharynx, the anterior extent of the vitelline follicles and the posterior extent of the uterus. Metagonimus ciureanus (Witenberg, 1929) (syn. Dexiogonimus ciureanus Witenberg, 1929), described from domestic cats and dogs in Israel, is a valid species distributed in the Middle East and Transcaucasia, which is also confirmed by molecular data. It differs from all Metagonimus species, including M. romanicus, in having symmetrical testes instead of the oblique testes of the other congeners. The zoonotic significance of M. romanicus and M. ciureanus is unclear, but appears to be low in Europe, mainly because raw or undercooked, whole fish with scales are generally not consumed. Accidental infection of fishermen by metacercariae in the scales when cleaning fish is more likely, but has never been reported. Remains of cyprinoids with scales infected with metacercariae of Metagonimus spp. can be an important natural source of infection for dogs, cats, and other carnivores, which can serve as a reservoir for these parasites.


Title: Petits trématodes intestinaux du genre Metagonimus (Digenea : Heterophyidae) en Europe et au Moyen-Orient : revue de parasites à potentiel zoonotique. Abstract: Le trématode Heterophyidae Metagonimus romanicus (Ciurea, 1915) (Digenea) est redécrit sur la base de matériel type provenant de chiens domestiques (Canis familiaris) en Roumanie, de vouchers issus de chats (Felis catus) infectés expérimentalement et d'adultes collectés chez des hamsters dorés (Mesocricetus auratus) infectés par des métacercaires provenant d'écailles de chevesne commun (Squalius cephalus) et de nase commun (Chondrostoma nasus) (Cypriniformes : Leuciscidae) de Hongrie. Ce trématode, endémique d'Europe et des régions voisines (nord-ouest de la Turquie), avait été précédemment identifié à tort comme étant M. yokogawai (Katsurada, 1912), un parasite zoonotique des humains en Asie de l'Est. Cependant, les deux espèces diffèrent considérablement sur le plan génétique et morphologique, par exemple par la position de la ventouse ventrale, la présence du prépharynx, l'étendue antérieure des follicules vitellins et l'étendue postérieure de l'utérus. Metagonimus ciureanus (Witenberg, 1929) (syn. Dexiogonimus ciureanus Witenberg, 1929), décrite chez des chats et des chiens domestiques en Israël, est une espèce valide répartie au Moyen-Orient et en Transcaucasie, ce qui est également confirmé par des données moléculaires. Cette espèce diffère de toutes les espèces de Metagonimus, y compris M. romanicus, par ses testicules symétriques au lieu des testicules obliques des autres congénères. L'importance zoonotique de M. romanicus et M. ciureanus n'est pas claire, mais semble faible en Europe, principalement parce que les poissons n'y sont généralement pas consommés crus ou insuffisamment cuits et entiers avec les écailles. L'infection accidentelle des pêcheurs par des métacercaires présents dans les écailles lors du nettoyage du poisson est plus probable mais n'a jamais été signalée. Les restes de poissons cyprinoïdes avec les écailles, infectés par des métacercaires de Metagonimus spp. peuvent être une source naturelle importante d'infection pour les chiens, les chats et autres carnivores, qui peuvent servir de réservoir à ces parasites.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Heterophyidae , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Heterophyidae/anatomia & histologia , Mesocricetus , Metacercárias , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
18.
Euro Surveill ; 29(13)2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551095

RESUMO

BackgroundScarce European data in early 2021 suggested lower vaccine effectiveness (VE) against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron lineages than previous variants.AimWe aimed to estimate primary series (PS) and first booster VE against symptomatic BA.1/BA.2 infection and investigate potential biases.MethodsThis European test-negative multicentre study tested primary care patients with acute respiratory symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 in the BA.1/BA.2-dominant period. We estimated PS and booster VE among adults and adolescents (PS only) for all products combined and for Comirnaty alone, by time since vaccination, age and chronic condition. We investigated potential bias due to correlation between COVID-19 and influenza vaccination and explored effect modification and confounding by prior SARS-CoV-2 infection.ResultsAmong adults, PS VE was 37% (95% CI: 24-47%) overall and 60% (95% CI: 44-72%), 43% (95% CI: 26-55%) and 29% (95% CI: 13-43%) < 90, 90-179 and ≥ 180 days post vaccination, respectively. Booster VE was 42% (95% CI: 32-51%) overall and 56% (95% CI: 47-64%), 22% (95% CI: 2-38%) and 3% (95% CI: -78% to 48%), respectively. Primary series VE was similar among adolescents. Restricting analyses to Comirnaty had little impact. Vaccine effectiveness was higher among older adults. There was no signal of bias due to correlation between COVID-19 and influenza vaccination. Confounding by previous infection was low, but sample size precluded definite assessment of effect modification.ConclusionPrimary series and booster VE against symptomatic infection with BA.1/BA.2 ranged from 37% to 42%, with similar waning post vaccination. Comprehensive data on previous SARS-CoV-2 infection would help disentangle vaccine- and infection-induced immunity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Humanos , Adolescente , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacina BNT162 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Eficácia de Vacinas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7545, 2024 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555322

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases pose a potential risk to human and animal welfare, and understanding their spread requires genomic resources. The mosquito Aedes koreicus is an emerging vector that has been introduced into Europe more than 15 years ago but only a low quality, fragmented genome was available. In this study, we carried out additional sequencing and assembled and characterized the genome of the species to provide a background for understanding its evolution and biology. The updated genome was 1.1 Gbp long and consisted of 6099 contigs with an N50 value of 329,610 bp and a BUSCO score of 84%. We identified 22,580 genes that could be functionally annotated and paid particular attention to the identification of potential insecticide resistance genes. The assessment of the orthology of the genes indicates a high turnover at the terminal branches of the species tree of mosquitoes with complete genomes, which could contribute to the adaptation and evolutionary success of the species. These results could form the basis for numerous downstream analyzes to develop targets for the control of mosquito populations.


Assuntos
Aedes , Animais , Humanos , Aedes/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Hungria , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Espécies Introduzidas
20.
Demography ; 61(2): 513-540, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526181

RESUMO

We propose a novel decomposition approach that breaks down the levels and trends of lifespan inequality as the sum of cause-of-death contributions. The suggested method shows whether the levels and changes in lifespan inequality are attributable to the levels and changes in (1) the extent of inequality in the cause-specific age-at-death distribution (the "Inequality" component), (2) the total share of deaths attributable to each cause (the "Proportion" component), or (3) the cause-specific mean age at death (the "Mean" component). This so-called Inequality-Proportion-Mean (or IPM) method is applied to 10 low-mortality countries in Europe. Our findings suggest that the most prevalent causes of death (in our setting, "circulatory system" and "neoplasms") do not necessarily contribute the most to overall levels of lifespan inequality. In fact, "perinatal and congenital" causes are the strongest drivers of lifespan inequality declines. The contribution of the IPM components to changes in lifespan inequality varies considerably across causes, genders, and countries. Among the three components, the Mean one explains the least lifespan inequality dynamics, suggesting that shifts in cause-specific mean ages at death alone contributed little to changes in lifespan inequality.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Longevidade , Gravidez , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Causas de Morte , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Mortalidade
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