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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134138, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505345

RESUMO

Plague synchronously swept across separated regions in Europe throughout history. However, the spatio-temporal synchrony of plague and its driving mechanism have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we transformed the historical European plague database spanned 1347-1800 CE into country-level time-series that differentiated large-scale plague outbreak from counted data. We found that there are 74 years in which two or more countries in our study region (UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy) experienced large-scale plague outbreak in the same year. Our Multivariate Ripley's K-function results showed that the onset year and the cessation year of large-scale plague outbreak are synchronized at the 0-23-year and 0-20-year windows, respectively. The temporal association between such synchrony and climatic forcing was further investigated using the Superposed Epoch Analysis, and drought was found to be responsible for the synchrony. Integrating our results with a literature survey, we suggested that prior to the peak of plague, the occurrence of drought and the subsequent reintroduced rainfall dampened both the rodent community and human society and boosted the number of fleas that carried plague. Such a synthesis facilitated the outbreak of plague. At the same time, high temperature associated with such drought also confined the geographic diffusion of the plague. Hence, although continental mega-drought could initiate the synchrony of plague outbreak, the synchrony actually consisted of a number of localized plague outbreak events scattering across different regions in Europe. According to the projected rising trend of drought in terms of its magnitude, duration, and geographic extent, the risk of synchrony of rodent-borne diseases in Europe will be significantly elevated, especially in France, Italy, and Spain.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/história , Secas , Peste/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Medieval , Humanos
2.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 212-216, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Survey was conducted to assess state of viral hepatitis care in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). METHODS: Representatives of 16 CEE countries completed on-line survey in April-May 2017 that collected information on basic epidemiology and availability of key services for HCV and HBV infections. Sources of information provided ranged from national surveillance data to expert opinion. RESULTS: The burden of viral hepatitis varied between countries, ranging from 6,500 to 2 million for HCV and from 10,000 to 3 million for HBV. Access to routine HCV RNA testing and genotyping was reported by 11 and 9 countries, respectively. HCV resistance testing was available in 7 countries. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) were available in 13 countries, most frequently Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (12 countries apiece) and Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Dasabuvir (9 countries). HBV DNA testing and HBV genotyping were routinely available in 10 and 7 countries, respectively. Eleven countries reported available treatment with Tenofovir. CONCLUSIONS: There are gaps in viral hepatitis care in CEE. Despite the availability of registered modern drugs for HCV and HBV, the access to treatment is limited. Ensuring quality health care is essential to reduce the epidemic and achieve the WHO's goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health challenge.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C , Antivirais/farmacologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos
3.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(11): 1127-1135, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influenza virus (IV)-associated mortality and morbidity remains high in Europe. OBJECTIVE: This article gives an overview of the pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment optimization strategies according to the currently existing guidelines and clinical trials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature search and analysis of national and international guidelines for the epidemiology, diagnostics, treatment and prevention of IV infections. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Although the incidence of IV infections remains underrecognized, it is the leading infectious disease-associated cause of mortality and morbidity in Europe. Viruses are mainly transmitted by aerosol inhalation and can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, ranging from mild signs of a cold to severe respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. The clinical diagnosis should be verified through a PCR-based test in patients with indications for treatment. Neuraminidase inhibitors are currently the treatment of choice for IV infections. Seasonal influenza vaccination is an efficient preventive method. It is therefore imperative to improve vaccination rates in Germany, which have been continuously declining since the pandemic of 2009/2010.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neuraminidase/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): 461-472, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480014

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality. Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2-5.5) years. Results: Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment. Conclusion: Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases were the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful clinical vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/mortalidade , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/etiologia , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , /mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Hipófise/etiologia , Doenças da Hipófise/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 579-584, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is an interesting disorder in which depression should occur at a particular time of a year, each year and it should disappear at a specific time of the year. While the prevalence of SAD among generally healthy individuals is well known, the information about the prevalence of this disorder among the blind and visually impaired patients is very limited. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of SAD among the blind and people with serious visual impairment in polish population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 250 blind or seriously visually impaired individuals and 258 healthy controls were assessed with the usage of Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). In research group survey was conducted with the Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) technique. In control group the questionnaire was distributed via Internet. The results were analysed with the usage statistical package - Statistica 13.1. RESULTS: The results revealed that among people suffering from SAD there is statistically significant difference in SPAQ scores between completely blind and seriously visually impaired people. The study shows that is the control group age is negatively correlated with score in SPAQ score, while in the study group age is positively correlated with SPAQ score. The data show that there is a difference in occurrence of SAD between men and women. CONCLUSION: The study has shown a significant difference in occurrence of SAD between study and control groups. What is more the analysis has indicated major difference in the occurrence of SAD between men and women from the study group. Taking into consideration the fact that this is the second analysis of this type in Europe further investigations are needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/complicações , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo
7.
BMJ ; 366: l4923, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an integrative system to predict long term kidney allograft failure. DESIGN: International cohort study. SETTING: Three cohorts including kidney transplant recipients from 10 academic medical centres from Europe and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Derivation cohort: 4000 consecutive kidney recipients prospectively recruited in four French centres between 2005 and 2014. Validation cohorts: 2129 kidney recipients from three centres in Europe and 1428 from three centres in North America, recruited between 2002 and 2014. Additional validation in three randomised controlled trials (NCT01079143, EudraCT 2007-003213-13, and NCT01873157). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Allograft failure (return to dialysis or pre-emptive retransplantation). 32 candidate prognostic factors for kidney allograft survival were assessed. RESULTS: Among the 7557 kidney transplant recipients included, 1067 (14.1%) allografts failed after a median post-transplant follow-up time of 7.12 (interquartile range 3.51-8.77) years. In the derivation cohort, eight functional, histological, and immunological prognostic factors were independently associated with allograft failure and were then combined into a risk prediction score (iBox). This score showed accurate calibration and discrimination (C index 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 0.83). The performance of the iBox was also confirmed in the validation cohorts from Europe (C index 0.81, 0.78 to 0.84) and the US (0.80, 0.76 to 0.84). The iBox system showed accuracy when assessed at different times of evaluation post-transplant, was validated in different clinical scenarios including type of immunosuppressive regimen used and response to rejection therapy, and outperformed previous risk prediction scores as well as a risk score based solely on functional parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria. Finally, the accuracy of the iBox risk score in predicting long term allograft loss was confirmed in the three randomised controlled trials. CONCLUSION: An integrative, accurate, and readily implementable risk prediction score for kidney allograft failure has been developed, which shows generalisability across centres worldwide and common clinical scenarios. The iBox risk prediction score may help to guide monitoring of patients and further improve the design and development of a valid and early surrogate endpoint for clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03474003.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 686, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Europe, the highest proportion of HIV diagnoses are in gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, HIV prevalence is particularly high among males who report selling sex, but rates among men who buy sex from other men are less clear. This study analyzed the association of transactional sex (TS) and HIV diagnosis, sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses, and various drug use; and examined the variations in TS by payment direction. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, non-randomized, observational study. This European MSM Internet Survey recruited MSM from 38 European countries. For descriptive purposes we stratified according to TS behavior (frequently selling sex, frequently buying sex, neither frequently selling nor buying sex in the previous 12 months), and we constructed separate multivariable logistic regression models to investigate whether engaging in TS accounted for some of the HIV- and STI diagnoses and drug use in this population. RESULTS: Of almost 161,000 sexually active MSM, 12.2% engaged in TS. The multivariable logistic regression results showed that relative to not frequently engaging in TS, frequently selling sex was independently associated with a higher odds of reporting diagnosed HIV (ever, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.60, confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.39 to 1.85), bacterial STIs (past 12 months, aOR 1.75 CI 95% 1.54 to 2.00), using heroin or crack cocaine or injecting drugs (aOR 3.17, CI 95% 2.70 to 3.73), and using benzodiazepines (aOR 2.13, CI 95% 1.88 to 2.41). Compared to men not engaging in frequent TS, frequently buying sex was associated with a higher odds of using benzodiazepines (aOR 2.13, CI 95% 1.88 to 2.41). CONCLUSIONS: MSM who frequently sell sex suffer greater sexual- and substance use risks than other MSM, but both men who frequently sell and those who buy sex are more likely to use benzodiazepines. MSM who sell sex to other men constitute an important at-risk population who must be offered targeted health services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cocaína Crack , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Heroína , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 86, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common and severely disabling neurological disorder affecting millions of patients in Europe. Despite the availability of evidence-based national and international guidelines, the management of migraine patients often remains poor, which is often attributed to a low availability of headache specialists. The aim of this study was to investigate the adherence to national guidelines and to assess the possible potential of optimized therapy regimens in migraine patients. METHODS: We collected data of migraine patients presenting to our out-patient clinic via standardized questionnaires regarding headache, diagnostics and experience with previous treatments. We also assessed the efficacy of treatment started by our center. RESULTS: 1,935 migraine patients were included between 2010 and 2018. In the 12 months before consulting our headache clinic 89.5% of the patients had consulted a general practitioner and 74.9% had consulted a neurologist because of their migraine. Nevertheless, 50% of the patients underwent unnecessary diagnostics and 34.2% had not been treated according to evidence-based treatment guidelines. Out of 1,031 patients who had not been prescribed a preventative treatment 627 (60.8%) had in average 3 or more migraine attacks per month and thus qualified for a preventative treatment. These patients missed in the 3 months prior to consultation on average 5 work or school days. Initiating a preventative treatment was effective in 71.2% of the patients, that provided follow-up data. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest, that many migraine patients to this day do not receive state-of-the-art therapy. Adherence to national and international European guidelines could improve the outcome in migraine patients. Future research should try to answer why guidelines are not followed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 387-392, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426171

RESUMO

Seabirds have been widely used to monitor marine debris by the analysis of plastic ingestion. With the aim of obtaining the first data on ingestion of plastics by different seabird species in the Bay of Biscay and evaluating their suitability as biomonitors of plastic pollution in this area, a total of 159 seabirds of fifteen species were analyzed. Plastics were found in 26 birds (16% of the individuals) of nine species (60% of the species). Frequency of occurrence of plastics varied between 0% (Razorbill) and 100% (species of the family Procellariidae). Considering several criteria to assess their suitability as biomonitors of plastic pollution (frequency of occurrence of plastic ingestion, species abundances and stranding occurrence in the Bay of Biscay), the Common Guillemot and the Atlantic Puffin seem the most promising candidates. This study provides the first data on plastic ingestion in seabirds of the Bay of Biscay.


Assuntos
Aves , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Baías , Charadriiformes , Exposição Dietética/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Incidência , Espanha , Resíduos
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1014, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many tropical countries are currently experiencing dengue (DEN), chikungunya (CHIK) and also more recently Zika (ZIKA) epidemics (particularly in Latin America). Although the risk of transmission and spread of these infections in temperate regions remains a controversial issue, vector-borne diseases have been widely reported in the media and have been the focus of preventive strategies by national and international policy-makers and public health authorities. In this context, we wanted to determine the extent of risk perception in infectious diseases (ID) physicians of the current and future risk of arboviral disease introduction, autochthonous case development and epidemic scenarios in France, Western Europe. METHODS: To this aim, we developed an original standardized questionnaire survey which was disseminated by the French Infectious Diseases Society to ID physician members. RESULTS: We found that ID physicians perceived the risk of introduction and outbreak development of DEN, CHIK and ZIKA in France to be low to medium-low. Generalized Linear Model(s) identified medical school training, the extent of professional experience, and awareness of the French national plan regarding arboviral infections as significant predictors for lower risk perception among respondents. CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that arboviral diseases are increasingly being imported into France, sometimes resulting in sporadic autochtonous transmission, French ID physicians do not perceive the risk as high. Better communication and education targeting health professionals and citizens will be needed to enhance the effectiveness of the French national plan to prepare against arboviral diseases.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Infectologia , Médicos/psicologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 655, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although significant improvement in efficacy measured by a sustained virological response, the high acquisition costs of direct-acting antivirals limit the access for patients and influence the costs of healthcare resource utilisation in hepatitis C. It is important to have the latest estimates of prevalence, especially in high-risk groups, for cost of illness, cost-effectiveness and budget impact studies. METHODS: Original studies on the estimates of the prevalence among general and high-risk groups in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) were retrieved from Medline and Embase for the period from 2015 to 2018. All included studies were evaluated for risk of selection bias and summarised together in a narrative form. Results from previous reviews and updated searches were compared per country among different populations, respectively. RESULTS: Among the 3871 studies identified, 46 studies were included: 20 studies were used for the estimate of the general population; 3 for men who have sex with men (MSM); 6 for prisoners; and 17 for people who inject drugs (PWID). Compared with the results reported in previous systematic reviews, the updated estimates were lower than previously in most available countries. Anti-HCV general population prevalence estimates ranged from 0.54 to 1.50% by country. The highest prevalence of anti-HCV was found among PWID (range of 7.90-82.00%), followed by prisoners (7.00-41.00%), HIV-positive MSM (1.80-7.10%), HIV-negative MSM (0.20-1.80%), pregnant women (0.10-1.32%) and first-time blood donors (0.03-0.09%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the heterogeneity in anti-HCV prevalence across different population groups in EU/EEA. The prevalence also varies widely between European countries. There are many countries that are not represented in our results, highlighting the need for the development of robust epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Gestantes , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 855, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to internal observations within a German shipping company, obvious risk-behaviour persists among the crew members coming from the Pacific Island State of Kiribati and representing a large part of the crew aboard merchant vessels of this company. These observations were related to excessive eating habits. This study aims to assess the cardiovascular risk among seafarers and to compare lifestyle factors between Kiribati and European crew members. METHODS: In the present maritime field study 81 sailors (48 Kiribati, 33 European, average age at 38.9 and 36.8 years respectively) were examined from April until August 2014 aboard four container ships crossing the Atlantic Ocean (participation rate of 90.9%). RESULTS: Based on the number of established risk factors, 35.4% of the Kiribati and 16.7% of the European crew members were regarded as a high risk group for cardiovascular diseases. The HDL-values of Kiribati were found to be considerably lower (34.9 mg/dl) than the references values given by the WHO and in comparison to the European crew members (44.8 mg/dl) (p = 0.002). 91.7% of Kiribati and 51.5% of European participants were found to be overweight according to WHO-criteria - with a mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30.3 kg/m2 and 25.6 kg/m2 (p <  0.001). Regarding lifestyle factors Kiribati often claimed to eat significantly larger amounts of food aboard while most European sailors stated to eat less or about the same during their shipboard stay (p = 0.017). Daily sleeping hours were slight on both sides; however with a mean of 5.2 h a day Kiribati crew members had significant fewer sleep (p = 0.038). The examined Kiribati sailors had a mean increase in weight of 6 kg over a 12 months period of observation. CONCLUSIONS: In total the compiled data points towards a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases particularly due to alimentary habits within the Kiribati crew members. The distinct weight-gain measured among the Kiribati in spite of higher energy consumption levels at sea is alarming. Thus, the results of this study confirm the necessity of health-improving interventions aboard cargo vessels.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Militares/psicologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Micronésia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 139-180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297762

RESUMO

Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, and O. felineus are liver flukes of human and animal pathogens occurring across much of Europe and Asia. Nevertheless, they are often underestimated compared to other, better known neglected diseases in spite of the fact that many millions of people are infected and hundreds of millions are at risk. This is possibly because of the chronic nature of the infection and disease and that it takes several decades prior to a life-threatening pathology to develop. Several studies in the past decade have provided more information on the molecular biology of the liver flukes which clearly lead to better understanding of parasite biology, systematics, and population genetics. Clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis are characterized by a chronic infection that induces hepatobiliary inflammation, especially periductal fibrosis, which can be detected by ultrasonography. These chronic inflammations eventually lead to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a usually fatal bile duct cancer that develops in some infected individuals. In Thailand alone, opisthorchiasis-associated CCA kills up to 20,000 people every year and is therefore of substantial public health importance. Its socioeconomic impacts on impoverished families and communities are considerable. To reduce hepatobiliary morbidity and CCA, the primary intervention measures focus on control and elimination of the liver fluke. Accurate diagnosis of liver fluke infections in both human and other mammalian, snail and fish intermediate hosts, are important for achieving these goals. While the short-term goal of liver fluke control can be achieved by praziquantel chemotherapy, a comprehensive health education package targeting school children is believed to be more beneficial for a long-term goal/solution. It is recommended that a transdisciplinary research or multisectoral control approach including one health and/or eco health intervention strategy should be applied to combat the liver flukes, and hence contribute to reduction of cholangiocarcinoma in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase , Clonorchis sinensis , Opistorquíase , Opisthorchis , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Clonorquíase/prevenção & controle , Clonorchis sinensis/classificação , Clonorchis sinensis/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Opistorquíase/diagnóstico , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/prevenção & controle , Opisthorchis/classificação , Opisthorchis/genética
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 279-319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297766

RESUMO

This chapter analyses the taxonomic position of Dicrocoeliidae family and several of its genus and species. The biology of the major species causing veterinary diseases such Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Dicrocoelium hospes, Dicrocoelium chinensis, Eurytrema pancreaticum and Platynosomum fastosum, has been reviewed. All these species have an indirect life cycle, involving two intermediate hosts (molluscs as first and ants, grasshoppers and lizards as second). Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a very widespread hepatic trematode in the ruminants of many countries in Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America, even affecting humans. Dicrocoelium hospes is widely distributed in the savanna areas of Africa south of the Sahara, whilst D. chinensis has mainly been found in ruminants in East Asia and some European countries (probably imported from Asia). Eurytrema pancreaticum is a common parasite whose adults live in ruminant bile ducts, gall bladder, pancreatic ducts and intestines in Europe, Madagascar, Asia and South America. Adult P. fastosum live in the liver, gall bladder and pancreas of birds and mammals in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. Information about the epidemiology, pathology, clinical aspect, diagnosis, treatment, control, prevention and economic impact mainly of Dicrocoeliosis produced by D. dendriticum, as well as of Eurytrematodosis and Platynosomiosis, has been included.


Assuntos
Dicrocoeliidae , Infecções por Trematódeos , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Dicrocoeliidae/classificação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/prevenção & controle
18.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 144-147, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300105

RESUMO

Bats are associated with the emergence of several mammalian diseases. Their sessional migration, and tendency to form large colonies in close proximity to human habitats enables effective intra- and inter-species transmission of pathogens. Clostridioides difficile is an important enteric pathogen in humans and animals; however, the source of its dissemination in the population is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in bats, and to characterize C. difficile isolates. Feces (n = 93) was sampled from bats during their migration across Europe. Eighteen samples (19.4%) were positive for C. difficile; ribotypes 078, 056, and a new ribotype CDB3 were identified. Clostridioides difficile ribotypes 078 and 056 are associated with human and animal diseases. The C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in this study do not necessarily identify bats as a significant source, but more likely as an indicator of C. difficile perpetuation in the environment.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Clostridium difficile/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ribotipagem
19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 154(3): 608-615, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCT) are the primary ovarian malignancy affecting girls and young women. Globally, incidence rates and trends for OGCTs have not been compared in the literature and their etiology is not well described. Comparisons of incidence globally could inform etiologic hypotheses. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate geographic variation in OGCT incidence and to identify trends in incidence rates. METHODS: Data were extracted from Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents (CI5) from 1988 to 2012. Rates of OGCT in women and girls were calculated for ages 0-9, 10-19, and 20-39 years and standardized to the 2000-2025 average world population. Data were aggregated within subregions corresponding to the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) geoscheme. Incidence rates were compared in subregions and average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall, the highest incidence rates were observed in 10-19-year-olds. Incidence was generally the highest in Eastern Asia, Central America and North America. While incidence was variable by geographic region, less variation was observed in 0-9-year-olds as compared to adolescents and young adults. Significant increases in incidence were seen in some regions (Eastern Asia, Oceania, Western Europe, Southern Europe, and North America) and in countries with a high or very high human development index for one or more age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating 25 years of OGCT incidence data, the highest incidence rates and largest increases in incidence were seen in Eastern Asia. Future studies should focus on etiologic features that may account for geographic variation and increases in incidence of OGCT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , América Central/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265116

RESUMO

Babesia is a malaria-like, intraerythrocytic parasite with more than 100 different species. It is a zoonosis and some of the species are transmitted to humans by ticks and also as a possible transfusion-transmitted infection. In Sweden the disease has been well known in veterinary medicine for a long time, but only a few but severe cases have been published in humans during the last decades. Common symptoms from human Babesia infections (babesiosis) are fever, chills and myalgia and they vary from subclinical to potentially fatal among those with risk factors such as immunosuppression and splenectomy. In the U.S. more than 2,000 cases of babesiosis are found yearly and it is one of the most frequent fatal infections following blood transfusion. A study from southern Sweden has recently revealed a seroprevalence of 16% of Babesia antibodies among Borrelia-infected persons. These results indicate that there is a need to broaden awareness of Babesia in Sweden.


Assuntos
Babesiose , Babesia/imunologia , Babesia/patogenicidade , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Reação Transfusional/parasitologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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