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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2585: 211-225, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331777

RESUMO

Since its discovery in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda, West Nile virus (WNV) has been one of the leading causes of mosquito-transmitted infectious diseases (Smithburn, Burke, Am J Trop Med 20:22, 1940). Subsequently, it spread to Europe, Asia, Australia, and finally North America in 1999 (Sejvar, Ochsner 5(3):6-10, 2003). Worldwide outbreaks have continued to increase since the 1990s (Chancey et al, Biomed Res Int 2015:376230, 2015). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 51,000 cases of WNV infection and nearly 2400 cases of WNV-related death were reported in the USA from 1999 to 2019. The estimated economic impact of WNV infections is close to 800 million dollars in the USA from 1999 to 2012 (Barrett, Am J Trop Med Hyg 90:389, 2014).


Assuntos
Culicidae , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Anticorpos
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 131, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of SARS-CoV-2, multidrug-resistant organisms and other healthcare-associated pathogens represents supra-regional challenges for infection prevention and control (IPC) specialists in every European country. To tackle these problems, cross-site research collaboration of IPC specialists is very important. This study assesses the extent and quality of national research collaborations of IPC departments of university hospitals located in Austria, England, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, identifies network gaps, and provides potential solutions. METHODS: Joint publications of IPC heads of all university hospitals of the included countries between 1st of June 2013 until 31st of May 2020 were collected by Pubmed/Medline search. Further, two factors, the journal impact factor and the type/position of authorship, were used to calculate the Scientific Collaboration Impact (SCI) for all included sites; nationwide network analysis was performed. RESULTS: In five European countries, 95 sites and 125 responsible leaders for IPC who had been in charge during the study period were identified. Some countries such as Austria have only limited national research cooperations, while the Netherlands has established a gapless network. Most effective collaborating university site of each country were Lille with an SCI of 1146, Rotterdam (408), Berlin (268), Sussex (204), and Vienna/Innsbruck (18). DISCUSSION: The present study indicates major differences and room for improvement in IPC research collaborations within each country and underlines the potential and importance of collaborating in IPC.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção Hospitalar , Humanos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Controle de Infecções , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association of health determinants, lifestyle and socioeconomic variables on healthcare use in people with diabetes in Europe. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the European Health Interview Survey wave 2 (ie, secondary analysis). SETTING: The sample included data from 25 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included 16 270 patients with diabetes aged 15 years or older (49.1% men and 50.9% women). RESULTS: The survey data showed that 58.2% of respondents had seen their primary care physician in the past month and 22.6% had been admitted to the hospital in the past year. Use of primary care was associated with being retired (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19) and having very poor self-perceived health (PR 1.80, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.15), long-standing health problems (PR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.24), high blood pressure (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.10) and chronic back pain (PR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.11). Hospital admission was associated with very poor self-perceived health (PR 3.03, 95% CI 2.14 to 4.31), accidents at home (PR 1.54, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.69), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (PR 1.34, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.47), high blood pressure (PR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.17), chronic back pain (PR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.98), moderate difficulty walking (PR 1.33, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.45) and severe difficulty walking (PR 1.67, 95% CI 1.51 to 1.85). CONCLUSIONS: In the European diabetic population, the high cumulative incidences of primary care visits and hospital admissions are associated with labour status, alcohol consumption, self-perceived health, long-standing health problems, high blood pressure, chronic back pain, accidents at home, COPD and difficulty walking.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Limitação da Mobilidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Atenção à Saúde
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 841, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy can be defined as using five or more medications simultaneously. "Medication-related problems", an extension of polypharmacy, includes inappropriate prescribing, poor adherence, overdosage, underdosage, inappropriate drug selection, inadequate monitoring, adverse drug effects, and drug interactions. Polypharmacy and the high risk of medication-related problems among older people are associated with adverse health consequences due to drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, and adverse drug effects. This study aims to assess the factors associated with polypharmacy and the high risk of medication-related problems among community-dwelling older people in the Netherlands, Greece, Croatia, Spain, United Kingdom. METHOD: This longitudinal study used baseline and follow-up data from 1791 participants of the Urban Health Center European project. Polypharmacy and the risk of medication-related problems were evaluated at baseline and follow-up using the Medication Risk Questionnaire. We studied factors in the domains (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) lifestyle and nutrition, and (c) health and health care use. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to examine the factors associated with polypharmacy and the high risk of medication-related problems. RESULTS: Mean age was 79.6 years (SD ± 5.6 years); 60.8% were women; 45.2% had polypharmacy, and 41.8% had a high risk of medication-related problems. Women participants had lower odds of polypharmacy (OR = 0.55;95%CI:0.42-0.72) and a high risk of medication-related problems (OR = 0.50; 95%CI:0.39-0.65). Participants with a migration background (OR = 1.67;95%CI:1.08-2.59), overweight (OR = 1.37; 95%CI:1.04-1.79) and obesity (OR = 1.78;95%CI:1.26-2.51) compared to 'normal weight', with lower physical HRQoL (OR = 0.96, 95%CI:0.95-0.98), multi-morbidity (OR = 3.73, 95%CI:2.18-6.37), frailty (OR = 1.69, 95%CI:1.24-2.30), visited outpatient services (OR = 1.77, 95%CI: 1.09-2.88) had higher odds of polypharmacy. The associations with the high risk of medication-related problems were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple factors in demography, lifestyle, nutrition, and health care use are associated with polypharmacy and the high risk of medication-related problems. Polypharmacy is a single element that may reflect the number of medications taken. The broader content of medication-related problems should be considered to assess the context of medication use among older people comprehensively. These provide starting points to improve interventions to reduce polypharmacy and high risk of medication-related problems. In the meantime, health professionals can apply these insights to identify subgroups of patients at a high risk of polypharmacy and medication-related problems. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The intervention of the UHCE project was registered in the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN52788952. The date of registration is 13/03/2017.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Polimedicação , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Vida Independente , Estudos Longitudinais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Prescrição Inadequada , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia
5.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(4): 378-386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346723

RESUMO

This study explores differences on health status transitions based on functional health and dead records among older population in Europe. We also study the influence of residence pattern on health changes over time. METHOD: Data used came from EU-SILC registers on individuals aged 50 + from 19 countries. Fixed and Mixed effect Cox Proportional Hazards Models are used to ascertain any country differences on health outcomes and then by co-residence pattern. RESULTS: There are remarkable country heterogeneity among older people to experience changes on their health status, specially, for health improvements and mortality risk. As expected, Baltic and Eastern European countries have a higher propensity for health deterioration and Southern European countries for health improvements on their functional capacities. However, there are exceptions as Bulgaria and Romania, which have a lower risk of deterioration and death transition than average. Overall, living with partner and adult children-rather than living only with a couple shown positive effects for older European to experience health improvements with notably differences in Southern countries as in Italy and Spain. DISCUSSION: country framework differences play a fundamental role to understand changes on health status at older ages, in particular, how health care support toward older people is managed by health systems within European countries and the availability of close relatives among older adult population.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Meio Social , Humanos , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Itália , Espanha
6.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly age-dependent, we aimed to identify population subgroups at an elevated risk for adverse outcomes from COVID-19 using age-/gender-adjusted data from European cohort studies with the aim to identify populations that could potentially benefit from booster vaccinations. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of underlying medical conditions as prognostic factors for adverse outcomes due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including death, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation within three separate settings (community, hospital and ICU). Cohort studies that reported at least age and gender-adjusted data from Europe were identified through a search of peer-reviewed articles published until 11 June 2021 in Ovid Medline and Embase. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and absolute risk differences in deaths per 1000 COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: We included 88 cohort studies with age-/gender-adjusted data from 6 653 207 SARS-CoV-2 patients from Europe. Hospital-based mortality was associated with high and moderate certainty evidence for solid organ tumours, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, liver disease and obesity, while a higher risk, albeit with low certainty, was noted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure. Community-based mortality was associated with a history of heart failure, stroke, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Evidence of high/moderate certainty revealed a strong association between hospitalisation for COVID-19 and solid organ transplant recipients, sleep apnoea, diabetes, stroke and liver disease. INTERPRETATION: The results confirmed the strong association between specific prognostic factors and mortality and hospital admission. Prioritisation of booster vaccinations and the implementation of nonpharmaceutical protective measures for these populations may contribute to a reduction in COVID-19 mortality, ICU and hospital admissions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino
7.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 776-780, 2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382733

RESUMO

Background: Since winter 2020, excess deaths due to COVID-19 have been higher in Eastern Europe than most of Western Europe, partly because regulatory enforcement was poor. Methods: This paper analysed data from 50 countries in the WHO European Region, in addition to data from USA and Canada. Excess mMortality and vaccination data were retrieved from "Our World In Data" and regulation implementation was assessed using standard methods. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between mortality and each covariate. Results: Excess mortality increased by 4.1 per 100 000 (P = 0.038) for every percentage decrease in vaccination rate and with 6/100 000 (p=0.011) for every decreased unit in the regulatory implementation score a country achieved in the Rule of Law Index. Conclusion: Degree of regulation enforcement, likely including public health measure enforcement, may be an important factor in controlling COVID-19's deleterious health impacts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115492, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343461

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The coronavirus pandemic has forced governments to implement a variety of different dynamic lockdown-stringency strategies in the last two years. Extensive lockdown periods could have potential unintended consequences on mental health, at least for at-risk groups. OBJECTIVE: We present novel evidence on the heterogeneous direct and indirect effects of lockdown-stringency measures on individuals' perception of social isolation (i.e. loneliness) using panel data from five European countries (Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Sweden), which tracks changes in both in-person and remote social interactions between May 2020 and March 2021. METHOD: We combine data from the COME-HERE panel survey (University of Luxembourg) and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT). We implement a dynamic mixture model in order to estimate the loneliness sub-population classes based on the severity of loneliness, as well as the evolution of social interactions. RESULTS: While loneliness is remarkably persistent over time, we find substantial heterogeneity across individuals, identifying four latent groups by loneliness severity. Group membership probability varies with age, gender, education and cohabitation status. Moreover, we note significant differences in the impact of social interactions on loneliness by degree of severity. Older people are less likely to feel lonely, but were more affected by lockdown measures, partly due to a reduction in face-to-face interactions. On the contrary, the younger, especially those living alone, report high levels of loneliness that are largely unaffected by changes in the pandemic after lockdown measures were initially implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the heterogeneity in loneliness is key for the identification of at-risk populations that can be severely affected by extended lockdown measures. As part of public-health crisis-response systems, it is critical to develop support measures for older individuals living alone, as well as promoting continuous remote communication for individuals more likely to experience high levels of loneliness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Solidão , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Pandemias
9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(12): 944-956, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The configuration of having separate mental health services by age, namely child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS), might be a barrier to continuity of care that adversely affects young people's mental health. However, no studies have investigated whether discontinuity of care in the transition period affects mental health. We aimed to discern the type of care young people receive after reaching the upper age limit of their CAMHS and examine differences in outcomes at 24-month follow-up between young people receiving different types of care. METHODS: To assess mental health in young people from 39 CAMHS in eight European countries (Belgium, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, and the UK), we did a longitudinal cohort study. Eligible young people were CAMHS users up to 1 year younger than the upper age limit of their CAMHS or up to 3 months older, if they were still in CAMHS. Information on mental health service use, mental health problems (ie, using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, Youth Self-Report and Adult Self-Report, DSM-5, and ICD-10), and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using self-reported, parent-reported, and clinician-reported interviews and questionnaires. Mixed models were applied to assess relationships between baseline characteristics, mental health service use, and outcomes. FINDINGS: The MILESTONE cohort included 763 young people. The participants were 60·0% female (n=458) and 40·0% male (n=305), 90·3% White (n=578), and had a mean age of 17·5 years (range 15·2-19·6 years). Over the 24-month follow-up period, 48 young people (6·3%) actively withdrew from the study. For young people, the higher their scores on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents (p=0·0009) and Youth Self-Report and Adult Self-Report (p=0·046), and who had a clinical classification of severe mental illness (p=0·0033), had suicidal thoughts or behaviours or self-harm (p=0·034), used psychotropic medication (p=0·0014), and had a self-reported or parent-reported need for continued treatment (p<0·0001) at baseline, were more likely to transition to AMHS or stay in CAMHS than to have care end. Overall, over the 24-month follow-up period, the mental health of young people improved, but 24·4% of young people reported an increase in problems calculated using the reliable change index, of whom 5·3% had a clinically relevant increase in problems. At 24-month follow-up, no differences in change in mental health problems since baseline were found between young people who used different types of care (CAMHS, AMHS, or no care). INTERPRETATION: Although approximately half of young people reaching the upper age limit of their CAMHS stop using mental health services, this was not associated with a deterioration in their mental health. Young people with the most severe mental health problems are more likely to receive continued care. If replicated, our findings suggest investments in improving transitional care for all CAMHS users might not be cost-effective in times of rising health-care costs, but might be better targeted at a subgroup of young people with increasing mental health problems who do not receive continued treatment. FUNDING: European Commission's 7th Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Procedimentos Clínicos , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1360, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has not only impacted intensive care units, but all healthcare services generally. This PsyGipo2C project specifically investigates how psychiatry and mental health professionals have been affected by the reorganizations and constraints imposed, which have reshaped their often already difficult working conditions. METHODS: Our research combined quantitative and qualitative methods, surveying and interviewing health professionals of all occupations working in psychiatric and mental health services. A questionnaire was completed by 1241 professionals from 10 European countries, and 13 group interviews were conducted across 5 countries. In addition to this, 31 individual interviews were conducted in Belgium and France. RESULTS: Among the questionnaire respondents, 70.2% felt that their workload had increased, particularly due to their tasks being diversified and due to increased complexity in the provision of care. 48.9% felt that finding a work-life balance had become more difficult, and 59.5% felt their health had been affected by the crisis. The impact of the health crisis nevertheless varied across professions: our data provides insight into how the health measures have had a differential impact on professional tasks and roles across the various categories of occupations, obliging professionals to make various adaptations. The distress incurred has been linked not only to these new constraints in their work, but also to the combination of these with other pressures in their personal lives, which has consequently compromised their well-being and their ability to cope with multiple demands. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 health crisis has had varying impacts depending on the profession and access to remote work, sometimes leading to conflicts within the teams. The suffering expressed by the professionals was tied to their values and patterns of investment in work. Our research also highlights how these professionals made little use of the psychological supports offered, probably due to a reluctance to acknowledge that their mental health was affected.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Ansiedade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
11.
BMJ ; 379: e070621, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare maternal mortality in eight countries with enhanced surveillance systems. DESIGN: Descriptive multicountry population based study. SETTING: Eight countries with permanent surveillance systems using enhanced methods to identify, document, and review maternal deaths. The most recent available aggregated maternal mortality data were collected for three year periods for France, Italy, and the UK and for five year periods for Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Slovakia. POPULATION: 297 835 live births in Denmark (2013-17), 301 169 in Finland (2008-12), 2 435 583 in France (2013-15), 1 281 986 in Italy (2013-15), 856 572 in the Netherlands (2014-18), 292 315 in Norway (2014-18), 283 930 in Slovakia (2014-18), and 2 261 090 in the UK (2016-18). OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal mortality ratios from enhanced systems were calculated and compared with those obtained from each country's office of vital statistics. Age specific maternal mortality ratios; maternal mortality ratios according to women's origin, citizenship, or ethnicity; and cause specific maternal mortality ratios were also calculated. RESULTS: Methods for identifying and classifying maternal deaths up to 42 days were very similar across countries (except for the Netherlands). Maternal mortality ratios up to 42 days after end of pregnancy varied by a multiplicative factor of four from 2.7 and 3.4 per 100 000 live births in Norway and Denmark to 9.6 in the UK and 10.9 in Slovakia. Vital statistics offices underestimated maternal mortality by 36% or more everywhere but Denmark. Age specific maternal mortality ratios were higher for the youngest and oldest mothers (pooled relative risk 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.38 to 3.34) for women aged <20 years, 2.10 (1.54 to 2.86) for those aged 35-39, and 3.95 (3.01 to 5.19) for those aged ≥40, compared with women aged 20-29 years). Except in Norway, maternal mortality ratios were ≥50% higher in women born abroad or of minoritised ethnicity, defined variously in different countries. Cardiovascular diseases and suicides were leading causes of maternal deaths in each country. Some other conditions were also major contributors to maternal mortality in only one or two countries: venous thromboembolism in the UK and the Netherlands, hypertensive disorders in the Netherlands, amniotic fluid embolism in France, haemorrhage in Italy, and stroke in Slovakia. Only two countries, France and the UK, had enhanced methods for studying late maternal deaths, those occurring between 43 and 365 days after the end of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in maternal mortality ratios exist between high income European countries with enhanced surveillance systems. In-depth analyses of differences in the quality of care and health system performance at national levels are needed to reduce maternal mortality further by learning from best practices and each other. Cardiovascular diseases and mental health in women during and after pregnancy must be prioritised in all countries.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Morte Materna , Suicídio , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Mortalidade Materna , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 279: 159-170, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343588

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of the prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and the frequency of its phenotypes in Europe and the USA, also focusing on temporal trends of the condition, to compare the PCOS prevalence among populations with a similar level of diagnostic resources availability and attitudes toward health problems, to improve comparability of estimates. We considered Europe and USA, two high-income areas with these characteristics. The overall PCOS prevalence according to the NIH1990, ESHRE/ASRM 2003, AES-PCOS diagnostic criteria was respectively 6.2 % (95%CI 5.3-7.0), 19.5 % (95%CI 17.3-21.6), and 15.0 % (95%CI 12.9-17.1), with no appreciable heterogeneity across geographic areas. Phenotype A, the "complete PCOS", showed higher prevalence in all areas (44.8%, 95%CI 40.3-49.3), followed by phenotype D, called "non-hyperandrogenic PCOS" (19.5%), phenotype C termed as "ovulatory PCOS" (16.2%), and phenotype B, presenting as phenotype A but without polycystic ovarian morphology (14.9%). In all the studies analysing temporal trends of PCOS, an increase in prevalence of PCOS was reported, due, at least in part, to changing diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of PCOS is similar in European countries and the USA. Interestingly, some differences in the frequency of PCOS phenotypes emerged between the two areas with a higher frequency of phenotype A and a lower one of phenotype C in the USA. Recognizing the factors which explain these differences would lead to a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis and the clinical expression of PCOS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Prevalência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Fenótipo
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18559, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329082

RESUMO

Both the USA and Europe experienced substantial excess mortality in 2020 and 2021 related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods used to estimate excess mortality vary, making comparisons difficult. This retrospective observational study included data on deaths from all causes occurring in the USA and 25 European countries or subnational areas participating in the network for European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action (EuroMOMO). We applied the EuroMOMO algorithm to estimate excess all-cause mortality in the USA and Europe during the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020-2021, and compared excess mortality by age group and time periods reflecting three primary waves. During 2020-2021, the USA experienced 154.5 (95% Uncertainty Interval [UI]: 154.2-154.9) cumulative age-standardized excess all-cause deaths per 100,000 person years, compared with 110.4 (95% UI: 109.9-111.0) for the European countries. Excess all-cause mortality in the USA was higher than in Europe for nearly all age groups, with an additional 44.1 excess deaths per 100,000 person years overall from 2020-2021. If the USA had experienced an excess mortality rate similar to Europe, there would have been approximately 391 thousand (36%) fewer excess deaths in the USA.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Algoritmos , Mortalidade
14.
Vet Rec ; 191(9): 360-361, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331460

RESUMO

Amid an unprecedented epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza sweeping the Northern hemisphere, experts from around the world gathered in Paris for a two-day meeting to discuss whether - and how - to vaccinate poultry in Europe and North America. Josh Loeb was there to witness an extraordinary global gathering of animal health leaders.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/veterinária , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Cooperação Internacional
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360600

RESUMO

The escalating mass influx of people to Europe in the 21st century due to geopolitical and economic reasons as well as food crises ignites significant challenges for national health care services. The lack or disruption of cross-border, e-transferred, health-related data negatively affects the health outcome and continuous care, particularly in medically compromised individuals with an unsettled status. Proposal: The urgent need of a structured database, in the form of a health-related data register funded by the European Union that allows a swift exchange of crucial medical data, was discussed to flag ever-increasing migrants' health problems, with a primary aim to support an adequate health care provision for underserved people who are at risk of deteriorating health. The data security information technology aspects, with a proposed and drafted structure of an e-health register, were succinctly highlighted. Conclusions: Focusing on long-term benefits and considering future waves of mass relocation, an investment in a health-related data register in Europe could vastly reduce health care disparities between minority groups and improve epidemiological situations with regard to major illnesses, including common, communicable diseases as well as oncological and infectious conditions. Commissioners, policymakers, and stakeholders are urged to continue a collective action to ensure vulnerable people can access health services by responding to the ongoing global migration crisis.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Refugiados , Migrantes , Humanos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , União Europeia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent reports linking prenatal and community cannabis exposure to elevated uronephrological congenital anomaly (UCA) rates (UCAR's) raise the question of its European epidemiology given recent increases in community cannabinoid penetration there. METHODS: UCAR data from Eurocat. Drug use data from European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Income from World bank. RESULTS: UCAR increased across Spain, Netherlands, Poland and France. UCAR's and cannabis resin THC increased simultaneously in France, Spain, Netherlands and Bulgaria. At bivariate analysis all UCA's were related to cannabis herb and resin THC concentrations. All UCAR's were bivariately related to cannabis metrics ordered by median minimum E-value (mEV) as hypospadias > multicystic renal disease > bilateral renal agenesis > UCA's > hydronephrosis > posterior urethral valve > bladder exstrophy/epispadias. At inverse probability weighted multivariable analysis terms including cannabis were significant for the following series of anomalies: UCA's, multicystic renal disease, bilateral renal agenesis, hydronephrosis, congenital posterior urethral valves from P = 1.91 × 10-5, 2.61 × 10-8, 4.60 × 10-15, 4.60 × 10-15 and 2.66 × 10-10. At geospatial analysis the same series of UCA's were significantly related to cannabis from P = 7.84 × 10-15, 7.72 × 10-5, 0.0023, 6.95 × 10-5, and 8.82 × 10-5. 45/51 (88.2%) of E-value estimates and 31/51 (60.8%) of mEV's >9. CONCLUSION: Analysis confirms a close relationship between cannabis metrics and all seven UCA's and fulfill formal criteria for quantitative causal inference. Given the exponential cannabinoid genotoxicity dose-response relationship results provide a powerful stimulus to constrain community cannabinoid exposure including protection of the food chain to preserve the genome and epigenome of coming generations.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Hidronefrose , Masculino , Humanos , Dronabinol/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Analgésicos
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6906, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372798

RESUMO

Daylight saving time (DST) consists in a one-hour advancement of legal time in spring offset by a backward transition of the same magnitude in fall. It creates a minimal circadian misalignment that could disrupt sleep and homoeostasis in susceptible individuals and lead to an increased incidence of pathologies and accidents during the weeks immediately following both transitions. How this shift affects mortality dynamics on a large population scale remains, however, unknown. This study examines the impact of DST on all-cause mortality in 16 European countries for the period 1998-2012. It shows that mortality decreases in spring and increases in fall during the first two weeks following each DST transition. Moreover, the alignment of time data around DST transition dates revealed a septadian mortality pattern (lowest on Sundays, highest on Mondays) that persists all-year round, irrespective of seasonal variations, in men and women aged above 40.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Sono , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Incidência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2577-2580, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322954

RESUMO

We report results from serologic surveillance for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among 1,237 wild rodents and small mammals across Europe. All samples were negative, with the possible exception of 1. Despite suspected potential for human-to-rodent spillover, no evidence of widespread SARS-CoV-2 circulation in rodent populations has been reported to date.Esitämme tulokset serologisesta tutkimuksesta, jossa seulottiin SARS-CoV-2 tartuntojen varalta 1,237 luonnonvaraista jyrsijää ja piennisäkästä eri puolilta Eurooppaa. Kaikki näytteet olivat negatiivisia, yhtä näytettä lukuun ottamatta. SARS-CoV-2:n läikkymisen ihmisistä jyrsijöihin on arveltu olevan mahdollista, mutta todisteet viruksen laajamittaisesta leviämisestä jyrsijäpopulaatioissa puuttuvat.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Roedores , Anticorpos Antivirais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(10): 1461-1466, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274614

RESUMO

Global warming has caused frequent heat waves worldwide. In order to respond to heat waves and enhance the public's protection abilities, Europe, the United States and other countries have extensively carried out research on heat-health early warning, and initially achieved good health benefits based on a heat-health early warning system. However, the research on heat-health early warning is still limited in China, especially on health risks at the population level. Based on evidence-based thinking, our study combs the research progress of heat-health early warning from four aspects: early warning indicators, early warning models, early warning thresholds, and early warning ranks, and clarifies the key points of the construction of heat-health early warning models and rank schemes, in order to provide early warning technology for the rapid development of national heat-heath early warning in China.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Saúde da População , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , China
20.
Euro Surveill ; 27(41)2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239171

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries implemented a wide set of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), sometimes with limited knowledge on their effect and impact on population. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) developed a Response Measures Database (ECDC-JRC RMD) to archive NPIs in 30 EU/EEA countries from 1 January 2020 to 30 September 2022. We aimed to introduce a tool for the wider scientific community to assess COVID-19 NPIs effect and impact in the EU/EEA. We give an overview of the ECDC-JRC RMD rationale and structure, including a brief analysis of the main NPIs applied in 2020, before the roll-out of the COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. The ECDC-JRC RMD organises NPIs through a three-level hierarchical structure and uses four additional parameters ('status', 'implementation', 'target group' and 'geographical representation') to provide further information on the implementation of each measure. Features including the ready-for-analysis, downloadable format and its agile taxonomy and structure highlight the potential of the ECDC-JRC RMD to facilitate further NPI analysis and optimise decision making on public health response policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
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