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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(10): 1992-2000, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169565

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the five most common malignant tumors. According to the latest statistics of the World Health Organization (WHO), the incident and mortality rates of HCC ranks the eighth and third in the world, respectively, which severely affect people's health. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a bilayer of phospholipids, which carry active substances such as proteins and nucleic acids derived from their mother cells. These exosomes greatly facilitate the exchange of substances and information between cells, and coordinate physiological and pathological processes in the body. In recent years, a large number of studies have shown that exosomal proteins play important roles in the tumorigenesis, development, diagnosis and treatment of HCC. Here we review the composition and functions of exosomes and the role of exosomal proteins in HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Exossomos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Proteômica , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , MicroRNAs/genética
2.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110203, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017912

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) naturally occur in plants and all living organisms. They play an important role in gene regulation through binding toa specific region in open reading frames (ORFs) and/or untranslated regions (UTRs) to block the translation processes through either degrading or blocking mRNA resulting in knocking down or suppression of targeted genes. Plants and many organisms protect themselves from viruses through the production of miRNAs, which are complementary to 3UTR of viruses resulting in degrading the viral mRNA or block the translation on ribosomes. As pandemic, COVID-19, and its consequences on the global economy, we hypothesized a new approach for the treatment of COVID-19 paints. This approach includes designing a mix of miRNAs targeting several regions on COVID-19 open reading frame (ORF) and 3 UTR and suitable delivery system targeting respiratory system tissues. These synthesized miRNAs may be delivered to humansinnon-viral delivery systems such as liposomes like exosome (extracellular vesicle), polymer-based carriers, or inorganic nanoparticles, which are considered to be more suitable for human use.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , MicroRNAs/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Exossomos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polímeros/química
3.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096825

RESUMO

Most cells can release extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles containing various proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and signaling molecules. The exchange of EVs between cells facilitates intercellular communication, amplification of cellular responses, immune response modulation, and perhaps alterations in viral pathogenicity. EVs serve a dual role in inhibiting or enhancing viral infection and pathogenesis. This review examines the current literature on EVs to explore the complex role of EVs in the enhancement, inhibition, and potential use as a nanotherapeutic against clinically relevant viruses, focusing on neurotropic viruses: Zika virus (ZIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, this review's scope will elaborate on EV-based mechanisms, which impact viral pathogenicity, facilitate viral spread, and modulate antiviral immune responses.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Viroses/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Exossomos/metabolismo , HIV/metabolismo , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Retroviridae/metabolismo , Simplexvirus/metabolismo , Terapêutica/métodos , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/virologia , Zika virus/metabolismo , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7979-7993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116513

RESUMO

Background: Both magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-Exos) have been reported to improve wound healing. In this study, novel exosomes (mag-BMSC-Exos) would be fabricated from BMSCs with the stimulation of MNPs and a static magnetic field (SMF) to further enhance wound repair. Methods: Mag-BMSC-Exos, namely, exosomes derived from BMSCs preconditioned with Fe3O4 nanoparticles and a SMF, together with BMSC-Exos were both first isolated by ultracentrifugation, respectively. Afterwards, we conducted in vitro experiments, including scratch wound assays, transwell assays, and tube formation assays, and established an in vivo wound healing model. The miRNA expression profiles were compared between BMSC-Exos and mag-BMSC-Exos to detect the potential mechanism of improving wound healing. At last, the function of exosomal miR-21-5p during wound healing was confirmed by utilizing a series of gain- and loss-of-function experiments in vitro. Results: The optimal working magnetic condition was 50 µg/mL Fe3O4 nanoparticles combined with 100 mT SMF. In vitro, mag-BMSC-Exo administration promoted proliferation, migration and angiogenesis to a greater extent than BMSC-Exo administration. Local transplantation of mag-BMSC-Exos into rat skin wounds resulted in accelerated wound closure, narrower scar widths and enhanced angiogenesis compared with BMSC-Exo transplantation. Notably, miR-21-5p was found to be highly enriched in mag-BMSC-Exos and served as a critical mediator in mag-BMSC-Exo-induced regulatory effects through inhibition of SPRY2 and activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Conclusion: Mag-BMSC-Exos can further enhance wound healing than BMSC-Exos by improving angiogenesis and fibroblast function, and miR-21-5p upregulation in mag-BMSC-Exos might be the potential mechanism. This work offers an effective and promising protocol to improve wound healing in clinic.


Assuntos
Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Campos Magnéticos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Regulação para Cima , Cicatrização , Animais , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 8019-8036, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116515

RESUMO

Exosomes are a subset of tiny extracellular vesicles manufactured by all cells and are present in all body fluids. They are produced actively in tumor cells, which are released and utilized to facilitate tumor growth. Their characteristics enable them to assist major cancer hallmarks, leveraged by cancer cells in fostering cancer growth and spread while implementing ways to escape elimination from the host environment. This review updates on the latest progress on the roles of cancer-derived exosomes, of 30-100 nm in size, in deregulating paracrine trafficking in the tumor microenvironment and circulation. Thus, exosomes are being exploited in diagnostic biomarker development, with its potential in clinical applications as therapeutic targets utilized in exosome-based nanoparticle drug delivery strategies for cancer therapy. Ongoing studies were retrieved from PubMed® and Scopus database and ClinicalTrials.gov registry for review, highlighting how cancer cells from entirely different cell lines rely on genetic information carried by their exosomes for homotypic and heterotypic intercellular communications in the microenvironment to favor proliferation and invasion, while establishing a pre-metastatic niche in welcoming cancer cells' arrival. We will elaborate on the trafficking of tumor-derived exosomes in fostering cancer proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in hematopoietic (leukemia and myeloma), epithelial (breast cancer), and mesenchymal (soft tissue sarcoma and osteosarcoma) cancers. Cancer-derived exosomal trafficking is observed in several types of liquid or solid tumors, confirming their role as cancer hallmark enabler. Their enriched genetic signals arising from their characteristic DNA, RNA, microRNA, and lncRNA, along with specific gene expression profiles, protein, or lipid composition carried by the exosomal cargo shed into blood, saliva, urine, ascites, and cervicovaginal lavage, are being studied as a diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive cancer biomarker. We reveal the latest research efforts in exploiting the use of nanoparticles to improve the overall cancer diagnostic capability in the clinic.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6917-6934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061359

RESUMO

Exosomes are nano-sized small extracellular vesicles secreted by cells, carrying nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other bioactive substances to play a role in the body's physiological and pathological processes. Compared to synthetic carriers such as liposomes and nanoparticles, the endogeneity and heterogeneity of exosomes give them extensive and unique advantages in the field of disease diagnosis and treatment. However, the storage stability, low yield, low purity, and weak targeting of exosomes limit its clinical application. For this reason, further exploration is needed to optimize the above problems and facilitate future functional studies of exosomes. In this paper, the origin, classification, preparation and characterization, storage stability and applications of exosome delivery system are summarized and discussed by searching a large number of literatures.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Exossomos , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Criopreservação , Exossomos/química , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/transplante , Alimentos , Liofilização , Humanos , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo
7.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 437, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059757

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the global public health and the international economy; therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective therapy to treat COVID-19 patients. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as an emerging therapeutic option for the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently, numerous clinical trials have been registered to examine the safety and efficacy of different types of MSCs and their exosomes for treating COVID-19 patients, with less published data on the mechanism of action. Although there is no approved effective therapy for COVID-19 as of yet, MSC therapies showed an improvement in the treatment of some COVID-19 patients. MSC's therapeutic effect is displayed in their ability to reduce the cytokine storm, enhance alveolar fluid clearance, and promote epithelial and endothelial recovery; however, the safest and most effective route of MSC delivery remains unclear. The use of poorly characterized MSC products remains one of the most significant drawbacks of MSC-based therapy, which could theoretically promote the risk for thromboembolism. Optimizing the clinical-grade production of MSCs and establishing a consensus on registered clinical trials based on cell-product characterization and mode of delivery would aid in laying the foundation for a safe and effective therapy in COVID-19. In this review, we shed light on the mechanistic view of MSC therapeutic role based on preclinical and clinical studies on acute lung injury and ARDS; therefore, offering a unique correlation and applicability in COVID-19 patients. We further highlight the challenges and opportunities in the use of MSC-based therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Exossomos/transplante , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Pandemias
8.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(9): 883-886, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972078

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is the core step of wound repair, and vascular endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) play an extremely important role during wound repair. Recent studies have shown that vascular EPC-derived exosomes (EPC-Exo) can protect vessels, promote the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells, and have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on vascular endothelial cells. This article reviews the mechanism of vascular EPC-Exo in angiogenesis and its potential applications in wound repair in recent years.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais , Exossomos , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Cicatrização
9.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(11): 2005-2016, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986505

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Exosomes contain numerous RNAs and transfer them between cells or organs, thereby establishing intercellular or interorgan communication. The roles of mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) from umbilical cord blood exosomes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurrence and fetus growth remain poorly understood. We aimed to establish the differential mRNA and lncRNA expression profiles in umbilical cord blood exosomes from GDM patients compared with normal controls. Results: Using microarray technology, we identified 84 mRNAs and 256 lncRNAs as differentially expressed in umbilical cord blood exosomes of GDM patients compared with controls. The protein-protein interaction network revealed that the differentially expressed mRNAs were associated with glucagon signaling pathway, an important GDM-related pathway. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biological pathway analyses were performed for mRNAs associated with differentially expressed lncRNAs. The results indicated that metabolic process, growth, and development were significantly enriched, which are important in GDM development and fetus growth. Moreover, pathway network was constructed to reveal the key pathways in GDM, such as metabolic pathways and insulin signaling pathway. Further lncRNA/miRNA interaction analysis showed that most of the exosomal lncRNAs harbored miRNA binding sites, and some were associated with GDM. Conclusion: These results showed that exosomal mRNAs and lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in the umbilical cord blood of GDM patients and play potential roles in GDM development and fetus growth.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , RNA Longo não Codificante/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Exossomos/genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Análise em Microsséries , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0232442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956358

RESUMO

Exosomes are vesicles involved in intercellular communication. Their membrane structure and core content is largely dependent on the cell of origin. Exosomes have been investigated both for their biological roles and their possible use as disease biomarkers and drug carriers. These potential technological applications require the rigorous characterization of exosomal blood brain barrier permeability and a description of their lipid bilayer composition. To achieve these goals, we have established a 3D static blood brain barrier system based on existing systems for liposomes and a complementary LC-MS/MS and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance methodology for the analysis of purified human plasma-derived exosome-like vesicles. Results show that the isolated vesicles pass the blood brain barrier and are taken up in endothelial cells. The compositional analysis revealed that the isolated vesicles are enriched in lyso phospholipids and do not contain phosphatidylserine. These findings deviate significantly from the composition of exosomes originating from cell culture, and may reflect active removal by macrophages that respond to exposed phosphahtidylserine.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Exossomos/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos , Suínos
11.
Life Sci ; 261: 118369, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882265

RESUMO

Exosomes hold great potential for cancer treatment to deliver therapeutics due to its inherent low immunogenicity. Exosomes are biocompatible cell-exocytosed secreted vesicles by most cell types, which can be used to construct novel biomanufacturing platform for drug delivery and cancer therapy. In this study, we implemented nano-sized vesicles which were secreted by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), to encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) through electroporation method (DOX@exosome). DOX was loaded into exosomes, with an encapsulation efficiency of up to 35% and separated by ultracentrifugation. Subsequently, carboxylic acid-end MUC1 aptamer was used to covalently decorate the surface amine groups of the exosomes via amide bond formation to provide selective guided drug delivery (DOX@exosome-apt). The data showed that the DOX@exosome-apt provided highly efficient DOX transportation to MUC1-positive cancer cells in vitro as confirmed by MTT and flow cytometry experiments. Moreover, in vivo study on ectopic model of C26 (mouse colon adenocarcinoma) in BALB/c mice indicated that the single dose intravenous injection of DOX@exosome-apt significantly suppress tumor growth in comparison with free DOX. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging also verified the desirable biodistribution of DOX@exosome-apt by exhibiting higher tumor accumulation and faster liver clearance in comparison with DOX@exosome and free DOX. It could be concluded that MUC1 aptamer-decorated exosomes can be implemented therapeutically for the safe and versatile delivery of DOX to colon adenocarcinoma, thus offering valuable platform for clinical applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Aptâmeros de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23730-23741, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879009

RESUMO

Although plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been shown to play a critical role in generating viral immunity and promoting tolerance to suppress antitumor immunity, whether and how pDCs cross-prime CD8 T cells in vivo remain controversial. Using a pDC-targeted vaccine model to deliver antigens specifically to pDCs, we have demonstrated that pDC-targeted vaccination led to strong cross-priming and durable CD8 T cell immunity. Surprisingly, cross-presenting pDCs required conventional DCs (cDCs) to achieve cross-priming in vivo by transferring antigens to cDCs. Taking advantage of an in vitro system where only pDCs had access to antigens, we further demonstrated that cross-presenting pDCs were unable to efficiently prime CD8 T cells by themselves, but conferred antigen-naive cDCs the capability of cross-priming CD8 T cells by transferring antigens to cDCs. Although both cDC1s and cDC2s exhibited similar efficiency in acquiring antigens from pDCs, cDC1s but not cDC2s were required for cross-priming upon pDC-targeted vaccination, suggesting that cDC1s played a critical role in pDC-mediated cross-priming independent of their function in antigen presentation. Antigen transfer from pDCs to cDCs was mediated by previously unreported pDC-derived exosomes (pDCexos), that were also produced by pDCs under various conditions. Importantly, all these pDCexos primed naive antigen-specific CD8 T cells only in the presence of bystander cDCs, similarly to cross-presenting pDCs, thus identifying pDCexo-mediated antigen transfer to cDCs as a mechanism for pDCs to achieve cross-priming. In summary, our data suggest that pDCs employ a unique mechanism of pDCexo-mediated antigen transfer to cDCs for cross-priming.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Apresentação Cruzada/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Exossomos/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Life Sci ; 260: 118403, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926923

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the therapeutic effect and possible mechanism of exosomes from MSCs overexpressing miR-223 on cerebral ischemia and microglia polarization mediated inflammation. MAIN METHODS: Rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) surgery and microglia BV-2 exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) stimulation were subject to exosomes from miR-223-3p transfected MSCs treatment, respectively. Behavioral tests were applied to assess the rats' neurological function. FACS was used to analyze M1/M2 microglia BV-2. production of cytokines in the ischemic hemisphere and BV-2 was detected by ELISA or qRT-PCR. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were also used to examine the expression of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CysLT2R) in vivo and in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: Exosomes from MSCs over expressing miR-223-3p decreased MCAO/R induced cerebral infarct volume, improved neurological deficits, promoted learning and memorizing abilities. They suppressed pro-inflammatory factors expression and promoted anti-inflammatory factors secretion in the ischemic cortex and hippocampus. In vitro, exosomal miR-223-3p exhibited a more evident impact on modulating mRNA expression and protein production of cytokines. It promoted M2 microglia transformation of M1 microglia induced by NMLTC4 with a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot and qRT-PCR also revealed exosomal miR-223-3p decreased mRNA and protein expression of CysLT2R in vitro and in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: Exosomal miR-223-3p from MSCs attenuated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibiting microglial M1 polarization mediated pro-inflammatory response, which may be related with inhibitory effect of exosomal miR-223-3p on CysLT2R.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Exossomos/genética , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , MicroRNAs/genética , Microglia/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
14.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887260

RESUMO

We have previously shown that the combination of radiotherapy with human umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) cell therapy significantly reduces the size of the xenotumors in mice, both in the directly irradiated tumor and in the distant nonirradiated tumor or its metastasis. We have also shown that exosomes secreted from MSCs preirradiated with 2 Gy are quantitatively, functionally and qualitatively different from the exosomes secreted from nonirradiated mesenchymal cells, and also that proteins, exosomes and microvesicles secreted by MSCs suffer a significant change when the cells are activated or nonactivated, with the amount of protein present in the exosomes of the preirradiated cells being 1.5 times greater compared to those from nonirradiated cells. This finding correlates with a dramatic increase in the antitumor activity of the radiotherapy when is combined with MSCs or with preirradiated mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs*). After the proteomic analysis of the load of the exosomes released from both irradiated and nonirradiated cells, we conclude that annexin A1 is the most important and significant difference between the exosomes released by the cells in either status. Knowing the role of annexin A1 in the control of hypoxia and inflammation that is characteristic of acute respiratory-distress syndrome (ARDS), we designed a hypothetical therapeutic strategy, based on the transplantation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells stimulated with radiation, to alleviate the symptoms of patients who, due to pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2, require to be admitted to an intensive care unit for patients with life-threatening conditions. With this hypothesis, we seek to improve the patients' respiratory capacity and increase the expectations of their cure.


Assuntos
Raios gama , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos da radiação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Anexina A1/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia
15.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 750-761, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882759

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gastric cancer (GC) is a malignant tumor with a high mortality rate. Drug resistance is a major obstacle to GC therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of exosomal circPRRX1 in doxorubicin resistance in GC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HGC-27 and AGS cells were exposed to different doses of doxorubicin to construct doxorubicin-resistant cell lines. Levels of circPRRX1, miR-3064-5p, and nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase 14 (PTPN14) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR or Western blot assay. Then, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide, transwell, and Western blot assays were used to explore the function of circPRRX1 in GC cells. Interactions among circPRRX1, miR-3064-5p, and PTPN14 were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. The in vivo function of circPRRX1 was analyzed in a xenograft tumor model. RESULTS: CircPRRX1 was highly expressed in doxorubicin-resistant GC cell lines. Knockdown of circPRRX1 reversed doxorubicin resistance in doxorubicin-resistant GC cells. Additionally, extracellular circPRRX1 was carried by exosomes to spread doxorubicin resistance. CircPRRX1 silencing reduced doxorubicin resistance by targeting miR-3064-5p or regulating PTPN14. In GC patients, high levels of circPRRX1 in serum exosomes were associated with poor responses to doxorubicin treatment. Moreover, depletion of circPRRX1 reduced doxorubicin resistance in vivo. CONCLUSION: CircPRRX1 strengthened doxorubicin resistance by modulating miR-3064-5p/PTPN14 signaling and might be a therapeutic target for GC patients.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
16.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(4): 399-418, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970974

RESUMO

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles of 30-150 nm diameter secreted by almost all cells. In recent years, with continuous deeper understanding of exosomes physiological functions, different reports have proven that exosomes can facilitate cell-to-cell communication by binding to target cells and transferring their contents, together with RNAs, DNAs, proteins, and lipids between cells and tissues. With advantages that exosomes can be involved in various types of physiological processes, such as blood coagulation, cellular homeostasis, inflammation, immune surveillance, stem cell differentiation, neuroprotection, and tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. Exosomes have been demonstrated that they can be applied in identification and treatment of multiple disorders such as cancers, cerebral ischemia, and respiratory infectious diseases. Importantly, researchers utilize application of exosomes in the treatment of various respiratory infectious diseases that have made some breakthrough progress. However, with the global pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), we have focused on applications of exosomes in respiratory infectious diseases and their serious complications, including influenza, TB, ARDS and sepsis. In this review, we explain the use of exosomes in various respiratory infectious diseases and their serious complications, and hope to provide new ideas for the treatment of new coronavirus infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Exossomos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação Celular , Humanos , Pandemias
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell released microvesicles specifically, exosomes, play an important role in mediating immunologic escape, treatment resistance, and disease persistence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Reports on the molecular compositions of exosomes released by cells under diverse conditions, especially during viral infections, suggest that their cargo contents are not randomly loaded. However, the precise molecular mechanisms directing the selective cargo sorting and loading inside infectious viral exosomes remains elusive. AIM: To decipher the role of Reticulon 3 (RTN3) in the selective molecular cargo sorting and loading inside infectious viral exosomes during HCV infection. METHODS: We used Huh7 cells-JFH1 HCV infection and HCV Full-Length (FL) replicon systems. Additionally, we analyzed human liver and serum exosome samples from healthy and treatment naïve HCV infected individuals. Our experiments made use of molecular biology and immunology techniques. RESULTS: HCV infection (JFH1-Huh7 or HCV-FL replicon cells) was associated with increased RTN3L&S isoforms expression in cells and cell released exosomes. Accordingly, increased expression of RTN3L&S was observed in liver and serum exosome samples of HCV infected individuals compared to healthy controls. RNA-ChIP analysis revealed that RTN3L&S interacted with dsHCV RNA. Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockdown (KD) of RTN3 and plasmid overexpression (OE) of wild type, C- and N-terminal deletion mutants of RTN3L&S in HCV- infected Huh7 cells differentially impacted the cellular release of infectious viral exosomes. RTN3L&S KD significantly decreased, while RTN3S OE significantly increased the number of Huh7 cell-released infectious exosomes. The C-terminal domain of RTN3 interacted with and modulated the loading of dsHCV RNA inside infectious exosomes. Antiviral treatment of HCV infected Huh7 cells reduced virus-induced RTN3L&S expression and attenuated the release of infectious exosomes. CONCLUSION: RTN3 constitutes a novel regulator and a potential therapeutic target that mediates the specific loading of infectious viral exosomes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Exossomos/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite C/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 988-994, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the anti- fibrotic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (hUCMSC-EXOs) and explore the mechanism. METHODS: Twenty-four C57 BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups (n=6), including the control group treated with intratracheal injection of saline (3 mg/kg); lung fibrosis model group with intratracheal injection of 1.5 mg/mL bleomycin solution (prepared with saline, 3 mg/kg); EXOs1 group with intratracheal injection of 1.5 mg/mL bleomycin solution (3 mg/kg) and hUCMSC-EXOs (100 µg/250 µL, given by tail vein injection on the next day after modeling); and EXOs2 group with intratracheal injection of 1.5 mg/mL bleomycin solution (3 mg/kg) and hUCMSC-EXOs (100 µg/250 µL, given by tail vein injection on the 10th day after modeling). At 21 days after modeling, pulmonary index, lung tissue pathology and collagen deposition in the mice were assessed using HE staining and Masson staining. The expression level of TGF-ß1 was detected using ELISA, and vimentin, E-cadherin and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) were detected using immunohistochemical staining. CCK8 assay was used to evaluate the effect of hUCMSCEXOs on the viability of A549 cells, and Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of p-Smad2/3, vimentin, and E-cadherin in the cells. RESULTS: Compared with those in the model group, the mice treated with hUCMSC-EXOs showed significantly reduced the pulmonary index (P < 0.05), collagen deposition, lung tissue pathologies, lowered expressions of TGF-ß1 (P < 0.05), vimentin, and p-Smad2/3 and increased expression of E-cadherin. hUCMSC-EXOs given on the second day produced more pronounced effect than that given on the 11th day (P < 0.05). CCK8 assay results showed that hUCMSC-EXOs had no toxic effects on A549 cells (P > 0.05). Western blotting results showed that hUCMSC-EXOs treatment significantly increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expressions of p-Smad2/3 and vimentin in the cells. CONCLUSIONS: hUCMSC-EXOs can alleviate pulmonary fibrosis in mice by inhibiting epithelialmesenchymal transition activated by the TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway, and the inhibitory effect is more obvious when it is administered on the second day after modeling.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Fibrose Pulmonar , Animais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Camundongos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Cordão Umbilical
19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(5): 727-732, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the exosomes secreted by mouse dendritic cell line DC2.4 after infection with Toxoplasma gondii and to analyze the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying such changes. METHODS: The exosomes were extracted by ultracentrifugation from DC2.4 cells at 28 h after infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The morphology of the exosomes was examined with transmission electron microscopy, and the exosome size and density were determined using a nanoparticle tracker. High-throughput sequencing was carried out to identify the differentially expressed small RNAs in the exosomes derived from the infected cells. RESULTS: T. gondii infection resulted in a significantly increased density of exosomes secreted by DC2.4 cells. Small RNA sequencing revealed that Toxoplasma infection caused an increase in the number of miRNAs and piRNAs in the exosomes. The significantly up-regulated piRNAs after the infection included piR-mmu-159, piR-mmu-1526, piR-mmu-9082, piR-mmu-17405, and piR-mmu-25576. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma infection causes accumulation and enrichment of exosomes secreted by DC2.4 cells with increased miRNAs and piRNAs in the exosomes.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Toxoplasma , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Dendríticas , Camundongos , MicroRNAs , RNA Interferente Pequeno
20.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(4): 440-448, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879070

RESUMO

Exosomes are in a size of 30-100 nm vesicles released by various cells, with a double-layered lipid membrane containing DNA, RNA, and protein. In the past, exosomes were considered to be molecular waste, and recently exosomes have been shown to be involved in many pathophysiological processes, including intercellular communication, immune response, nerve repair, and tumorigenesis. Exosomes are present in numerous body fluids, and urinary exosomes have been shown to be biomarkers of a variety of kidney diseases.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Nefropatias , Biomarcadores , Comunicação Celular , Humanos , Proteínas
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