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1.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(11): 1375-1389, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760924

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSCs) represent a class of biologics with the prospects for employment as immunomodulatory, tissue-protective, and regenerative therapeutics. In parallel with cellular therapy, cell-free therapy based on MSC-secreted bioactive factors is being actively developed. MSCs secrete a variety of protein, peptide, RNA, and lipid mediators which can be concentrated, frozen, or even lyophilized without loss of activity, which gives them a certain advantage over cellular products requiring liquid nitrogen storage and infrastructure to revive frozen cells. This review (i) describes currently conducted clinical trials of cell-free products containing MSC secretome; (ii) summarizes main approaches to the generation and characterization of conditioned media concentrates and extracellular vesicle isolates; (iii) analyzes a variety of preclinical studies where effectiveness of secretome products has been shown; and (iv) summarizes current knowledge about secretome bioactive components obtained by analysis of in vivo models testing the therapeutic potential of the MSC secretome.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Artrite/patologia , Artrite/prevenção & controle , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
2.
Biomed Khim ; 65(5): 361-365, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666406

RESUMO

In the model of induced neuronal resistance to the toxic effect of glutamate (deprivation of trophic factors), exosome secretion is demonstrated. Exosomes are secreted at the development of resistance during deprivation and at the first 24 h after preconditioning, as was shown by dot blot of extracellular fluid using anti-CD63 antibody. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin (0.01 µM) significantly reduces the quantity of the secreted exosomes at the stage of autophagy induction and at 24 h after induction. At the same time, inhibition of autophagy during the deprivation of trophic factors prevents the development of resistance, but inhibition of autophagy during the first 24 h after deprivation does not affect the development of resistance. We suggest that the long-term effects of preconditioning may be mediated by exosome secretion.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Ácido Glutâmico , Humanos
3.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 47(10): 829-835, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648466

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether CD137-CD137L signaling could affect the secretion of mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) -derived exosomes through autophagy mediated Rab7 pathway. Methods: Primary thoracic aorta VSMCs from C57BL/6J mouse were obtained by tissue block adherence method. VSMCs between the third to fifth passages were used and VSMCs were divided into 4 groups: control group, CD137 agonist group, lentivirus control group, Rab7 lentiviral interference group. VSMCs in CD137 agonist group were treated with recombinant protein of CD137L (10 µg/ml), VSMCs in lentivirus control group were treated with lentiviral followed by recombinant protein of CD137L (10 µg/ml), VSMCs in Rab7 lentiviral interference group were treated with Rab7 lentiviral intervention followed by recombinant protein of CD137L (10 µg/ml). Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of LC3Ⅱ, p62, Rab7, CD9, CD81 and Hsc70. Fluorescence microscopy was used to track the changes of autophagy in cells infected with mRFP-GFP-LC3. Transmission electron microscope was used to observe the morphology and size of VSMCs-derived exosomes. The nanoparticle tracking analysis(NTA) was used to detect the concentration and size of exosomes in each group. Results: (1) The expressions of Rab7, LC3Ⅱ and p62 protein in VSMCs of CD137 activation group were significantly higher than those in control group (all P<0.05). The expressions of Rab7, LC3Ⅱ and p62 protein in Rab7 lentivirus interference group was lower than in CD137 activation group (all P<0.05), while the expressions were similar between the lentivirus control group and the CD137 activation group (all P>0.05). (2) The total number of fluorescent spots and yellow fluorescent spots in the VSMCs of the CD137 activation group were higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05), and the number of yellow fluorescent spots was higher than that of the red fluorescent spots in the VSMCs of the CD137 activation group ((50.3±0.9) vs. (10.3±1.5)/cell). The total numbers of fluorescent spots and yellow fluorescent spots in VSMCs of Rab7 lentivirus interference group were lower than those of CD137 activation group (both P<0.05), and the number of red fluorescent spots in VSMCs was higher than that of yellow fluorescent spots ((40.7±4.0) and (10.7±1.2)/cell) in the Rab7 lentiviral interference group. The total numbers of fluorescent spots and yellow fluorescent spots in the VSMCs were similar between the lentivirus control group and the CD137 activation group (all P>0.05). (3) Under transmission electron microscopy, the size of the VSMCs-derived exosomes was about 30-150 nm. The exosome markers (CD9, CD81) could be detected in vesicles by Western blot. NTA results showed that the concentration of VSMCs-derived exosomes was significantly higher in the CD137-activated group than in the control group (P<0.05), which was significantly lower in the Rab7 lentiviral interference group than in the CD137-activation group (P<0.05) and was similar between the lentivirus control group and the CD137 activation group (P>0.05). The expression of Hsc70 protein in exosomes secreted by CD137 activation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The expression of Hsc70 protein in exosomes was lower in Rab7 lentivirus interference group than in the CD137 activation group (P<0.05), which was similar between the lentivirus control group and the CD137 activation group (P>0.05). The expression of LC3Ⅱ protein in exosome was higher in CD137 activation group than in control group (P<0.05), which was lower in Rab7 lentivirus interference group than in CD137 activation group (P<0.05), which was similar between the lentivirus control group and the CD137 activation group (P>0.05). Conclusion: The CD137-CD137L signaling may affect the secretion of mouse VSMCs-derived exosomes through modulating the Rab7 pathway mediated autophagy.


Assuntos
Ligante 4-1BB/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos de Músculo Liso
4.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(8): 673-681, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638563

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the impact of the macrophage-derived exosomes on transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung epithelial cells in an inflammatory environment. Methods The morphology of exosomes derived from THP-1 macrophages was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the biochemistry properties of exosomes were identified by accessing exosome-specific markers including tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), accessory protein ALG-2 interacting protein X (ALIX), CD81 and CD9 protein, and the calnexin, a negative control marker absent in exosomes, using an immunoblotting assay. The EMT of alveolar epithelial A549 cells was induced by TGF-ß1, and the impacts of exosomes on the EMT of A549 cells was ascertained by comparing cells treated with exsomes derived from LPS-primed THP-1 macrophages and naive THP-1 cells. Results We successfully established an A549 cell EMT model by TGF-ß1 induction and isolated exosomes derived from THP-1 macrophages. In comparison with the exosomes derived from untreated naive THP-1 macrophages, exosomes derived from LPS-primed THP-1 cells exhibited an ability to significantly promote TGF-ß-induced EMT of A549 cells, as determined by a significantly down-regulated E-cadherin, and an dramatically increased expression of proteins in EMT-related signaling including vimentin, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 signaling proteins Smad2/3 protein and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) and type 1 collagen (Col1). Conclusion Exosomes derived from LPS-stimulated macrophages are able to activate TGF-ß/Smad2/3 signaling, which in turn increase the expression of EMT-related proteins vimentin, α-SMA and Col1 in A549 cells, and subsequently promote EMT in A549 cells.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Exossomos , Macrófagos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Células A549 , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo
5.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 145: 27-34, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629787

RESUMO

Exosomes are gaining increasing attention as drug delivery vehicles due to their low toxicity and ability to functionally transfer biological cargos between cells. However, the therapeutic applicability of exosomes is partially hampered by a lack of cell-type specificity. In this study, therefore, we investigated the impact of cell-type tropism on the in vivo systemic delivery of exosomes to tumor tissues. Exosomes derived from murine colorectal cancer cells (C26) (C26-Exos) and murine melanoma cells (B16BL6) (B16BL6-Exos) were collected. In vitro cellular uptake of either autologous (C26) or allogeneic (B16BL6) exosomes by C26 tumor cells was determined. In vivo tumor accumulation of each type of exosomes in mice bearing C26 tumors was monitored with an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). In in vitro studies, autologous C26-Exos were more efficiently taken up by C26 cancer cells, compared to allogeneic B16BL6-Exos. For in vivo studies, exosomes were modified with surface polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve their circulation lifetimes. Although both types of PEGylated exosomes accumulated in C26-tumor tissue, autologous exosomes were preferentially accumulated within C26-tumor tissue compared to allogeneic exosomes. The increased tumor accumulation of autologous PEGylated exosomes was accompanied by the preferential uptake of exosomes by not only C26-tumor cells but also tumor-associated immune cells. This study implies that cancer cell-type tropism is an important factor in the achievement of tumor cell targeting with cancer cell-derived exosomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Tropismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polietilenoglicóis/metabolismo
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 73-84, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513886

RESUMO

In the liver microenvironment, interactions among diverse types of hepatic cells are involved in liver fibrosis. In fibrotic tissues, exosomes act as transporters in intercellular communication. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are participants in liver fibrosis. However, the functions of exosomal lncRNAs in liver fibrosis induced by arsenite are undefined. The purposes of the present study were (a) to determine if lncRNAs secreted from human hepatic (L-02) cells exposed to arsenite are shuttled to hepatic stellate LX-2 cells and (b) to establish their effects on LX-2 cells. In mice, MALAT1 was overexpressed in the progression of liver fibrosis induced by arsenite as well as in L-02 cells exposed to arsenite. Co-cultures with arsenite-treated L-02 cells induced the activation of LX-2 cells and overexpression of MALAT1. Arsenite-treated L-02 cells transported MALAT1 into LX-2 cells. Downregulation of MALAT1, which reduced the MALAT1 levels in exosomes derived from arsenite-treated L-02 cells, inhibited the activation of LX-2 cells. Additionally, exosomal MALAT1 derived from arsenite-treated L-02 cells promoted the activation of LX-2 cells via microRNA-26b regulation of COL1A2. Furthermore, circulating exosomal MALAT1 was up-regulated in people exposed to arsenite. In sum, exosomes derived from arsenite-treated hepatic cells transferred MALAT1 to HSCs, which induced their activation. These findings support the concept that, during liver fibrosis induced by arsenite, exosomal lncRNAs are involved in cell-cell communication.


Assuntos
Arsenitos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Compostos de Sódio , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Estreladas do Fígado/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17143, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517857

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of urinary microRNA (miRNA) expression and explore its clinical significance in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).The expression levels of urinary miRNA were detected by miRNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 106 CHB and 40 healthy controls (Ctrl) subjects. The correlation between the levels of miRNA expression and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the specificity and sensitivity of each individual miRNA. MiRNAs expression were further measured by PCR from exosomes, which were isolated from urine samples. LX2 cells were transfected with miRNA inhibitor and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets was analyzed by Oil Red O staining.miRNA expression profile analysis showed that 22 miRNAs were upregulated and 55 miRNAs were downregulated in CHB patients compared with Ctrl subjects (fold-change>1.5 and P < .05). miR-92b-3p, miR-770-5p, miR-5196-5p, and miR-7855-5p were significantly higher (P < .0001) in CHB subjects than in Ctrl subjects. ROC curve analysis showed that these four miRNAs were sensitive and specific enough to distinguish CHB and Ctrl subjects. The levels of miR-92b-3p expression were negatively correlated with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and APOA-1. Moreover, in vitro experiments indicated that inhibition of miR-92b-3p increased lipid droplet formation in LX2 cells.Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been observed in urine of CHB patients. Our findings may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of CHB and may assist in the diagnosis of patients with CHB.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/urina , MicroRNAs/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Linhagem Celular , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 49-59, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520698

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have established the correlations between PM2.5 and a wide variety of pulmonary diseases. However, their underlying pathogeneses have not been clearly elucidated yet. In the present study, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype with enhanced proliferation and migration activity of human pulmonary epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was observed after exposure to low dose PM2.5 exposure (50 µg/ml) for 30 passages. Then, epithelial cells derived-exosomal micro-RNA (miRNA) and intracellular total RNA were extracted, and the differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs (DE-Exo-MiRs) as well as differentially expressed protein coding genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and transcriptome analysis. We found that chronic PM2.5 exposure stimulated the release of pulmonary epithelium derived exosomes. 45 DE-Exo-MiRs including 32 novelly predicted miRNAs and 843 DEGs between PM2.5 exposed group and the normal control were detected. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, focal adhesion and cancer related terms. Besides, the enrichment analyses on 7774 mRNA targets of 27 DE-Exo-MiRs predicted by MiRanda software also revealed the potential regulatory role of exosomal miRNAs in pathways in cancer, Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway, focal adhesion related genes and other multiple pathogenic pathways. Moreover, the interactive exosomal miRNA-mRNA pair networks were constructed using Cytoscape software. Our results provided a novel basis for a better understanding of the mechanisms of chronic PM2.5 exposure induced pulmonary disorders including pulmonary fibrosis and cancer, in which exosomal miRNAs (Exo-MiRs) potentially functions by dynamically regulating gene expressions.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidade , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Exossomos/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5679-5690, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413568

RESUMO

Background: Exosomes are natural nanovesicles with unique characteristics, such as long circulating half-life, the intrinsic ability to target tissues, biocompatibility, and minimal or no inherent systemic toxicity. Mesenchymal stem cells produce large amounts of exosomes with regenerative properties and more stability in human plasma. TUBO breast cancer cell lines overexpress rat HER2/neu protein. Methods: Targeted exosomes were isolated from transduced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Doxorubicin was encapsulated into exosomes by electroporation. Flow cytometry was used to assess the attachment of exosomes to the target cells. The in vitro cytotoxicity effect of targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes on TUBO cells was determined using MTT assay. Selective delivery of doxorubicin to tumor tissues was analyzed by measuring the auto-fluorescence of doxorubicin by in vivo imaging system. Moreover, tumor growth inhibition and body weight were monitored following injection of free doxorubicin, and targeted and untargeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes in a TUBO breast cancer model. Finally, mouse tissues were examined for the presence of intrinsic fluorescence of doxorubicin. Results: Flow cytometry results revealed significant differences in binding of targeted exosomes to HER2-positive (46.05%) and HER2-negative (13.9%) cells. The results of MTT assay showed that cytotoxicity of targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes was higher than free doxorubicin at 72 hours. Selective distribution of targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes in the target tissues of the murine breast cancer model suggested specific delivery of doxorubicin by targeted exosomes, rather than untargeted exosomes. Free doxorubicin and untargeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes showed insignificant effects, whereas targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes reduced the tumor growth rate. Conclusion: Herein, we report efficient delivery of targeted doxorubicin-loaded exosomes in vitro, corroborated with a significant reduction of murine breast cancer model tumor growth rate.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos Nus , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Cell Prolif ; 52(5): e12669, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate whether exosomes derived from miR-375-overexpressing human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) could enhance bone regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exosomes enriched with miR-375 (Exo [miR-375]) were generated from hASCs stably overexpressing miR-375 after lentiviral transfection and identified with transmission electron microscopy, nanosight and western blotting. The construction efficiency of Exo (miR-375) was evaluated with qRT-PCR and incubated with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) to optimize the effective dosage. Then, the osteogenic capability of Exo (miR-375) was investigated with ALP and ARS assays. Furthermore, dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were conducted to reveal the underlying mechanism of miR-375 in osteogenic regulation. Finally, Exo (miR-375) were embedded with hydrogel and applied to a rat model of calvarial defect, and µ-CT analysis and histological examination were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Exo (miR-375) in bone regeneration. RESULTS: miR-375 could be enriched in exosomes by overexpressing in the parent cells. Administration of Exo (miR-375) at 50 µg/mL improved the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. With miR-375 absorbed by hBMSCs, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) was inhibited by binding to its 3'UTR, and recombinant IGFBP3 protein reduced the osteogenic effects triggered by Exo (miR-375). After incorporated with hydrogel, Exo (miR-375) displayed a slow and controlled release, and further in vivo analysis demonstrated that Exo (miR-375) enhanced the bone regenerative capacity in a rat model of calvarial defect. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study demonstrated that exosomes derived from miR-375-overexpressing hASCs promoted bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Exossomos/transplante , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/química , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Crânio/patologia , Crânio/fisiologia , Fraturas Cranianas/patologia , Fraturas Cranianas/terapia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16848, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in expressed prostatic secretions (EPSs) of patients with chronic prostatitis (CP) and the expression of prostatic exosomal protein (PSEP) in urine, and to evaluate its correlation with the condition. METHODS: Urine samples from 310 patients with CP (101 National Institutes of Health [NIH] II, 112 NIH IIIa, and 97 NIH IIIb, classified according to the US National Institutes of Health) and 110 control group subjects were collected. The samples were tested for PSEP by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At the same time, EPSs in 60 patients from 310 patients with CP and 20 control group subjects were collected. The levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in the collected samples that EPS were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA. SPSS 23.0 statistical software was used for statistical analysis of the measured data. RESULTS: The level of PSEP in patients with CP was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < .001). The levels of TNF-α and IL-10 in the EPS of patients with NIH II and NIH IIIa CP were higher than those of the patients with NIH IIIb and the control group (P < .001). There was a positive correlation between PSEP and IL-10 and TNF-α, while TNF-α and IL-10 were also positively correlated. CONCLUSION: PSEP, TNF-α, and IL-10 may serve as a basis for the classification diagnosis of CP. Their combination can provide more accurate diagnostic information for clinical CP typing.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/urina , Próstata/metabolismo , Prostatite/urina , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prostatite/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
13.
Gene ; 719: 144044, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exosomes have been described as a messenger between cells' communication and contain various information (lipids, proteins, mRNAs, microRNAs, LncRNAs). It has been proved that Linc-ROR was enriched in exosomes released by HepG2 cells. Our aim was to investigate whether exosomes released by HepG2 cells could affect the biological behaviors of LO2 cells and whether Linc-ROR played an important role in this process. METHODS: Exosomes-derived from HepG2 cells were isolated and characterized. Real-time PCR assessed expression level of Linc-ROR in specimens of cancerous tissues and carcinoma-adjacent tissues. The Linc-ROR expression level in HepG2, Huh7, SMMC-7721, Bel-7402, LO2 cells and exosomes was detected by real-time PCR. Knockdown the expression of Linc-ROR in HepG2 by using effective siRNA. Cell counting method was used to test LO2 cells proliferative activities. Flow cytometry was performed to quantify the apoptosis rates of LO2 cells cocultured with exosomes. The expression levels of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, P53 and CD133 were assessed by western blot. RESULTS: Linc-ROR was enriched in exosomes released by HepG2 cells. Exosomes derived from HepG2 cells promoted the proliferation and suppressed the apoptosis of LO2 cells suffering nutrient deficiency. Knockdown the expression of Linc-ROR in HepG2 or LO2 cells could significantly impaired the exosomes' effects on LO2 cells. In addition, the long-term coculture with exosomes would obviously change the biological behaviors of LO2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments indicated the HepG2 cells could transfer its Linc-ROR to the LO2 cells via exosomes, then influenced the recipient cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Oncol Rep ; 42(4): 1319-1328, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364748

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), with high potential for metastasis, is the most common malignant tumor of the head and neck. Cancer­associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main stromal cells in the microenvironment and aggravate tumor progression. However, whether CAFs are associated with the progression of OSCC remains unknown and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, the role of CAFs in mediating OSCC cell migration and invasion was investigated, and the participation of exosomal miR­382­5p in this process was elucidated. In this study, according to the α­SMA staining with immunohistochemistry, 47 OSCC patients were divided into CAFs­rich and CAFs poor groups, and association of CAF density and clinicopathologic features of the OSCC patients were analyzed with Pearson χ2 test. Transwell assay was used for evaluating cell migration and invasion ability of OSCC cells after being co­cultured with NFs or CAFs, or after added exosomes. qPCR was used to detect the expression of miR­382­5p. Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression of migration and invasion­associated proteins. In the present study, the CAF density in tumor tissues was found to be relevant to OSCC lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. Furthermore, we revealed that miR­382­5p was overexpressed in CAFs compared with that in fibroblasts of adjacent normal tissue and miR­382­5p overexpression was responsible for OSCC cell migration and invasion. Finally, we demonstrated that CAF­derived exosomes transported miR­382­5p to OSCC cells. The present study confirmed a new mechanism of CAF­facilitated OSCC progression and may be beneficial for identifying new cancer therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Exossomos/genética , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Actinas/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9477-9491, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429552

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a bacterial endotoxin that induces intestine inflammation. Milk exosomes improve the intestine and immune system development of newborns. This study aims to establish the protective mechanisms of porcine milk exosomes on the attenuation of LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and apoptosis. In vivo, exosomes prevented LPS-induced intestine damage and inhibited (p < 0.05) LPS-induced inflammation. In vitro, exosomes inhibited (p < 0.05) LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cells apoptosis (23% ± 0.4% to 12% ± 0.2%). Porcine milk exosomes also decreased (p < 0.05) the LPS-induced TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation. Furthermore, exosome miR-4334 and miR-219 reduced (p < 0.05) LPS-induced inflammation through the NF-κB pathway and miR-338 inhibited (p < 0.05) the LPS-induced apoptosis via the p53 pathway. Cotransfection with these three miRNAs more effectively prevented (p < 0.05) LPS-induced cell apoptosis than these miRNAs individual transfection. The apoptosis percentage in the group cotransfected with the three miRNAs (14% ± 0.4%) was lower (p < 0.05) than that in the NC miRNA group (28% ± 0.5%), and also lower than that in each individual miRNA group. In conclusion, porcine milk exosomes protect the intestine epithelial cells against LPS-induced injury by inhibiting cell inflammation and protecting against apoptosis through the action of exosome miRNAs. The presented results suggest that the physiological amounts of miRNAs-enriched exosomes addition to infant formula could be used as a novel preventative measure for necrotizing enterocolitis.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Exossomos/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(5): e12807, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282004

RESUMO

Exosomes are a potent means for intercellular communication. However, exosomes have received intensive research focus in immunobiology only relatively recently. Because they transport proteins, lipids and genetic material between cells, they are especially suited to amplify their parental cell's message and overcome the physical constraints of cell-to-cell contact, that is exosome release gives cells the ability to alter distant, non-contiguous cells. As progress is made in this field, it has become increasingly obvious that exosomes are involved in most biological processes. In the immune system, exosomes are fundamental tools used by every immune cell type to fulfil its function and promote inflammation or tolerance. In this review, we first summarize key aspects of immune cell-specific exosomes and their functions. Then, we describe how exosomes have been shown to be indispensable orchestrators of the immune response in two immunological scenarios, namely transplant rejection or tolerance, and tumour evasion or initiation of anti-tumour immune responses.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
17.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(21): 4203-4219, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300868

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, with a high mortality rate. Its dismal prognosis is attributed to late diagnosis, high risk of recurrence and drug resistance. To improve the survival of patients with HCC, new approaches are required for early diagnosis, real-time monitoring and effective treatment. Exosomes are small membranous vesicles released by most cells that contain biological molecules and play a great role in intercellular communication under physiological or pathological conditions. In cancer, exosomes from tumor cells or non-tumor cells can be taken up by neighboring or distant target cells, and the cargoes in exosomes are functional to modulate the behaviors of tumors or reshape tumor microenvironment (TME). As essential components, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are selectively enriched in exosomes, and exosomal ncRNAs participate in regulating specific aspects of tumor development, including tumorigenesis, tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, immunomodulation and drug resistance. Besides, dysregulated exosomal ncRNAs have emerged as potential biomarkers, and exosomes can serve as natural vehicles to deliver tumor-suppressed ncRNAs for treatment. In this review, we briefly summarize the biology of exosomes, the functions of exosomal ncRNAs in HCC development and their potential clinical applications, including as biomarkers and therapeutic tools.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Exossomos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , RNA Neoplásico/fisiologia , RNA não Traduzido/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/fisiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo
18.
Cancer Sci ; 110(9): 2941-2959, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343810

RESUMO

A sensitive and specific diagnosis biomarker, in principle scalable to most cancer types, is needed to reduce the prevalent cancer mortality. Meanwhile, the investigation of diagnosis determinants of a biomarker will facilitate the interpretation of its screening results in clinic. Here we design a large-scale (1558 enrollments), multicenter (multiple hospitals), and cross-validation (two datasets) clinic study to validate plasma Hsp90α quantified by ELISA as a pan-cancer biomarker. ROC curve shows the optimum diagnostic cutoff is 69.19 ng/mL in discriminating various cancer patients from all controls (AUC 0.895, sensitivity 81.33% and specificity 81.65% in test cohort; AUC 0.893, sensitivity 81.72% and specificity 81.03% in validation cohort). Similar results are noted in detecting early-stage cancer patients. Plasma Hsp90α maintains also broad-spectrum for cancer subtypes, especially with 91.78% sensitivity and 91.96% specificity in patients with AFP-limited liver cancer. In addition, we demonstrate levels of plasma Hsp90α are determined by ADAM10 expression, which will affect Hsp90α content in exosomes. Furthermore, Western blotting and PRM-based quantitative proteomics identify that partial false ELISA-negative patients secret high levels of plasma Hsp90α. Mechanism analysis reveal that TGFß-PKCγ gene signature defines a distinct pool of hyperphosphorylated Hsp90α at Theronine residue. In clinic, a mechanistically relevant population of false ELISA-negative patients express also higher levels of PKCγ. In sum, plasma Hsp90α is a novel pan-cancer diagnosis biomarker, and cancer diagnosis with plasma Hsp90α is particularly effective in those patients with high expression of ADAM10, but may be insufficient to detect the patients with low ADAM10 and those with hyperphosphorylated Hsp90α.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/sangue , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Proteína ADAM10/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Exossomos/metabolismo , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosforilação , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Treonina/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(23): 4613-4633, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352532

RESUMO

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the high incidence rates are worrisome. Exosomes are a class of extracellular vesicles secreted by most cells, including RNAs, proteins and lipids. Exosomes can mediate cell-to-cell communication in both physiologic and pathologic processes. Accumulated evidences show that cancer-derived exosomes aid in the recruitment and reprogramming of constituents correlated with tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, exosome-based clinical trials have been completed in advanced lung cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the roles of exosomes in a lung cancer microenvironment, such as its participation in lung cancer initiation, progression and metastasis as well as being involved in angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), immune escape, and drug resistance. In addition, we focus on the potential of exosomes as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer, as well as the challenges faced by and advantages of exosomes as drug delivery vehicles and in exosome-based immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Neovascularização Patológica , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6726-6737, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155266

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that bovine milk contains mRNA and microRNA that are largely encapsulated in milk-derived exosomes. However, little information is available about long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) in bovine milk. Increasing evidence suggests that lncRNA are of particular interest given their key role in gene expression and development. We performed a comprehensive analysis of lncRNA in bovine milk exosomes by RNA sequencing. We used a validated human in vitro digestion model to investigate the stability of lncRNA encapsulated in bovine milk exosomes during the digestion process. We identified 3,475 novel lncRNA and 6 annotated lncRNA. The lncRNA shared characteristics with those of other mammals in terms of length, exon number, and open reading frames. However, lncRNA showed higher expression than mRNAs. We selected 12 lncRNA of high-expression abundance and identified them by PCR. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses showed that lncRNA regulate immune function, osteoblastogenesis, neurodevelopment, reproduction, cell proliferation, and cell-cell communication. We also investigated the 12 lncRNA using quantitative real-time PCR to reveal their expression profiles in milk exosomes during different stages of lactation (colostrum 2 d, 30 d, 150 d, and 270 d); their resulting expression levels in milk exosomes showed variations across the stages. A digestion experiment showed that bovine milk exosome lncRNA was resistant to in vitro digestion with different digestive juices, including saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, and bile juice. Taken together, these results show for the first time that cow milk contains lncRNA, and that their abundance varied at different stages of lactation. As expected, bovine milk exosomal lncRNA were stable during in vitro digestion. These findings provide a basis for further understanding of the physiological role of milk lncRNA.


Assuntos
Leite/química , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Colostro/metabolismo , Digestão , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Exossomos/química , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Gravidez , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária
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