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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371979

RESUMO

Grape pomace (GP) is a winemaking by-product rich in polyphenols and fibre. Supplementation with GP extracts has shown potential benefits against oxidative stress- and inflammation-related pathologies. As a new nutritional target, this paper explores the impact of the ingestion of a grape pomace extract on intestinal barrier functionality. A GP extract was sequentially subjected to gastrointestinal and colonic digestion using the dynamic gastrointestinal simulator (simgi®). This generated two simulated fluids: intestinal-digested extract (IDE) and colonic-digested extract (CDE). The effects of these two fluids on paracellular permeability and the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins (i.e., zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) were assessed in Caco-2-cell monolayers grown in Transwell® inserts. The IDE fluid significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the paracellular transport of FITC-dextran with respect to the control, whereas no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found for CDE, which could be due, at least partially, to the pro-leaky effect of the colonic digestion medium. Accordant slight increases in the mRNA levels of both ZO-1 and occludin were observed for IDE, but without statistical significance. Additionally, the colonic fermentation of the GP extract promoted the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and phenolic metabolites and led to changes in the relative abundance of some bacteria that might affect paracellular permeability. Overall, this paper reports first trends about the effects of grape pomace extracts on intestinal permeability that would require further confirmation in future experiments.


Assuntos
Digestão , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/química , Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ocludina/genética , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Vinho , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1
2.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 92, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is a clinical syndrome resulting from the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) within the sensory ganglia. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of ES16001 (ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus), a novel inhibitor of varicella zoster virus reactivation in healthy adults. METHOD: Single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose (SAD and MAD, respectively) studies were conducted in 20- to 45-year-old healthy adults without chronic disease. In the SAD study (n = 32), subjects randomly received a single oral dose of 240, 480, 960, or 1440 mg ES16001 or a placebo. In the MAD study (n = 16), subjects randomly received once daily doses of 480 or 960 mg ES16001 or a placebo for 5 days. The safety and tolerability of the drug were evaluated by monitoring participants' treatment emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs, electrocardiograms (ECGs), physical examinations, and clinical laboratory tests. RESULTS: In the SAD study, 11 adverse reactions were seen in 5 subjects, and in the MAD study, 8 adverse reactions were seen in 6 subjects. All adverse reactions were mild, and no serious adverse reactions occurred. The most common adverse reaction was an increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), but all test values were in the clinically non-significant range, and their clinical significance was judged to be small considering the fact that most of the test values returned to normal immediately after the end of drug administration. CONCLUSION: ES16001 has good safety and tolerability when administered both once and repeatedly to healthy subjects. Further research is needed to identify any possible drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which appears infrequently. Our findings provide a rationale for further clinical investigations of ES16001 for the prevention of HZ. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRIS, KCT0006066. Registered 7 April 2021-Retrospectively registered, https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/detailSearch.do/19071 ).


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Elaeocarpaceae/química , Herpes Zoster/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444691

RESUMO

The aim of the report was to evaluate the impact of soy protein containing isoflavones and soy isoflavones extract on lipid profile in postmenopausal women, as compared with placebo or protein of milk, casein or isolated soy protein with or without trace isoflavone content. We used the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by applying a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to assess the modifiers of treatment response. In total, in the analysis studies, 2305 postmenopausal women took part. Changes in the lipid profile showed statistically significant decreases of total cholesterol by -0.12 (95% CI: -0.21, -0.03) mmol/L, -4.64 (95% CI: -8.12, -1.16) mg/dL, p = 0.01 and increased HDL-cholesterol by 0.03 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.06) mmol/L, 1.15 (95% CI: 0.00, 1.93) mg/dL, p = 0.05, as well as in LDL-cholesterol -0.05 (95% CI: -0.11, 0.01) mmol/L, -1.93 (95% CI: -4.25, 0.39) mg/dL, p = 0.08 and triacylglycerols -0.07 (95% CI: -0.14, 0.00) mmol/L, -6.123 (95% CI: -12.25, 0.00) mg/dL, p = 0.06. Our results suggests that soy and its isoflavones can be effective in correction changes in lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women and may favorably influence in preventing cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371831

RESUMO

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key entry point of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus known to induce Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have recently outlined a concept to reduce ACE2 expression by the administration of glycyrrhizin, a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, via its inhibitory activity on 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2) and resulting activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We hypothesized that in organs such as the ileum, which co-express 11betaHSD2, MR and ACE2, the expression of ACE2 would be suppressed. We studied organ tissues from an experiment originally designed to address the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on stress response. Male Sprague Dawley rats were left undisturbed or exposed to chronic mild stress for five weeks. For the last two weeks, animals continued with a placebo diet or received a diet containing extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight/day. Quantitative PCR measurements showed a significant decrease in gene expression of ACE2 in the small intestine of rats fed with diet containing Glycyrrhiza glabra extract. This effect was independent of the stress condition and failed to be observed in non-target tissues, namely the heart and the brain cortex. In the small intestine we also confirmed the reduction of ACE2 at the protein level. Present findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may reduce an entry point of SARS-CoV-2. Whether this phenomenon, when confirmed in additional studies, is linked to the susceptibility of cells to the virus requires further studies.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glycyrrhiza , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Glicirrízico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204042

RESUMO

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with the primary objective of assessing the effect of a natural extract of Sclerocarya birrea on glucose metabolism in subjects with prediabetes. The duration of the study was 90 days. Thirty-three subjects assigned to the experimental group (daily ingestion of 100 mg of the nutraceutical product) and 34 assigned to the placebo group completed the study. There were 36 men and 31 women with a mean age of 32.3 ± 14.1 years. In the area under the curve (AUC) of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), statistically significant decreases in the experimental group at 40 and 90 days as compared with baseline were found, whereas significant changes in the placebo group were not observed. Within-group differences were statistically significant in favor of the experimental group for glucose peak at OGTT, serum insulin, insulin resistance markers, and flow-mediated dilation. Changes in lipid and anthropometric parameters were not observed, although there was a trend for lower cholesterol levels and a decrease in body weight in the experimental group. Decreases in systolic blood pressure were also higher among subjects in the experimental group. This exploratory study confirms the antidiabetic activity of Sclerocarya birrea in prediabetes. Further studies using better measurements of beta-cell function are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the hypoglycemic effect of this natural compound.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111537, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311535

RESUMO

Aging of the skin is a complicated bioprocess that is affected by constant exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. The application of herbal-based anti-aging creams is still the best choice for treatment. In the present study, Citrus sinensis L. fruit peels ethanolic extract (CSPE) was formulated into lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) anti-aging cream. Eight different formulations of CSEP-LNPs were prepared and optimized using 23 full factorial designs. In vivo antiaging effect of the best formula was tested in Swiss albino mice where photo-aging was induced by exposure to UV radiation. HPLC-QToF-MS/MS metabolic profiling of CSPE led to the identification of twenty-nine metabolites. CSPE was standardized to a hesperidin content of 15.53 ± 0.152 mg% using RP-HPLC. It was suggested that the optimized formulation (F7) had (245 nm) particle size, (91.065%) EE, and (91.385%) occlusive effect with a spherical and smooth surface. The visible appearance of UV-induced photoaging in mice was significantly improved after topical application on CSPE-NLC cream for 5 weeks, levels of collagen and SOD were significantly increased in CSPE- NLC group, while levels of PGE2, COX2, JNK, MDA, and elastin was reduced. Finally, The prepared anti-aging CSPE-NLC cream represents a safe, convenient, and promising skincare cosmetic product.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Citrus sinensis/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Frutas , Lipídeos/química , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Camundongos , Nanopartículas , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Creme para a Pele/química , Creme para a Pele/isolamento & purificação , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for botanicals to be used as an alternative and complementary medicine in the management of male infertility. Male infertility has been a major health/social challenge to people all over the world. This study, therefore, investigated the ameliorative potential of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Parquetina nigrescens (HELEPN) against d-galactose-induced testicular injury. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into six groups (n = 5). Group I (Normal control), Group II (300 mg/kg b.w. d-galactose), Group III and IV (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. HELEPN, respectively), Group V and VI (both received 300 mg/kg b.w. of d-galactose with 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of HELEPN, respectively). d-galactose administration started two weeks prior to HELEPN treatment which lasted for six weeks. All assays were carried out using established protocols. RESULTS: Administration of HELEPN at 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg concomitantly with d-galactose improved paired and relative testicular weights, levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) and testosterone, and poor sperm quality. HELEPN treatment reduced the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, 8-OHDG, and AGEs) and inflammatory response (TNF-alpha and NO) to normal, as well as restoring the reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase). In addition, HELEPN treatment mitigated testicular DNA fragmentation and down-regulated caspase 3-activities. HELEPN at 500 mg/kg was observed to have the greatest ameliorative effect. CONCLUSION: HELEPN protects against d-galactose-induced testicular injury through antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Testículo/lesões , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/química , Gonadotropinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/induzido quimicamente , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Análise do Sêmen , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200927

RESUMO

Bacterial cellulose membranes (BCs) are becoming useful as a drug delivery system to the skin. However, there are very few reports on their application of plant substances to the skin. Komagataeibacter xylinus was used for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC). The BC containing 5% and 10% ethanolic extract of Epilobium angustifolium (FEE) (BC-5%FEE and BC-10%FEE, respectively) were prepared. Their mechanical, structural, and antioxidant properties, as well as phenolic acid content, were evaluated. The bioavailability of BC-FESs using mouse L929 fibroblasts as model cells was tested. Moreover, In Vitro penetration through the pigskin of the selected phenolic acids contained in FEE and their accumulation in the skin after topical application of BC-FEEs was examined. The BC-FEEs were characterized by antioxidant activity. The BC-5% FEE showed relatively low toxicity to healthy mouse fibroblasts. Gallic acid (GA), chlorogenic acid (ChA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HB), and caffeic acid (CA) found in FEE were also identified in the membranes. After topical application of the membranes to the pigskin penetration of some phenolic acid and other antioxidants through the skin as well as their accumulation in the skin was observed. The bacterial cellulose membrane loaded by plant extract may be an interesting solution for topical antioxidant delivery to the skin.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Celulose/química , Epilobium/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Bactérias/química , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203999

RESUMO

Human skin acts as a physical barrier; however, sometimes the skin gets infected by fungi, which becomes more severe if the infection occurs on the third layer of the skin. Azole derivative-based antifungal creams, liquids, or sprays are available to treat fungal infections; however, these formulations show various side effects on the application site. Over the past few years, herbal extracts and various essential oils have shown effective antifungal activity. Additionally, autoxidation and epimerization are significant problems with the direct use of herbal extracts. Hence, to overcome these obstacles, polysaccharide-based nanohydrogels embedded with natural plant extracts and oils have become the primary choice of pharmaceutical scientists. These gels protect plant-based bioactive compounds and are effective delivery agents because they release multiple bioactive compounds in the targeted area. Nanohydrogels can be applied to infected areas, and due to their contagious nature and penetration power, they get directly absorbed through the skin, quickly reaching the skin's third layer and effectively reducing the fungal infection. In this review, we explain various skin fungal infections, possible treatments, and the effective utilization of plant extract and oil-embedded polysaccharide-based nanohydrogels.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Géis/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/química , Azóis/química , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos/química
10.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279373

RESUMO

Fatty acid content and lipid oxidation products were compared in chicken breast and leg meats derived from birds fed on animal-fat- and vegetable-oil-based diets, supplemented with ginseng prong powder. The first experiment examined polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and the formation of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products in meats stored at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C) for up to 10 days, while the second experiment examined similar changes in the poultry meats when frozen stored at -18 °C, for up to six months. Results showed that initial lipid hydroperoxide concentrations increased in both breast and leg meat within the first week of refrigerated storage and also was ongoing during the first three to four months of frozen storage. A higher (p < 0.05) PUFA content in leg meat, especially in broilers fed a vegetable-oil-blended diet, corresponded to greater tendency for generation of primary lipid oxidation products after refrigerated and frozen storage (p < 0.05). The inclusion of powdered ginseng prong in broiler diets significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) secondary lipid oxidation products (e.g., malonaldehyde [MDA]) formation in both stored leg and breast meat, compared to controls. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were obtained for storage time and inclusion of ginseng against production of primary and secondary lipid oxidation in broiler breast and leg meats from broilers fed PUFA-containing diets. We conclude that including ginseng prong in broiler growing diets represents a viable strategy to control lipid oxidation in refrigerated/cold-stored meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Carne/normas , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Alimentos Congelados/normas , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
11.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(8): 1033-1051, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297334

RESUMO

Cordia verbenacea DC (Boraginaceae) is a flowering shrub found along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Brazilian coast, and low areas of the Amazon. The crude extract of its leaves is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, both topically and orally. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activity of C. verbenacea ethanolic leaves extract (CVE) against UVB-triggered cutaneous inflammation and oxidative damage in hairless mice. CVE treatment recovered cutaneous antioxidant capacity demonstrated by scavenging ABTS+ free radical and iron-reducing antioxidant potential evaluated by FRAP. CVE also controlled the following UV-triggered events in the skin: reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, catalase activity decrease, and superoxide anion (O⋅-) build-up. Furthermore, mice treated with CVE exhibited less inflammation, shown by the reduction in COX-2 expression, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. CVE also regulated epidermal thickening and sunburn cells, reduced dermal mast cells, and preserved collagen integrity. The best results were obtained using 5% CVE-added emulsion. The present data demonstrate that topical administration of CVE presents photochemoprotective activity in a mouse model of UVB inflammation and oxidative stress. Because of the intricate network linking inflammation, oxidative stress, and skin cancer, these results also indicate the importance of further studies elucidating a possible role of C. verbenacea in the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer and evaluating a potential synergy between CVE and sunscreens in topical products against UVB damaging effects to the skin.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Emulsões , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Pele/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Protetores Solares/química , Protetores Solares/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206011

RESUMO

Despite considerable progress on the study of the effect of standardized extract of Gingko biloba (EGb) on memory processes, our understanding of its role in the persistence of long-term memory (LTM) and the molecular mechanism underlying its effect, particularly episodic-like memory, is limited. We here investigated the effects of EGb on the long-term retention of recognition memory and its persistence and BDNF expression levels in the dorsal hippocampal formation (DHF). Adult male Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were handled for 10 min/5 day. On day 6, the animals were treated with vehicle or 0.4 mg/kg diazepam (control groups) or with EGb (250, 500 or 100 mg/kg) 30 min before the training session (TR1), in which the animals were exposed to two sample objects. On day 7, all rats underwent a second training session (TR2) as described in the TR1 but without drug treatment. Object recognition memory (ORM) was evaluated on day 8 (retention test, T1) and day 9 (persistence test, T2). At the end of T1or T2, animals were decapitated, and DHF samples were frozen at -80 °C for analyses of the differential expression of BDNF by Western blotting. EGb-treated groups spent more time exploring the novel object in T2 and showed the highest recognition index (RI) values during the T1 and T2, which was associated with upregulation of BDNF expression in the DHF in a dose-and session-dependent manner. Our data reveal, for the first time, that EGb treatment before acquisition of ORM promotes persistence of LTM by BDNF differential expression.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065292

RESUMO

For the first time, the study of the antioxidant activity, the characterization of the phytoconstituants, and the evaluation of in vitro and in vivo toxicity of A. djiboutiensis leave and latex are performed. The antioxidant activity of both latex (ADL) and the methanolic extract of leaves (ADM) is determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) scavenging radical methods and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The phytochemical study of latex is done using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and a molecular networking-based approach. The evaluation of in vivo toxicity is performed on mice by oral gavage with a suspension of ADL. Our results show that weak antioxidant activity of ADL and ADM in opposition to their high polyphenol, 83.01 mg and 46.4 mg expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dry weight (DW), respectively, and flavonoid contents 13.12 mg and 4.25 mg expressed in quercetin equivalent (QE)/g dry weight (DW), respectively. Using the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) website, nine (9) anthraquinones derivatives, ten (10) chromones derivatives, two (2) flavonols/ chromones isomers are annotated in the molecular network. The treated mice do not display abnormalities in their general physical appearance and biochemistry parameters, compared to the controls. Only glucose and calcium levels are slightly higher in male treated mice compared to the vehicles.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Djibuti , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
14.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065427

RESUMO

Early plants began colonizing earth about 450 million years ago. During the process of coevolution, their metabolic cellular pathways produced a myriad of natural chemicals, many of which remain uncharacterized biologically. Popular preparations containing some of these molecules have been used medicinally for thousands of years. In Brazilian folk medicine, plant extracts from the bamboo plant Guadua paniculata Munro have been used for the treatment of infections and pain. However, the chemical basis of these therapeutic effects has not yet been identified. Here, we performed protein biochemistry and downstream pharmacological assays to determine the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of an aqueous extract of the G. paniculata rhizome, which we termed AqGP. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of AqGP were assessed in mice. We identified and purified a protein (AgGP), with an amino acid sequence similar to that of thaumatins (~20 kDa), capable of repressing inflammation through downregulation of neutrophil recruitment and of decreasing hyperalgesia in mice. In conclusion, we have identified the molecule and the molecular mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of a plant commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Bambusa/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Células MCF-7 , Masculino , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
15.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066108

RESUMO

Lindera obtusiloba Blume (family, Lauraceae), native to Northeast Asia, has been used traditionally in the treatment of trauma and neuralgia. In this study, we investigated the neuroinflammatory effect of methanol extract of L. obtusiloba stem (LOS-ME) in a scopolamine-induced amnesia model and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. LOS-ME downregulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-ĸB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Male C57/BL6 mice were orally administered 20 and 200 mg/kg of LOS-ME for one week, and 2 mg/kg of scopolamine was administered intraperitoneally on the 8th day. In vivo behavioral experiments (Y-maze and Morris water maze test) confirmed that LOS-ME alleviated cognitive impairments induced by scopolamine and the amount of iNOS expression decreased in the hippocampus of the mouse brain. Microglial hyper-activation was also reduced by LOS-ME pretreatment. These findings suggest that LOS-ME might have potential in the treatment for cognitive improvement by regulating neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Lindera/química , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 483-496, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166694

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide (CTX) was used to establish the immunosuppressive mice model. The immune organ viscera index, phagocytes vitality, the levels of cytokines in serum, the oxidative stress resistance, proteomics and intestinal flora in mice were investigated to evaluate the effect of immune regulation of Nigella sativa seed polysaccharide (NSSP). The results showed that the high-dose NSSP group could significantly increase the thymus and spleen index. The levels of ACP, LDH, T-AOC, SOD, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly increased and the levels of TNF-α and MDA were reduced. All evidences indicated that NSSP could improve the immune effects of the immunosuppressed mice. Proteomics investigation showed that NSSP could improve the immune by regulating the differential proteins of PI3K and PTEN, and regulating the metabolism-related pathways such as autoimmune diseases and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. of Gut microbes analysis showed that NSSP could exert immunomodulatory effects by improving the structure of the intestinal flora, increasing the diversity of the flora, and regulating metabolic pathways such as lipid metabolism, polysaccharide synthesis and signal transduction by the prediction of flora metabolic functions. In addition, NSSP could regulate intestinal environment by regulating the content of short chain fatty acids.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigella sativa/química , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteômica/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Citocinas/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26542, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GreenCross Wellbeing Corporation (GCWB) 106 is a food item based on Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum extract. It has an inhibitory effect on joint inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the efficacy and safety of GCWB106 for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint. METHODS: Overall, 121 participants with mild OA were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. One group received GCWB106 for 12 weeks and the other group received placebo for 12 weeks. Outcomes were evaluated using the Korean-Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (K-WOMAC), visual analog scale, Korean Short Form Health Survey 36 score, and laboratory test results. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of study treatment, the GCWB106 group exhibited a significant improvement compared with the placebo group in overall K-WOMAC score (P = .042) and K-WOMAC physical function score (P = .015). The GCWB106 group showed significant improvement in the visual analog scale pain score (P < .001) compared with the placebo group after 6 weeks and 12 weeks; no adverse drug reactions or serious adverse events were reported in either group. CONCLUSION: GCWB106 can safely reduce pain and improve knee function with therapeutic effects in OA of the knee joint. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, Level I.


Assuntos
Artralgia , Chrysanthemum , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Extratos Vegetais , Qualidade de Vida , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Artralgia/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2684-2699, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096062

RESUMO

Nowadays, consumers have an increasing demand for health products. In this study, an oral liquid was developed using a compound extract consisting of three herbal extracts (Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Lycium barbarum, and Puerariae lobatae Radix) because the compound extract (a combination of all three extracts) was superior to every single extract in promoting the phagocytic capacity of RAW264.7 macrophages and the proliferation ability of GES-1 cells. In this oral liquid, the dosage of the stabilizer and the sweetener was selected using a stability test and sensory quality evaluation. When 0.30% (m/v) xanthan gum and 0.20% (m/v) mogroside were added, the oral liquid had not only a good stability but also the highest sensory score for overall acceptability. The chemical composition analysis showed that the oral liquid had various functional ingredients including polysaccharides, phenols, alkaloids, and so forth. The immune-enhancing efficacy of the oral liquid was evaluated in BALB/c mice by measuring the levels of different immune indicators. The results indicated that the oral liquid obviously enhanced nonspecific and specific immunity. A rat model with ethanol-induced gastric ulcer was used to examine the protective effect of the oral liquid on the gastric mucosa and to explore the related mechanisms. The oral administration of the oral liquid for days significantly prevented the formation of gastric ulcer. This study provided an effective oral liquid that could enhance immunity and protect gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Etanol/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 148-160, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144282

RESUMO

The objective of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded field trial was to investigate the effects of oral administration of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. (EP)) on performance, health and immune parameters in calves. Calves (n = 27) were enrolled to three groups (9 calves per group): 0.5 g EP/calf per day (ECL), 5 g EP/calf per day (ECH) or placebo. Calves were vaccinated with Bluetongue-Virus (BTV) serotype 4 vaccine to investigate EPs effects on seroconversion. Clinical and performance parameters, inter alia body weight, health and milk intake were recorded for 57 days. Blood samples were analyzed for BTV antibodies and IgG by ELISA, white and red blood cell counts by flow cytometry and mRNA abundance of various inflammatory markers in leukocytes (IL-1ß, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) and prostaglandin E synthase) was studied. The findings demonstrated no differences between groups regarding performance parameters. In all groups, calves suffered from diarrhea for a minimum of 2 days, but EP reduced the number of diarrhea days by 44% in ECL and increased the body temperature. Interestingly, ECL resulted in an increased number of respiratory disease days during the follow-up period. EP did not change blood cell and IgG counts, whereas eosinophil granulocytes were reduced in ECL. Decreased levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were found in ECH. Prostaglandin E synthase levels in leukocytes were higher in ECL and ECH, whereas no differences were obtained for IL-1ß, IL-8, TNFα and Cox-2. Due to the unexpected occurrence of BTV seropositive calves before the first vaccination, 13 calves were excluded from the evaluation on seroconversion and no statistical analyses could be performed regarding antibody production. BTV-4 antibodies were not produced in 4 placebo-calves, whereas 4 of 5 and 1 of 6 ECL- and ECH-calves produced antibodies. Further investigations are needed to draw final conclusions on mode of action and efficacy of EP in calves.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Echinacea/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Soroconversão
20.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 47, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tart cherry supplementation has been shown to enhance recovery from strenuous exercise due to its antioxidant properties. The majority of these studies used tart cherry juice, with a significant calorie content. The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether powdered tart cherry extract with minimal calorie content reduces oxidative stress and enhances recovery following intense resistance exercise. METHODS: Thirteen men (mean age: 26.2 ± 5.3 years; height: 184.3 ± 8.2 cm; weight: 92.9 ± 15.6 kg) performed a demanding resistance exercise protocol consisting of 6 sets of 10 repetitions of barbell back squat with 80% 1RM. The protocol was performed once following 7 days of 500 mg of tart cherry extract and once following placebo. Serum protein carbonyl (PC) content, creatine kinase activity (CK) and creatine kinase myocardial band content (CK-MB) were used to assess oxidative stress, skeletal and cardiac muscle damage respectively. Muscle soreness was assessed by visual analog scale. Physical performance was measured by countermovement jump power and handgrip dynamometer strength. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in PC in the placebo (PL) condition when compared to the Tart Cherry (TC) condition at Immediate Post (IP) (PL: 0.4 ± 0.3 vs. TC: - 0.4 ± 0.2 nmol∙mg- 1; p < 0.001), 1 h (PL: 0.3 ± 0.3 vs. TC: - 0.7 ± 0.3 nmol∙mg- 1; p < 0.001) and 24 h (PL: 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. TC: - 0.3 ± 0.5 nmol∙mg- 1; p = 0.010). There was a significant increase in CK activity in PL when compared to the TC at IP (PL: 491.1 ± 280 vs. TC: 296.3 ± 178 U∙L- 1; p = 0.008) and 3 h (PL: - 87 ± 123 vs. TC: 43.1 ± 105.3 U∙L- 1; p = 0.006). There was a significant (p = 0.003) increase in CKMB concentration in PL when compared to the TC (PL: 21.6 ± 12.4 vs. TC: - 0.3 ± 11.8 ng∙ml- 1; p = 0.006) at 1 h post. There was a significant increase in handgrip strength in TC when compared to PL (PL: - 2 ± 5.1 vs. TC: 1.7 ± 3 kg; p = 0.017) at 24 h post. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that tart cherry extract reduced oxidative stress and markers of muscle and cardiac damage following intense resistance exercise. This occurred along with a prevention of the decrease in handgrip strength seen following the intense exercise protocol, indicating a potential reduction in central fatigue. These benefits were seen with minimal energy intake.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Treinamento de Força/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Carbonilação Proteica , Prunus avium , Adulto Jovem
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