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1.
Food Chem ; 402: 134360, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303363

RESUMO

This work aims to determine the effect of genotype x environment (GxE) interaction that influence blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) fruit quality. We applied metabolomics-driven analysis on fruits from four cultivars grown in contrasting European-locations over two seasons. By integrating metabolomics and sensory analysis, we also defined specific metabolic signatures associated with consumer acceptance. Our results showed that rainfall is a crucial factor associated with accumulation of delphinidin- and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, the two mayor blackcurrant pigments meanwhile temperature affects the main organic acid levels which can be decisive for fruit taste. Sensorial analysis showed that increases in terpenoid and acetate ester volatiles were strongly associated with higher appreciation score, while proacacipetalin, a cyanogenic-glycoside, was positively associated to bitter taste. Our results pave the way for the selection of high-quality cultivars and suitable production sites for blackcurrant cultivation.


Assuntos
Ribes , Ribes/genética , Ribes/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Genótipo
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115765, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195303

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mesua Assamica (King & prain) Kosterm. (MA) is an evergreen endemic medicinal tree available in Assam in India and other parts of south Asia. The bark of the plant is traditionally used for ant-malarial activity and treating fevers. It was reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-malarial properties, but no research findings have been reported about its protective activity on intestinal inflammatory disorders like ulcerative colitis (UC) yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the anti-ulcerative property of ethanolic extract of MA (MAE) in-vitro on GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and in-vivo chronic restraint stress aggravated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical constituents of MAE were identified by LC-MS/MS. The in-vitro effects of MAE on GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells stimulated with TNF-α 30 ng/ml were investigated for its potential therapeutic effects. Parameters such as body weights, behavioural, colonoscopy, colon lengths and spleen weights were measured and recorded in chronic restraint stress aggravated DSS-induced UC model in C57BL/6 mice. Histological, cytokines and immunoblotting analysis in the colon tissues were determined to prove its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. RESULTS: MAE poses significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in-vitro in GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells evidenced by DCFDA and immunoflourescence assay. MAE treatment at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days has reduced Disease activity Index (DAI), splenomegaly and improved the shortened colon length and sucrose preference in mice. MAE treatment has increased the levels of anti-oxidants like GSH and reduced the levels of MDA, MPO and nitrite levels in colon tissues. Moreover, MAE has ameliorated neutrophil accumulation, mucosal and submucosal inflammation and crypt density evidenced by histopathology. Furthermore, MAE treatment significantly reduced the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α. we found from immunoblotting that there is a concomitant decrease in protein expression of NF-κB, STAT3 signalling cascades and phosphorylation of IKBα with an increase in Nrf2, SOD2, HO-1 and SIRT1 in colon tissues. In addition, we have performed molecular docking studies confirming that phytochemicals present in the MAE have a stronger binding ability and druggability to the NF-κB, Nrf2 and SIRT1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: MAE exhibited significant anti-colitis activity on chronic restraint stress aggravated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis via regulating NF-κB/STAT3 and HO-1/Nrf2/SIRT1 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , NF-kappa B , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Células HEK293 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134710, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323042

RESUMO

The bioconversion of onion extracts with P. acidilactici MNL5 enhances the metabolites and has a synergistic lipid-reduction impact that is beneficial for anti-obesity studies. The 48 h fermented onion extracts (FOE) demonstrated an enhanced inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase (89.5 ± 1.25 %) as compared to the raw onion extract (ROE) (33.4 ± 0.86 %). The antioxidant properties of FOE significantly increased compared to the ROE inhibitory effect on DPPH (99.5 ± 2.40 mg vitamin C equiv./mg, DW FOE), and ABTS (104.5 ± 2.32 mg vitamin C equiv./mg, DW FOE). Based on FOE's higher antioxidant activity, UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS demonstrated dramatic changes in the untargeted metabolite profile as compared to ROE. Moreover, C. elegans supplemented with FOE and quercetin exhibited an enhanced lifespan activity, lipid reduction, and decreased triglycerides. FOE can lower cholesterol and enhance quercetin to promote pancreatic lipase activity for synergistic anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Cebolas , Quercetina , Animais , Cebolas/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Lipídeos
4.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154510, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The liver plays an important role in regulating the metabolic processes and is the most frequently targeted organ by toxic chemicals. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a well-known anti-allergic, anti-pyretic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which upon overdose leads to hepatotoxicity, the major adverse event of this over-the-counter drug. PURPOSE: APAP overdose induced acute liver injury is the second most common cause that often requires liver transplantation worldwide, for which N-acetyl cysteine is the only synthetic drug clinically approved as an antidote. So, it was felt that there is a need for the novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of liver diseases with less adverse effects. This review provides detailed analysis of the different plant extracts; phytochemicals and herbal formulations for the amelioration of APAP-induced liver injury. METHOD: The data was collected using different online resources including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Springer, and Web of Science using keywords given below. RESULTS: Over the past decades various reports have revealed that plant-based approaches may be a better treatment choice for the APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in pre-clinical experimental conditions. Moreover, herbal compounds provide several advantages over the synthetic drugs with fewer side effects, easy availability and less cost for the treatment of life-threatening diseases. CONCLUSION: The current review summarizes the hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic mechanisms of various plant extracts, active phytoconstituents and herbal formulations with potential application against APAP induced hepatotoxicity as the numbers of hepatoprotective natural products are more without clinical relativity. Further, pre-clinical pharmacological research will contribute to the designing of natural products as medicines with encouraging prospects for clinical application.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Camundongos , Animais , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fígado , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
5.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154486, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microglia are innate immune cells in the central nervous system that play a crucial role in neuroprotection by releasing neurotrophic factors, removing pathogens through phagocytosis, and regulating brain homeostasis. The constituents extracted from the roots and stems of the Daphne genkwa plant have shown neuroprotective effects in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. However, the effect of Daphne genkwa plant extract on microglia has yet to be demonstrated. PURPOSE: To study the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of Daphne genkwa flower extract (GFE) in microglia and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In-vitro mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), inducible nitric oxide synthase, Arginase1, and brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in microglia cells. Nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α protein were respectively analyzed by Griess reagent and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Immunoreactivity of Iba-1, Neu-N, and BDNF in mouse brain were analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. Phagocytosis capacity of microglia was examined using fluorescent zymosan-red particles. RESULTS: GFE significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and promoted neuroprotection both in vitro and in vivo. First, GFE inhibited the LPS-induced inflammatory factors NO, iNOS, and TNF-α in microglial cell lines and primary glial cells, thus demonstrating anti-inflammatory effects. Arginase1 and BDNF mRNA levels were increased in primary glial cells treated with GFE. Phagocytosis was also increased in microglia treated with GFE, suggesting a neuroprotective effect of GFE. In vivo, neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of GFE were also found in the mouse brain, as oral administration of GFE significantly inhibited LPS-induced neuronal loss and inflammatory activation of microglia. CONCLUSION: GFE has anti-inflammatory effects and promotes microglial neuroprotective effects. GFE inhibited the pro-inflammatory mediators and enhanced neuroprotective microglia activity by increasing BDNF expression and phagocytosis. These novel findings of the GFE effect on microglia show an innovative approach that can potentially promote neuroprotection for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Daphne , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Camundongos , Microglia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134650, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283320

RESUMO

Hylocereus spp. known as dragon fruit is an exotic fruit that belongs to the Cactaceae family. LC-QTOF-MS and multivariate statistical tools were established to analyze differences in the composition of dragon fruit peel and pulp from Egypt, Germany, Philippines, and China. The α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of different extracts were carried out along with the anti-glycation end products (AGE) using BSA-fructose, BSA-methylglyoxal, and arginine-methylglyoxal assays. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity was investigated as a complementary mechanism to AGE formation. Principal component analysis revealed that dragon fruits from China and Egypt were the most distinct among all samples due to betalains content. Orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis identified 16 compounds highly correlated to the antiglycation activity such as betanin, γ-aminobutyric acid, neobetanin, and portulacaxanthin II. Pulp extracts were more active than peels as inhibitors of α-glucosidase. While peels were more active as AGE formation inhibitors and as antioxidants.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Hipoglicemiantes , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Quimiometria , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
7.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359833

RESUMO

The effect of red (RL, 660 nm) and blue (BL, 450 nm) light on phy mutant tomato plants was studied. The rates of photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration, the efficiency of the primary photochemical processes of photosynthesis, the contents of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, the low-molecular-weight antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)) of leaf extracts, and the expression of light-dependent genes were evaluated. Under RL, BL, and white fluorescent light (WFL), the Pn values decreased in the order: WT > phyb2 > phyaphyb2 > phyaphyb1phyb2, except for the Pn in phyb2 on BL. Phyb2 also had a larger number of stomata under BL and, as a result, it reached maximum transpiration. The noticeable accumulation of flavonoids and phenolic compounds was observed only in the phyb2 and phyaphyb2 mutants upon irradiation with BL, which agrees with the increased TEAC in the leaf extracts. We suggest that the increased antioxidant activity under PHYB2 deficiency and the maintenance of high photosynthesis under BL are based on an increase in the expression of the early signaling transcription factors genes BBX, HY5. The largest decrease in the content of flavonoids and TEAC was manifested with a deficiency in PHYB1, which is probably the key to maintaining the antioxidant status in BL plants.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Fitocromo , Fitocromo/genética , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(45): 14386-14394, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331925

RESUMO

Efficient characterization of xenobiotic metabolites and their dynamics in a changing complex matrix remains difficult. Herein, we proposed a time-series-dependent global data filtering strategy for the rapid and comprehensive characterization of xenobiotic metabolites and their dynamic variation based on metabolome data. A set of data preprocessing methods was used to screen potential xenobiotic metabolites, considering the differences between the treated and control groups and the fluctuations over time. To further identify metabolites of the target, an in-house accurate mass database was constructed by potential metabolic pathways and applied. Taking the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) co-incubated with gut microbiota as an example, 107 compounds were identified as flavonoid-derived metabolites (including 67 original from EGB and 40 new) from 7468 ions. Their temporal metabolic profiles and regularities were also investigated. This study provided a systematic and feasible method to elucidate and profile xenobiotic metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ginkgo biloba , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Xenobióticos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Biotransformação
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430568

RESUMO

Yersiniosis, caused by Yersinia enterocolitica, is the third most rampant zoonotic disease in Europe; the pathogen shows high antibiotic resistance. Herbs have multiple anti-microbial components that reduce microorganism resistance. Therefore, an extract of Picrorhiza kurroa (P. kurroa) was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity. We report that the ethanolic extract of P. kurroa showed effective antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition: 29.8 mm, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 2.45 mg/mL, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC): 2.4 mg/mL) against Yersinia enterocolitica. Potential bioactive compounds from P. kurroa were identified using LC-MS, namely, cerberidol, annonidine A, benzyl formate, picroside-1, and furcatoside A. P. kurroa showed effective antimicrobial potential in skim milk at different pH, acidity, and water activity levels. P. kurroa affected the physiology of Yersinia enterocolitica and reduced the number of live cells. Yersinia enterocolitica, when incubated with P. kurroa extract, showed lower toxin production. Picroside-1 was isolated and showed higher antimicrobial potential in comparison to the standard antibiotic. Picroside-1 lysed the Yersinia enterocolitica cells, as observed under scanning electron microscopy. Docking revealed that picroside-1 (ligand) showed both hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions with the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) protein of Yersinia enterocolitica and that DHFR is a possible drug target. The high activity and natural origin of Picroside-1 justify its potential as a possible drug candidate for Yersinia enterocolitica.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Picrorhiza , Yersinia enterocolitica , Picrorhiza/química , Picrorhiza/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431808

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to impaired glucose metabolism. Overproduction of free radicals due to chronic hyperglycemia may cause oxidative stress, which delays wound healing in diabetic conditions. For people with diabetes, this impeded wound healing is one of the predominant reasons for mortality and morbidity. The study aimed to develop an Ocimum sanctum leaf extract-mediated green synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and further incorporate them into 2% chitosan (CS) gel for diabetic wound healing. UV-visible spectrum analysis recorded the sharp peak at 235 and 320 nm, and this was the preliminary sign for the biosynthesis of TiO2 NPs. The FTIR analysis was used to perform a qualitative validation of the biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles. XRD analysis indicated the crystallinity of TiO2 NPs in anatase form. Microscopic investigation revealed that TiO2 NPs were spherical and polygonal in shape, with sizes ranging from 75 to 123 nm. The EDX analysis of green synthesized NPs showed the presence of TiO2 NPs, demonstrating the peak of titanium ion and oxygen. The hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index (PDI) of the TiO2 NPs were found to be 130.3 nm and 0.237, respectively. The developed TiO2 NPs containing CS gel exhibited the desired thixotropic properties with pseudoplastic behavior. In vivo wound healing studies and histopathological investigations of healed wounds demonstrated the excellent wound-healing efficacy of TiO2 NPs containing CS gel in diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Hiperglicemia , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis , Ratos , Animais , Titânio/farmacologia , Ocimum sanctum/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Cicatrização , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431942

RESUMO

HPLC-UV was used to compare the major constituents of two Pelargonium × hortorum cultivars and Pelargonium sidoides root extract. It revealed the presence of catechin and gallic acid in high concentrations and the absence of umckalin in P. × hortorum root extracts. The antibacterial activity of these extracts was screened against 19 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. P. × hortorum root extracts showed the lowest MIC values (512-1024 µg/mL). This activity was concluded to be attributable to the high concentrations of catechin and gallic acid. The anti-biofilm activity of catechin, gallic acid, and their combination was examined by a crystal violet assay. The combination reduced the percentage of strong and moderate biofilm-forming isolates from 52.63% to 5.26%. The impact on lasI and lasR genes expression using qRT-PCR and simultaneous docking against LasR protein was explored. The combination downregulated lasI and lasR gene expression in eight and six P. aeruginosa isolates, respectively, and showed the greatest docking score. Additionally, the in vivo protection capability of this combination in infected mice showed enhancement in the survival rate. Our study revealed the potential biofilm and quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity of the catechin and gallic acid combination as a novel alternative to inhibit bacterial pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Catequina , Pelargonium , Camundongos , Animais , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Catequina/farmacologia , Catequina/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364802

RESUMO

Pre-diabetic or early-stage type 2 diabetes patients may develop an adverse diabetic progression, leading to several complications and increasing hospitalization rates. Mulberry leaves, which contain 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), have been used as a complementary medicine for diabetes prevention and treatment. Our recent study demonstrated that mulberry leaf powder with 12 mg of DNJ improves postprandial hyperglycemia, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. However, the detailed mechanisms are still unknown. This study investigates the effect of long-term (12-week) supplementation of mulberry leaves in obese people with prediabetes and patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes. Participants' blood was collected before and after supplementation. The protein profile of the plasma was examined by proteomics. In addition, the mitochondrial function was evaluated by energetic and homeostatic markers using immunoelectron microscopy. The proteomics results showed that, from a total of 1291 proteins, 32 proteins were related to diabetes pathogenesis. Retinol-binding protein 4 and haptoglobin protein were downregulated, which are associated with insulin resistance and inflammation, respectively. For mitochondrial function, the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase domain-containing protein 3 (HDHD-3) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp-1) displayed a significant increment in the after treatment group. In summary, administration of mulberry leaf powder extract in prediabetes and the early stage of diabetes can alleviate insulin resistance and inflammation and promote mitochondrial function in terms of energy production and fission.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Morus , Estado Pré-Diabético , Humanos , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/farmacologia , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/uso terapêutico , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Pós , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo
13.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432495

RESUMO

Mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) is used as a traditional medicine and potential health food to treat various metabolic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. However, we sought the mechanisms by which functional components of mulberry leaves mediate diabetic steatohepatitis. We applied an in vitro model of HepG2 cells induced by glucolipotoxicity and evaluated the effects of MLE and its major components nCGA, Crp, and CGA. The results showed that MLE and nCGA reduced liver fat accumulation by inhibiting SREBP-1/FASN, SREBP-2/HMG-CoAR, and activating PPARα/CPT-1. Additionally, MLE and nCGA decreased inflammatory responses associated with NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-6 to alleviate steatohepatitis. Furthermore, we showed that MLE and nCGA exerted anti-glucolipotoxicity effects by downregulating miR-34a, thus activating SIRT1/AMPK signaling, and subsequently suppressing hepatic lipid accumulation.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , MicroRNAs , Morus , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Lipídeos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232220

RESUMO

Microglial activation has been found to play a crucial role in various neurological disorders. Proinflammatory substances overproduced by activated microglia, such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide (NO), can result in neuroinflammation that further exacerbates the course of the diseases. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of Pueraria mirifica on microglial activation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation was used as a model to investigate the effects of P. mirifica on HAPI (highly aggressive proliferating immortalized), a rat microglial cell line. Administration of ethyl acetate extract from the tuberous roots of P. mirifica to HAPI cells dose-dependently reduced NO production and iNOS expression induced by LPS. Attenuation of IRF-1 (interferon regulatory factor-1) induction, one of the transcription factors governing iNOS expression, suggested that the inhibitory effect on NO production by the plant extract was at least partially mediated through this transcription factor. In addition, LPS-stimulated mRNA expression of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), IL-6 (interleukin-6), and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) was also suppressed with P. mirifica extract pretreatment. This study indicates that the ethyl acetate extract of P. mirifica could potentially serve as an anti-inflammatory mediator and may be useful in relieving the severity of neurological diseases where microglia play a role.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Pueraria , Acetatos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL2 , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Microglia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pueraria/genética , Pueraria/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111767, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192874

RESUMO

Eight lactating cows were used to determine the effects of citrus peel extract (CPE) on milk performance, antioxidant properties, and milk lipids composition. CPE supplementation up to 150 g/d (CPE150) increased milk yield and the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of conjugated linoleic acid. CPE with abundant polyphenol and flavonoids can transfer these bioactive substances to mammary gland and improve the antioxidant properties of milk obtained from cows. Lipidomics revealed that 56 lipid species were altered between CON vs CPE150, and there were five key differential metabolic pathways. In particular, milk phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were significantly increased with dietary CPE supplementation. In summary, our results provide insights into the modifications in the milk components and milk quality of dairy cows received CPE. The inclusion of CPE in the diet of dairy cows may be an effective and natural way to increase the antioxidant amounts and beneficial lipids in milk.


Assuntos
Citrus , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Leite/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20210190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228216

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe disease with no cure caused by a genetic abnormality, promoting progressive muscle degeneration. Corticosteroids are used drugs in treatment associated with adverse effects. The extract of Miconia ferruginata (Melastomataceae) (MF) has demonstrated potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. This study used a DMD model (mdx) to determine the toxic dose of this plant and found a possible non-toxic dose with therapeutic effects. The mdx groups received an intraperitoneal injection of 0 (control group), 50, 100, 200, 300, and 2000 mg kg-1 of the aqueous leaf extract following a single-dose acute toxicity protocol and were observed for 14 days. The range of toxicity of the extract and LD50 were determined. Histopathological analysis, the quantification of fibrosis, and immunohistochemical analysis of the tissues were performed. The results demonstrated that 2000 mg kg-1 was highly toxic, inducing histopathological changes in the tissues evaluated, with 100% mortality in 48 hours. The other doses caused no behavioral changes or signs of toxicity. The MF extract led reduction in histopathological changes, fibrosis, and inflammation, a reduction in HSP70 and an increase in MCL-1 proteins. Doses of 50-200 mg kg-1 demonstrated regenerative tissue and anti-inflammatory potential.


Assuntos
Melastomataceae , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 340, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214928

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to see how replacing soybean meal with chickpea grains (CHPE) affected the performance, milk production, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and blood metabolites of Awassi ewes. Thirty Awassi ewes with an initial body weight of 53.2 ± 2.31 kg and aged between 4 and 5 years were selected and randomly assigned to different feeding treatments (10 ewes per diet). Dietary dry matter (DM) was (1) 0 g/kg CHPE (CON); (2) 150 g/kg CHPE (CHPE150); and (3) 300 g/kg CHPE (CHPE300). The costs of these diets were determined using current ingredient prices. The experiment lasted 9 weeks. During the trial, ewes and their lambs were kept in individual pens. Daily nutrient intake was monitored. Every 2 weeks, the body weight (BW), milk output, and composition of the ewes were measured. In comparison to the CON diet, adding the CHPE to the experimental diets lowered feed costs (US$) per ton by 11% for CHPE150 and 21% for CHPE300. The CHPE300 group had a lower (P < 0.05) consumption of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than the CHPE150 group, while the CON group had the highest (P < 0.05) intake of NDF. The intake of ether extract (EE) (g/d) was higher (P < 0.05) in the ewes fed the CHPE300 compared to the ewes fed CHPE150, and it was lowest in ewes fed the CON diet. When the ewes were fed the CHPE300 and the CHPE150 diets, the total solids (g/kg) in each kg of milk produced per day was higher (P < 0.05) than when they were fed the CON diet. The cost per kg of milk produced by the ewes was lowered (P < 0.05) when the CHPE was added to their diets. When the ewes on the CHPE300 and the CHPE150 diets were compared to the ewes on the CON diet, crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher (P < 0.05). The EE digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) for the CHPE300 group, while the CHPE150 group had an intermediate outcome. The CHPE300 group had lower amounts of N in their feces and urine (P < 0.05) than the other groups. The retention of N (g/100 g) in the ewes fed the CHPE300, and the CHPE150 diets was higher (P < 0.05) than in the ewes fed the CON diet. As a result, the current research demonstrates that part of soybean meal and barley grain could be replaced with chickpeas in the diets of lactating Awassi ewes.


Assuntos
Cicer , Lactação , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cicer/metabolismo , Detergentes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Éteres/metabolismo , Feminino , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232482

RESUMO

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is one of the most economically important medicinal plants, cultivated worldwide for its high medicinal value and with several industrial applications in both pharmaceutical and food industries. Thanks to its various phytochemical contents, including caffeic acid derivatives (CADs), E. purpurea extracts have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-stimulating properties. Among CADs, chicoric acid is one of the most important compounds which have shown important pharmacological properties. The present research was aimed at optimizing the production of chicoric acid in E. purpurea cell culture. Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) at different concentrations and for different duration of treatments was utilized as elicitor, and the content of total polyphenols and chicoric acid was measured. Several genes involved in the chicoric acid biosynthetic pathway were selected, and their expression evaluated at different time points of cell culture growth. This was performed with the aim of identifying the most suitable putative molecular markers to be used as a proxy for the early prediction of chicoric acid contents, without the need of expensive quantification methods. A correlation between the production of chicoric acid in response to MeJa and an increased response to oxidative stress was also proposed.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Echinacea , Acetatos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Cafeicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ciclopentanos , Echinacea/química , Echinacea/metabolismo , Oxilipinas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Succinatos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233307

RESUMO

Salix pseudolasiogyne (Salicaceae) is a willow tree and has been used as a medicinal herb in Korea to treat pain and fever. As a part of an ongoing study to identify bioactive natural products, potential anti-adipogenic compounds were investigated using the ethanol (EtOH) extract of S. pseudolasiogyne twigs. Phytochemical investigation of the EtOH extracts using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) led to the separation of two compounds, oregonin (1) and 2'-O-acetylsalicortin (2). The structures of the isolates were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and LC/MS analysis. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report identifying oregonin (1) in twigs of S. pseudolasiogyne. Here, we found that the isolated compounds, oregonin (1) and 2'-O-acetylsalicortin (2), showed anti-adipogenic effects during 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. Notably, 2'-O-acetylsalicortin (2), at a concentration of 50 µM, significantly suppressed lipid accumulation. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of lipogenic and adipogenic transcription factors were reduced in 2'-O-acetylsalicortin (2)-treated 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that 2'-O-acetylsalicortin (2), isolated from S. pseudolasiogyne twigs, has the potential to be applied as a therapeutic agent to effectively control adipocyte differentiation, a critical stage in the progression of obesity.


Assuntos
Salix , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Diarileptanoides , Etanol/farmacologia , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Salix/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234980

RESUMO

Autocrine and paracrine factors play key roles in the process of Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), which are secreted by balding dermal papilla cells (DPCs) after dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induction. Camellia seed cake is an oriental oil extraction byproduct, and its extract has been traditionally used to wash hair in China. This study elucidated the hair growth-promoting effects of Camellia seed cake extract (CSCE) in DHT-treated cultured DPCs and its underlying mechanisms. The effect of CSCE on cell viability and release of inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-1α was performed on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) incubated with DHT. Relative expression of bax, bcl-2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and 5α- reductase type II (SRD5A2) was determined by PCR. Senescence-associated was examined by ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) assays. CSCE restored DHT-induced cell damage in a dose-dependent manner, and effectively reduced the production of IL-6 and IL-1α in DHT-treated DPCs. CSCE exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect, which increased the expression of bcl-2, and decreased the expressions of bax and p53 in DHT-incubated DPCs. CSCE also showed an anti-androgenic effect reversing the increase in AR and SRD5A2 expressions in DPCs driven by DHT incubation. In addition, CSCE inhibited the ß-galactosidase enzyme activity and slowed down the cell senescence of DPCs which is crucial for AGA progression. In this study, we found that CSCE may have the potential to prevent and alleviate AGA by abrogating the effect of DHT in cultured DPCs.


Assuntos
Camellia , Di-Hidrotestosterona , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Alopecia/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Cabelo , Folículo Piloso , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
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