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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234964, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614844

RESUMO

In this study, a facile, ecological and economical green method is described for the fabrication of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) from the extract of Syzygium cumini leaves. The obtained metal NPs were categorized using UV/Vis, SEM, TEM, FTIR and EDX-ray spectroscopy techniques. The Fe-, Cu- and Ag-NPs were crystalline, spherical and size ranged from 40-52, 28-35 and 11-19 nm, respectively. The Ag-NPs showed excellent antimicrobial activities against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains and Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungal species. Furthermore, the aflatoxins (AFs) production was also significantly inhibited when compared with the Fe- and Cu-NPs. In contrast, the adsorption results of NPs with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were observed as following order Fe->Cu->Ag-NPs. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium data by the sorption capacity of Fe-NPs (105.3 ng mg-1), Cu-NPs (88.5 ng mg-1) and Ag-NPs (81.7 ng mg-1). The adsorption was found feasible, endothermic and follow the pseudo-second order kinetic model as revealed by the thermodynamic and kinetic studies. The present findings suggests that the green synthesis of metal NPs is a simple, sustainable, non-toxic, economical and energy-effective as compared to the others conventional approaches. In addition, synthesized metal NPs might be a promising AFs adsorbent for the detoxification of AFB1 in human and animal food/feed.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Cobre , Química Verde/métodos , Ferro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prata , Desintoxicação por Sorção , Syzygium/metabolismo , Adsorção , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cobre/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/farmacologia , Cinética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxirredução , Prata/administração & dosagem , Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Termodinâmica , Vancomicina/farmacologia
2.
Food Chem ; 330: 127324, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569938

RESUMO

Enzymes currently used in cheesemaking have various drawbacks, and there is a continual need to find new coagulants. This study describes the extraction and biochemical characterization of two proteases from the red alga Gracilaria edulis. The proteases were extracted with phosphate buffer and partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The enzymes exhibited optimum caseinolytic activity at 60 °C and a pH range of 6-8. They showed a high ratio of milk-clotting over caseinolytic activity, indicating they had an excellent milk-clotting ability. The proteases were confirmed to be serine protease and metalloprotease with molecular weight (MW) of 44 and 108 kDa. They exhibited high hydrolytic activity on κ-caseins, cleaving κ-casein at four main sites, one of which being the same as that of calf rennet, which is the first reported for an algal protease. The findings demonstrated that the proteases could potentially be used as a milk coagulant in cheesemaking.


Assuntos
Caseínas/metabolismo , Gracilaria/enzimologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/enzimologia , Sulfato de Amônio , Animais , Caseínas/química , Fracionamento Químico , Quimosina/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Gracilaria/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/química , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
3.
Food Chem ; 330: 127030, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535311

RESUMO

This study was aimed at determining the influence of Folium nelumbinis (Lotus leaf) extracts on melanogenesis in vitro models of melanoma cell line. The anticancer activity of four fractions, including petroleum ether (PEE), n-hexane (HE), ethanol (EE), and ethyl acetate (EAE) from F. nelumbinis on B16 cell lines (C57BL/6J melanoma cell), were evaluated after 24 and 48 h treatment. Results showed that PEE as well as volatile-rich fractions of linolenic acid and linolenic acid ethyl ester significantly (p < 0.05) reduced tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16 melanoma cells model. Meanwhile, PEE and its primarily contained compound triggered apoptosis of B16 cells in a dose-dependent way. These results demonstrated that PEE possessed effective activities against melanin and tyrosinase generations through the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, a relation between the volatile-rich fractions of F. nelumbinis and the anticancer effects was demonstrated as well.


Assuntos
Lotus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Lotus/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
4.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(5): 478-490, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyphenol-rich olive extracts are non-toxic and have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antiadipogenic effects in cell and animal models. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential influence of olive extracts on the mechanisms of digestion and absorption of polysaccharides and fats by quantifying amylase, glucose, phospholipase, and cholesterol in the medaka fish model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For each assay, six adult fish were placed in a tank with an extract (0.01% concentration), performing three replicates per extract. A control group with standard feeding was used. The same procedure was followed to study glucose, adding a polysaccharide-rich diet and a corresponding overfed control. The fish were maintained under these conditions for five days. Five olive extracts were used without attempting to purify the polyphenols due to possible synergistic effects. Total concentrations were between 2-116mg/g (mainly oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol). On completion, amylase, phospholipase A2, glucose and cholesterol were quantified in each group. All assays were conducted in triplicate. Enzyme activities were also studied in juveniles. Non-parametric tests were used to determine possible differences, considering p < 0.05 to denote statistical significance. RESULTS: Polyphenol extracts were not toxic at a concentration of 0.1%, ten times higher than the concentration used. An overall decrease in glucose levels was observed in fish overfed with carbohydrates with the addition of the extracts, but without returning to the levels in the control group with standard feeding (between 15-40% decrease). There was no impact on amylase in adults or juveniles, an overall but not significant decrease in cholesterol, and an overall increase in phospholipase in the juveniles. CONCLUSION: Olive extracts rich in polyphenols lower glucose levels in overfed fish


ANTECEDENTES: Los extractos de aceitunas ricos en polifenoles no son tóxicos y tienen efectos antiinflamatorios, neuroprotectores y antiadipogénicos en modelos celulares y animales. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la influencia potencial de los extractos de aceituna en los mecanismos de digestión y absorción de polisacáridos y grasas mediante la cuantificación de amilasa, glucosa, fosfolipasa y colesterol en el modelo de pez medaka. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para cada ensayo, se colocaron seis peces adultos en un tanque con un extracto (al 0,01%), realizando tres repeticiones por extracto. Se usó un grupo control con alimentación estándar. Se siguió el mismo procedimiento para estudiar la glucosa, agregando una dieta rica en polisacáridos y un control de sobrealimentados. Los peces se mantuvieron en estas condiciones durante cinco días. Se usaron cinco extractos del olivo sin intentar purificar los polifenoles debido a posibles efectos sinérgicos. Las concentraciones totales fueron entre 2-116 mg/g (principalmente oleuropeína e hidroxitirosol). Al finalizar, se cuantificaron amilasa, fosfolipasa A2, glucosa y colesterol en cada grupo. Todos los ensayos se realizaron por triplicado. Las actividades enzimáticas también se estudiaron en alevines. Se utilizaron pruebas no paramétricas para determinar posibles diferencias, considerando p <0.05 para significación estadística. RESULTADOS: Los extractos de polifenoles no fueron tóxicos a una concentración de 0.1%, diez veces mayor que la concentración utilizada. Se observó una disminución general en los niveles de glucosa en peces sobrealimentados con carbohidratos con la adición de extractos, pero sin volver a los niveles del grupo control con alimentación estándar (disminución entre 15-40%). No hubo impacto sobre la amilasa en adultos o juveniles, se observó una disminución general pero no significativa del colesterol y un aumento general de la fosfolipasa en los juveniles. CONCLUSIÓN: Los extractos de aceitunas ricos en polifenoles reducen los niveles de glucosa en peces sobrealimentados


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Olea/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Fatores de Proteção , Modelos Animais
5.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1875-1887, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241467

RESUMO

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous Withania somnifera root (WSR) extract in broiler chicks experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 @ 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Clinical signs and mortality due to colibacillosis observed in infected chicks were mild and lasted for short duration in WSR extract supplemented group as compared with the nonsupplemented group. A significant increase in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase activities and a decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations were observed in the infected groups, though these changes were of lower magnitude in WSR extract supplemented group. A significantly higher activity of oxidative blood parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzymes were noticed in WSR extract supplemented group. The WSR extract supplemented group revealed significantly higher E. coli-specific antibody titer and enhanced lymphocyte proliferation response as compared with the nonsupplemented group. The gross and histopathological lesions of colibacillosis were mild in the WSR extract-supplemented infected group as compared with the nonsupplemented infected group. Withania somnifera root extract supplementation produced 31.48 and 34.38% protection in the gross and histopathological lesions in E. coli infected chicks, respectively. It is concluded that supplementation of 20% WSR extract @ 20 ml/L of water caused a reduction in the severity, mortality, and recovery period of E. coli infection and enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses suggesting its protective effect on limiting the pathology of E. coli infection in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Withania/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
6.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(1): 71-75, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238321

RESUMO

Lignosulfonate is a by-product of the cooking process by sulfite pulping for paper manufacturing. The treatment of wood chips by various salts of sulfurous acid solubilizes lignin to produce a cellulose-rich wood pulp. Developing a technique for the conversion of lignosulfonate by-product to high value materials has an important industrial utility. Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6, which was isolated from pulping wastewater, is one of the best enzymatically or genetically characterized bacteria for degrading lignin-derived aromatics. We have previously established a system for the production of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC), a novel platform chemical that can produce a variety of bio-based polymers, by introducing of ligA, ligB, and ligC genes from SYK-6 into a mutant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpY1100. In this study, extracts from lignosulfonates, which were desulphonated and depolymerized by alkaline oxidation, were evaluated as substrates for microbiological conversion to PDC by the transgenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Lignina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Pseudomonas putida/metabolismo , Pironas/metabolismo , Sphingomonadaceae/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas putida/genética , Sphingomonadaceae/genética , Resíduos/análise
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1286-1296, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The low intake of dietary fiber compared to recommended amounts has been referred to as the dietary fiber gap. The addition of fiber to snack foods could favorably alter gut microbiota and help individuals meet intake recommendations. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the effect of low- and moderate-dose fiber-containing snack bars, comprising mainly chicory root inulin-type fructans (ITF), on gut microbiota in healthy adults with habitual low dietary fiber intake using 16S ribosomal RNA-based approaches. METHODS: In 2 separate 4-wk, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trials, 50 healthy adults with low dietary fiber intake were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of either moderate-dose fiber (7 g/d) or control in Trial 1 (n = 25) or low-dose fiber (3 g/d) or control in Trial 2 (n = 25), with 4-wk washout periods. Fecal microbiota composition and inferred function, fecal SCFA concentration, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, dietary intake, and quality of life were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the moderate-dose group showed significant differences across multiple microbial taxa, most notably an increased relative abundance of the Bifidobacterium genus from (mean ± SEM) 5.3% ± 5.9% to 18.7% ± 15.0%. With low-dose ITF, significant increases in Bifidobacterium were no longer present after correction for multiple comparisons but targeted analysis with qPCR showed a significant increase in Bifidobacterium. Predictive functional profiling identified changes in predicted function after intake of the moderate- but not the low-dose bar. Fecal SCFAs were affected by time but not treatment. There were no between-group differences in GI symptoms. Importantly, fiber intake increased significantly with the moderate- and low-dose bars. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy adults, adding 3 or 7 g ITF to snack bars increased Bifidobacterium, a beneficial member of the gut microbial community. The addition of ITF to food products could help reduce the dietary fiber gap prevalent in modern life.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03042494.


Assuntos
Chicória/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inulina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Chicória/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inulina/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
8.
Food Chem ; 320: 126651, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220709

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Folium, the leaf of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou (LZJS), is currently used as a healthy tea in China. This study evaluated the chemical components and antioxidant activities of LZJS flavonoid (LZJSF) and fermented LZJSF (FLZJSF) using human intestinal bacteria (HIB) through dynamic fermentation. Eighteen flavonoids were simultaneously identified in LZJSF using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS method, nine of which were targeted for a HIB metabolism study. Seven small phenolic acids were identified in FLZJSF. Not only at chemical level but also at PC12 cell level, FLZJSF samples fermented for 4 and 6 h showed significant positive correlation between their activities and flavonoid aglycones, which were transformed from LZJSF. However, FLZJSF samples (8 h and longer time) mainly contained phenolic acids and indicated weak activities. Thus, LZJSF was found to result in increased antioxidant activity and could be commercially utilized as a novel functional food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Ziziphus/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ratos , Ziziphus/química
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 998-1006, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154918

RESUMO

Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring bioactive phenolic compound largely found in pomegranate, exhibits significant health benefits due to its antioxidant, antimutagenic, and even anticancerogenic properties. The present work aimed to microencapsulate EA extracted from pomegranate peels. To improve the stability of EA, microencapsulation was applied with Spirulina as a coating material. For this purpose, ethanolic extracts obtained from pomegranate peels were used for microencapsulation. Response surface methodology combined with a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to obtain optimum microencapsulation. The microparticles obtained under the optimized encapsulation conditions were further characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The results confirmed the encapsulation of EA in Spirulina cells. Then, the optimum microparticles were used in an in vitro release study. The results of the in vitro digestion with simulated gastrointestinal fluids could help to determine the content and biological activity of EA. In this study, the effect of encapsulation on the release properties of EA during simulated gastrointestinal digestion was also evaluated. HPLC-DAD analysis and the Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS methods were helpful for characterization of EA in the simulated fluids. The release profile of EA indicated that in simulated intestinal fluid, the release was faster than that in gastric fluid. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study describes the microencapsulation of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate peel (PP) in Spirulina. This application has been performed to improve the stability and bioavailability of EA in the extracts. Optimum microencapsulation was obtained by response surface methodology with BBD. After the characterization of the obtained optimum Spirulina/EA mixture by FT-IR and SEM, an in vitro release study was conducted for stability research. The results will guide other researchers working on the determination of the content and biological activity of EA and on optimizing the microencapsulation process.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico/química , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo , Microalgas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Romã (Fruta)/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Digestão , Composição de Medicamentos , Frutas/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Resíduos/análise
10.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1491-1501, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111317

RESUMO

This study investigated the influence of an organic mineral-supplemented broiler diet on the quality of nuggets. The resulting chicken nuggets were enriched with inorganic and organic forms of Zn and Se. The nuggets were processed by incorporating extracts from food industry by-products (rosemary [RH and RL], hydroxytyrosol [HYT], pomegranate [P], grape [GS], and Harpagophytum [H]). The physiochemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of the chicken nuggets were evaluated over a 12-month period of frozen storage. The addition of natural extracts did not affect the pH, proximate composition, or color (CIELab) of the nuggets among samples. However, significative differences were found between month of analysis (range from pH 6.16 to 6.63; luminosity from 62.51 to 84.74; redness from 0.16 to 7.14; and yellowness from 10.80 to 33.77). In addition, the combination of phenolic compounds with Zn and Se retarded microbial growth and reduced protein and lipid oxidation, thus maintaining the sensory quality and extending the shelf life of this product. For instance, the combination of RL + GS reduced in 75% the microbiological growth regarding the control sample (C), while samples that incorporated RH + P or HYT + P + H presented 50% less than C. In addition, upon only incorporating organic minerals Zn and Se, microbiological deterioration is reduced in 15%. This mix was significantly effective at reducing the oxidative reactions of lipids and proteins by 40% and 50%, as measured after 9 and 12 mo of frozen storage, respectively. The addition of the natural extracts and Zn and Se did not adversely affect the acceptability of the meat product.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Carne/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Alimentos Congelados/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/metabolismo
11.
Animal ; 14(S1): s78-s86, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024572

RESUMO

The rumen contains a great diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that allow the ruminant to utilize ligno-cellulose material and to convert non-protein nitrogen into microbial protein to obtain energy and amino acids. However, rumen fermentation also has potential deleterious consequences associated with the emissions of greenhouse gases, excessive nitrogen excreted in manure and may also adversely influence the nutritional value of ruminant products. While several strategies for optimizing the energy and nitrogen use by ruminants have been suggested, a better understanding of the key microorganisms involved and their activities is essential to manipulate rumen processes successfully. Diet is the most obvious factor influencing the rumen microbiome and fermentation. Among dietary interventions, the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in animal production systems has led to an increasing interest in the use of plant extracts to manipulate the rumen. Plant extracts (e.g. saponins, polyphenol compounds, essential oils) have shown potential to decrease methane emissions and improve the efficiency of nitrogen utilization; however, there are limitations such as inconsistency, transient and adverse effects for their use as feed additives for ruminants. It has been proved that the host animal may also influence the rumen microbial population both as a heritable trait and through the effect of early-life nutrition on microbial population structure and function in adult ruminants. Recent developments have allowed phylogenetic information to be upscaled to metabolic information; however, research effort on cultivation of microorganisms for an in-depth study and characterization is needed. The introduction and integration of metagenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques is offering the greatest potential of reaching a truly systems-level understanding of the rumen; studies have been focused on the prokaryotic population and a broader approach needs to be considered.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metaboloma , Metagenoma , Metano/metabolismo , Proteoma , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Metabolômica , Metagenômica , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteômica , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes/metabolismo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050157

RESUMO

Dendrobium nobile is an important medicinal food beneficial for human health, well known for polysaccharides and dendrobine. For fast, accurate, and comprehensive comparison of its quality, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting method was constructed. Firstly, spring frost stressed D. nobile herb was observed for assessment. Decreased leaf thickness, chlorophyll, and drying rate, and increased free-proline indicated heavy damages on growth. But, the content of polysaccharides increased significantly in during-frost (DF), and dropped significantly in after-frost (AF). The content of dendrobine accumulated significantly in AF. Then, low similarity among HPLC fingerprints of before-frost (BF), DF, and AF, and 75.82% of significantly variant peaks indicated the changing of much more components. Especially, some less-polar components increased significantly in DF, but not in AF. Moreover, the highest suppression rates (SRs) to A549 lung cancer cells were up to 33.08% in DF, but only 15.63% and 12.12% in BF and AF. After association analysis, eleven less-polar components were found to be significantly and positively correlated to SRs under relatively high concentration. The result shows that frost stress not only causes damages to plant growth, but also promotes the accumulation of some health-beneficial bioactive metabolites. HPLC based fingerprinting method shows good applicability on quality evaluation and bioactivity correlation analysis of complexed agricultural products.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Dendrobium/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Células A549 , Alcaloides/análise , Antineoplásicos/análise , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Metabolismo Secundário
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058315

RESUMO

Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) is a drug that is increasingly used recreationally and "therapeutically", in the absence of medical supervision. The drug has been associated with a growing number of fatalities, and although its medicinal properties as an atypical opioid require further study, there are legitimate concerns regarding its unregulated use. Mitragynine is the most widely reported alkaloid within the plant, although more than forty other alkaloids have been identified. 7-Hydroxymitragynine is reported to have greater abuse liability due to its increased potency relative to mitragynine. In this report, biomarkers for mitragynine were investigated using liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS). Speciociliatine and speciogynine were identified as alternative biomarkers, often exceeding the concentration of mitragynine in unhydrolyzed urine. 9-O-Demethylmitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine were identified in unhydrolyzed urine in 75% and 63% of the cases. Deconjugation of phase II metabolites using chemical hydrolysis was not suitable due to degradation of the Mitragyna alkaloids. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated using three traditional glucuronidases, four sulfatases and four recombinant enzymes. Although enzymatic hydrolysis increased the concentration of 16-carboxymitragynine, it had nominal benefit for other metabolites. Deconjugation of urine was not necessary due to the abundance of parent drug (mitragynine), its diastereoisomers (speciociliatine and speciogynine) or metabolites (9-O-demethylmitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Mitragyna/metabolismo , Oxindois/urina , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucuronídeos/análise , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Metaboloma , Mitragyna/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/análise , Sulfatases/análise , Sulfatases/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 801-811, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029162

RESUMO

Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) is a well-recognized and widely distributed traditional plant that is used successfully in Indian Ayurveda medicine. T. cordifolia has shown many promising biological activities, such as antioxidative, antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, osteoprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiarrheal, and antistress effects. Guduchi is a rich source of protein and micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, copper, calcium, phosphorus, and manganese. It also contains many secondary plant metabolites, such as terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and glycosides. Based on previous studies in poultry, the supplementation levels of Guduchi range from 1 to 5 g/kg of diet (different sources, such as powder, extracts, roots, and leaves, have been used). It was suggested that this variation in supplementation levels depends on different factors, including the extraction method, the supplementation proposed, the method of supplementation (either in feed or drinking water), and the species and physiological status of the birds. Generally, dietary supplementation of poultry broilers with T. cordifolia yielded positive impacts on growth performance, body gains (increased by 4.8%), dressing percentage (increased by 7.1%), meat quality traits, and the shelf life of the meat. In addition, T. cordifolia exerted a palliative effect on the general health status of the birds through reducing live enzymes and plasma uric acids and enhancing the immune response, as indicated by the leukocyte count, hemagglutinin titer, interleukin activity, and mortality levels. Further investigations concluded that T. cordifolia showed strong antimicrobial effects against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis, with subsequent reductions in mortality. Moreover, T. cordifolia showed an ability to improve humoral and cell-mediated immunity against Newcastle disease, infectious anemia, gout, and aflatoxicosis. The current review discusses many beneficial properties of T. cordifolia, although the lack of pharmacological trials limits the use of this extract in poultry. Further research should be performed regarding the composition of the active compound, the possible mechanisms of action, and the effective doses to fully understand the activities and benefits of T. cordifolia as a growth performance improvement supplement.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Tinospora/química , Perus/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Medicina Ayurvédica , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2347-2356, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026690

RESUMO

Avenanthramides (AVNs) are a unique kind of polyphenols that were only detected in the oats and have been demonstrated to exhibit strong antioxidant activities but low bioavailability. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the absorption rates and mechanisms of AVNs (AVN 2c, AVN 2f, and AVN 2p) using a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) cell model and clarify the influence of the absorption process on the antioxidant capacities of AVNs. Furthermore, the absorption rates and antioxidant activities of ferulic acid and caffeic acid were compared with those of AVNs. Results showed that the apparent absorption rates (Papp) of AVN 2c, AVN 2f, and AVN 2p were 0.65 ± 0.05 × 10-6, 1.18 ± 0.16 × 10-6, and 1.44 ± 0.09 × 10-6 cm/s, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of caffeic acid (3.76 ± 0.31 × 10-6 cm/s) and ferulic acid (1.69 ± 0.13 × 10-5 cm/s). Moreover, the metabolites (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and AVN 2f) of AVNs after absorption were detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Before absorption, although the antioxidant capacities of AVNs were significantly stronger than those of ferulic acid and caffeic acid, there was an opposite result after absorption. In addition, AVNs transported the Caco-2 monolayer by paracellular diffusion and were affected by monoamine oxidase and efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2) during absorption. The co-administration of quercetin could significantly improve the absorption rates of AVNs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Avena/química , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , ortoaminobenzoatos/química
16.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8569237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104541

RESUMO

The flavonoids were extracted from alfalfa using ethanol assisted with ultrasonic extraction and purified by D101 macroporous resin column chromatography. The chemical composition and content of ethanol elution fractions (EEFs) were assessed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and hybrid quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and aluminum nitrate-sodium nitrite-sodium hydroxide colorimetric method. The in vitro antioxidant activity of two EEFs was conducted by scavenging DPPH free radical, and the main antioxidants of 75% EEFs were screened using DPPH-UHPLC. Moreover, the in vivo antioxidant activity of 75% EEFs and the growth performance of broilers were studied. The results showed that the content of 30% and 75% EEFs was 26.20% and 62.57%. Fifteen compounds were identified from 75% EEFs, and five of them were reported in alfalfa for the first time. The scavenging activity of 75% and 30% EEFs (200 µg/mL) against DPPH was 95.51% and 78.85%. The peak area of 5,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone and hyperoside was decreased by 82.69% and 76.04%, which exhibited strong scavenging capacities. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) level of three treated groups against the normal control group (NC) fed with basal diet significantly increased by 3.89-24.49%, 0.53-7.39%, and 0.79-11.79%, respectively. While the malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased by 0.47-18.27%. Compared with the NC, the feed to gain ratio (F : G) of three treated groups was lowered by 2.98-16.53% and survival rate of broilers significantly increased. Consequently, 75% EEFs extracted from alfalfa exhibited powerful antioxidant activities and might be a potential feed additive to poultry and livestock.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Xenobiotica ; 50(8): 906-912, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005083

RESUMO

Wogonin, one of the flavonoids isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, exhibits some beneficial bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects, and is metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in humans. In the present study, wogonin glucuronidation was examined in the liver and intestinal microsomes of humans, monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice using a kinetic analysis.The kinetics of wogonin glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the biphasic model in all species examined. CLint values (x-intercept) based on v versus V/[S] plots were rats > humans ≈ monkeys > mice > dogs. The kinetics of intestinal microsomes fit the Michaelis-Menten model for humans, monkeys, rats, and mice and the substrate inhibition model for dogs. CLint values were rats > monkeys > mice > dogs > humans. The tissue dependence of CLint values was liver microsomes > intestinal microsomes for humans, dogs, and rats, and liver microsomes ≈ intestinal microsomes for monkeys and mice.These results demonstrated that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes toward wogonin in the liver and intestines markedly differ among humans, monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice, and suggest that species differences are closely associated with the biological effects of wogonin.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Cães , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestinos , Cinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ratos
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 39, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants have been used as an important source of indispensable bioactive compounds in various cosmetics, foods, and medicines. However, the subsequent functional annotation of these compounds seems arduous because of the largely uncharacterized, vast metabolic repertoire of plant species with known biological phenotypes. Hence, a rapid multi-parallel screening and characterization approach is needed for plant functional metabolites. RESULTS: Fifty-one species representing three plant families, namely Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Rosaceae, were subjected to metabolite profiling using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole orbitrap ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-orbitrap-MS/MS) as well as multivariate analyses. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the metabolite profiling datasets indicated a distinct clustered pattern for 51 species depending on plant parts (leaves and stems) and relative phylogeny. Examination of their relative metabolite contents showed that the extracts from Fabaceae plants were abundant in amino acids, fatty acids, and genistein compounds. However, the extracts from Rosaceae had higher levels of catechin and ellagic acid derivatives, whereas those from Asteraceae were higher in kaempferol derivatives and organic acids. Regardless of the different families, aromatic amino acids, branch chain amino acids, chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoids related to the shikimate pathway were abundant in leaves. Alternatively, certain amino acids (proline, lysine, and arginine) as well as fatty acids levels were higher in stem extracts. Further, we investigated the associated phenotypes, i.e., antioxidant activities, affected by the observed spatial (leaves and stem) and intra-family metabolomic disparity in the plant extracts. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that ellagic acid, mannitol, catechin, epicatechin, and quercetin derivatives were positively correlated with antioxidant phenotypes, whereas eriodictyol was positively correlated with tyrosinase inhibition activity. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests that metabolite profiling, including multi-parallel approaches and integrated bioassays, may help the expeditious characterization of plant-derived metabolites while simultaneously unraveling their chemodiversity.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Rosaceae/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906356

RESUMO

The crude drug ysypó hû (Adenocalymma marginatum DC., Bignoniaceae) is used traditionally by the Guarani of Eastern Paraguayan as a male sexual enhancer. The aim of the present study was to identify the main constituents of the crude drug and to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory activity towards the enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5). The main compounds were isolated by counter-current chromatography (CCC). The metabolites were identified by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. The chemical profiling of the extracts was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The crude extract and main isolated compounds were tested for their PDE-5 inhibitory activity using commercial kits. The iridoid theviridoside and 4-hydroxy-1-methylproline were isolated as the main constituent of the crude drug. Four chlortheviridoside hexoside derivatives were detected for the first time as natural products. Chemical profiling by HPLC-MS/MS led to the tentative identification of nine iridoids, six phenolics, and five amino acids. The crude extracts and main compounds were inactive towards PDE-5 at concentrations up to 500 µg/mL. Iridoids and amino acid derivatives were the main compounds occurring in the Paraguayan crude drug. The potential of ysypó hû as a male sexual enhancer cannot be discarded, since other mechanisms may be involved.


Assuntos
Bignoniaceae/química , Iridoides/química , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Bignoniaceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Misturas Complexas , Distribuição Contracorrente , Glicosídeos Iridoides , Iridoides/análise , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Paraguai , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1480-1493, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899641

RESUMO

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) possesses a substantial share of the global markets for its unique sweet flavor and diverse pharmacological compounds. Cultivated licorice is widely distributed in northwest regions of China, covered with land with a broad range of salinities. A preliminary study indicated that suitable salt stress significantly increased the content of bioactive constituents in licorice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of salinity on the accumulation of these constituents remain unclear, which hinders quality breeding of cultivated licorice. In our study, flavonoid-related structural genes were obtained, and most of them, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, cinnamate 4-hydroxylases, 4-coumarate: CoA ligases, chalcone synthases, chalcone-flavanone isomerase, and flavonol synthase, showed high levels after salt treatment. In the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin, three key enzymes (bAS, CYP88D6, and CYP72A154) were identified as differentially expressed proteins and remarkably upregulated in the salt-stressed group. Combining these results with the contents of 14 bioactive constituents, we also found that the expression patterns of those structural proteins were logically consistent with changes in bioactive constituent profiles. Thus, we believe that suitable salt stress increased the accumulation of bioactive constituents in licorice by upregulating proteins involved in the related biosynthesis pathways. This work provided valuable proteomic information for unraveling the molecular mechanism of flavonoid and glycyrrhizin metabolism and offered fundamental resources for quality breeding in licorice.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/genética , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Estresse Salino
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