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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180646, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411259

RESUMO

The hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) on alcohol-induced liver steatosis were investigated in Wistar rats. Chronic alcoholic fatty liver was induced by administration of 52% alcohol to male Wistar rats at the dose of 1% body weight for 7 weeks. Then animals were simultaneously treated with 50% ethanol solutions of EEP or normal saline at the dose of 0.1% body weight for 4 further weeks. Serological analyses and liver histopathology studies were performed to investigate the development of steatosis. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the alterations of hepatic gene expression profiling. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of EEP helped to restore the levels of various blood indices, liver function enzymes and the histopathology of liver tissue to normal levels. Results from the microarray analysis revealed that the hepatic expressions of genes involved in lipogenesis were significantly down-regulated by EEP treatment, while the transcriptional expressions of functional genes participating in fatty acids oxidation were markedly increased. The ability of EEP to reduce the negative effects of alcohol on liver makes propolis a potential natural product for the alternative treatment of alcoholic fatty liver.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Própole/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Apiterapia/métodos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/genética , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Própole/química , Própole/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10296-10305, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464437

RESUMO

Grass pea is an orphan legume that is grown in many places in the world. It is a high-protein, drought-tolerant legume that is capable of surviving extreme environmental challenges and can be a sole food source during famine. However, grass pea produces the neurotoxin ß-N-oxalyl-L-α,ß-diaminopropionic acid (ß-ODAP), which can cause a neurological disease. This crop is promising as a food source for both animals and humans if ß-ODAP levels and other antinutritional factors such as protease inhibitors are lowered or removed. To understand more about these proteins, a proteomic analysis of grass pea was conducted using three different extraction methods to determine which was more efficient at isolating antinutritional factors. Seed proteins extracted with Tris-buffered saline (TBS), 30% ethanol, and 50% isopropanol were identified by mass spectrometry, resulting in the documentation of the most abundant proteins for each extraction method. Mass spectrometry spectral data and BLAST2GO analysis led to the identification of 1376 proteins from all extraction methods. The molecular function of the extracted proteins revealed distinctly different protein functional profiles. The majority of the TBS-extracted proteins were annotated with nutrient reservoir activity, while the isopropanol extraction yielded the highest percentage of endopeptidase proteinase inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that the 50% isopropanol extraction method was the most efficient at isolating antinutritional factors including protease inhibitors.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Endopeptidases/química , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9782-9788, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390859

RESUMO

Sulforaphane, a potent antioxidant compound, is unstable at ambient temperature, whereas its precursor glucoraphanin is stable and metabolized to sulforaphane. Thus, we hypothesized that glucoraphanin-rich diet could effectively induce antioxidant enzyme activities and investigated the protective effects of long-term intake of a glucoraphanin-enriched kale (GEK) diet on skin aging in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 (SAMP1) mice. The senescence grading score was significantly lower after treatment with GEK for 39 weeks than that of the control mice. GEK also suppressed the thinning of the dorsal skin layer. Moreover, the GEK treatment enhanced the collagen production and increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression level in the skin tissue. TßRII and Smad3 expressions were clearly higher in the GEK-treated group than in the control group. Thus, GEK suppressed senescence in SAMP1 mice by enhancing the antioxidant activity and collagen production via the TßRII/Smad3 pathway, suggesting its practical applications for protection against skin aging.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Imidoésteres/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Envelhecimento da Pele/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9705-9718, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393722

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is among the most urgent global challenges facing sustainable animal production systems. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters and for infectious disease prevention in intensive animal-farming practices has translated into the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes in an unprecedented fashion. Several multi-resistant bacterial strains have been isolated from food-producing animals, thus constituting an alarming food-safety issue. Many industrial byproducts with potential antimicrobial properties are currently being investigated to identify empirical and affordable solutions/alternatives that can potentially be used in feed for animals. Grape pomace is among such byproducts that gained the attention as a result of its low cost, abundance, and, most importantly, its bioactive and antibacterial properties. This review discusses the recently reported studies with regard to exploring the use of grape pomace (and its extracts) in animal production to control pathogens, along with the promotion of beneficial bacterial species in the gut to ultimately alleviate antibacterial resistance. The review further summarizes realistic expectations connected with grape pomace usage and lists the still-to-be-addressed concerns about its application in animal agriculture.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9079-9087, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353905

RESUMO

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3 are two highly homologous transporters expressed in the human liver. However, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is the most predominant catechin in green tea, has opposite effects on the function of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. In the present study, the critical structural domains and amino acid residues for the activation of OATP1B3 by EGCG have been determined by characterizing the function of a series of OATP1B3-derived chimeric transporters, site-directed mutagenesis, and kinetic studies. Our results showed that G45 and F555 in transmembrane domains 1 and 10 are the most important amino acid residues for OATP1B3 activation. Kinetic studies showed that the activation of OATP1B3 by EGCG at a low substrate concentration was due to its increased substrate binding affinity. However, EGCG caused increased Km and decreased Vmax for 1B3-G45A and 1B3-F555H. The flexibility at position 45 and aromaticity at position 555 might be important for OATP1B3 activation. While 1B3-G45A and 1B3-F555H could not be activated by EGCG, their transport activity for EGCG was comparable to that of wild-type OATP1B3. In conclusion, the present study elucidated the molecular mechanism for OATP1B3 activation by EGCG.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/química , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Cinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/química , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Extratos Vegetais/química , Domínios Proteicos , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/genética
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8819-8838, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322880

RESUMO

Recent studies about hot-water extracts from sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) bark and buds demonstrated that they contain high amounts of phenolic structures that may be used as antioxidant food additives. However, the detailed chemical composition of these maple-derived extracts has yet to be determined. By performing high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-HRMS)-based dereplication, we were able to spike and classify almost 100 metabolites in each hot-water extract. The sugar maple bark hot-water extract is rich in simple phenolic compounds and phenylpropanoid derivatives, while bud extract contains predominantly flavonoids, benzoic acids, and their complex derivatives (condensed and hydrolyzable tannins). Among those chemical structures, we tentatively identified 69 phenolic compounds potentially reported for the first time in the genus Acer. Considering the growing commercial demand in natural products, the phenolic fingerprints of sugar maple bark and bud hot-water extracts will help in promoting these two maple-derived products as new sources of bioactive compounds in the food, nutraceutical, and cosmetic industries.


Assuntos
Acer/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Acer/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
7.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272033

RESUMO

Here, we report the novel fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles using the Costus igneus leaf extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine the bioactive components present in the plant extract. The synthesis of Ci-ZnO NPs (C. igneus- coated zinc oxide nanoparticles) was accomplished using a cost-effective and simple technique. Ci-ZnO NPs were specified using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and TEM. Ci-ZnO NPs was authenticated by UV-Vis and exhibited a peak at 365 nm. The XRD spectra proved the crystalline character of the Ci-ZnO NPs synthesized as hexagonal wurtzite. The FTIR spectrum illustrated the presence of possible functional groups present in Ci-ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph showed evidence of the presence of a hexagonal organization with a size of 26.55 nm typical of Ci-ZnO NPs. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays demonstrated antidiabetic activity of Ci-ZnO NPs (74 % and 82 %, respectively), and the DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate] assay demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the nanoparticles (75%) at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. The Ci-ZnO NPs exhibited promising antibacterial and biofilm inhibition activity against the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Proteus vulgaris, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Additionally, the Ci-ZnO NPs showed biocompatibility with mammalian RBCs with minimum hemolytic activity (0.633 % ±â€¯0.005 %) at a concentration of 200 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Costus/química , Costus/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiologia , Química Verde , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8649-8659, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283213

RESUMO

Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundant coffee byproduct and are generally discarded as waste. The horticultural use of SCG and SCG compost (SCGC) has become popular due to a growing interest in environmentally friendly measures for waste disposal. Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals in the soil can be absorbed by plants and subsequently by humans who consume these plants. The objectives of this study are to determine the phytochemical profiles of extracts of SCG and SCGC and to evaluate the estrogen-like activities of SCG, SCGC, and the major coffee phenolic acids, specifically, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. Their inductive effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene transcription have been examined in cultured cell lines. CQA was the most abundant phenolic acid in SCG and SCGC and was further examined for its ER-mediated estrogen-like activity using various assays. This is the first study to report the estrogen-like signaling activities of coffee byproducts and their major constituents.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Compostagem , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Fitoestrógenos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Sementes/química
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8617-8625, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293160

RESUMO

Inhibiting starch digestion can effectively control postprandial blood sugar level. In this study, the in vitro digestion differences among the mixtures of five polyphenols (i.e., procyanidins [PAs], catechin [CA], tannic acid [TA], rutin [RU], and quercetin [QU]) and starch were analyzed through an in vitro simulation test of starch digestion. The interaction characteristics of these five polyphenols with α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated in terms of the inhibition effect, dynamics, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism (CD). The results revealed that the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased, while the resistant starch (RS) contents increased. All five polyphenols inhibited the α-amylase activity through the noncompetitive approach but inhibited the α-glucosidase activity through the competitive approach. Five polyphenols combined with α-amylase spontaneously by using the hydrophobic effect. The interaction of PAs and QU with α-glucosidase were recognized as van der Waals forces and H bonding, whereas CA and TA interacted with α-glucosidase through the hydrophobic effect. All five polyphenols can cause conformational changes in enzymes.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Amido/química , Animais , Digestão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos , Leveduras/enzimologia , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8370-8381, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271280

RESUMO

Naturally occurring dietary peptides derived from gastrointestinal digestates of common bean milk and yogurt were studied for their bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and anti-inflammatory activity in both Caco-2 mono- and Caco-2/EA.hy926 co-culture cell models. Anti-inflammatory activities of these peptide extracts were found to be strongly associated with cellular uptake by the intestinal epithelial cells. Mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake were studied by examining the role of peptide transporter 1 and calcium sensing reporter. Three peptides, including γ-glutamyl-S-methylcysteine, γ-glutamyl-leucine, and leucine-leucine-valine, were found to be transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayer and detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A strong anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the basolateral EA.hy926 cells (co-culture model), as shown in their inhibition of tumor necrosis factor α-induced pro-inflammatory mediators of the nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal cascades. The results suggest that these peptides can be absorbed and possibly have systemic inhibition on inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells, indicating potential preventive effects on vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Iogurte/análise , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Peptídeos/genética , Transportador 1 de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8291-8302, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287692

RESUMO

Over the next 50 years, the prevention and control of chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and many cancers, will be one of the most critical challenges in human health. Plant biochemistry and phytonutrient supplements are a promising complementary therapy for the management of chronic disease. Among them, Humulus lupulus has attracted special attention throughout the world because it contains numerous dietary phytochemicals that not only contribute to the aroma and flavor of beer but may also be used for medicinal purposes, as its properties include antiseptic, (an)aphrodisiac, anticancer, antiplatelet, antibacterial, antidiuretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic, and stomachic properties. This review sought to identify and understand the risk factors for chronic disease with a focus on two types of phytochemicals, bitter acids and xanthohumol. The goal was to understand how their metabolites promote human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease.


Assuntos
Humulus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Saúde , Humanos , Humulus/química
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6049-6059, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The scarcity of irrigation water is severely affecting global crop production. In this context, biostimulants are increasingly used as alternatives means against abiotic stress conditions. In this study, phenolic compounds composition and bioactive properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown under water stress conditions and biostimulants application were investigated. RESULTS: Sixteen individual phenolic compounds were detected in both pods and seeds with a notable difference in their compositional profile. A significant effect on phenolic compounds content and composition was also observed for the biostimulants tested. Regarding the antibacterial activity, pods of the second harvest and seed extracts showed significant efficacy against Bacillus cereus, especially in water-stressed plants, where all biostimulant treatments were more effective than positive controls. Moreover, all biostimulant treatments for seed extracts of water-stressed plants were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus compared with ampicillin, whereas streptomycin showed the best results. Extracts from pods of the second harvest from normally irrigated plants showed the best results against the fungi tested, except for Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. Finally, no significant cytotoxic effects were detected. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the biostimulants tested increased total phenolic compounds content compared with control treatment, especially in pods of the first harvest and seeds of water-stressed plants. Moreover, bioactive properties showed a varied response in regard to irrigation and biostimulant treatment. Therefore, biostimulants can be considered as a useful means towards increasing phenolic compounds content, and they may also affect the antimicrobial properties of pods and seeds extracts. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/fisiologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Água/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/análise
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6011-6019, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing area has a substantial effect on plants, affecting secondary metabolism. For hops, different authors have studied the effect of growing area on the chemical composition of cones with the aim of verifying and understanding the changes in hop characters. Despite the scant literature the subject receives increasing attention by brewers and hop growers. The present study aimed to characterize, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), cones of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cultivar Cascade. Plant material was obtained from nine different areas of Italy and compared with Cascade samples grown in the United States, Germany and Slovenia. RESULTS: Differences in bitter acids and xanthohumol content were observed. Nevertheless, no correlation between bitter acids and xanthohumol production, on the one hand, and rainfall, temperatures and latitude, on the other hand, were observed in our samples. The Slovenia samples were richer in molecules that confer hoppy, woody and flower notes; USA2 samples were more characterized by woody, earthy, grassy and floral aroma, quite different characters if compared to USA1, which had the lowest presence of grassy aromatic compounds. In the Italian samples, TRENTINO was the genotype most characterized by limonene presence. CONCLUSION: The results of this study are indicative of the importance for hop users to know and characterize hops coming from different growing regions. The study pays special attention to the characterization of the differences in chemical characters of Cascade hop in Italy, where hop cultivation has developed only recently, but is in continuous expansion. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Humulus/química , Humulus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ácidos/análise , Ácidos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Itália , Odorantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Propiofenonas/análise , Propiofenonas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Paladar
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6089-6096, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng seeds have strong dormancy and a prolonged germination period in comparison to other seeds; thus, it is a great challenge to propagate ginseng. Seed longevity is closely associated with germination rate and viability, so we assumed that if a seed loses its viability, specific metabolic alterations regarding plant growth factors might occur. In this study, we divided ginseng seeds into normal and accelerated-aging groups. Both groups were treated with gibberellic acid, which is one of the most important plant-growth regulators. Afterward, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the samples, to identify the metabolic alterations between the two groups. RESULTS: Forty-four endogenous metabolites in normal and accelerated aging groups were putatively identified. To determine the differential significance of these metabolites, t-tests and fold-change analysis were conducted followed by principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis to determine the metabolites that showed distinct responses between the groups. Among the differentially expressed metabolites (P value < 0.05 and FDR < 0.1), nine metabolites were selected as potential biomarker candidates for the prediction of seed longevity. CONCLUSION: Nine metabolites related to ginseng seed longevity were identified by comparing metabolomes. Our findings suggest that ginseng propagation can be facilitated by the regulation of these distinctive metabolic features of the seeds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Panax/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Germinação , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metabolômica , Panax/química , Panax/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7016-7024, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194907

RESUMO

Most of the previous in vitro digestion treatments were conducted directly to whole grains without extraction of free phenolics, thus the bioaccessible phenolics contained both free phenolics that survived the digestion and digested phenolics released by digestion. However, the profiles of digested phenolics released by digestion remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the phytochemical contents, peroxyl radical scavenging capacities (PSCs), and cellular antioxidant activities (CAAs) of free, digested, and bound fractions of whole grains. Total phenolic contents of whole grains were highest in digested fraction, followed by free and bound fractions. The predominant phenolics were 12 phenolic acids and one flavonoid, which mostly existed in bound forms, then in digested and free forms. The digested phenolics bound to proteins were in conjugated form. The bound fractions had the highest PSCs, followed by free and digested fractions. CAAs were highest in bound fractions, followed by digested and free fractions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Grãos Integrais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Digestão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110541, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150785

RESUMO

Studies on the development of non-dairy probiotic foods and beverages are emerging. The optimal Lactobacillus and carbon resources were screened to improve the viability of probiotics in blueberry pomace. During fermentation, the total titratable acid and the viable counts were measured and peaked at 24 h, 15.75 mM and 11.59 Log CFU mL-1 respectively. Lactic acid content increased from 2.361 mg mL-1 to 6.334 mg mL-1, while citric acid content was decreased significantly. Additionally, the antioxidant activity was improved, which may be attributed to the increase of total phenols and flavonoids up to 4629.21 µg GAE mL-1 and 404.99 µg RE mL-1. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro showed that the total polyphenols were decreased slightly, while anthocyanins were increased. We also studied the cholesterol-lowing capability of fermented BPL and found that the cholesterol-clearance rate could reach 67.17%. Moreover, through mice weight-loaded swimming experiments, we observed that the physical strength of mice fed a fermented juice for one month was significantly better than that of the control group (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study provides a high value application of blueberry pomace and the fermented blueberry pomace with probiotics as a new type of probiotic food can furnish potentially value to human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fermentação , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Probióticos/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110586, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202939

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular botanical dietary supplement used worldwide and the safety of use is a public health concern. While GBE is a complex mixture, the terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides are believed to elicit the pharmacological and/or toxicological effects of GBE. In a National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year rodent bioassay with GBE, hepatotoxicity was observed in rodents (≥100 mg/kg in rats, ≥ 200 mg/kg in mice). Subsequently, questions arose about whether or not the GBE used in NTP studies was representative of other GBE products and how rodent doses are related to human doses. To address these, we generated systemic exposure data for terpene trilactones in male rats following oral administration of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg GBE test article from the 2-year bioassay. Dose-normalized Cmax and AUC∞ for terpene trilactones from the current study were within 5-fold of published rodent studies using a standardized GBE preparation. Comparison of our rat systemic exposure data at 100 mg/kg GBE to published human data following ingestion of 240 mg GBE-containing product showed that the rat/human exposure multiple was 3-22, for terpene trilactones. These data demonstrate the relevance of NTP rodent toxicity data to humans.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Flavonóis/sangue , Ginkgolídeos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Toxicocinética
18.
Food Chem ; 295: 563-568, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174796

RESUMO

Enzyme specificity and particularity is needed not only in enzymatic separation methods, but also in enzymatic determination methods for plant compound extraction. Stevioside, rubusoside, and rebaudioside A are natural sweet compounds from plants. These compounds have the same skeleton and only contain different side-chain glucosyl groups, making them difficult to separate. However, enzymes that target diterpenoid compounds and show specific activity for side-chain glucosyl groups are rare. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of an enzyme that can target both diterpenoid compounds and sophorose, namely, ß-glucosidase SPBGL1 from Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. SPBGL1 displayed high specificity toward sophorose, and activity toward stevioside, but not rebaudioside A. The stevioside conversion rate was 98%. SPBGL1 also operated at high substrate concentrations, such as in 50% crude steviol glycoside extract. Glucose liberated from stevioside was easy to quantify using the glucose oxidase method, allowing the stevioside content to be determined.


Assuntos
Diterpenos de Caurano/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Sphingomonas/enzimologia , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , beta-Glucosidase/genética
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 143, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation, a common health problem, causes discomfort and affects the quality of life. This study intended to evaluate the potential laxative effect of triple fermented barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) extract (FBe), produced by saccharification, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Weissella cibaria, on loperamide (LP)-induced constipation in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, a well-established animal model of spastic constipation. METHODS: Spastic constipation was induced via oral treatment with LP (3 mg/kg) for 6 days 1 h before the administration of each test compound. Similarly, FBe (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats once a day for 6 days. The changes in number, weight, and water content of fecal, motility ratio, colonic mucosa histology, and fecal mucous contents were recorded. The laxative properties of FBe were compared with those of a cathartic stimulant, sodium picosulfate. A total of 48 (8 rats in 6 groups) healthy male rats were selected and following 10 days of acclimatization. Fecal pellets were collected one day before administration of the first dose and starting from immediately after the fourth administration for a duration of 24 h. Charcoal transfer was conducted after the sixth and final administration of the test compounds. RESULTS: In the present study, oral administration of 100-300 mg/kg of FBe exhibited promising laxative properties including intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thicknesses and mucous producing goblet cells of colonic mucosa with decreases of fecal pellet numbers and mean diameters remained in the lumen of colon, mediated by increases in gastrointestinal motility. CONCLUSION: Therefore, FBe might act as a promising laxative agent and functional food ingredient to cure spastic constipation, with less toxicity observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/dietoterapia , Alimentos Fermentados/análise , Hordeum/microbiologia , Laxantes/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Humanos , Laxantes/química , Loperamida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Weissella/metabolismo
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22736-22746, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172438

RESUMO

The Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) has been used in foods for the flavor, aroma, and preservation and in folk medicines. The objective of the present work was to determine the antioxidant and protective effects of T. vulgaris extract against lead (Pb)-intoxicated rats. A thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley were randomly assigned into 4 equal groups and treated for six weeks as follows: group I (GP-I), served as negative control; GP-II, -III, and -IV received either Pb acetate in drinking water (500 mg/L), T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage or Pb acetate with T. vulgaris extract, respectively. Blood samples were collected at the end of the study week 6 to measure the hepatic and renal biochemical markers, complete blood count alongside the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ. Additionally, liver and kidney tissue specimens were collected for histopathology as well as to measure the antioxidant-reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) alongside the lipid peroxidation marker, malonaldehyde (MDA). The results indicated that Pb toxicity increased the serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α, whereas IL-10 and IFN-γ were reduced. The results showed disturbed liver and renal functions; increased serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine, and urea; and decreased total protein, albumin, and calcium. The GSH, Gpx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased in the Pb-administrated group, while MDA was increased. However, regarding the hepatorenal markers, those animals treated with T. vulgaris alone did not induce any significant changes. Moreover, the combined treatment with T. vulgaris extract together with Pb showed significant improvement in Pb-induced toxicity in all the tested parameters compared to the negative control group. We investigated the potential protective effects of the medicinal plant T. vulgaris in vivo, since there are no publications that address the potential protective effect of this leaf extract against Pb-induced hepatorenal toxicity. Our studies concluded that the T. vulgaris extract reduces Pb overload in hepatorenal tissues, and that this has a potential immunomodulatory role, antioxidant activity, and a protective effect against Pb toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta) , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Interleucina-10 , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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