Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.864
Filtrar
1.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108079, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524381

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. There are no vaccines, and the chemotherapy available to treat this infection has serious side effects. In a search for alternative treatments, we determined the in vitro susceptibility of epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and the cytotoxic effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of ethanolic extracts obtained from six different plant species. The ethanolic extracts of Ageratina vacciniaefolia, Clethra fimbriata and Siparuna sessiliflora showed antiprotozoal activity against epimastigotes and low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, only the ethanolic extract of C. fimbriata showed activity against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, and it had low cytotoxicity in PBMCs. An analysis on the phytochemical composition of C. fimbriata extract showed that its metabolites were primarily represented by two families of compounds: flavonoids and terpenoids. Lastly, we analyzed whether the A. vacciniaefolia, C. fimbriata, or S. sessiliflora ethanolic extracts induced IFN-γ or TNF-α production. Significantly, ethanolic extracts of C. fimbriata induced TNF-α production and S. sessiliflora induced both cytokines. In addition, C. fimbriata and S. sessiliflora induced the simultaneous secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD8+ T cells. The antiprotozoal and immunomodulatory activity of C. fimbriata may be related to the presence of flavonoid and triterpene compounds in the extract. Thus, these findings suggest that C. fimbriata may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of Chagas disease that combines trypanocidal activity with the capacity to boost the immune response.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Ageratina/química , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Clethraceae/química , Colômbia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Laurales/química , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419112

RESUMO

The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., is known for its large spectrum of compounds with biological and pharmacological interest. These include, among others, activities that are anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory. Some neem compounds are also used as insecticides, herbicides, and/or antifeedants. The safety of these compounds is not always taken into consideration and few in vivo toxicity studies have been performed. The current study is a literature review of the latest in vivo toxicity of A. indica. It is divided in two major sections-aquatic animals toxicity and mammalian toxicity-each related to neem's application as a pesticide or a potential new therapeutic drug, respectively.


Assuntos
Azadirachta/química , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos
3.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499159

RESUMO

Allium sativum L. (garlic bulbs) and Allium fistulosum L. (Welsh onion leaves) showed quantitative differences of identified compounds: allicin and alliin (380 µg/mL and 1410 µg/mL in garlic; 20 µg/mL and 145 µg/mL in Welsh onion), and the phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gentisic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, kaempferol, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and rutin). The chemical composition determined the inhibitory activity of Allium extracts in a dose-dependent manner, on human normal cells (BJ-IC50 0.8841% garlic/0.2433% Welsh onion and HaCaT-IC50 1.086% garlic/0.6197% Welsh onion) and tumor cells (DLD-1-IC50 5.482%/2.124%; MDA-MB-231-IC50 6.375%/2.464%; MCF-7-IC50 6.131%/3.353%; and SK-MES-1-IC50 4.651%/5.819%). At high concentrations, the cytotoxic activity of each extract, on normal cells, was confirmed by: the 50% of the growth inhibition concentration (IC50) value, the cell death induced by necrosis, and biochemical determination of LDH, catalase, and Caspase-3. The four tumor cell lines treated with high concentrations (10%, 5%, 2.5%, and 1.25%) of garlic extract showed different sensibility, appreciated on the base of IC50 value for the most sensitive cell line (SK-MES-1), and the less sensitive (MDA-MB-231) cell line. The high concentrations of Welsh onion extract (5%, 2.5%, and 1.25%) induced pH changes in the culture medium and SK-MES-1 being the less sensitive cell line.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/química , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Cebolas/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(4): 1251-1258, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476164

RESUMO

A case of baled alfalfa hay contaminated with multiple weeds induced hepatotoxicity and death in cattle. The hepatotoxic compounds were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation using a mouse model and identified as salviarin, salvianduline D, rhyacophiline, and 7-hydroxyrhyacophiline. The structure of 7-hydroxyrhyacophiline has not been previously reported. All compounds were found to induce severe acute hepatic necrosis within 24-48 h after a single oral dosage (260-280 mg/kg). The identified diterpenes are known to be found among different Salvia species which led to finding dried plant parts of Salvia reflexa within bales of weedy hay and subsequently a population of S. reflexa was found along the field edges and irrigation ditch banks of the alfalfa hay field. It was thus determined that S. reflexa was responsible for the hepatotoxicity observed in cattle fed the contaminated hay.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/toxicidade , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Salvia/toxicidade , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Salvia/química , Salvia/metabolismo
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 414-423, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aloe vera is a popular medicinal plant used widely by the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The A. vera leaf gel, which is used mostly for its positive effects on human health, contains over 75 different bioactive compounds, including aloin. Aloin is a toxic compound, and its content in A. vera leaf gel products depends on the different cultivation conditions and especially on leaf processing. RESULTS: In this study, A. vera leaf gel products, varied in terms of leaf processing, were analyzed using liquid chromatography for their aloin content, their antioxidant activity by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS·+ ) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH· ) antioxidant activity assays and their toxicity against Aliivibrio fisheri and SH-SY5Y cells. In the samples processed with industrial methods and in those filtered in the lab, the content of aloin was found below the limit (0.1 mg L-1 ) of the EU legislation however, the unprocessed and unfiltered samples were found to contain more than 10 mg L-1 . Antioxidant activity was estimated to vary from 1.64 to 9.21 µmol Trolox mL-1 for DPPH· and from 0.73 to 5.14 µmol Trolox mL-1 for ABTS·+ . Toxicity values on A. fisheri, expressed as the concentration at 50% loss of initial luminescence, ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 mg mL-1 . The cytotoxic study indicated that aloin A at low concentrations (1 and 10 µg mL-1 ) protects SH-SY5Y cells from toxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, the filtration process of A. vera leaf gels, either laboratory or industrial, resulted in aloin A content below the EU legislation detection limits. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Emodina/análise , Emodina/toxicidade , Grécia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113277, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810616

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Evodiae Fructus (EF), the traditional Chinese medicine, has been typically used to treat headache, abdominal pain, hernias, and menorrhagia for thousands of years. It is a mild toxicity herb-medicine listed in Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Recently, EF was reported to have toxicity or no toxicity in some investigations. Toxicity and approaches to reducing toxicity of EF are of great interest. Limonin (LIM), a major triterpenoid component of EF, also had various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant effects. However, little attention was paid to the role of LIM in EF-induced hepatotoxicity. AIM OF STUDY: The study aimed to address the problem of controversial hepatotoxicity of EF, evaluate the role of CYP3A4 inducer/inhibitor in EF-induced hepatotoxicity and disclose the effect of LIM in EF-induced hepatotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical compositions and hepatotoxicity of small flower EF (SEF), medium flower EF (MEF), big flower EF (BEF) and the "organ knock-out" samples (the shell and seed part of BEF) were investigated. Simultaneously, C57BL-6 mice were randomly divided into four groups, which were given orally administered BEF, BEF in combination with dexamethasone (DEX), BEF in combination with ketoconazole (KTC), and BEF in combination with LIM, respectively. RESULTS: In this study, more alkaloids and less LIM were detected in BEF compared with the compounds in SEF and MEF. Furthermore, we found that BEF group induced hepatotoxicity whereas no hepatotoxicity was observed in SEF and MEF groups. In addition, no LIM was detected in the shell part of BEF and five alkaloids were not detected in the seed part of BEF. Correspondingly, the shell part of BEF group induced hepatotoxicity whereas no hepatotoxicity was observed in the seed part of BEF group. It was also found that the BEF-induced hepatotoxicity was remarkably exacerbated when the mice were pretreated with DEX whereas the BEF-induced hepatotoxicity could be reversed by pretreatment with KTC or LIM. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results in this study, the misuse of BEF but not SEF and MEF could produce hepatotoxicity. The hepatotoxicity difference of different categories of EF might be associated with the relative contents of alkaloids and LIM. In addition, the results demonstrated that CYP3A4 inducer aggravated BEF-induced hepatotoxicity and LIM attenuated its hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/toxicidade , Evodia , Flores , Frutas , Limoninas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113291, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841700

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) is a deciduous, commonly ornamental, tropical plant grown in home premises, parks, gardens, graveyards, because of its beautiful and attractive flowers of various colours and size. The different parts of the plant are used traditionally to treat various diseases and conditions like leprosy, inflammation, diabetic mellitus, ulcers, wounds, itching, acne, toothache, earache, tongue cleaning, pain, asthma, constipation and antifertility. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The main aim of this review is to provide an overview and critically analyze the reported ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and toxicological studies of P. rubra and to identify the remaining gaps and thus supply a basis for further investigations. The review also focuses towards drawing attention of people and researchers about the wide spread pharmaceutical properties of the plant for its better utilization in the coming future. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the relevant data and information on P. rubra was gathered using various databases such as PubMed, Springer, Taylor and Francis imprints, NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), Science direct, Google scholar, Chemspider, SciFinder, research and review articles from peer-reviewed journals and unpublished data such as Phd thesis, etc. Some other 'grey literature' sources such as webpages, ethnobotanical books, chapters, wikipedia were also studied. RESULTS: More than 110 chemical constituents have been isolated from P. rubra including iridoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, alkaloids, glycosides, fatty acid esters, carbohydrates, animo acids, lignan, coumarin, volatile oils, etc. The important chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological activities of the plant are fulvoplumierin, plumieride, rubrinol, lupeol, oleanolic acid, stigmasterol, taraxasteryl acetate, plumieride-p-E-coumarate, rubranonoside, rubrajalellol, plumericin, isoplumericin, etc. The plant possess a wide range of pharmacological activities present namely antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, anthelmintic, antifertility and many other activities. CONCLUSION: P. rubra is a valuable medicinal source and further study in this topic can validate the traditional and ethnobotanical use of the plant. However, many aspects of the plant have not been studied yet. The pharmacological activity of active chemical constituent isolated from the plant is proven only for a couple of activities hence, lack of bio-guided isolation strategies is observed. Further studies on bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action and structural activity relationship studies of isolated pure compounds will contribute more in understanding their pharmacological effects. Higher doses of plant extracts are administered to experimental animals, therefore their toxicity and side effects in humans are needed to be thoroughly studied, although no side effect or toxicity is seen or observed in experimental animals. Studies are also essential to investigate the long term in vivo toxicity and clinical efficacy of the plant.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Etnofarmacologia/tendências , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113142, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697959

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaf of Sarcocephalus latifolius is known to be used traditionally by the Fulanis in Nigeria to deworm animals. As helminthosis remains a major constraint to profitable livestock production worldwide, a precarious situation aggravated by the advent of resistant parasites, the discovery of new anthelmintics is a priority, necessitating exploration of medicinal plants for their anthelmintic principles. AIM OF THE STUDY: To identify and characterise compounds with anthelmintic activity from the leaf of Sarcocephalus latifolius. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Powdered S. latifolius leaves were extracted by successive maceration with n-hexane, chloroform and acetone. The dried extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus placei adult worms, and the most active extract was subjected to bioassay-guided chromatographic separations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the mammalian HeLa and MC3T3-E1 cell lines, using alamar blue and CellTitreGloTM to quantify cell viability. LC50 values were computed from the in vitro anthelmintic activity data by fitting to a non-linear regression equation (variable slope). Isolated compounds were characterized using spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. RESULTS: Anthelmintic activity LC50 values for n-hexane, chloroform and acetone extracts were 47.85, 35.76 and 5.72 (mg/mL), respectively. Chromatographic separation of acetone extract afforded two bioactive epimers, identified as vincosamide (LC50 14.7 mg/mL) and strictosamide (LC50 12.8 mg/mL). Cytotoxicity evaluation showed that, below 200 µg/mL (400 µM), neither compound was toxic to the HeLa or MC3T3-E1 cells. CONCLUSION: Vincosamide and strictosamide could serve as novel scaffolds for the development of anthelmintic derivatives with improved potency and helminth selectivity.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Rubiaceae/química , Alcaloides de Vinca/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Alcaloides de Vinca/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides de Vinca/toxicidade
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113248, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805356

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) S.F.Blake is a medicinal plant from South America, popularly known as "asa de peixe", "asa de peixe branco", "cambará branco" or "cambará guaçu", being used by traditional communities for its healing powers in the form of teas, infusions, liqueurs and extracts, for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts, such as kidney problems, bronchitis, inflammation and fever. However, none of the ethnopharmacological properties has been scientifically evaluated. AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on the ethnopharmacological use of the species, this study investigated the chemical composition, and for the first time acute toxicity, hemolytic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the essential oil from leaves of V. macrophylla. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil was obtained from the leaves by hydrodistillation (HD), being characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution technique in bacteria and fungi that cause infections of the respiratory and urinary tract, and toxicological safety regarding hemolytic activity on human red blood cells (hRBCs), and acute toxicity in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the model carrageenan-induced peritonitis with quantification of the levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the intraperitoneal fluid, and ear edema induced by croton oil. The antipyretic activity evaluated in mice with pyrexia induced by yeast. RESULTS: The extraction of essential oil by hydrodistillation (HD) showed a yield of 0.33 ±â€¯0.04%, with its composition constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes of hydrocarbons (94.00%). The essential oil demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity, with a low rate of hemolysis in human red blood cells (hRBCs) and no clinical signs of toxicity were observed in animals after acute treatment, which suggested that the LD50 is greater than 5000 mg/kg; p.o. The essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity reducing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (38.83%, 72.42% and 73.52%) and IL-1ß (37.70%, 75.92% and 87.71%), and ear edema by 49.53%, 85.04% and 94.39% at concentrations of 4, 40 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The antipyretic activity presented by the essential oil is statistically similar to dipyrone. CONCLUSION: The set of results obtained, validates the main activities attributed to the traditional use of Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) S.F.Blake. These data add industrial value to the species, considering that the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities present results similar to the drugs already used also presenting safety. The results suggest that essential oil from V. macrophylla may be used by industry for the development of drugs with natural antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verbesina/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/isolamento & purificação , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113290, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841696

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Since the dawn of time, medicinal and aromatic plants (AMPs) represent a precious heritage for humanity, especially in developing countries, who exploit their virtues in traditional pharmacopoeia to cope with health problems such as diabetes, kidney stones, ulcer, and digestive disorders. Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. belongs to Apiaceae family. It is traditionally used to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac disease, renal disease, and recently reported as a plant endowed with a female anti-infertility effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to evaluate the in vivo effect of hydro-ethanolic extract and polyphenols of Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. on cholesterol, protein and estrogen levels, and characterize the chemical composition of polyphenolic fraction. In addition, acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of tested extract was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical composition of polyphenolic fraction was determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). First, toxicological investigations including sub-acute toxicity were performed by measuring animals' weights daily for four weeks. Afterwards, histopathological examination of livers and kidneys, and serum assay of ASAT and ALAT were also checked. Next, the acute in vivo anti-inflammatory study of the hydro-ethanolic extract and polyphenols of Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. versus Indomethacin was conducted. Furthermore, we evaluated the estrogenic effect of its hydro-ethanolic extract and the polyphenolic fraction following biochemical assays for the determination of proteins, cholesterol and estrogen levels. RESULTS: The results revealed the presence of some phenolic compounds mainly ferulic acid, gallic acid and quercetin. Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. extracts also showed no evidence of hepatotoxicity nor nephrotoxicity, with remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, as well as a significant estrogenic effect compared to negative control. CONCLUSION: This study provides a scope of the potential use of Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. extracts in counteracting female infertility issues.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Petroselinum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Etanol/química , Feminino , Indometacina/farmacologia , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113416, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980485

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae) is a common medicinal plant described in many traditional medicine as well as in Ayurveda used against snakebites. Besides, the plant has also been reported traditionally against fever, rheumatic arthritis, madness, liver ailments, dyspepsia, oedema, leishmaniasis, leprosy, dysmenorrhoea, sexual diseases etc. The plant is known to contain its major bioactive constituent aristolochic acid (AA) known for its anti-snake venom, abortifacient, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This present work describes a validated, fast and reproducible high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method to estimate AA from the roots of 20 chemotypes of A. indica procured from 20 diverse geographical locations from the state of West Bengal, India. Further, an evidence-based approach was adopted to investigate the reported anti-venom activity of the aqueous extracts of the A. indica roots by assessing its phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitory properties since PLA2 is a major component of many snake-venoms. Finally, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the aqueous root extract of the Purulia (AI 1) chemotype were assessed at various concentrations using Allium cepa root meristematic cells. RESULTS: The highest amount of AA (7643.67 µg/g) was determined in the roots of A. indica chemotype collected from Purulia district followed by the chemotypes collected from Murshidabad, Jalpaiguri and Birbhum districts (7398.34, 7345.09 and 6809.97 µg/g respectively). This study not only determines AA in the plants to select pharmacologically elite chemotypes of A. indica, but it also identifies high AA producing A. indica for further domestication and propagation of the plants for pharmacological and industrial applications. The method was validated via analyzing inter-day and intra-day precision, repeatability, reproducibility, instrumental precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) and specificity. Chemotypes with high AA content exhibited superior anti-PLA2 activity by selectively inhibiting human-group PLA2. Moreover, A. indica root extract significantly inhibited mitosis in Allium cepa root tips as a potent clastogen. CONCLUSIONS: The present quick, reproducible and validated HPTLC method provides an easy tool to determine AA in natural A. indica plant populations as well as in food and dietary supplements, a potential antivenin at one hand and a possible cause of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) at another. Besides, the cytotoxic and mitotoxic properties of the root extracts should be used with caution especially for oral administration.


Assuntos
Antídotos/farmacologia , Aristolochia/química , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antídotos/isolamento & purificação , Antídotos/toxicidade , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Meristema/citologia , Meristema/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Cebolas/citologia , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113428, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011368

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The application of the herb Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. in folk medicine and as a food additive has been recommended due to its many claimed bioactivities. Regardless of the plant benefits, its safety considerations are largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present research was to determine the chemical compositions and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity potentials of the ethanolic extract of Ziziphora clinopdioides Lam. (EEZC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: GC-MS and LC-MS analysis were used for chemical composition determination. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and trypan blue exclusion dye assays were used for cytotoxicity and the Comet assay was employed for genotoxicity assessment on human blood lymphocytes. Also, the Ames Salmonella/microsome test was carried out for the evaluation of mutagenicity. RESULTS: Pulegone was the main component of the n-hexane fraction. Different phenolic acids and flavonoids were detected by LC-MS. The cytotoxicity study indicated a conspicuous decline in human lymphocyte viability ranging from 52% to 100% as showed by the MTT assay and 67% up to 100% by the trypan blue assay, at 1 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The Comet assay results revealed a dose dependent genotoxicity, in so much as 90% and 98% of the cells were screened as damaged at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. An incidence rate of 8% and 13% of grade 4 damage was observed at 5 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, the DNA damage index (DI) was elevated dose-dependently by a rising concentration of the extract, wherein the DI at 10 mg/mL concentration was 2.22, which was 22 times greater than that of negative control, and even more than positive control. The Ames test exhibited no signs of mutagenicity for neither Salmonella typhimurium TA98 nor TA100 strains, accompanied or unaccompanied by S9 metabolic activation. CONCLUSION: Results indicated a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity potential of the EEZC on human lymphocytes, suggesting that this plant should be used with caution by consumers, even in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the plant usage in daily life continues to increase due to its ever growing phytotherapical and phytonutritional properties, it may pose a health risk by its high concentration's uptake. Although no mutagenicity of this extract was observed in this study, further research is recommended to clarify the mutagenic risks of this herb.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lamiaceae/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113440, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022341

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, the watery sap of Doliocarpus dentatus is used to alleviate thirst, and the leaves of this species are used to relieve pain and swelling associated with inflammatory processes. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to analyze the compounds of the leaves from the aqueous extract of D. dentatus (EADd) and evaluate its toxicogenetic and pain relief effects in animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Compounds were identified in EADd by UHPLC-HRMS (Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry). The oral dose of 17 mg/kg EADd, calculated according to ethnopharmacological uses, and doses between 30 and 300 mg/kg were used to test Swiss mice in formalin- and acetic acid-induced models of pain and behavior. EADd (100-2000 mg/kg) was assayed in mice by comet, micronucleus, and phagocytosis tests and by peripheral leukocyte counts. RESULTS: Phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as trigonelline and isoquercetin were identified in EADd. All oral doses of EADd exhibited antinociceptive activity, as indicated by a decrease in pain in both phases, a decrease in cold hypersensitivity induced by formalin, and a decrease in abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid. EADd did not alter the exploratory, motor or motivational activities of the animals. The comet and micronucleus tests indicated that EADd was not genotoxic and did not change the phagocytic activity or peripheral leukocyte count. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that EADd could act as an antinociceptive agent that does not present genotoxicity. This study should contribute to justifying, in part, the popular use of D. dentatus in pain management, ensuring its safe use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Dilleniaceae/química , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Dor/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 142264, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207511

RESUMO

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by using plants extracts has provided an eco-friendly alternation for industry and agriculture application. Here, we prepared Ag NPs by using the cucumber leaves and rice husk extracts, and further assessed the antimicrobial activity and phytotoxicity of green synthesized Ag NPs (g-Ag NPs) comparing with chemically synthesized Ag NPs (chem-Ag NPs). The chem-Ag NPs had strong antibacterial activity on the growth of Escherichia coli, while g-Ag NPs by rice husks (gr-Ag NPs) exhibited long-term antibacterial effects. In terms of phytotoxicity, the chem-Ag NPs induced over-generation of ROS and activated plant antioxidant defense systems, thus resulting in the upregulation of MDA and Zn contents and downregulation of antioxidant capacity, carotenoid, globulin and Mo contents. However, g-Ag NPs significantly promoted cucumber photosynthesis by increasing chlorophyll contents. Besides, the green synthesized Ag NPs by cucumber extracts (gc-Ag NPs) increased protein contents and gr-Ag NPs stimulated the upregulation of Mn and the downregulation of Al, which were all positive effects. Overall, compared with chem-Ag NPs, g-Ag NPs exhibited long-tern antimicrobial properties and attenuated toxicity to plants, which could be used as potential nanopesticide or nanoscale growth regulator in agriculture.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade
15.
Food Chem ; 338: 127804, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798823

RESUMO

This work investigates the release of toxic elements from wood into the experimental spirit models and the safety risks for consumers. The spirit models were prepared as ethanolic extracts using the procedure which reproduces maturation of spirits. Investigation included staves of wood species commonly used in Balkan cooperage: mulberry, Myrobalan plum, black locust, wild cherry, and various oaks. Potassium was the most abundant element, except in the wild cherry extract where calcium was dominant, and the Myrobalan plum extract where phosphorus was the most abundant. The parameters for the health risk assessment, such as hazard index (HI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were calculated for potentially toxic elements and indicated that all wood extracts would be safe for human consumption. Owing to the proven abundance of phenolics in the investigated wood extracts, relations among elements and phenolics were also studied and conclusions were made based on the statistically significant correlations.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Madeira/química , Península Balcânica , Carcinógenos/análise , Etanol/química , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Metais/análise , Metais/toxicidade , Morus/química , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Fenóis/análise , Fósforo/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Potássio/análise , Quercus/química , Medição de Risco
16.
Food Chem ; 345: 128732, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341558

RESUMO

Edible wild plants are part of the ethnobotanical and gastronomic heritage of different geographical areas. Corema album (L.) D. Don is an endemic species of the dune systems of the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The aerial parts of Corema album are a source of nutrients and antioxidants. The Corema album white berry (Portuguese crowberry) is rich in calcium, iron, and zinc. The plant also shows high phenolic content and antioxidant capacity associated with the leaves, fruit, and flowers. The presence of organic acids, namely phenolic acids, such as hydroxycinnamic acids, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-3 and omega-6 has also been confirmed. Toxicity studies evaluated by cell viability tests with human intestinal epithelium model cells (Caco-2) have shown that, at low concentrations, plant extracts may present beneficial effects.


Assuntos
Ericaceae/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Minerais/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Células CACO-2 , Frutas/química , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
Life Sci ; 266: 118870, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310040

RESUMO

AIM: Betel-nut, a popular masticatory among Southeast Asian populations is a class I carcinogen, previously associated with dyslipidemia and aberrant lipid metabolism, and is reported to be used more frequently by females, than males. This study investigates the potential of repurposing the anti-diabetic drug, vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, for alleviating the oncogenic condition in female Swiss Albino mice administered an aqueous extract of betel-nut (AEBN) orally (2 mg ml-1) for 24 weeks. MAIN METHODS: Tissues were investigated by histopathological, immunohistochemical and apoptosis assays. Biochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers and lipid profile were performed using different tissues and sera. The expressions of different proteins involved in lipid metabolism and oncogenic pathways were evaluated by Western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: AEBN induced carcinogenesis primarily in the liver by significantly impairing AMPK signaling, inducing oxidative stress, activating Akt/mTOR signaling, increasing Ki-67 immunoreactivity and cyclin D1 expression, and significantly diminishing apoptosis. Co-administration of AEBN with vildagliptin (10 mg kg-1 body weight) for 8 weeks reduced liver dysplasia, and significantly decreased free palmitic acid, increased free oleic acid, normalized lipid profile, decreased oxidative stress, cyclin D1 expression, Ki-67 immunoreactivity, and Bcl2 expression, and increased the ratio of apoptotic/non-apoptotic cells. Mechanistically, vildagliptin elicited these physiological and molecular alterations by restoring normal AMPK signaling and reducing the cellular expressions of FASN and HMGCR, restoring AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 and reducing Akt/mTOR signaling. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that vildagliptin may alleviate betel-nut induced carcinogenesis in the liver of female mice.


Assuntos
Areca/toxicidade , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Vildagliptina/farmacologia , Animais , Carcinogênese , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Dislipidemias/patologia , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20191562, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053107

RESUMO

The study aim was to evaluate the toxic potential of two polyherbal formulation i.e. " PH 1 & PH 2" and scientific validation of their anti-asthmatic use. Acute oral toxicity study as per OECD 425 TG was conducted. For validation of anti-asthmatic claim, in vivo assay named Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine method in Wistar rats was used. Eosinophils and IgE antibody were quantified post-administration of low and high doses of the formulations. No mortality was observed in acute toxicity study. Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and damaged liver structure indicating the hepatotoxicity were more pronounced in PH 2 treated rats. Congestion in kidney tissue and increased urea level were evident of the nephrotoxic nature of PH 2 in animals. Treatment with selected polyherbal products decreased the MDA level while increasing the SOD and GSH levels in lung tissue homogenates. The maximum decrease in IgE load (3.18 ± 0.08 IU/mL) was found in rats treated with 12 mg/kg dose of PH 1 followed by 100 mg/kg dose of PH 2 (3.44 ± 0.06 IU/mL). It was concluded that both polyherbal formulations had anti-asthmatic activities, however, PH 1 exhibited the liver and kidney toxicity and should be cautiously used.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Fígado , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antiasmáticos/toxicidade , Medicina Herbária , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Toxicon ; 188: 134-141, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091389

RESUMO

The prolonged consumption of Ipomoea carnea produces neurologic symptoms in animals and a typical histological lesion, cytoplasmic vacuolization, especially in neurons. The toxic principles of I. carnea are the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines B1, B2, B3 and C1. In this study, primary brain cultures from newborn mouse containing mixed glial cells were utilized. These cells were exposed to Ipomoea extracts containing between 0 and 250 µM swainsonine for 48 h. Morphological changes were investigated through Phase Contrast microscopy and Rosenfeld's staining. The extract induced cytoplasmic vacuolization in astrocytes and microglia in a dose dependent manner, being more evident when cultures were exposed to 250 µM of swainsonine. In addition, acridine orange staining evidenced an increase in the number of lysosomes in both microglia and astrocytes cells. Consistent with this, scanning electron microscopy also showed that both types of cells presented morphological characteristics of cell activation. Ultrastructurally, cells showed vacuoles filled with amorphous material and surrounded by a single membrane and also multilayer membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that swainsonine along with calystegines, are probably responsible for the activation of glial cells due to a possible lysosomal dysfunction and therefore intracellular storage. Our results demonstrate that this in vitro glial cell model is a very good alternative to in vivo studies that require several weeks of animal intoxication to observe similar neurotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Ipomoea , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Alcaloides , Animais , Cabras , Lisossomos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Neuroglia , Nortropanos , Alcaloides de Solanáceas , Swainsonina , Tropanos
20.
Toxicon ; 187: 65-74, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890585

RESUMO

Microgramma vacciniifolia is broadly used in folk medicine but safety information is unavailable. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of a saline extract and a lectin-rich fraction of M. vacciniifolia rhizome. The extract showed hemolytic activity on mice erythrocytes at 1000 µg/mL, whereas the fraction promoted hemolysis (8.57-26.15%) at all tested concentrations (10-1000 µg/mL). Acute toxicity test in mice indicated an LD50 of >5000 mg/kg. Hematological alterations and increased serum alkaline phosphatase level were observed in the treated animals. Transaminases and urea levels increased in the groups treated with the extract or fraction at 5000 mg/kg. Leukocyte infiltration was observed in the liver of extract-treated animals and in the liver and lungs of mice treated with the fraction. The kidneys of animals treated with the fraction at 5000 mg/kg presented hydropic degeneration. The extract and fraction did not induce oxidative stress in the liver and did not show genotoxicity, as examined by micronucleus and comet assays. In conclusion, the preparations were not lethal to mice but caused some signs of toxicity, mainly the fraction. The results indicated the need to evaluate the toxicity of M. vacciniifolia rhizome in other models and in chronic assays.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Polypodiaceae , Rizoma , Animais , Lectinas , Camundongos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...