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1.
Recent Pat Nanotechnol ; 18(3): 350-360, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lepidium sativum (LS) seed extract has various pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activities. However, the translation of L. sativum seed extract to the clinical phase is still tedious due to its bioavailability and stability issues. This problem can be solved by encapsulating it in a nanodelivery system to improve its therapeutic potency. METHODS: In this study, we have determined and compared the in vivo toxicity of ethanolic extracts of L. sativum seeds (EELS) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). To conduct toxicity (acute and subacute toxicity) assessments, EELS and SLNs were orally administered to Swiss albino mice. Animal survival, body weight, the weight of vital organs in relation to body weight, haematological profile, biochemistry profile, and histopathological alterations were examined. RESULTS: Animals administered with 2000 mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg in an acute toxicity study exhibited no toxicological symptoms regarding behaviour, gross pathology, and body weight. As per a study on acute toxicity, the LD50 (lethal dose) for SLNs and EELS was over 400 mg/kg and over 5000 mg/kg, respectively. When animals were given SLNs (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally) and EELS (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, orally) for 28 days, subacute toxicity study did not exhibit any clinical changes. There were no differences in weight gain, haematological parameters, or biochemical parameters compared to the control groups (p > 0.05). The organs of the treated animals showed no abnormalities in the histological analysis (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen). CONCLUSION: The result confirms ethanolic extracts of L. sativum seeds and their SLNs to not have harmful effects following acute and subacute administration to mice. For further studies, patents available on Lepidium may be referred for its preclinical and clinical applications.


Assuntos
Lepidium sativum , Nanopartículas , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes , Animais , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Sementes/química , Administração Oral , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Masculino , Feminino , Dose Letal Mediana , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
2.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 87(16): 662-673, 2024 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808737

RESUMO

Pseudobombax marginatum, popularly known as "embiratanha," is widely used by traditional communities as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. This study aimed to determine the phytochemical profile as well as cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity attributed to exposure to aqueous (AqEx) and ethanolic (EtEx) extracts of embiratanha bark. Phytochemical screening was conducted using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Cell viability was analyzed using MTT assay with human mammary gland adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) and macrophage (J774A.1) cell lines, exposed to concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 µg/ml of either extract. For acute oral toxicity, comet assay and micronucleus (MN) tests, a single dose of 2,000 mg/kg of either extract was administered orally to Wistar rats. TLC analysis identified classes of metabolites in the extracts, including cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids, hydrolyzable tannins, condensed tannins, coumarins, and terpenes/steroids. In the cytotoxicity assay, the varying concentrations of extracts derived from embiratanha induced no significant alterations in the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. The lowest concentration of EtEx significantly increased macrophage J774A.1 viability. However, the higher concentrations of AqEx markedly lowered macrophage J774A.1 viability. Animals exhibited no toxicity in the parameters analyzed in acute oral toxicity, comet assay, and MN tests. Further, EtEx promoted a significant reduction in DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency utilizing the comet assay, while the group treated with AqEx exhibited no marked differences. Thus, data demonstrated that AqEx or EtEx of embiratanha may be considered safe at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg orgally under our experimental conditions tested.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Ratos Wistar , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Humanos , Ratos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Masculino , Ensaio Cometa , Testes para Micronúcleos , Feminino , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Camundongos , Casca de Planta/química , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Etanol/química
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118295, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710460

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Phlomis crinita Cav. (Lamiaceae), locally known as "El Khayata" or "Kayat El Adjarah", is traditionally used in Algeria for its wound-healing properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: Investigate, for the first time, the phytochemical profile, safety, antioxidant and wound-healing activities of the flowering tops methanolic extract of P. crinita (PCME) collected from Bouira Province in the North of Algeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preliminary phytochemical assays were carried out on PCME to quantify the main classes of bioactive compounds, such as total phenols, flavonoids, and tannins. An in-depth LC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis was carried out to elucidate the phytochemical profile of this plant species. Antioxidant activity was investigated by several colorimetric and fluorimetric assays (DPPH, TEAC, FRAP, ORAC, ß-carotene bleaching and ferrozine assay). The acute oral toxicity of PCME (2000 mg/kg b.w.) was tested in vivo on Swiss albino mice, whereas the acute dermal toxicity and wound-healing properties of the PCME ointment (1-5% PCMO) were tested in vivo on Wistar albino rats. Biochemical and histological analyses were carried out on biological samples. RESULTS: The phytochemical screening highlighted a high content of phenolic compounds (175.49 ± 0.8 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of dry extract), mainly flavonoids (82.28 ± 0.44 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of dry extract). Fifty-seven compounds were identified by LC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis, belonging mainly to the class of flavones (32.27%), with luteolin 7-(6″-acetylglucoside) as the most abundant compound and phenolic acids (32.54%), with salvianolic acid C as the most abundant compound. A conspicuous presence of phenylethanoids (15.26%) was also found, of which the major constituent is forsythoside B. PCME showed a strong antioxidant activity with half-inhibitory activity (IC50) ranging from 1.88 to 37.88 µg/mL and a moderate iron chelating activity (IC50 327.44 µg/mL). PCME appears to be safe with Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) ≥ 2000 mg/kg b.w. No mortality or toxicity signs, including any statistically significant changes in body weight gain and relative organs' weight with respect to the control group, were recorded. A significant (p < 0.001) wound contraction was observed in the 5% PCMO-treated group with respect to the untreated and petroleum jelly groups between 8 and 20 days, whereas no statistically significant results were observed at the two lower doses (1 and 2% PCMO). In addition, the 5% PCMO-treated group showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) wound healing activity with respect to the reference drug-treated group, showing, at the end of the study, the highest wound contraction percentage (88.00 ± 0.16%). CONCLUSION: PCME was safe and showed strong antioxidant and wound-healing properties, suggesting new interesting pharmaceutical applications for P. crinita based on its traditional use.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais , Cicatrização , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Argélia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Camundongos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Feminino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/toxicidade
4.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 87(14): 592-603, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712866

RESUMO

Punica granatum, popularly known as pomegranate, is a fruit tree with wide worldwide distribution, containing numerous phytochemicals of great medicinal value. The aim of the present study was to determine the phytochemical profile and antioxidant potential of a protein fraction (PF) derived from P. granatum sarcotesta which is rich in lectin. In addition, the acute oral toxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of this protein fraction (PF) from P. granatum sarcotesta was measured. The phytochemical profile of PF was determined using HPLC. The in vitro antioxidant effect was assessed using the methods of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging. Acute oral toxicity was determined in female Swiss mice administered a single dose of 2000 mg/kg. This PF was examined for genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, utilizing mouse peripheral blood cells. Phytochemical characterization detected a high content of ellagic acid and antioxidant capacity similar to that of ascorbic acid (positive control). PF was not toxic (LD50 >2000 mg/kg) and did not exert a genotoxic effect in mice. PF protected the DNA of peripheral blood cells against damage induced by cyclophosphamide. In conclusion, this PF fraction exhibited significant antioxidant activity without initiating toxic or genotoxic responses in mice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais , Punica granatum , Animais , Camundongos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Punica granatum/química , Lectinas/toxicidade , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 189: 114726, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759713

RESUMO

Despite its popularity along with many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of Aloe vera gel beverages remains unsettled. The putative toxicology concern has focused on the hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives (HADs) found in the latex portion of the Aloe leaf. Despite harvesting and processing designed to eliminate or significantly reduce these compounds, certain HADs, such as aloin, may be present and have been associated with carcinogenicity in non-decolorized whole leaf extract containing approximately 6400 ppm aloin A and 71 ppm aloin-emodin. Sprague Dawley rats had free access to drinking water or a commercially and widely available Aloe vera gel beverage (Forever Living Products) prepared from the inner leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller containing 3.43 ppm total aloin for 90 days. Under the conditions of the study and based on the toxicological endpoints evaluated, there were no adverse test substance-related findings, including altered thyroid hormones. No histologic differences or histopathological changes were detected in the multiple tissues and organs examined. The Ki-67 proliferation assay demonstrated no increased cell proliferation in the liver, lungs, kidneys, or urinary bladder, which might have been attributed to the dietary administration of the Aloe vera gel beverage via drinking water for 90 days. These data lend increasing confidence regarding the safety of appropriately processed Aloe vera gel beverages, such as the beverage tested in this study.


Assuntos
Aloe , Folhas de Planta , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Animais , Folhas de Planta/química , Aloe/química , Masculino , Ratos , Feminino , Administração Oral , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Bebidas , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Preparações de Plantas
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 332: 118403, 2024 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38821137

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE: Valeriana jatamansi Jones, belongs to the Valerianaceae family, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda, traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This traditional herb has been officially listed in the pharmacopoeia of sixteen countries. Its usage was first described in Diannan Bencao, also known as "Zhizhuxiang", is a famous folk medicine herb with a long history of medicinal usage in China, and it was used to treat indigestion, flu, and mental disorders in the Han, Achang, Bai, Blang, Dai, Jingpo, Naxi, and Wa ethnic groups. In recent years, V. jatamansi has attracted worldwide attention as an important medicinal due to its pharmacological activity especially in nervous and digestive systems, and multiple uses. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and quality control of V. jatamansi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information of V. jatamansi was obtained from several databases including Web of Science, PubMed, ACS Publications, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, Ph.D. and MSc dissertations, using "Valeriana jatamansi Jones", "Valeriana jatamansi", and "" as keywords. After eliminating repetitive and low-quality reports, the remaining reports were analyzed and summarized to prepare this review. Plant information was retrieved by www.worldfloraonline.org and www.gbif.org using "Valeriana jatamansi Jones" as keyword. RESULTS: V. jatamansi has been historically utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, neurological, and gastrointestinal disorders. More than 400 compounds have been identified in V. jatamansi including iridoids, volatile oils, lignans, flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, triterpenes as well as other compounds. The plant extracts and compounds showed various pharmacological activities such as antitumor, cytotoxic, antivirus, etc. In addition, V. jatamansi has found various applications in the agricultural, food, and cosmetics industry. CONCLUSION: A review of literature shows V. jatamansi has pharmacological properties valuable in treating diseases, particularly for antianxiety and gastrointestinal disorders. Despite a wide spectrum of effects from specific compounds, research mainly focuses on in vitro and in vivo, with a lack of pharmacokinetics, clinical trials and underlying mechanisms. Consequently, it becomes important to embark on additional researchs to elucidate the pharmacokinetics, material basis and mechanisms of V. jatamansi, thereby realizing the aspiration of its comprehensive utilization and sustainable development.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Controle de Qualidade , Valeriana , Valeriana/química , Humanos , Animais , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302657, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38787908

RESUMO

Ethnopharmacological relevance of Saussurea species for anti-cancer compounds instigated us to develop chemotherapeutic herbal tablets. This study was an ongoing part of our previous research based on the scientific evaluation of Saussurea heteromalla (S. heteromalla) for anti-cancer lead compounds. In the current study, S. heteromalla herbal tablets (500 /800 mg) were designed and evaluated for anti-cancer activity. Arctigenin was found as a bioactive lead molecule with anti-cancer potential for cervical cancer. The in vitro results on the HeLa cell line supported the ethnopharmacological relevance and traditional utilization of S. heteromalla and provided the scientific basis for the management of cervical cancer as proclaimed by traditional practitioners in China. LD50 of the crude extract was established trough oral acute toxicity profiling in mice, wherein the minimum lethal dose was noticed as higher than 1000 mg/kg body weight orally. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis ensured the identity and consistency of S. heteromalla in herbal tablets in terms of standardization of the herbal drug. About 99.15% of the drug (S. heteromalla crude extract) was recovered in herbal tablets (RSD: 0.45%). In vitro drug release profile was found to be more than 87% within 1 h, which was also correlated with different mathematical kinetic models of drug release (r2 = 0.992), indicating that drug release from matrix tablets into the blood is constant throughout the delivery. The dosage form was found stable after an accelerated stability parameters study which may be used for anti-cervical cancer therapy in the future, if it qualifies successful preclinical investigation parameters.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Saussurea , Saussurea/química , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Células HeLa , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Lignanas/química , Feminino , Furanos/toxicidade , Furanos/química , Furanos/farmacologia , Comprimidos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Masculino , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Dose Letal Mediana , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia
8.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 87(14): 579-591, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708983

RESUMO

Natural products are usually considered harmless; however, these substances need to be consumed with caution. Biological assays with plant models are a suitable alternative for prospective studies to assess natural product-initiated toxicity. The aim of this study was to examine the toxic potential of leaf and flower extracts derived from Tropaeolum majus L. a widely used plant in traditional medicine. Seeds of Lactuca sativa L. were exposed to T. majus extracts and based upon the seedling growth curve values, the 50% Inhibition Concentration (IC50) was calculated and applied for cell cycle analysis exposure. Both extracts contained organic acids, proteins, amino acids, and terpene steroids. Sesquiterpene lactones and depside were detected in leaf extracts. The higher concentration tested exhibited a marked phytotoxic effect. The extracts induced clastogenic, aneugenic cytotoxic, and potential mutagenic effects. The possible relationships between the classes of compounds found in the extracts and effects on cells and DNA were determined.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Germinação , Lactuca , Extratos Vegetais , Tropaeolum , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Lactuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tropaeolum/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Flores/química , Sementes/química
9.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 149: 105620, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615840

RESUMO

Botanical extracts, widely used in cosmetics, pose a challenge to safety assessment due to their complex compositions. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach, offering a safe exposure level for cosmetic ingredients, proves to be a promising solution for ensuring the safety of cosmetic ingredients with low exposure level. We assessed the safety of Paeonia lactiflora root extract (PLR), commonly used in skin conditioning products, with the TTC. We identified 50 constituents of PLR extract from the USDA database and literature exploration. Concentration of each constituent of PLR extract was determined with the information from USDA references, literature, and experimental analysis. The genotoxicity of PLR and its constituents was assessed in vitro and in silico respectively. Cramer class of the constituents of the PLR extract was determined with Toxtree 3.1 extended decision tree using ChemTunes®. Systemic exposure of each constituent from leave-on type cosmetic products containing PLR at a 1% concentration was estimated and compared with respective TTC threshold. Two constituents exceeding TTC threshold were further analyzed for dermal absorption using in silico tools, which confirmed the safety of PLR extract in cosmetics. Collectively, we demonstrated that the TTC is a useful tool for assessing botanical extract safety in cosmetics.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Paeonia , Extratos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas , Paeonia/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Absorção Cutânea , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118213, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636576

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerus (Cooke) Ryvarden is used by the local communities in Southeast Asia and China to treat cancer, asthma, fever, and other ailments based on traditional knowledge. The sclerotial water extracts were previously reported to exhibit cytotoxic, apoptotic, and immunomodulatory activities - providing a scientific basis for its use in treating cancer; however, there is still a lack of evidence on its potential anti-angiogenic activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the toxicity, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumour activities of the hot-water and cold-water extracts of L. rhinocerus using HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells implanted in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The toxicity of L. rhinocerus extracts towards the chick embryos was determined 24 h post-treatment. The anti-angiogenic activity of the extracts was then investigated at 0.1-10 µg/embryo (6.7-670 µg/mL) at targeted blood vessels. The anti-tumour effect of selected extracts against the HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells xenografted onto the chick embryos was also studied. RESULTS: The cold-water extracts of L. rhinocerus displayed strong in ovo toxicity (LC50: 1.2-37.7 µg/mL) while the hot-water extracts are non-toxic up to 670 µg/mL. Among the extracts, the hot-water extracts demonstrated the highest anti-angiogenic activity with 44.0 ± 17.7% reduction of capillary diameter (relative to the saline-treated control). Moreover, treatment of the HCT116 cells xenografted onto the chick embryos with the hot-water extracts resulted in smaller tumour size and lower number of blood vessels compared to the saline-treated control. CONCLUSIONS: The hot-water extracts of L. rhinocerus sclerotium demonstrated anti-angiogenic and anti-tumour activities but most of the cold-water extracts at similar concentrations were devoid of that. Our findings provide further scientific validation of the medicinal use of the sclerotium in treating cancer and thus, expanding our knowledge on the possible mechanism of its anti-cancer effect apart from direct cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and immunomodulation that have been studied thus far.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese , Membrana Corioalantoide , Neoplasias Colorretais , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Humanos , Células HCT116 , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/toxicidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Corioalantoide/irrigação sanguínea , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Água/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Polyporaceae/química
11.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 76(6): 579-591, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ranunculus L. genus contains 413 species, and it is the biggest genus in the family Ranunculaceae Juss. This review is to provide botanical characteristics, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and pharmaceutical preparations of the genus Ranunculus. KEY FINDINGS: The genus Ranunculus contains flavonoids, organic acids, coumarins, lactones, glycosides, sterols, polysaccharides, and trace elements. These chemical constituents complement the pharmacological actions and work together to exert anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antitubercular, antibacterial, antimalarial, etc. Those traditional Chinese medicine characteristics, like clearing away heat and detoxification, make this genus significant in ethnic medicine. The progress in research and the development of various pharmaceutical preparations made it appear in epidemiological and clinical studies. SUMMARY: The genus Ranunculus has attracted the attention of experts and scholars in many fields due to its unique advantages. However, there are many species that are not scientifically investigated. The toxicity issues are also a huge concern. Fortunately, the toxicity can be overcome via special processes like drying or heating and by choosing a safe extraction solvent, such as water thus ensuring the safety of medication. Pharmaceutical preparations containing the plants from Ranunculus have gratifying clinical value, but they are not promoted sufficiently. Therefore, further research should be carried out to promote the genus for its health benefits to humans.


Assuntos
Ranunculus , Ranunculus/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Ásia , Fitoterapia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Etnofarmacologia
12.
Environ Res ; 252(Pt 2): 118896, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642644

RESUMO

Green pesticides, derived from natural sources, have gained wider attention as an alternative to synthetic pesticides for managing polyphagous pests, such as Spodoptera litura. In this study, the methanolic flower extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (Mx-Na-t) was subjected to chemical screening, and 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-pyridone (3H-dp) and tyrosol (Ty-ol) were identified as the major derivatives. The toxic effects of Mx-Na-t (500 ppm) were highest in third-instar S. litura larvae (96.4%), while those of 3H-dp and Ty-ol (5 ppm) were highest in second-instar larvae (76.5% and 81.4%, respectively). The growth and development of S. litura larvae and pupae were significantly reduced by all three treatments. Fecundity rates were also reduced by all treatments [from 1020 eggs (control) to 540 eggs by Mx-Na-t treatment, 741 eggs by 3H-dp treatment, and 721 eggs by Ty-ol treatment]. The extract and its active constituents decreased adult emergence and slowed total larval development in a dose-dependent manner. A decrease was noted in the major gut enzymes of young S. litura larvae exposed to Mx-Na-t, 3H-dp, and Ty-ol. Moreover, midgut tissues of fourth-instar larvae were severely damaged by Mx-Na-t (250 ppm), 3H-dp (2.5 ppm), and Ty-ol (2.5 ppm); the treatments induced structural damage to the epithelial cells and gut lumen. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to assess nontarget toxicity. Compared with cypermethrin, the phytochemicals exhibited minimal effects on the earthworm's detoxifying enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase after 14 days of treatment. Moreover, in silico predictions using BeeTox and ProTox-II indicated little or no toxicity of 3H-dp and Ty-ol toward honey bees and other nontarget species.


Assuntos
Flores , Larva , Oligoquetos , Extratos Vegetais , Spodoptera , Animais , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 331: 118219, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663784

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Veratrum nigrum L. (V. nigrum) is a well-known herb with a lengthy history of use in Asian and European countries. V. nigrum has been traditionally used to treat epilepsy, hypertension, malignant sores, and stroke, and it possesses emetic and insecticide properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review summarized the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, and toxicity of V. nigrum as well as its incompatibility with other herbs. Current challenges in the use of V. nigrum and possible future research directions were also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on V. nigrum was collected from electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI, and WanFang DATA; Masterpieces of Traditional Chinese Medicine; local Chinese Materia Medica Standards; and relevant documents. RESULTS: In ethnomedical practice, V. nigrum has been used as an emetic and insecticide. Approximately 137 compounds have been isolated from V. nigrum, including alkaloids, stilbenes, flavonoids, organic acids, and esters. Its crude extracts and compounds have shown various effects, including anticancer, hypotensive, insecticidal, and antimicrobial activities as well as the ability to improve hemorheological abnormalities. Pharmacokinetic studies have indicated that veratramine (VAM) and jervine have high bioavailability and possibly enterohepatic circulation. In addition, the sex-related pharmacokinetic differences in V. nigrum alkaloids warrant further attention. Toxicological studies have indicated that cevanine-type alkaloids and VAM may be the main toxic components of V. nigrum, and purine metabolism disorders may be related to V. nigrum toxicity. Furthermore, the neurotoxicity and embryotoxicity of V. nigrum have also been observed. The quality control of V. nigrum and the mechanism underlying its incompatibility with other herbs also deserve further research and refinement. CONCLUSION: This review summarized the existing information on V. nigrum, laying the foundation for further studies on this herb and its safe use. Among the various compounds present in V. nigrum, steroid alkaloids are the most numerous and have high content; furthermore, they are closely related to the pharmacological effects of V. nigrum, but their toxicity can not also be ignored. Given that toxicity is a critical issue limiting the clinical application of V. nigrum, more toxicological studies on V. nigrum and its active ingredients, especially steroid alkaloids, should be conducted in the future to further explore its toxicity targets and the underlying mechanisms and to provide more evidence and recommendations to enhance the safety of its clinical application.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Veratrum , Humanos , Animais , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Veratrum/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia
14.
Acta Trop ; 255: 107224, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643822

RESUMO

Green silver nanoparticles (G-Ag NPs) have contributed to the development of ecological technologies with low environmental impact and safer for human health, as well as demonstrating potential for the control of vectors and intermediate hosts. However, knowledge about its toxicity in the early stages of gastropod development remains scarce. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the toxicity of G-Ag NPs synthesized from Croton urucurana leaf extracts in snail species Biomphalaria glabrata, which is an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni parasite. G-Ag NPs were synthesized using two types of plant extracts (aqueous and hydroethanolic) and characterized using multiple techniques. Bioassays focused on investigating G-Ag NPs and plant extracts were carried out with embryos and newly hatched snails, for 144 h and 96 h, respectively; toxicity was analyzed based on mortality, hatching, development inhibition, and morphological changes. Results have shown that both G-Ag NPs were more toxic to embryos and newly hatched snails than the investigated plant extracts. G-Ag NPs deriving from aqueous extract have higher molluscicidal activity than those deriving from hydroethanolic extract. Both G-Ag NPs induced mortality, hatching delay, development inhibition, and morphological changes (i.e., hydropic embryos), indicating their molluscicidal activities. Moreover, embryos were more sensitive to G-Ag NPs than newly hatched snails. Thus, the toxicity of G-Ag NPs to freshwater snails depends on the type of extracts and the snail's developmental stages. These findings can contribute to the development of green nanobiotechnologies applicable to control snails of medical importance.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Croton , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Extratos Vegetais , Prata , Animais , Prata/toxicidade , Biomphalaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Croton/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Água Doce , Folhas de Planta/química , Moluscocidas/toxicidade , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118109, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570147

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai., a commonly used herb, is known as "Guan Zhong" in China, "Oshida" in Japan and "Gwanjung" in Korea. It has long been used for parasitic infestation, hemorrhages and epidemic influenza. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present paper aims to provide an up-to-date review at the advancements of the investigations on the traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of D. crassirhizoma. Besides, possible trends, therapeutic potentials, and perspectives for future research of this plant are also briefly discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant information on traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of D. crassirhizoma was collected through published materials and electronic databases, including the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Flora of China, Web of Science, PubMed, Baidu Scholar, Google Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. 109 papers included in the article and we determined that no major information was missing after many checks. All authors participated in the review process for this article and all research paper are from authoritative published materials and electronic databases. RESULTS: 130 chemical components, among which phloroglucinols are the predominant groups, have been isolated and identified from D. crassirhizoma. D. crassirhizoma with its bioactive compounds is possessed of extensive biological activities, including anti-parasite, anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, bone protective, immunomodulatory, anti-platelet and anti-hyperuricemia activity. Besides, D. crassirhizoma has special toxicology and pharmacokinetics characterization. CONCLUSIONS: D. crassirhizoma is a traditional Chinese medicine having a long history of application. This review mainly summarized the different chemical components extract from D. crassirhizoma and various reported pharmacological effects. Besides, the toxicology and pharmacokinetics of D. crassirhizoma also be analysed in this review. However, the chemical components of D. crassirhizoma are understudied and require further research to expand its medicinal potential, and it is urgent to design a new extraction scheme, so that the active ingredients can be obtained at a lower cost.


Assuntos
Botânica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Dryopteris , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Etnofarmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
16.
Toxicon ; 243: 107725, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642904

RESUMO

Kochiae Fructus (KF) is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used to delay aging and treat inflammation, such as rubella, eczema, cutaneous pruritus, etc. In order to fully understand the traditional medicinal value of KF, we evaluated the antioxidant properties and oral safety of its ethanolic extract. Considering flavonoids and phenolics in medicinal plants generally have strong antioxidant activity, we firstly detected the total flavonoids and phenolics contents of KFEE and its fractions. Secondly, we evaluated the antioxidant activities of KFEE and its fractions. Finally, we evaluated the oral safety of KFEE by the acute and 28-day subacute toxicities. The n-butanol fraction (ENBF) possessed the highest phenolics and flavonoids with values of 77.30 ± 3.17 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 228.81 ± 7.56 mg rutin equivalents/g, respectively. The results of antioxidant tests showed that ENBF possessed potent antioxidant ability. Among them, the high antioxidation capacity observed in ENBF could be attributed to its rich content of flavonoids and phenolics. The results of toxicological studies showed that the LD50 value of KFEE was 6000 mg/kg BW, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of KFEE was 600 mg/kg BW. According to the standards of the American Academy of Sciences for the classification of toxic substances, KFEE can be classified as practically non-toxic substance, which provided valuable evidence for the oral safety of KF as a natural aging delay medicine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Fenóis/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Camundongos , Masculino , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Frutas/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Feminino , Administração Oral , Etanol/química
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 330: 118200, 2024 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621467

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Malaria eradication has been a major goal of the Indonesian government since 2020. Medicinal plants, such as Strychnos lucida R. Br., are empirically used to treat malaria through traditional preparation methods. However, the safety and efficacy of these plants have not yet been confirmed. Therefore, further investigations are necessary to confirm the safety and efficacy of S. lucida as an antimalarial agent. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To quantify the concentration of brucine in the S. lucida extract, determine the acute oral toxicity of the standardized extract, and evaluate the in vivo antimalarial potency of S. lucida tablet (SLT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute oral toxicity of S.lucida extract was determined using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 420 procedure, and the analytical method for brucine quantification was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, antimalarial activity was determined using the Peter's four-day suppressive method. RESULTS: Acute toxicity analysis revealed S. lucida as a low-toxicity compound with a cut-off median lethal dose of 2000-5000 mg/kg body weight [BW], which was supported by the hematological and biochemical profiles of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas (p > 0.05). Extract standardization revealed that S. lucida contained 3.91 ± 0.074% w/w brucine, adhering to the limit specified in the Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopeia. Antimalarial test revealed that SLT inhibited the growth of Plasmodium berghei by 27.74-45.27%. Moreover, SLT improved the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. White blood cell and lymphocyte counts were lower in the SLT-treated group than in the K (+) group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Histopathological and biochemical evaluations revealed that S. lucida extract was safe at a dose of 2000 mg/kg BW with low toxicity. SLT inhibited Plasmodium growth and improved the hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell profiles. Additionally, SLT reduced the lymphocyte and WBC counts and increased the monocyte and thrombocyte counts as part of the immune system response against Plasmodium infection.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Extratos Vegetais , Plasmodium berghei , Strychnos , Comprimidos , Antimaláricos/toxicidade , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Camundongos , Masculino , Strychnos/química , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Estricnina/toxicidade , Estricnina/farmacologia , Feminino , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Dose Letal Mediana
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 330: 118111, 2024 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653394

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Schima wallichii (D.C.) Korth is traditionally used in Manipur, India for treatment of diabetes and hypertension. However, there is no data reported regarding safety profile of this medicinal plant upon repeated per oral administration over a period of time. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the current study phytochemical profile, toxicological profile and total phenolic and flavonoid compound content of Schima wallichii leaves extract were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was performed for chemical profiling by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), Shimadzu, TQ8040 system. A 28 days sub-acute toxicity study was carried out using albino Wistar rats by administering 3 different doses (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight per oral) of methanol leaves extract. Changes in body weights were recorded weekly. Serum biochemical parameters were estimated as well as blood-cell count was done to check the effect of extract on haematopoietic system. Histopathology of vital organs viz. kidney, heart, brain, liver was performed to find any pathological indications. Since, liver is main the site for xenobiotic metabolism, estimation of the level of glutathione, catalase and lipid peroxidation were done. Further, total phenolic and flavonoid compound content estimation was performed for the leaves extract. RESULTS: GC-MS revealed 14 major compounds with area percentage >1% of which quinic acid, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)-, Octatriacontyl trifluoroacetate, are three major compounds. No mortality was observed after the treatment with extract. Blood-cell count and biochemical parameters didn't show significant deviation as compared to control group. Histopathology study of vital organs viz. (liver, kidney, heart and brain) showed normal cellular construction comparing to control group. There was no sign of membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of catalase level and glutathione level in liver. The result demonstrates that NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect levels) in the sub-acute toxicity was above 800 mg/kg. The leaves extract showed significant total phenol and flavonoid content. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that Schima wallichii possessed important bioactive compounds with therapeutic values. The plant was safe for consumption after repeated high doses administration in rats and possesses significant amount of total phenol and flavonoid content.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hipoglicemiantes , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Ratos Wistar , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Flavonoides/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Fenóis/toxicidade , Fenóis/análise , Masculino , Hipoglicemiantes/toxicidade , Ratos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Metanol/química , Feminino , Medicina Tradicional , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 330: 118252, 2024 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663782

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Atractylis aristata batt., as an endemic plant from the Asteraceae family, holds a significant position in the Ahaggar region of southern Algeria's traditional medicine. The aerial parts of Atractylis aristata was used to cure inflammation, fever, and stomach disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the present investigation was to ascertain the overall bioactive components and phytochemical components and examine the antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, acute toxicity, and sedative properties of the crude extract obtained from the aerial portions of Atractylis aristata (AaME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The AaME's antioxidant activity was assessed by the use of pyrogallol autoxidation, (1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and reducing power (RP) techniques. 1 mg/mL of AaME was used to evaluate the antidiabetic activity by applying the enzyme α-amylase inhibitory power test. At the same time, the bovine serum albumin (BSA) denaturation method was employed to quantify the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity at different concentrations (1.5625, 0.78125, 0.390625, 0.1953125 and 0.09765625 mg/mL). In contrast, following the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline No. 423, which covers acute oral toxicity testing protocols, the limit dosage test was employed to assess in vivo acute toxicity. At the dose of 0.08 mg/mL, the carrageenan-induced paw edema approach was used to assess the anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo, and the sedative activity was carried out at the dose of 0.08 mg/mL using the measurement of the locomotor method. Different bioactive compounds were identified within AaME using LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV analysis. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed no fatalities or noticeable neurobehavioral consequences at the limit test; this led to their classification in Globally Harmonized System (GHS) category Five, as the OECD guideline No 423 recommended. At a concentration of 0.08 mg/mL (2000 mg/kg), AaME showed apparent inhibition of paw edema and a significant (p = 0.01227) reduction in locomotor activity compared to the control animals. Our findings showed that AaME exhibited considerable antioxidant (IC50 = 0.040 ± 0.003 mg/mL (DPPH), IC50 = 0.005 ± 5.77 × 10-5 mg/mL (ABTS), AEAC = 91.15 ± 3.921 mg (RP) and IR% = 23.81 ± 4.276 (Inhibition rate of pyrogallol) and rebuts antidiabetic activities (I% = 57.6241% ± 2.81772). Our findings revealed that the maximum percentage of BSA inhibition (70.84 ± 0.10%) was obtained at 1.562.5 mg/mL. Thus, the AaME phytochemical profile performed using phytochemical screening, HPLC-UV, and LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that A. aristata can be a valuable source of chemicals with biological activity for pharmaceutical manufacturers. CONCLUSION: The phytochemical profiling, determined through HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS applications, reveals this plant's therapeutic value. The aerial parts of Atractylis aristata contain bioactive molecules such as gallic acid, ascorbic acid, and quercetin, contributing to its significant antioxidant capabilities. Furthermore, identifying alizarin, the active compound responsible for its anti-inflammatory properties, could provide evidence supporting the anti-inflammatory capabilities of this subspecies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Hipoglicemiantes , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Masculino , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/isolamento & purificação , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Asteraceae/química , Ratos Wistar , Ratos , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 329: 118069, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552992

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Dioscorea, a member of the Dioscoreaceae family, comprises approximately 600 species and is widely distributed across temperate and tropical regions such as Asia, South Africa, and North America. The traditional medicinal uses of Dioscorea have been documented in Asian and African pharmacological systems. In Asia, this genus is traditionally used to treat respiratory illnesses, rheumatism, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, and other conditions. In Africa, this genus has been used to treat human immunodeficiency virus and ring worms. However, the traditional medicinal practices in North America rarely mention the use of this genus. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this review is to comprehensively review the genus Dioscorea, focusing on its traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and potential toxicities. The research also aims to highlight the valuable bioactive compounds within Dioscorea and emphasize the need for further investigations into acute and chronic toxicity, activity mechanisms, molecular markers, and other relevant factors to contribute to the discovery of novel pharmaceuticals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search for available information on Dioscorea was conducted using scientific databases, including PubMed, ISI-WOS, Scopus, and Google Scholar, as well as recent academic publications from reputable publishers and other literature sources. The search was not limited by language and spanned the literature published between 1950 and 2022. RESULTS: This article provides a comprehensive review of the Dioscorea genus, focusing on its traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and potential toxicities. Extensive research has been conducted on this genus, resulting in the isolation and examination of over 1000 compounds, including steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids, to determine their biological activities. These activities include anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. However, some studies have indicated the potential toxicity of high doses of Dioscorea, highlighting the need for further investigations to assess the safety of this genus. Additionally, this review explores potential avenues for future research and discusses the challenges associated with a comprehensive understanding of the Dioscorea genus. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the existing literature, it can be concluded that Dioscorea is a valuable source of bioactive compounds that have the potential to treat various disorders. Future research should prioritize the investigation of acute and chronic toxicity, activity mechanisms, molecular markers, and other relevant factors. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the Dioscorea genus, emphasizing its potential to enable a deeper exploration of the biological activity mechanisms of these plants and contribute to the discovery of novel pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Dioscorea , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Humanos , Dioscorea/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
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