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1.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 26(3): 9-15, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063747

RESUMO

Embologenic arterial obstruction remains an extremely important problem of modern medicine. Emboli may affect virtually all arterial vessels of the greater circulation and in some cases arterial emboli may be multiple. The purpose of the present study was to work out a classification of multiple arterial emboli. Analysing the clinical material including over 30 years a total of 1804 patients with embolism of the aorta and major arteries of the limbs made it possible to define the range of the terms used and to submit for discussion a classification describing a situation where emboli affect simultaneously several arteries or occur repeatedly. Both cases involve several emboli migrating from the primary source into the arterial bed, therefore we suggest that all these emboli be called multiple. Simultaneous multiple emboli were classified as combined, multifocal, and layered, with repeated emboli classified as preceding, recurrent, early and remote. Simultaneous emboli were observed in 91 (5%) patients, of these, in 22 - combined, in 49 - multifocal, in 19 - layered, and in 1 case - combined and multifocal. Repeated emboli were revealed at various terms and encountered virtually in each third patient. Overall mortality amongst the patients with embolism of the aorta and arteries of the limbs over 30 years amounted to 13%, having over the last decade decreased to 7.6%. Multiple arterial emboli significantly influenced the outcomes of treatment, with the mortality rate in combined emboli increasing virtually to 50% and that in multifocal and layered emboli exceeding 20% (p<0.05). Early recurrent emboli in the postoperative period were observed in 6.8% of patients, significantly deteriorating the prognosis (mortality - 49.2%). In the remote period, 22.4% of the patients were operated on for recurrent embolism of arteries of the extremities, with more than 25% of the patients having experienced emboli of cerebral or visceral arteries. Recurrent thromboembolic complications played a significant role in the thanatogenesis in each 4th patient.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas , Embolia , Aorta , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia/complicações , Embolia/diagnóstico , Extremidades , Humanos
2.
Zootaxa ; 4801(3): zootaxa.4801.3.10, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056651

RESUMO

Males of four new species of caddisflies, Polyplectropus hofmaierae n. sp. (Polycentropodidae), Eoneureclipsis chinachotiae n. sp. (Psychomyiidae), Hydropsyche khaonanensis n. sp. (Hydropsychidae), and Lannapsyche tairomyenensis n. sp. (Odontoceridae) are described and illustrated. Polyplectropus hofmaierae n. sp. is distinguished from other species by the shape of the apical end of its inferior appendages and its sharp intermediate appendages. The posterior edges of their inferior appendages run slanting to the ventrodistal point and are densely covered by short and stiff bristles. Eoneureclipsis chinachotiae n. sp. is differentiated by characters of its phallus, as the first two thirds of its length are slender and slightly curved. The distal part has a dorsal hump with a very slender thread on its caudal edge and is slightly bent downward and dilated. Hydropsyche khaonanensis n. sp. can be differentiated from the other species by its phallus, in which the two apicolateral lobes in ventral view have rounded outer edges. Lannapsyche tairomyenensis n. sp. can be separated from the others by characteristics of the dorsal view of segment IX and the harpago of its inferior appendages. Segment IX is triangular with distinctly convex preanal appendages along the posterior edge of this segment, and the harpago and subapical lobes are relatively similar in shape and length.


Assuntos
Insetos , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Extremidades , Holometábolos , Masculino , Tailândia
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201410, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043862

RESUMO

Joint friction has never previously been considered in the computation of mechanical and metabolic energy balance of human and animal (loco)motion, which heretofore included just muscle work to move the body centre of mass (external work) and body segments with respect to it. This happened mainly because, having been previously measured ex vivo, friction was considered to be almost negligible. Present evidences of in vivo damping of limb oscillations, motion captured and processed by a suited mathematical model, show that: (a) the time course is exponential, suggesting a viscous friction operated by the all biological tissues involved; (b) during the swing phase, upper limbs report a friction close to one-sixth of the lower limbs; (c) when lower limbs are loaded, in an upside-down body posture allowing to investigate the hip joint subjected to compressive forces as during the stance phase, friction is much higher and load dependent; and (d) the friction of the four limbs during locomotion leads to an additional internal work that is a remarkable fraction of the mechanical external work. These unprecedented results redefine the partitioning of the energy balance of locomotion, the internal work components, muscle and transmission efficiency, and potentially readjust the mechanical paradigm of the different gaits.


Assuntos
Extremidades , Articulações , Locomoção , Animais , Fricção , Humanos , Metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico
4.
Zootaxa ; 4853(1): zootaxa.4853.1.9, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056390

RESUMO

Males of four new species of caddisflies from Kampong Speu and Siem Reap provinces, Cambodia [Psychomyia kimcheangi n. sp. (Psychomyiidae), Macrostemum siemreapensis n. sp. (Hydropsychidae), Leptocerus angkorwatensis n. sp. (Leptoceridae), and Trichosetodes kampongspeuensis n. sp. (Leptoceridae)] are described and illustrated. Psychomyia kimcheangi n. sp. can be distinguished from other species by characters of the inferior appendages. The main body of each inferior appendage has two branches that are separated near its base but are parallel and close together until the end. In Macrostemum siemreapensis n. sp. the dorsal tip of the phallus has no curved hooklet but instead a knot-like protruding structure in ventral view and looped-like structure in dorsal view. Leptocerus angkorwatensis n. sp. can be distinguished from others by the characters of long needled-like preanal appendages. Trichosetodes kampongspeuensis is distinguished from others by the characters of segment IX in ventral view, which is asymmetrical, and inferior appendages that are not divided and asymmetrical.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Insetos , Animais , Camboja , Extremidades , Masculino
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20192939, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933441

RESUMO

Salamanders, frog tadpoles and diverse lizards have the remarkable ability to regenerate tails. Palaeontological data suggest that this capacity is plesiomorphic, yet when the developmental and genetic architecture of tail regeneration arose is poorly understood. Here, we show morphological and molecular hallmarks of tetrapod tail regeneration in the West African lungfish Protopterus annectens, a living representative of the sister group of tetrapods. As in salamanders, lungfish tail regeneration occurs via the formation of a proliferative blastema and restores original structures, including muscle, skeleton and spinal cord. In contrast with lizards and similar to salamanders and frogs, lungfish regenerate spinal cord neurons and reconstitute dorsoventral patterning of the tail. Similar to salamander and frog tadpoles, Shh is required for lungfish tail regeneration. Through RNA-seq analysis of uninjured and regenerating tail blastema, we show that the genetic programme deployed during lungfish tail regeneration maintains extensive overlap with that of tetrapods, with the upregulation of genes and signalling pathways previously implicated in amphibian and lizard tail regeneration. Furthermore, the lungfish tail blastema showed marked upregulation of genes encoding post-transcriptional RNA processing components and transposon-derived genes. Our results show that the developmental processes and genetic programme of tetrapod tail regeneration were present at least near the base of the sarcopterygian clade and establish the lungfish as a valuable research system for regenerative biology.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Cauda/fisiologia , Animais , Extremidades/fisiologia , Filogenia , Regeneração/fisiologia
6.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(8): 692-696, 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867464

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol liposome doxorubicin (PLD) in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Methods: This study was a single-center retrospective clinical study. Two hundreds and seventy-six classical osteosarcoma treated in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from 2015 to 2016 were enrolled. There were 213 patients who received combined chemotherapy of high dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, cisplatin and doxorubicin (ADM) were classified in ADM group. Other 63 patients received the same types, doses and cycles of chemotherapy drugs except ADM replaced by PLD were identified as PLD group. Clinical and imaging evaluation and surgical treatment were performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tumor necrosis rate was examined according to Huvos method. The efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated based on 90% necrosis rate. The recurrence, metastasis and survival were followed up regularly after operation. The adverse reactions of hematology, hepatorenal toxicity, gastrointestinal reaction and cardiotoxicity were evaluated. Results: There were no significant differences between PLD group and ADM group in age, sex, location, stage and surgical margin (all P>0.05). There were no significant differences in clinical symptoms and imaging evaluation between PLD group and ADM group after preoperative chemotherapy (all P>0.05). The tumor necrosis rate was detected in 134 cases. Among 27 cases of PLD group, tumor necrosis rates more than 90% were 11 cases, while among 107 cases of ADM group, tumor necrosis rates more than 90% were 45 cases. No significant difference of tumor necrosis rate between this two group was observed (P=0.901). The recurrence rates of PLD group and ADM group were 7.8% (4/51) and 7.3% (12/164), the metastasis rates were 19.6% (10/51) and 16.5% (27/164), the median progression free survival (PFS) were 42 and 37 months, respectively, without significant differences (all P>0.05). The incidence of granulocytopenia and decrease degree of granulocytes in PLD group were significantly lower than those in ADM group (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidences of thrombocytopenia, anemia, gastrointestinal reaction, liver function damage and stomatitis between two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: PLD and ADM have similar chemotherapeutic effects in osteosarcoma. The incidences of adverse reactions of PLD are lower, especially the hematological toxicity represented by granulocytopenia is significantly reduced. PLD has a better application prospect.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Lipossomos/uso terapêutico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Extremidades , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Polietilenoglicóis , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5319-5325, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878824

RESUMO

AIM: This study was interested in extremity leiomyosarcoma with focus on clinical outcome after surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case series of all patients with leiomyosarcoma, surgically treated between 2000 and 2015 and a minimum follow-up of 2 years, was drawn from institutional databases in Belgium and the Netherlands. Postoperative complications were reported with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the Henderson classification. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were operated on, of whom 47 underwent (neo)adjuvant therapy. Infection was observed in 11 patients, seven associated with (neo)adjuvant radiotherapy. Dermatological complaints were observed in 26 patients, 10 associated with (neo)adjuvant radiotherapy. Overall survival was 60%. Local recurrence occurred in 11 (15%) patients. CONCLUSION: This study describes favourable clinical outcome following (neo)adjuvant radiotherapy. In the future, larger databases on leiomyosarcoma should enhance the power of these findings and define the benefits of adjuvant therapy in leiomyosarcoma.


Assuntos
Extremidades/patologia , Leiomiossarcoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Leiomiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Leiomiossarcoma/mortalidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1221-1228, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913160

RESUMO

Background: : Vascular injuries are commonly seen in both emergency services and forensic medicine practise. They are often life-threatening, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Aims: This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate extremity vascular injuries and the associated treatment approaches. Methods: After obtaining approval from the ethics committee of the university, those patients admitted to the emergency department of Adiyaman between 1 February 2013 and 31 August 2018 were included in this study. The patients' data were obtained through the electronic records system, and the cases were evaluated according to the age, gender and cause of injury, including blunt force trauma injuries (accidents, traffic accidents, crush injuries and occupational accidents) and penetrating injuries (stabbing, gunshot wounds, suicide attempts and assaults). Additionally, the injuries were evaluated based on the extremity, according to the anatomical location and whether the injury was life-threatening. Results: This study included 76 patients with extremity vascular injuries; 65 were males (85.52%), 11 were females (14.48%) and their average age was 33.24 ± 15.85 years. Forty-five (59.2%) of the patients had upper extremity vascular injuries, and 31 (40.3%) had lower extremity vascular injuries. In addition to arterial injuries, 26 (34.21%) of the patients had venous injuries and 22 (28.94%) had nerve injuries. Nine of these patients had neurological deficits due to their nerve injuries. All of the patients were revascularized within 3-5 hours, and none of the patients required amputations. Conclusion: The primary goals in extremity vessel injury cases are to prevent mortality, especially after major vascular injuries, and save the extremity from amputation. With a fast, effective and multi-disciplinary approach, an accurate diagnosis and effective surgical intervention can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce the rate of undesirable complications.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Adulto , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/lesões , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Extremidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/cirurgia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(6-7): 501-512, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807685

RESUMO

Sarcomas are rare tumours arising from mesenchymal tissue. A multimodal management in an expert centre combining surgery and radiotherapy is the current standard of care for localized soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities, to enable limb-sparing strategies. The delivery of pre- radiotherapy or postoperative radiotherapy offers similar local control and survival rates but the toxicity profile is quite different: preoperative radiotherapy increases the risk of wound complications and postoperative radiotherapy affects long-term functional outcomes. While postoperative radiotherapy has long been the rule, especially in Europe, technical improvements with image-guided- and intensity-modulated radiotherapy associated with a better management of postoperative wounds has tended to change practices with more frequent preoperative radiotherapy. More recently the possibilities of a hypofractionated regimen or potentiation by nanoparticles to increase the therapeutic index plead in favour of a preoperative delivery of radiotherapy. The aim of this paper is to report pros and cons of pre- and post-operative radiotherapy for soft-tissue sarcomas.


Assuntos
Sarcoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Extremidades , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia
10.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(6)2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815696

RESUMO

Cryptococcosis is a rare opportunistic infection with morphologically diverse cutaneous presentations. Primary infection typically occurs in the lungs with subsequent hematogenous dissemination to other organ systems, especially in immunocompromised patients. Herein, we report a woman in her 70's who presented with pruritic, umbilicated papulonodules of the bilateral upper and lower extremities present for many weeks. She was diagnosed with disseminated Cryptococcus and subsequently evaluated for potential pulmonary and meningeal disease involvement. She died as a result of multiple medical comorbidities.


Assuntos
Criptococose/diagnóstico , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , Extremidades/microbiologia , Idoso , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Criptococose/etiologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Extremidades/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Virilha/microbiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas , Fatores de Risco
11.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(8): 751-753, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829620

RESUMO

The maintenance of posture and anti-contracture treatment are the critical elements of comprehensive burn rehabilitation in the overall treatment period of pediatric burns. Although domestic experts in burn discipline have formulated guidelines for burn rehabilitation, the maintenance of posture and design and manufacture of splints for anti-scar contractures in children with burns are different from that for adults with burns in many ways. Starting with paying the attention to the rehabilitation problems in pediatric burns, especially considering the anatomical, psychological, and social behavior characteristics of children in developmental period, the author's team effectively applies splints to maximize the prevention of contractures in children and maintain and improve the range of their joint movements. The splints designed to prevent contractures in pediatric burns shall fit the small limb and meet their expected goals of rehabilitation. In each aspect of the production and use of splints, it is necessary to fully evaluate and consider the scar characteristics, growth and development status, activity level, and compliance of children, and adaptability and fixation methods of the splints, so as to select the appropriate splint type and formulate the wearing plan.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Contenções , Criança , Cicatriz , Contratura , Extremidades , Humanos
12.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 88: 102058, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619864

RESUMO

Soft tissue sarcomas constitute 1% of adult malignant tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of more than 50 different histologic types. Isolated limb perfusion is an established treatment strategy for locally advanced sarcomas. Since its adoption for sarcomas in 1992, after the addition of TNFα, few modifications have been done and although indications for the procedure are essentially the same across centers, technical details vary widely. The procedures mainly involves a 60 min perfusion with melphalan and TNFα under mild hyperthermia, achieving a limb preservation rate of 72-96%; with an overall response rates from 72 to 82.5% and an acceptable toxicity according to the Wieberdink scale. The local failure rate is 27% after a median follow up of 14-31 months compared to 40% of distant recurrences after a follow up of 12-22 months. Currently there is no consensus regarding the benefit of ILP per histotype, and the value of addition of radiotherapy or systemic treatment. Further developments towards individualized treatments will provide a better understanding of the population that can derive maximum benefit of ILP with the least morbidity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/métodos , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia do Câncer por Perfusão Regional/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Extremidades/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidades/patologia , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Melfalan/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730302

RESUMO

Surgical castration of male piglets without analgesia is a painful procedure. This prospective, randomized and double-blinded study aimed to evaluate the analgesic effects of four different local anesthetics for piglet castration during the first week of life. In total, 54 piglets aged 3 to 7 days were distributed into 6 treatment groups: handling (H); castration without pain relief (sodium chloride, NaCl); and castration with a local anesthetic: 4% procaine (P), 2% lidocaine (L), 0.5% bupivacaine (B) or 20 mg/ml mepivacaine (M). By excluding stress and fear as disruptive factors via a minimum anesthesia model, all piglets received individual minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) isoflurane anesthesia. Twenty minutes before castration, all treatment groups except group H received one injection per testis. Then, 0.5 ml of a local anesthetic or NaCl was injected intratesticularly (i.t.), and 0.5 ml was administered subscrotally. Acute physiological responses to noxious stimuli at injection and castration were evaluated by measuring blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and chromogranin A (CgA); limb movements were quantified. The results confirm that castration without analgesia is highly painful. Surgical castration without pain relief revealed significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and HR. Local anesthetic administration significantly reduced changes in BP and HR associated with castration. Piglets receiving a preoperative local anesthetic exhibited the fewest limb movements during castration, while the NaCl group exhibited the most. Injection itself was not associated with significant changes in MAP or HR. However, many piglets exhibited limb movements during injection, indicating that the injection itself causes nociceptive pain. No significant differences were found between groups regarding parameters of plasma cortisol, catecholamines and CgA. In conclusion, all four local anesthetics administered are highly effective at reducing signs of nociception during castration under light isoflurane anesthesia. However, injection of a local anesthetic seems to be painful.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea , Castração/veterinária , Extremidades/fisiologia , Movimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Castração/métodos , Catecolaminas/sangue , Frequência Cardíaca , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Suínos
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 293-310, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707087

RESUMO

We identified ten persons in six consanguineous families with distal arthrogryposis (DA) who had congenital contractures, scoliosis, and short stature. Exome sequencing revealed that each affected person was homozygous for one of two different rare variants (c.470G>T [p.Cys157Phe] or c.469T>C [p.Cys157Arg]) affecting the same residue of myosin light chain, phosphorylatable, fast skeletal muscle (MYLPF). In a seventh family, a c.487G>A (p.Gly163Ser) variant in MYLPF arose de novo in a father, who transmitted it to his son. In an eighth family comprised of seven individuals with dominantly inherited DA, a c.98C>T (p.Ala33Val) variant segregated in all four persons tested. Variants in MYLPF underlie both dominant and recessively inherited DA. Mylpf protein models suggest that the residues associated with dominant DA interact with myosin whereas the residues altered in families with recessive DA only indirectly impair this interaction. Pathological and histological exam of a foot amputated from an affected child revealed complete absence of skeletal muscle (i.e., segmental amyoplasia). To investigate the mechanism for this finding, we generated an animal model for partial MYLPF impairment by knocking out zebrafish mylpfa. The mylpfa mutant had reduced trunk contractile force and complete pectoral fin paralysis, demonstrating that mylpf impairment most severely affects limb movement. mylpfa mutant muscle weakness was most pronounced in an appendicular muscle and was explained by reduced myosin activity and fiber degeneration. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that partial loss of MYLPF function can lead to congenital contractures, likely as a result of degeneration of skeletal muscle in the distal limb.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Criança , Contratura/genética , Extremidades/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miosinas/genética , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/genética
15.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658179

RESUMO

Classical experiments in salamander regenerative biology over the last century have long established that the wound epidermis is a crucial signaling structure that forms rapidly post-amputation and is required for limb regeneration. However, methods to study its precise function at the molecular level over the last decades have been limited due to a paucity of precise functional techniques and genomic information available in salamander model systems. Excitingly, the recent plethora of sequencing technologies coupled with the release of various salamander genomes and the advent of functional genetic testing methods, including CRISPR, makes it possible to re-visit these foundational experiments at unprecedented molecular resolution. Here, I describe how to perform the classically developed full skin flap (FSF) surgery in adult axolotls in order to inhibit wound epidermis formation immediately following amputation. The wound epidermis normally forms via distal migration of epithelial cells in the skin proximal to the amputation plane to seal off the wound from the outside environment. The surgery entails immediately suturing full thickness skin (which includes both epidermal and dermal layers) over the amputation plane to hinder epithelial cell migration and contact with the underlying damaged mesenchymal tissues. Successful surgeries result in the inhibition of blastema formation and limb regeneration. By combining this surgery method with contemporary downstream molecular and functional analyses, researchers can begin to uncover the molecular underpinnings of wound epidermis function and biology during limb regeneration.


Assuntos
Ambystoma mexicanum , Epiderme/fisiologia , Epiderme/cirurgia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Regeneração , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Cicatrização , Amputação , Animais , Movimento Celular , Transdução de Sinais
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726347

RESUMO

The effect of dressings saturated with either a standardized suspension of probiotic bacteria or saline on healing of traumatic distal limb wounds in horses was evaluated for 24 days, and the systemic inflammatory effect was assessed. The wounds were divided in two groups based on the phase of healing: wounds with an incomplete (ICGB) or a complete granulation bed (CGB). The wound area was expressed as percentage of the wound area at day 0 and defined as relative wound area. The mean relative wound area decreased faster in probiotic than saline treated wounds. The difference was most obvious in CGB and increased rapidly from day 0 until day 12 up to 30%, and stabilized around 25% thereafter until the end of the observation period, but it was not statistically significant because of the large variation within the treatment groups. The mean wound area of CGB decreased to 28.4% (range: 6.3 to 49.3) with probiotic and to 51.9% (range: 29.3 to 81.7) with saline treatment at day 24. Additionally, the rate to 50% healing in CGB was 3.4 faster with probiotic compared to saline treatment, whereas in ICGB this was 1.9 faster. Topical probiotics did not increase serum amyloid A and white blood cell counts. Although the mentioned differences were not statistically significant, the clinical relevance of the effect of treatment with probiotics in CGB wounds is clear, supported by the differences in mean wound area in course of time and the time required to reach 50% healing (day 12 for probiotic vs more than day 24 for saline treated wounds). Thus the probiotic treated wounds reached 50% reduction in wound area in half of the time of the saline treated wounds. The topical use of probiotics can be considered as safe as it did not cause a systemic effect.


Assuntos
Extremidades/fisiologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bacteriologia , Feminino , Hematologia , Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos/microbiologia , Masculino
17.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3551-3557, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Previous studies have identified pelvic tumors as a risk factor for surgical site infections (SSI). However, risk factors for extremity tumors are still unclear. This study investigated risk factors for postoperative deep infection in malignant bone tumors of the extremities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 238 patients with 256 malignant bone tumor surgeries were reviewed. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression determined risk factors for deep infection. RESULTS: Deep infection was found in 23 of 256 cases (9.0%). Tibial tumor (OR=6.04; 95%CI=2.14-17.05; p<0.001) and operative time ≥5 hours (OR=3.25; 95%CI=1.15-9.23; p=0.027) were independent risk factors for deep infection. CONCLUSION: Tibial tumor and operative time ≥5 hours are independent risk factors for deep infection after surgery of malignant bone tumor of extremities. Strategies to minimize risk of infection in the tibia and decreasing operative time should be implemented, along with other measures to decrease SSI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Extremidades/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Extremidades/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20165, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481285

RESUMO

Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremities are a rare tumor. Metastases develop in about 40%-50% of patients, most of whom die from their disease. We sought to identify potential risk factors associated with metastatic diseases upon presentation for patients with STS and established a reliable nomogram model to predict distant metastasis of STS at presentation. The current study retrospectively analyzed 3884 STS of the extremities or trunk patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 2010 and 2015. Based on patient registration, all patients were randomly allocated to training sets and validation sets (2:1). Then, univariate and binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the significantly correlated predictors of metastasis. Finally, the nomogram model was established, using these predictors and validated it. 311 (8.21%) of the cases experienced distant metastatic disease was present at the time of presentation. The nomogram was developed from age, histology subtype, primary site, tumor size, grade and depth. Encouragingly, the nomogram showed favorable calibration with C-index 0.790 in the training set and 0.801 in validation set. The DCA showed that the novel model was clinically useful. This nomogram model had a high precision to predict the metastasis of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities. We expect this model could be used in different clinical consultation and established risk assessment.


Assuntos
Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Nomogramas , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Extremidades/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20550, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502019

RESUMO

Limb synovial sarcoma (LSS) patients with metastasis at presentation usually have a very poor prognosis. Little is known about survival prediction and risk factors in these patients owing to the condition's rarity. Thus, this study examined the survival and prognostic variables of metastatic LSS.Clinical data for LSS patients with metastasis at presentation from 1975 to 2016 were obtained from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the survival curves. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were conducted to identify the prognostic predictors.The study enrolled 217 patients. Male predominance was observed in the metastatic LSS group. The median age at diagnosis of this population was 40 years. The subtypes were "not otherwise specified" (49.8%), spindle cell (32.7%), biphasic (17.1%), and epithelioid cell (0.5%). The 3-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates of the entire group were 27.2% and 28.3%, respectively. Tumor size <10 cm, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were independent predictors of improved overall and cancer-specific survival in the multivariate analyses.Comprehensive treatment for LSS patients with metastasis at diagnosis is necessary and effective and can prolong survival.


Assuntos
Extremidades/cirurgia , Metástase Neoplásica , Sarcoma Sinovial/mortalidade , Sarcoma Sinovial/terapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/terapia , Adulto , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Programa de SEER , Sarcoma Sinovial/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
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