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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 7-20, dic.2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117892

RESUMO

El presente estudio fue realizado para desarrollar una reflexión crítica acerca de la formación médica en la Venezuela del siglo XXI, interpretando realidades y consecuencias desde las voces de médicos expertos y jóvenes graduados formados en la Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). Es un estudio desde el paradigma cualitativo en la modalidad crítica interpretativa, la ruta metodológica fue la hermenéutica crítica y el análisis crítico del discurso. Se utilizó el muestreo intencional y la entrevista para recopilar la narrativa de los actores sociales, categorizándola e interpretándola contrastando voces de actores, teóricos y el autor como instrumento heurístico. Los resultados indican que la formación médica socializa el paradigma biomédico cuantitativo como opción única y válida en la producción de conocimiento y en el mundo académico, con un enfoque evolucionista, organicista, positivista y racional que fragmenta al ser humano. Esta formación académica se cumple en un sistema educativo dual: las universidades autónomas y la universidad bolivariana revolucionaria, con profundas diferencias entre ellas que generan perfiles de egresados contradictorios. La formación del futuro médico implica desarrollar el saber, el saber hacer, saber ser profesional y saber convivir. En conclusión, la formación médica debe cumplirse en centros universitarios calificados y certificados; sus egresados deben ser de alto perfil científico, tecnológico y humanístico los cuales deben dar respuestas pertinentes y oportunas a los problemas de salud de la población venezolana(AU)


This study was conducted to develop a reflective critic about medical training in Venezuela in the 21st century interpreting thoughts from the voices of expert doctors and young graduates from the Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). This is a qualitative sociocritical study using critical hermeneutics and critical analysis of speech. Intentional sampling and interviewing was used to collect the narrative of the medical professionals. The results shows that medical training socializes the quantitative biomedical paradigm as the only valid option in the production of knowledge and in the academic world, with an evolutionist, organicist, rational and positivist approach, which divides the human being in parts. In Venezuela, a dual educational system exists: autonomous universities and the Bolivarian University with deep differences between them, which generate conflicting graduate profiles. Training of the future doctors implies developing medical knowledge, the know-how, learning how to be a professional and coexist with others. In conclusion, medical training must be performed in qualified and certified university centers; their graduates should have high scientific, technological and humanistic profiles which will allow them to provide pertinent and timely answers to the health problems of the Venezuelan population(AU)


Assuntos
Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Medicina Geral , Venezuela , Programas de Estudo , História da Medicina
2.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1488-1491, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006868

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Association of American Medical Colleges has called for a temporary suspension of clinical teaching activities for medical students. Planning for the continued involvement of learners in patient care during this pandemic should include teaching learners professional formation. The authors provide an ethical framework to guide such teaching, based on the ethical principle of beneficence and the professional virtues of courage and self-sacrifice from professional ethics in medicine. The authors show that these concepts support the conclusion that learners are ethically obligated to accept reasonable, but not unreasonable, risk. Based on this ethical framework, the authors provide an account of the process of teaching professional formation that medical educators and academic leaders should implement. Medical educators and academic leaders should embrace the opportunity that the COVID-19 pandemic presents for teaching professional formation. Learners should acquire the conceptual vocabulary of professional formation. Learners should recognize that risk of infection from patients is unavoidable. Learners should become aware of established ethical standards for professional responsibility during epidemics from the history of medicine. Learners should master understandable fear. Medical educators and academic leaders should ensure that didactic teaching of professional formation continues when it becomes justified to end learners' participation in the processes of patient care; topics should include the professionally responsible management of scarce medical resources. The COVID-19 pandemic will not be the last major infectious disease that puts learners at risk. Professional ethics in medicine provides powerful conceptual tools that can be used as an ethical framework to guide medical educators to teach learners, who will bear leadership responsibilities in responses to future pandemics, professional formation.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/ética , Ética Médica/educação , Pandemias/ética , Profissionalismo/educação , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Profissionalismo/ética , Faculdades de Medicina , Sociedades Médicas
3.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 516-519, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880483

RESUMO

This paper describes the process involved in conducting an online spirometry practical through Zoom. The teacher demonstrated the practical from the medical school, and the students observed the procedure from the comfort of their own homes. Students were able to analyze the graphs captured in the teacher's laptop by remotely controlling the teacher's laptop. This method may be useful for places where face-to-face classes are suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espirometria , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Capacidade Vital
4.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 545-549, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880484

RESUMO

It is important to reinforce physiology and pathophysiology concepts during clinical rotations, which traditionally occur after the foundational sciences in the US medical school system. We took an opportunistic approach when the COVID-19 pandemic forced our content into virtual delivery mode, as clinical medical education required a shift to nonpatient contact. We describe our experience in building a 2-wk course that consisted of online small groups during week 1 and panels and cases during week 2. The physiology content involved faculty-vetted resources, along with both discrete and open-ended focus questions for each learning objective. The course also included mechanical ventilation, and the physiologist utilized discussion points and developed a formative quiz to emphasize the physiology correlates, in addition to the very clinical aspects of mechanical ventilation. There were pathophysiology opportunities with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple-organ system dysfunction among the clinical correlates. Review and recall of the foundational sciences occurred, allowing links between the pre-clerkship and clerkship years that were previously undiscovered in our institution. This virtually delivered medical curriculum related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19 is timely, carries high student interest, and can benefit medical students and the communities they serve.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Faculdades de Medicina
5.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(11): 859-865, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873167

RESUMO

Studying Medicine at the Università della Svizzera Italiana Abstract. The Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (Faculty) of the Università della Svizzera italiana (USI) was founded in 2014 with the aim of contributing to the solution of a problem that affects the whole of Switzerland: the lack of doctors trained in Switzerland. In order to achieve this goal, the Faculty, in collaboration with the University of Basel, has been offering a limited number of Bachelor's study places since 2017, and in autumn 2020 the new Master's programme in Human Medicine will start in Ticino. On the academic side, the Faculty cooperates closely with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), the University of Basel (UNIBAS) and the University of Zurich (UZH), and for the clinical training there are collaborations with various clinical institutions in Ticino. By combining clinical practice, scientific training and communication skills, the Master's degree addresses the challenges of today's medical profession.


Assuntos
Docentes , Motivação , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Suíça
7.
Tex Med ; 116(8): 34, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866275

RESUMO

Medical schools typically have predictable schedules. The timing of lectures, clerkships, exams, and even extracurricular activities tend to follow in the same grooves year after year. Students can reliably block out even minor events months ahead of time and be confident they'll take place. All that changed with COVID-19. Since March, when the pandemic began closing down schools, businesses, and other institutions across the state, figuring out what comes next in medical school has been anything but predictable.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Faculdades de Medicina , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Faculdades de Medicina/ética , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Ensino/ética , Ensino/psicologia , Texas/epidemiologia , Incerteza
8.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 18(2): 320-323, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793190

RESUMO

Medical doctors are the frontline workers in tackling any pandemics but ironically the medical students, especially the undergraduate medical students, who are the doctors in making, are being exempted from the lifetime experience of the current COVID-19 pandemic in most medical schools. In view of preventing the disease spread and maintaining social distancing the educational institutes including medical schools are closed in most countries struggling with the current pandemic. The decision is based on some evidences showing that the lockdown is one of the important tools to decrease transmission rates, delay the doubling time and flatten the curve. Unlike many other subjects and specialty, medicine has to be taught on patients and in the hospital setting. In this context there are several unanswered questions regarding the teaching and training of undergraduate medical students and the most important question being what is the best approach without compromising the safety as well as educational objectives and without overburdening the system? This article discusses some of these issues. Keyword: COVID-19; medical education; pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Residency applications via virtual-interview could potentially mitigate the extensive cost and time required for customary in-person interviews. We outline the perception of medical students and residents on the use of virtual-interview for residency applications in lieu of in-person interviews. METHODS: We obtained 1824 responses from medical students and residents through an online questionnaire between March2019-Feb2020 in Texas-United States. The survey had 11 statements (five in favor of in-person interviews and 6 in favor of virtual interviews) that respondents could rank on a 5-point Likert scale. All statements' scores were summed based on the response given by each participant to create a total score between 11 and 55. The perception of the two groups was analyzed using an independent sample T-test and ANOVA. RESULTS: We received a total of 1711 responses from medical students and 113 from medical residents. Respondents were more female (82.2% of medical students and 47.8% of residents), with a mean age of 22.87±3.42 years old for medical students and 28.72±4.35 years old for residents. Both groups preferred in-person interviews; however, the residents were significantly more in favor (P = 0.03). Both groups agree that virtual-interviews should be as an option, though this was considerably higher in the medical students (P = 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, "travel distance" and "type of medical school" had a significant impact on choosing the virtual-interviews in both groups (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In-person interviews are favored by both medical students and residents compared to virtual-interview services in normal circumstances. However, both groups agree that programs should offer the option of having virtual-interviews as an available choice. Distance to an interview location and the type of medical school were the factors that had a significant impact on perception of using virtual-interviews. Knowing about the applicants' attitude toward residency interviews and the national circumstances are essential when preparing the interview guides. Our findings are limited by the small sample size and the low response rate. Further extensive studies are warranted to better understand the perception of residency applicants toward virtual-interviews to improve the interview process in the United States.


Assuntos
Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Critérios de Admissão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 545-549, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744895

RESUMO

It is important to reinforce physiology and pathophysiology concepts during clinical rotations, which traditionally occur after the foundational sciences in the US medical school system. We took an opportunistic approach when the COVID-19 pandemic forced our content into virtual delivery mode, as clinical medical education required a shift to nonpatient contact. We describe our experience in building a 2-wk course that consisted of online small groups during week 1 and panels and cases during week 2. The physiology content involved faculty-vetted resources, along with both discrete and open-ended focus questions for each learning objective. The course also included mechanical ventilation, and the physiologist utilized discussion points and developed a formative quiz to emphasize the physiology correlates, in addition to the very clinical aspects of mechanical ventilation. There were pathophysiology opportunities with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple-organ system dysfunction among the clinical correlates. Review and recall of the foundational sciences occurred, allowing links between the pre-clerkship and clerkship years that were previously undiscovered in our institution. This virtually delivered medical curriculum related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19 is timely, carries high student interest, and can benefit medical students and the communities they serve.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Faculdades de Medicina
13.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 516-519, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744894

RESUMO

This paper describes the process involved in conducting an online spirometry practical through Zoom. The teacher demonstrated the practical from the medical school, and the students observed the procedure from the comfort of their own homes. Students were able to analyze the graphs captured in the teacher's laptop by remotely controlling the teacher's laptop. This method may be useful for places where face-to-face classes are suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espirometria , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Capacidade Vital
18.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 18(2): 320-323, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969402

RESUMO

Medical doctors are the frontline workers in tackling any pandemics but ironically the medical students, especially the undergraduate medical students, who are the doctors in making, are being exempted from the lifetime experience of the current COVID-19 pandemic in most medical schools. In view of preventing the disease spread and maintaining social distancing the educational institutes including medical schools are closed in most countries struggling with the current pandemic. The decision is based on some evidences showing that the lockdown is one of the important tools to decrease transmission rates, delay the doubling time and flatten the curve. Unlike many other subjects and specialty, medicine has to be taught on patients and in the hospital setting. In this context there are several unanswered questions regarding the teaching and training of undergraduate medical students and the most important question being what is the best approach without compromising the safety as well as educational objectives and without overburdening the system? This article discusses some of these issues. Keyword: COVID-19; medical education; pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 143-150, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921484

RESUMO

After the first successful public demonstration of modern anesthesia in 1846, most female anesthetists were nurses by trade since none were yet allowed to attend medical school to become physicians. The turn of the twentieth century, however, brought about greater opportunity for female physician-anesthetists. We explore the life and career of Barbara E. Waud (1931-), a pioneering woman physician and researcher in the field of anesthesiology. Waud chose to pursue a career in medicine at a time when most women did not even attend college, and for most of her training and practice, she was the only woman in her department. Personal interviews with Waud, her daughter, and her colleagues highlight her rebellious and resilient nature that helped her overcome the obstacles put forth by male colleagues, and the judgment she received from female acquaintances for being a working mother. Waud's impressive career of dedicated clinical practice and ground-breaking research spanned four decades and inspired generations of physicians.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/história , Docentes de Medicina/história , Médicas/história , Anestesiologia/educação , Anestesiologia/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Canadá , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Massachusetts , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Sexismo/história
20.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(3): 133-142, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921483

RESUMO

After a brief "golden age" in the late 1800s, the patriarchal establishment fought back and women faced increasing restrictions in practicing medicine. In 1900, 18.2% of all physicians in the city of Boston were women, but this number decreased to 8.7% by 1930. The relatively young field of anesthesiology was one of the more welcoming specialties for women during this time. History has been unkind to these early female trailblazers who have often been overlooked in favor of the men in their fields. Julia Gordon Arrowood (1900-1984) was a forerunner for women in medicine and a prominent anesthesiologist in Boston from the 1930s until the 1950s. Her work included not only clinical medicine, but also research and teaching. She attended Boston University School of Medicine, graduating as valedictorian in the class of 1933. She interned at Belmont Hospital in Worcester, MA where she decided on a career in anesthesiology. She was accepted as a resident at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) by chief-anesthetist Henry Beecher in 1935, thereby becoming the first woman anesthesiology resident in Massachusetts. She remained at MGH and was named Acting Chief of Anesthesia in 1943. In 1944, she became president of the New England Society of Anesthesiologists, another first for a woman. In 1946, she joined Reginald Smithwick's team as Chief of Anesthesia at Massachusetts Memorial Hospital, Boston, and concurrently held the position of Professor of Anesthesiology at Boston University School of Medicine. Arrowood led many of the earliest studies on spinal anesthesia, muscle relaxants, and spinal headaches. In 1957, she moved to Kentucky and joined the United Mine Workers hospital system where she worked until her retirement in 1970. Women such as Julia Arrowood remain underrepresented in the annals of the history of medicine. Much work is needed to recognize the many contributions made by women physicians and to provide equal opportunities, pay, and status.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/história , Médicas/história , Anestesiologia/história , Boston , História do Século XX , Internato e Residência/história , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Sexismo/história , Estados Unidos
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