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1.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2143298, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disclosure of items used in multiple-choice-question (MCQ) exams may decrease student anxiety and improve transparency, feedback, and test-enhanced learning but potentially compromises the reliability and fairness of exams if items are eventually reused. Evidence regarding whether disclosure and reuse of test items change item psychometrics is scarce and inconclusive. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed difficulty and discrimination coefficients of 10,148 MCQ items used between fall 2017 and fall 2019 in a large European medical school in which items were disclosed from fall 2017 onwards. We categorised items as 'new'; 'reused, not disclosed'; or 'reused, disclosed'. For reused items, we calculated the difference from their first ever use, that is, when they were new. Differences between categories and terms were analysed with one-way analyses of variance and independent-samples t tests. RESULTS: The proportion of reused, disclosed items grew from 0% to 48.4%; mean difficulty coefficients increased from 0.70 to 0.76; that is, items became easier, P < .001, ηp2 = 0.011. On average, reused, disclosed items were significantly easier (M = 0.83) than reused, not disclosed items (M = 0.71) and entirely new items (M = 0.66), P < .001, ηp2 = 0.087. Mean discrimination coefficients increased from 0.21 to 0.23; that is, item became slightly more discriminating, P = .002, ηp2 = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Disclosing test items provides the opportunity to enhance feedback and transparency in MCQ exams but potentially at the expense of decreased item reliability. Discrimination was positively affected. Our study may help weigh advantages and disadvantages of using previously disclosed items.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Retroalimentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
J Surg Res ; 282: 225-231, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327704

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The virtual residency application season posed numerous challenges for the 2021 residency match process. Many residency programs are exploring relationships between this novel format and the match process. The purpose of this study was to compare one of the largest general surgery residency program's applications and match data from preCOVID years to the 2021 virtual cycle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of applicants to a single general surgery residency program from 2017 to 2021. The primary outcome was the number of locally matched applicants. The secondary outcomes were the total number of applications, change in applicant demographics, and variability of the geographic spread during this study period. Chi-square tests of independence, Fisher's exact tests, and negative binomial regression were performed. RESULTS: 6819 applicants were included in the study. In 2021, an increase in applications was observed. The distribution of 2021 applications was statistically different from previous years regarding gender and race (P < 0.0001). The 2021 application cycle had a greater proportion of applicants from the United States (P < 0.0001) and southern US medical schools (P = 0.008). While the 2021 cycle had significantly more interviews (P = 0.013), there were no significant differences in the demographic composition of interviewees. During the 2021 application year, all 11 matches were from southern medical schools and there was a trend to more matched female applicants compared to previous years. CONCLUSIONS: During the 2021 COVID-19 virtual match cycle, an increase in both the number of applications and number of interviews for general surgery residency was identified. The characteristics of applicants who interviewed and matched were not different when compared to previous years. As virtual interviews may become more commonplace, it is important to assess all factors that may be involved in the dynamic residency application process.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cirurgia Geral , Internato e Residência , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cognição , Cirurgia Geral/educação
3.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(6): 886-889, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409954

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While females make up more than half of medical school matriculants, they only comprise about one third of emergency medicine (EM) residents. We examined EM residency cohorts with entering years of 2014-2017 to estimate the ratio of males to females among residents and program leadership to determine what correlation existed, if any, between program leadership and residency gender distributions. METHODS: We identified 171 accredited EM residency programs in the United States with resident cohorts entering between 2014-2017 with publicly available data that were included in the study. The number of male and female residents and program directors were counted. We then confirmed the counts by contacting the programs directly to confirm accuracy of the data collected from program websites. RESULTS: Within the included 171 programs, the overall male to female EM resident ratio was 1.78:1. Individual program ratios ranged from 0.85-8.0. Only eight programs (5.6%) had a female-predominant ratio. Among program directors, the overall male to female ratio was 2.17:1. TThe gender of the program director did not have a statistically significant correlation with the male to female ratio among its residents (P = .93). CONCLUSION: Within 171 residency programs across the US with entering cohorts between 2014-2017, the average male to female ratio among residents is nearly 2:1. No significant correlation exists between the gender distribution among a program's leadership and its residents.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Faculdades de Medicina , Coleta de Dados
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(10): 1447-1451, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The transition from face-to-face to remote teaching is yet to be fully understood. In clinical training, traditional teaching must prevail because it is essential for the acquisition of skills and professionalism. However, the responses of each school to the pandemic and the decision on when to resume clerkship rotations were mixed. In this study, we aimed to analyze whether the time to resume clerkship rotations was associated with the performance of the students by using a multi-institutional Progress Test. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at nine different Brazilian medical schools that administer the same annual Progress Test for all students. We included information from 1,470 clerkship medical students and analyzed the time of clinical training interruption as the independent variable and the student's scores as the dependent variable. RESULTS: The comparisons of the students' scores between the schools showed that there are differences; however, they cannot be attributed to the time the clerkship rotations were paused. The correlation between the schools' average scores and the time to resume clerkship rotations was not significant for the fifth year (r= -0.298, p=0.436) and for the sixth year (r= -0.440, p=0.240). By using a cubic regression model, the time to resume clerkship rotations could explain 3.4% of the 5-year students' scores (p<0.001) and 0.9% of the 6-year students, without statistical difference (p=0.085). CONCLUSIONS: The differences between the students' scores cannot be attributed to the time when the schools paused the clerkship rotations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estágio Clínico , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Faculdades de Medicina
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 807, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical schools seek the best curricular designs for the transition to postgraduate education, such as the Dutch elective-based final, 'transitional' year. Most Dutch graduates work a mean of three years as a physician-not-in-training (PNIT) before entering residency training. To ease the transition to selected specialties and to decrease the duration of the PNIT period, UMC Utrecht introduced an optional, thematic variant of the usual transitional year, that enables the development of theme-specific competencies, in addition to physicians' general competencies. METHODS: We introduced an optional transitional year for interested students around the theme of acute care, called the Acute Care Transitional Year (ACTY). This study aimed to evaluate the ACTY by judging whether graduates meet postgraduate acute care expectations, indicating enhanced learning and preparation for practice. In a comprehensive assessment of acute care knowledge, clinical reasoning, skills, and performance in simulations, we collected data from ACTY students, non-ACTY students interested in acute care, and PNITs with approximately six months of acute care experience. RESULTS: ACTY graduates outperformed non-ACTY graduates on skills and simulations, and had higher odds of coming up to the expectations faculty have of a PNIT, as determined by global ratings. PNITs did better on simulations than ACTY graduates. DISCUSSION: ACTY graduates show better resemblance to PNITs than non-ACTY graduates, suggesting better preparation for postgraduate acute care challenges. CONCLUSION: Transitional years, offering multidisciplinary perspectives on a certain theme, can enhance learning and preparedness for entering residency.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Medicina , Médicos , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Cuidados Críticos
7.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 47(4): 154-161, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop versatile and interactive model classes by generating the contents of Kampo classroom sessions that can be taught by instructors who are not familiar with Kampo medicine. METHODS: In 2018, we conducted Kampo classroom sessions among fourth-year medical students at Kyushu University in which we incorporated new content. A videotaped digest edition of the classes was sent to Kampo medicine instructors in medical schools throughout Japan. An online questionnaire was given to the instructors regarding effectiveness of the class content (Q1) and whether they would introduce the content in their classes (Q2). We modified the curriculum according to survey responses and conducted revised classroom sessions again in 2019. A second online survey was given and we finalized the model classes. We compared survey responses between staff and instructors (group A) and non-specialists in Kampo medicine (group B). RESULTS: In 2018, there were significant differences between groups A (44) and B (52) regarding a patient's story and case report (Q1). In 2019, there were significant differences between groups A (42) and B (54) regarding the case report using e-learning(Q1) and an instructor's experience (Q2). CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Kampo medicine classes should incorporate an instructor's experience and interactive case report presentation using e-learning.


Assuntos
Medicina Kampo , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Currículo , Faculdades de Medicina , Aprendizagem
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e067157, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies suggest that medical student empathy declines throughout medical school. However, no studies have systematically investigated why. The objective of our proposed review is to conduct a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies investigating the reasons empathy may change throughout medical school. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We have searched MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, ERIC and APA PsycINFO for relevant studies. We will also search reference lists of included studies and contact experts to identify additional studies. We will include any qualitative study investigating the reasons why empathy changes throughout medical school. We will use the Joanna Briggs Institute tool to evaluate the risk of bias in the included studies. We will use thematic analysis to synthesise our results. For all included studies, we will summarise the main characteristics including the number of participants, medical school year, country and gender. In our discussion, we will summarise the limitations of the evidence (including the risk of bias and inconsistency), and provide a general interpretation of the results and important implications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will not require ethical approval since no original data will be collected. The results of this review will be published through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Additionally, this review will inform changes to the enhanced empathy curriculum at the Leicester Medical School.


Assuntos
Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Empatia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 759, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growth of the UK's population together with an aging society with increasingly complex health and social care needs has placed a greater demand on statutory care services. In view of this emerging landscape, the UK Government has sought to increase its medically trained workforce in order to better respond to the demands placed on the health service. Five universities were announced as homes to new medical schools offering undergraduate places to boost the numbers of doctors training in England. The aim of this narrative review was to explore how new medical schools could improve the health outcomes of the local population and evaluate the potential contribution it may make to the local economy, workforce and to research and innovation. METHODS: A narrative review was undertaken using a systematic approach for the search literature strategy. The articles were evaluated by undertaking a critical assessment evaluating the fitness of a paper for review according to results, methods used to test the hypothesis, conclusions and impact and limitations. Thematic analysis was employed to organise and summarise the findings across a heterogeneous body of literature included in the review. The analysis was developed in an inductive manner and there were not any predefined themes to guide data extraction and analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six articles were selected for inclusion for this narrative review. The review identified six key themes: influence of prior rural exposure, medical school environment and rural enrichment programmes, workforce, health outcomes of local populations, social accountability, economic contribution of medical schools to communities and impact on rural research. CONCLUSIONS: The studies included found a wealth of information on a wide-range of topics on the expansion of undergraduate education and its implications on the future medical workforce. It was shown that medical schools can have a positive effect on the health, social, economic and research activity of a region, but this literature tended to be heterogeneous in focus without consideration of the inter-connections between the wider societal and economic impacts arising from long-term sustainable change being brought to a region.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Rural , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social , Recursos Humanos , Universidades , População Rural
10.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 49: e20223386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: this study analyzed medicine students' knowledge regarding medical advertising on social media. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional study carried out between January and May 2022 with 179 medical students from public and private institutions from Curitiba - PR, using a structured questionnaire with nine problem situations on medical advertising. It was established as "sufficient" knowledge ≥70% of the problem-situations based on current professional codes and resolutions. RESULTS: five questions had the highest percentage of correct answers resulting from the acquisition of knowledge from different sources. Most students did not learn about medical marketing in their undergraduate course (84.9%), having already shared patients' pictures on social media (89.9%), and fell the lack of discussions about medical advertising (96.6%). CONCLUSION: there is a need to direct undergraduate education towards the ethical use of advertising in order to better prepare them for professional practice.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Publicidade , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Rede Social , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 803, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of artificial intelligence applications in medicine is becoming increasingly common. At the same time, however, there are few initiatives to teach this important and timely topic to medical students. One reason for this is the predetermined medical curriculum, which leaves very little room for new topics that were not included before. We present a flipped classroom course designed to give undergraduate medical students an elaborated first impression of AI and to increase their "AI readiness". METHODS: The course was tested and evaluated at Bonn Medical School in Germany with medical students in semester three or higher and consisted of a mixture of online self-study units and online classroom lessons. While the online content provided the theoretical underpinnings and demonstrated different perspectives on AI in medical imaging, the classroom sessions offered deeper insight into how "human" diagnostic decision-making differs from AI diagnoses. This was achieved through interactive exercises in which students first diagnosed medical image data themselves and then compared their results with the AI diagnoses. We adapted the "Medical Artificial Intelligence Scale for Medical Students" to evaluate differences in "AI readiness" before and after taking part in the course. These differences were measured by calculating the so called "comparative self-assessment gain" (CSA gain) which enables a valid and reliable representation of changes in behaviour, attitudes, or knowledge. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant increase in perceived AI readiness. While values of CSA gain were different across items and factors, the overall CSA gain regarding AI readiness was satisfactory. CONCLUSION: Attending a course developed to increase knowledge about AI in medical imaging can increase self-perceived AI readiness in medical students.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Alfabetização , Inteligência Artificial , Currículo , Faculdades de Medicina
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31392, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397366

RESUMO

The present study examined the impact of age on medical student repeat-year experience and performance outcomes on the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), Clinical Clerkship (CC), and other relevant examinations in the Japanese medical school system. This retrospective analysis examined the number of students with repeat-years and the years required to graduate, stratifying students by the age they entered medical school (Younger: within 4 years of high school graduation; Older: 5 or more years after high school graduation). Scores of the Pre-CC OSCE, Computer-based testing (CBT), CC performance, CC integrative test, and graduation exams were compared among those graduating from our medical school between 2018 and 2020, and examined correlations between student age and performance outcomes. From 2018 to 2020, 328 medical students graduated. Of these, 283 had entered within 4 years of high school graduation (Younger), while 45 did so 5 or more years after high school graduation (Older). The number of repeat-years did not differ significantly between groups. The average number of years required to graduate was slightly higher for the Older group and the Younger group scored significantly higher on the CC integrative test. No significant differences were found for the remaining tests. These results suggest that older medical students in general show no significant inferiority in their performance of most clinical skills and competencies relative to younger students in Japan.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Japão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Faculdades de Medicina
14.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 35(1): 9-15, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367023

RESUMO

Background: The mandate of medical schools is to enrich the health system through education, research, and service to satisfy the health needs of the societies they serve. The social accountability (SA) movement aims to intensify the medical school's mission. Although the context of every school is unique, one of the increasingly significant roles of medical education is to develop the indicators that promote SA. The aim of this study is to define the determinants of SA in Iraq using AlKindy College of Medicine/University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq as a case study. Methods: This is a qualitative research using open-ended questions through an online mode; data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Results: Different themes related to the roles of medical schools, stakeholders, medical schools' mission, curriculum content, research characteristics, service characteristics, enhancers of SA, and accreditation role were identified. The themes are meant to characterize a socially accountable medical school within the context of Iraq. Discussion: The study needs to be replicated in different medical schools to successfully build the national determinants of SA.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Iraque , Responsabilidade Social , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 35(1): 3-8, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367022

RESUMO

Background: Medical schools have been increasingly called upon to augment and prioritize their social accountability (SA). Approaches to increasing SA may include reorienting and focusing curricular activities on the priority health needs of the region that they serve. To inform the undergraduate medical education (UGME) curriculum renewal at our school, we examined how SA has been expressed in medical education across several countries and the impacts of SA activities on medical student experience and community-level outcomes. Methods: We conducted a narrative literature review using two electronic databases and searched for studies that reported on SA UGME activities implemented in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Studies were screened for inclusion based on predetermined eligibility criteria. Results: We included 40 studies for descriptive analysis and categorized UGME activities into five categories: (1) distributed medical education and community-specific placements/services (32; 80%), (2) community engagement and advocacy activities (23; 58%), (3) international elective preparation and experiences (8; 20%), (4) classroom-based learning of SA-related concepts (17; 43%), and (5) student engagement in SA UGME activities (6; 15%). We categorized impact into four main outcomes: student experience (21; 53%), student competencies (11; 28%), future career choice/practice setting (15; 38%), and community feedback (7; 18%). Student experience was most frequently examined, followed by future career choice/practice setting. Discussion: SA was primarily expressed in UGME activities through placement/service activities and most frequently assessed through student experiences. Student experiences of SA UGME activities have been reported to be largely positive, with benefits also reported for student competencies and influences on future career choice/practice setting. The expression of SA through community engagement in the development of curricular activities indicates a positive shift from social responsibility to SA, but a highly socially accountable curriculum would increasingly consider measures of community impact.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Currículo , Responsabilidade Social
16.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 35(1): 16-19, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367024

RESUMO

Background: Medical student placements in teaching hospitals are a cornerstone for gaining clinical experience. However, the ever-evolving nature of health care has also changed the delivery of student education. Few studies have examined clinicians' perspectives toward teaching students in this setting. We sought to explore the attitudes of clinicians involved in teaching medical students at an Australian tertiary hospital. Methods: Clinicians were invited by email to complete an anonymous online survey developed using a combination of questions from previously validated surveys. The questions utilized 5-point Likert scale statements and were based around the themes of "personal purpose and enjoyment of teaching" and "barriers and challenges to teaching." Results for each question are presented as frequency and percentage. Results: Of 490 invited, 67 (13.7%) consultant clinicians from various specialties responded. The majority (>92%) enjoy teaching and see it as part of their work. However, approximately half thought that medical student teaching was under-recognized and half did not have adequate time to teach due to workload. Approximately 60% responded that there was insufficient time to get to know students to provide feedback and approximately 40% indicated that the scope of student knowledge and desired outcomes are not clearly defined by medical schools. Discussion: Our contemporary survey identifies modifiable factors which should be targeted. If these factors are addressed successfully, it may allow the hospital and university medical school to harness the valuable resource of clinical teachers. This could enhance the medical student experience and promote a culture of teaching and learning in hospitals.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Austrália , Educação Médica/métodos , Faculdades de Medicina , Ensino , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos
17.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(11): e224102, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367736

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses unresolved barriers in US medical school matriculation for racial and ethnic minority groups and other historically marginalized communities and proposes policy changes to recalibrate admissions with an equity focus.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos , Etnicidade
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 767, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about gender disparity among medical undergraduates in the developing world. Therefore, this study aims to explore the attitudes and perceived barriers among Jordanian medical students, particularly women. METHODS: An online, self-administered questionnaire, developed after an extensive literature review, was disseminated across all six Jordanian medical schools targeting more than 5000 medical students. Student t-test and ANOVA were used to document mean differences among different groups. Linear and logistic regression models were used to find predictors of publication and number of publications. RESULTS: A total of 636 students participated in the survey with a women to men ratio of 1.1. Women medical students report significantly higher knowledge (t(634) = 2.47, p = 0.013), personal (t(634) = 3.31, p = 0.001), and total barriers scores than men (t(634) = 3.02, p = 0.003). Moreover, compared to men, women were less likely to find same-sex mentorship (t(634) = 3.18, p = 0.001) or receive credited authorship (t(634) = 2.12, p = 0.011). Overall, women medical students were more likely to perceive that their gender (t(634) = 3.58, p < 0.001) and people's perception of their gender (t(634) = 4.25, p < 0.001) are barriers to their career advancement. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that gender is a significant predictor of being able to publish (OR: 1.645; 95%CI: 1.002-2.731), while linear regression demonstrated that gender is a predictor of number of publications (ß: 0.113; 95%CI: 0.063-0.288). CONCLUSION: A significant gender disparity exists in terms of both attitudes and overall barriers among Jordanian medical undergraduates which calls for immediate policy changes as to produce successful clinicians and researchers.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Estudantes de Medicina , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Faculdades de Medicina , Autoria , Mentores
20.
BMJ ; 379: o2696, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351680
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