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1.
Neuroimage ; 288: 120539, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342187

RESUMO

concepts like mental state concepts lack a physical referent, which can be directly perceived. Classical theories therefore claim that abstract concepts require amodal representations detached from experiential brain systems. However, grounded cognition approaches suggest an involvement of modal experiential brain regions in the processing of abstract concepts. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the relation of the processing of abstract mental state concepts to modal experiential brain systems in a fine-grained fashion. Participants performed lexical decisions on abstract mental state as well as on verbal association concepts as control category. Experiential brain systems related to the processing of mental states, generating verbal associations, automatic speech as well as hand and lip movements were determined by corresponding localizer tasks. Processing of abstract mental state concepts neuroanatomically overlapped with activity patterns associated with processing of mental states, generating verbal associations, automatic speech and lip movements. Hence, mental state concepts activate the mentalizing brain network, complemented by perceptual-motor brain regions involved in simulation of visual or action features associated with social interactions, linguistic brain regions as well as face-motor brain regions recruited for articulation. The present results provide compelling evidence for the rich grounding of abstract mental state concepts in experiential brain systems related to mentalizing, verbal communication and mouth action.


Assuntos
Mentalização , Humanos , Fala , Lábio , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(7): 9532-9543, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345942

RESUMO

Flexible piezoresistive sensors with a porous structure that are used in the field of speech recognition are seldom characterized by both high sensitivity and ease of preparation. In this study, a piezoresistive sensor with a porous structure that is both highly sensitive and can be prepared by using a simple method is proposed for speech recognition. The preparation process utilizes the interaction of bubbles generated by ethanol evaporation and active agents with polydimethylsiloxane to produce a porous flexible substrate. This preparation process requires neither templates nor harsh experimental conditions such as a low temperature and a low pressure. Furthermore, the prepared piezoresistive sensor has excellent properties, such as a high sensitivity (27.6 kPa-1), a satisfactory response time (800 µs), and a good stability (10,000 cycles). When used for speech recognition, more than 1500 vocalizations and silent speech signals obtained from subjects saying numbers from "0" to "9" were collected by the sensor for training a convolutional neural network model. The average accuracy of the recognition reached 94.8%. The simple preparation process and the excellent performance of the prepared flexible piezoresistive sensor endow it with a wide application prospect in the field of speech recognition.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Humanos , Porosidade , Temperatura Baixa , Etanol
3.
JASA Express Lett ; 4(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299983

RESUMO

Partial credit scoring for speech recognition tasks can improve measurement precision. However, assessing the magnitude of this improvement with partial credit scoring is challenging because meaningful speech contains contextual cues, which create correlations between the probabilities of correctly identifying each token in a stimulus. Here, beta-binomial distributions were used to estimate recognition accuracy and intraclass correlation for phonemes in words and words in sentences in listeners with cochlear implants (N = 20). Estimates demonstrated substantial intraclass correlation in recognition accuracy within stimuli. These correlations were invariant across individuals. Intraclass correlations should be addressed in power analysis of partial credit scoring.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Distribuição Binomial , Fala
4.
Dent Med Probl ; 61(1): 29-34, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children diagnosed with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) suffer from various disabilities. Palatal abnormalities, as well as speech and language impairment, adversely affect a child's quality of life (QoL) and are some of the most distressing aspects for the parents of these children. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore the effect of palatoplasty on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and speech outcomes in children with VCFS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study recruited 20 patients (N = 20) with VCFS and connected speech, aged 3 years or older, having either undiagnosed submucous cleft palate (SMCP) or velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), and requiring primary cleft palate surgery or revision surgery. Speech assessment was conducted prior to palatoplasty and 6 months after the surgery. Intelligibility and hypernasality were evaluated using the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech - Augmented (CAPS-A). The parent proxy-report form of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) was used to evaluate and compare the HRQoL of the VCFS patients before and after palatoplasty. RESULTS: Significant improvement in the HRQoL scores was achieved after the surgery across all domains (physical, emotional, social, and school functioning), especially in the emotional and social dimensions (p < 0.000). The post-operative speech assessment based on CAPS-A demonstrated improvement in speech intelligibility and hypernasality in the majority of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Given that children with VCFS face various medical and social problems, suitable palatal interventions are beneficial, improving both the speech ability and QoL of these children.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Criança , Humanos , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Síndrome de DiGeorge/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Fala
5.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To substantiate the use of photochromotherapy (narrow-band optical radiation with an average wavelength of 650 nm) in the complex treatment of children with developmental speech delay on the type of general speech underdevelopment (GSU) of I and II degree. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A number of children equal 70 aged from 4 to 6 years with developmental speech delay were examined. All patients were randomized into 2 clinically comparable groups: the 1st (study) group included 35 patients who received medical treatment in accordance with clinical recommendations in combination with the use of narrow-band optical radiation with an average wavelength of 650nm for 10 days; the 2nd (comparison) group consisted of 35 subjects who received standard drug therapy according to the established clinical recommendations. All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical examination and a special neurological investigation, including electroencephalography and electromyography, as well as an assessment of the development of speech functions and dynamic coordination of gesture, the level of social and communication skills development and neuropsychological processes. RESULTS: The following data were obtained during the complex treatment with the inclusion of narrow-band optical radiation with an average wavelength of 650 nm (red radiation): statistically significant improvement of speech development (p<0.05); improvement of values of social adaptation skills of medium (71%) (Z=2.769; p=006) and low level (29%) (Z=2.691; p=0.007); significant positive dynamics of speech status (Z=3.911; p=0.000); spontaneous activity relief at rest, indicating normalization of muscle tone. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of photochromotherapy in standard therapeutic regimens for children with developmental speech delay on the GSU type of I, II degrees contributes to a significantly confirmed pronounced clinical improvement and can be recommended for practical health care.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fala , Criança , Humanos
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 97(4): 1777-1792, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339927

RESUMO

Background: Executive functions (EF) are central to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). A novel approach to the assessment of the impact of EF difficulties on IADL may be through the speech acts produced when performing IADL-inspired tasks in a laboratory-apartment. Speech acts may act as a window to the difficulties encountered during task performance. Objective: We aim to 1) qualitatively describe the speech acts produced by participants with mild neurocognitive disorder (mild NCD) and healthy controls (HC) as they performed 4 IADL-inspired tasks in a laboratory-apartment, and to then 2) compare their use in both groups. Methods: The participants' performance was videotaped, and speech acts produced were transcribed. Qualitative description of all speech acts was performed, followed by a deductive-inductive pattern coding of data. Statistical analyses were performed to further compare their use by mild NCD participants and HC. Results: Twenty-two participants took part in the study (n mild NCD = 11; n HC = 11). Meta-categories of data emerged from pattern coding: strategies, barriers, reactions, and consequences. Mild NCD participants used significantly more strategies and barriers than did HC. They were more defensive of their performance, and more reactive to their difficulties than HC. Mild NCD participants' verification of having completed all tasks was less efficient than controls. Conclusions: An assessment of speech acts produced during the performance of IADL-inspired tasks in a laboratory-apartment may allow to detect changes in the use of language which may reflect EF difficulties linked to cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Fala , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Testes Neuropsicológicos
7.
J Neurosci Res ; 102(2): e25298, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361410

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that speech and limb movement inhibition are subserved by common neural mechanisms, particularly within the right prefrontal cortex. In a recent study, we found that cathodal stimulation of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) differentially modulated P3 event-related potentials for speech versus limb inhibition. In the present study, we further analyzed these data to examine the effects of cathodal high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) over rDLPFC on frontal theta - an oscillatory marker of cognitive control - in response to speech and limb inhibition, during a Go/No-Go task in 21 neurotypical adults. Electroencephalography data demonstrated that both speech and limb No-Go elicited prominent theta activity over right prefrontal electrodes, with stronger activity for speech compared to limb. Moreover, we found that cathodal stimulation significantly increased theta power over right prefrontal electrodes for speech versus limb No-Go. Source analysis revealed that cathodal, but not sham, stimulation increased theta activity within rDLPFC and bilateral premotor cortex for speech No-Go compared to limb movement inhibition. These findings complement our previous report and suggest (1) right prefrontal theta activity is an amodal oscillatory mechanism supporting speech and limb inhibition, (2) larger theta activity in prefrontal electrodes for speech versus limb following cathodal stimulation may reflect allocation of additional neural resources for a more complex motor task, such as speech compared to limb movement. These findings have translational implications for conditions such as Parkinson's disease, wherein both speech and limb movement are impaired.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Fala/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
8.
Trends Hear ; 28: 23312165231224643, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361477

RESUMO

Cochlear implantation successfully improves hearing in most adult recipients. However, in rare cases, post-implant rehabilitation is required to maximize benefit. The primary aim of this investigation was to test if self-reports by cochlear implant users indicate the need for post-implant rehabilitation. Listening performance was assessed with the Speech, Spatial and Qualities short-form SSQ12, which was self-administered via a web-based survey. Subjects included over 2000 adult bilateral or unilateral cochlear implant users with at least one year of experience. A novel application of regression tree analysis identified core SSQ12 items that serve as first steps in establishing a plan for further rehabilitation: items 1, 8, and 11 dealing with single-talker situations, loudness perception, and clarity, respectively. Further regression and classification tree analyses revealed that SSQ12 item scores were weakly related to age, degree of tinnitus, and use of bilateral versus unilateral implants. Conversely, SSQ12 scores were strongly associated with self-rated satisfaction and confidence in using their cochlear implant. The SSQ12 total scores did not vary significantly over 1-9 or more years' experience. These findings suggest that the SSQ12 may be a useful tool to guide rehabilitation at any time after cochlear implantation. Identification of poor performance may have implications for timely management to improve the outcomes, through various techniques such as device fitting adjustments, counseling, active sound exposure, and training spatial hearing.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Humanos , Fala , Audição
9.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0299139, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363785

RESUMO

Belief perseverance bias refers to individuals' tendency to persevere in biased opinions even after the misinformation that initially shaped those opinions has been retracted. This study contributes to research on reducing the negative impact of misinformation by mitigating the belief perseverance bias. The study explores the previously proposed awareness-training and counter-speech debiasing techniques, further developing them by introducing new variants and combining them. We investigate their effectiveness in mitigating the belief perseverance bias after the retraction of misinformation related to a real-life issue in an experiment involving N = 876 individuals, of whom 364 exhibit belief perseverance bias. The effectiveness of the debiasing techniques is assessed by measuring the difference between the baseline opinions before exposure to misinformation and the opinions after exposure to a debiasing technique. Our study confirmed the effectiveness of the awareness-training and counter-speech debiasing techniques in mitigating the belief perseverance bias, finding no discernible differences in the effectiveness between the previously proposed and the new variants. Moreover, we observed that the combination of awareness training and counter-speech is more effective in mitigating the belief perseverance bias than the single debiasing techniques.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Fala , Humanos , Atitude , Viés
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(2): 1353-1367, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364043

RESUMO

A personalization framework to adapt compact models to test time environments and improve their speech enhancement (SE) performance in noisy and reverberant conditions is proposed. The use-cases are when the end-user device encounters only one or a few speakers and noise types that tend to reoccur in the specific acoustic environment. Hence, a small personalized model that is sufficient to handle this focused subset of the original universal SE problem is postulated. The study addresses a major data shortage issue: although the goal is to learn from a specific user's speech signals and the test time environment, the target clean speech is unavailable for model training due to privacy-related concerns and technical difficulty of recording noise and reverberation-free voice signals. The proposed zero-shot personalization method uses no clean speech target. Instead, it employs the knowledge distillation framework, where the more advanced denoising results from an overly large teacher work as pseudo targets to train a small student model. Evaluation on various test time conditions suggests that the proposed personalization approach can significantly enhance the compact student model's test time performance. Personalized models outperform larger non-personalized baseline models, demonstrating that personalization achieves model compression with no loss in dereverberation and denoising performance.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala , Acústica
11.
Trends Hear ; 28: 23312165241229572, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347733

RESUMO

Subjective reports indicate that hearing aids can disrupt sound externalization and/or reduce the perceived distance of sounds. Here we conducted an experiment to explore this phenomenon and to quantify how frequently it occurs for different hearing-aid styles. Of particular interest were the effects of microphone position (behind the ear vs. in the ear) and dome type (closed vs. open). Participants were young adults with normal hearing or with bilateral hearing loss, who were fitted with hearing aids that allowed variations in the microphone position and the dome type. They were seated in a large sound-treated booth and presented with monosyllabic words from loudspeakers at a distance of 1.5 m. Their task was to rate the perceived externalization of each word using a rating scale that ranged from 10 (at the loudspeaker in front) to 0 (in the head) to -10 (behind the listener). On average, compared to unaided listening, hearing aids tended to reduce perceived distance and lead to more in-the-head responses. This was especially true for closed domes in combination with behind-the-ear microphones. The behavioral data along with acoustical recordings made in the ear canals of a manikin suggest that increased low-frequency ear-canal levels (with closed domes) and ambiguous spatial cues (with behind-the-ear microphones) may both contribute to breakdowns of externalization.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Localização de Som , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Fala , Perda Auditiva Bilateral , Ruído , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
12.
JASA Express Lett ; 4(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341684

RESUMO

This study examines the lateral biases in tongue movements during speech production. It builds on previous research on asymmetry in various aspects of human biology and behavior, focusing on the tongue's asymmetric behavior during speech. The findings reveal that speakers have a pronounced preference toward one side of the tongue during lateral releases with a majority displaying the left-side bias. This lateral bias in tongue speech movements is referred to as tonguedness. This research contributes to our understanding of the articulatory mechanisms involved in tongue movements and underscores the importance of considering lateral biases in speech production research.


Assuntos
Fala , Língua , Humanos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Testes de Articulação da Fala
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(2): 1071-1085, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341737

RESUMO

Children's speech understanding is vulnerable to indoor noise and reverberation: e.g., from classrooms. It is unknown how they develop the ability to use temporal acoustic cues, specifically amplitude modulation (AM) and voice onset time (VOT), which are important for perceiving distorted speech. Through three experiments, we investigated the typical development of AM depth detection in vowels (experiment I), categorical perception of VOT (experiment II), and consonant identification (experiment III) in quiet and in speech-shaped noise (SSN) and mild reverberation in 6- to 14-year-old children. Our findings suggested that AM depth detection using a naturally produced vowel at the rate of the fundamental frequency was particularly difficult for children and with acoustic distortions. While the VOT cue salience was monotonically attenuated with increasing signal-to-noise ratio of SSN, its utility for consonant discrimination was completely removed even under mild reverberation. The reverberant energy decay in distorting critical temporal cues provided further evidence that may explain the error patterns observed in consonant identification. By 11-14 years of age, children approached adult-like performance in consonant discrimination and identification under adverse acoustics, emphasizing the need for good acoustics for younger children as they develop auditory skills to process distorted speech in everyday listening environments.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Voz , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acústica , Fala
14.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(2): 1198-1215, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341746

RESUMO

Speech and language development are early indicators of overall analytical and learning ability in children. The preschool classroom is a rich language environment for monitoring and ensuring growth in young children by measuring their vocal interactions with teachers and classmates. Early childhood researchers are naturally interested in analyzing naturalistic vs controlled lab recordings to measure both quality and quantity of such interactions. Unfortunately, present-day speech technologies are not capable of addressing the wide dynamic scenario of early childhood classroom settings. Due to the diversity of acoustic events/conditions in such daylong audio streams, automated speaker diarization technology would need to be advanced to address this challenging domain for segmenting audio as well as information extraction. This study investigates alternate deep learning-based lightweight, knowledge-distilled, diarization solutions for segmenting classroom interactions of 3-5 years old children with teachers. In this context, the focus on speech-type diarization which classifies speech segments as being either from adults or children partitioned across multiple classrooms. Our lightest CNN model achieves a best F1-score of ∼76.0% on data from two classrooms, based on dev and test sets of each classroom. It is utilized with automatic speech recognition-based re-segmentation modules to perform child-adult diarization. Additionally, F1-scores are obtained for individual segments with corresponding speaker tags (e.g., adult vs child), which provide knowledge for educators on child engagement through naturalistic communications. The study demonstrates the prospects of addressing educational assessment needs through communication audio stream analysis, while maintaining both security and privacy of all children and adults. The resulting child communication metrics have been used for broad-based feedback for teachers with the help of visualizations.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Adulto , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
15.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(2)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342686

RESUMO

Communication, especially conversation, is essential for human social life. Many previous studies have examined the neuroscientific underpinnings of conversation, i.e. language comprehension and speech production. However, conversation inherently involves two or more people, and unless two people actually interact with one another, the nature of the conversation cannot be truly revealed. Therefore, in this study, we used two magnetoencephalographs that were connected together, and simultaneously recorded brain activity while two people took turns speaking in a word association/alphabet completion task. We compared the amplitude modulation of the alpha- and beta-band rhythms within each of the 62 brain regions under semantic (word association; less predictable) and non-semantic (alphabet completion; more predictable) conditions. We found that the amplitudes of the rhythms were significantly different between conditions in a wide range of brain regions. Additionally, significant differences were observed in nearly the same group of brain regions after versus before each utterance, indicating that a wide range of brain areas is involved in predicting a conversation partner's next utterance. This result supports the idea that mentalizing, e.g. predicting another person's speech, plays an important role in conversation, and suggests that the neural network implicated in mentalizing extends over a wide range of brain regions.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Humanos , Semântica , Comunicação , Encéfalo , Magnetoencefalografia
16.
J Vis Exp ; (203)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345222

RESUMO

Understanding why speakers modify their co-speech hand gestures when speaking to interlocutors provides valuable insight into how these gestures contribute to interpersonal communication in face-to-face and virtual contexts. The current protocols manipulate the visibility of speakers and their interlocutors in tandem in a face-to-face context to examine the impact of visibility on gesture production when communication is challenging. In these protocols, speakers complete tasks such as teaching words from an unfamiliar second language or recounting the events of cartoon vignettes to an interlocutor who is either another participant or a confederate. When performing these tasks, speakers are visible or non-visible to their interlocutor, and the speaker is visible or non-visible to the participant. In the word learning task, speakers and interlocutors visible to one another produce more representational gestures, which convey meaning via handshape and motion, and deictic (pointing) gestures than speakers and interlocutors who are not visible to one another. In the narrative retelling protocol, adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) produced more gestures when speaking to visible interlocutors than non-visible interlocutors. A major strength of the current protocol is its flexibility in terms of the tasks, populations, and gestures examined, and the current protocol can be implemented in videoconferencing as well as face-to-face contexts. Thus, the current protocol has the potential to advance the understanding of gesture production by elucidating its role in interpersonal communication in populations with communication challenges.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Gestos , Adolescente , Humanos , Comunicação , Fala , Narração , Aprendizagem Verbal
17.
Biomed Eng Online ; 23(1): 15, 2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311731

RESUMO

Automatic speech assessments have the potential to dramatically improve ALS clinical practice and facilitate patient stratification for ALS clinical trials. Acoustic speech analysis has demonstrated the ability to capture a variety of relevant speech motor impairments, but implementation has been hindered by both the nature of lab-based assessments (requiring travel and time for patients) and also by the opacity of some acoustic feature analysis methods. These challenges and others have obscured the ability to distinguish different ALS disease stages/severities. Validation of automated acoustic analysis tools could enable detection of early signs of ALS, and these tools could be deployed to screen and monitor patients without requiring clinic visits. Here, we sought to determine whether acoustic features gathered using an automated assessment app could detect ALS as well as different levels of speech impairment severity resulting from ALS. Speech samples (readings of a standardized, 99-word passage) from 119 ALS patients with varying degrees of disease severity as well as 22 neurologically healthy participants were analyzed, and 53 acoustic features were extracted. Patients were stratified into early and late stages of disease (ALS-early/ALS-E and ALS-late/ALS-L) based on the ALS Functional Ratings Scale-Revised bulbar score (FRS-bulb) (median [interquartile range] of FRS-bulbar scores: 11[3]). The data were analyzed using a sparse Bayesian logistic regression classifier. It was determined that the current relatively small set of acoustic features could distinguish between ALS and controls well (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve/AUROC = 0.85), that the ALS-E patients could be separated well from control participants (AUROC = 0.78), and that ALS-E and ALS-L patients could be reasonably separated (AUROC = 0.70). These results highlight the potential for automated acoustic analyses to detect and stratify ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Humanos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Teorema de Bayes , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Curva ROC
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3480, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347058

RESUMO

The ability to parse sound mixtures into coherent auditory objects is fundamental to cognitive functions, such as speech comprehension and language acquisition. Yet, we still lack a clear understanding of how auditory objects are formed. To address this question, we studied a speech-specific case of perceptual multistability, called verbal transformations (VTs), in which a variety of verbal forms is induced by continuous repetition of a physically unchanging word. Here, we investigated the degree to which auditory memory through sensory adaptation influences VTs. Specifically, we hypothesized that when memory persistence is longer, participants are able to retain the current verbal form longer, resulting in sensory adaptation, which in turn, affects auditory perception. Participants performed VT and auditory memory tasks on different days. In the VT task, Japanese participants continuously reported their perception while listening to a Japanese word (2- or 3-mora in length) played repeatedly for 5 min. In the auditory memory task, a different sequence of three morae, e.g., /ka/, /hi/, and /su/, was presented to each ear simultaneously. After some period (0-4 s), participants were visually cued to recall one of the sequences, i.e., in the left or right ear. We found that delayed recall accuracy was negatively correlated with the number of VTs, particularly under 2-mora conditions. This suggests that memory persistence is important for formation and selection of perceptual objects.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Sinais (Psicologia) , Cognição , Fala , Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Auditiva
19.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297530, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324559

RESUMO

Given the increasing prevalence of online data collection, it is important to know how behavioral data obtained online compare to samples collected in the laboratory. This study compares online and in-person measurement of speech perception in older children and adolescents. Speech perception is important for assessment and treatment planning in speech-language pathology; we focus on the American English /ɹ/ sound because of its frequency as a clinical target. Two speech perception tasks were adapted for web presentation using Gorilla: identification of items along a synthetic continuum from rake to wake, and category goodness judgment of English /ɹ/ sounds in words produced by various talkers with and without speech sound disorder. Fifty typical children aged 9-15 completed these tasks online using a standard headset. These data were compared to a previous sample of 98 typical children aged 9-15 who completed the same tasks in the lab setting. For the identification task, participants exhibited smaller boundary widths (suggestive of more acute perception) in the in-person setting relative to the online setting. For the category goodness judgment task, there was no statistically significant effect of modality. The correlation between scores on the two tasks was significant in the online setting but not in the in-person setting, but the difference in correlation strength was not statistically significant. Overall, our findings agree with previous research in suggesting that online and in-person data collection do not yield identical results, but the two contexts tend to support the same broad conclusions. In addition, these results suggest that online data collection can make it easier for researchers connect with a more representative sample of participants.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Transtorno Fonológico , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Idioma , Julgamento , Som , Fala
20.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297826, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330068

RESUMO

Perception of sounds and speech involves structures in the auditory brainstem that rapidly process ongoing auditory stimuli. The role of these structures in speech processing can be investigated by measuring their electrical activity using scalp-mounted electrodes. However, typical analysis methods involve averaging neural responses to many short repetitive stimuli that bear little relevance to daily listening environments. Recently, subcortical responses to more ecologically relevant continuous speech were detected using linear encoding models. These methods estimate the temporal response function (TRF), which is a regression model that minimises the error between the measured neural signal and a predictor derived from the stimulus. Using predictors that model the highly non-linear peripheral auditory system may improve linear TRF estimation accuracy and peak detection. Here, we compare predictors from both simple and complex peripheral auditory models for estimating brainstem TRFs on electroencephalography (EEG) data from 24 participants listening to continuous speech. We also investigate the data length required for estimating subcortical TRFs, and find that around 12 minutes of data is sufficient for clear wave V peaks (>3 dB SNR) to be seen in nearly all participants. Interestingly, predictors derived from simple filterbank-based models of the peripheral auditory system yield TRF wave V peak SNRs that are not significantly different from those estimated using a complex model of the auditory nerve, provided that the nonlinear effects of adaptation in the auditory system are appropriately modelled. Crucially, computing predictors from these simpler models is more than 50 times faster compared to the complex model. This work paves the way for efficient modelling and detection of subcortical processing of continuous speech, which may lead to improved diagnosis metrics for hearing impairment and assistive hearing technology.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Humanos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Estimulação Acústica
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