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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105567, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244079

RESUMO

This research examined whether the auditory short-term memory (STM) capacity for speech sounds differs from that for nonlinguistic sounds in 11-month-old infants. Infants were presented with streams composed of repeating sequences of either 2 or 4 syllables, akin to prior work by Ross-Sheehy and Newman (2015) using nonlinguistic musical instruments. These syllable sequences either stayed the same for every repetition (constant) or changed by one syllable each time it repeated (varying). Using the head-turn preference procedure, we measured infant listening time to each type of stream (constant vs varying and 2 vs 4 syllables). Longer listening to the varying stream was taken as evidence for STM because this required remembering all syllables in the sequence. We found that infants listened longer to the varying streams for 2-syllable sequences but not for 4-syllable sequences. This capacity limitation is comparable to that found previously for nonlinguistic instrument tones, suggesting that young infants have similar STM limitations for speech and nonspeech stimuli.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção da Fala , Lactente , Humanos , Fonética , Percepção Auditiva , Fala
2.
Cognition ; 230: 105275, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215764

RESUMO

Why are children's first utterances short and ungrammatical, with some obvious constructions missing? What determines the lengthening of children's early utterances over time? The literature is replete with references to a one-word, a two-word, and a later multiword stage in language development, but with little empirical evidence, and with little account for how and why utterances grow. To address these questions, we analyze speech samples from 25 children between the ages of 14 and 43 months; we construct distributions of their utterances of lengths one to five by age. Our novel findings are that multiword utterances of different lengths appear early in acquisition and increase together until they reach relatively stable proportions similar to those found in parents' input. To explain such patterns, we develop a probabilistic computational model, VIRTUAL, that posits an interaction between a) varying, increasing resources from various developmental domains and b) target utterance lengths mirroring the input. VIRTUAL successfully accounts for most of the empirical patterns, suggesting a probabilistic and dynamic process that is nonetheless compatible with apparent distinct milestones in development. We provide a new, systematic way of showing how developmental cascade theories could work in language development. Our findings and model also suggest insights into syntactic, semantic, and cognitive development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fala , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Semântica , Criatividade , Resolução de Problemas , Linguagem Infantil , Linguística
3.
Cognition ; 230: 105290, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240613

RESUMO

Statistical learning relies on detecting the frequency of co-occurrences of items and has been proposed to be crucial for a variety of learning problems, notably to learn and memorize words from fluent speech. Endress and Johnson (2021) (hereafter EJ) recently showed that such results can be explained based on simple memory-less correlational learning mechanisms such as Hebbian Learning. Tovar and Westermann (2022) (hereafter TW) reproduced these results with a different Hebbian model. We show that the main differences between the models are whether temporal decay acts on both the connection weights and the activations (in TW) or only on the activations (in EJ), and whether interference affects weights (in TW) or activations (in EJ). Given that weights and activations are linked through the Hebbian learning rule, the networks behave similarly. However, in contrast to TW, we do not believe that neurophysiological data are relevant to adjudicate between abstract psychological models with little biological detail. Taken together, both models show that different memory-less correlational learning mechanisms provide a parsimonious account of Statistical Learning results. They are consistent with evidence that Statistical Learning might not allow learners to learn and retain words, and Statistical Learning might support predictive processing instead.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Fala , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
4.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103864, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007451

RESUMO

Voice assistants (VA) are virtual agents used to aid information seeking. Cues contained in speech, such as perceived gender and vocal pitch, may influence attitudes towards, and interactions with these agents. Given expansion of telehealth efforts and the potential for VA to advise patients on health-related topics outside of formal healthcare settings, the influence of VA vocal characteristics is examined in the context of medication instructions. Participants rated trust and reliance on VA after viewing medication labels and hearing recommendations from male and female agents with varying pitch. Results suggest agents perceived as female were rated as more trustworthy, while vocal pitch did not significantly influence trust. However, a trend of lower reliance with increasing pitch was observed. Additionally, participants relied significantly more on VA advice than medication labels when making decisions. Post-hoc analyses revealed trust and reliance primarily varied between participants. Pitch and gender explained only a small portion of within-participant variance. We found suggestive evidence for social categorizations distilled from vocal cues influencing interactions with agents delivering health-critical information. Future work should explore additional samples, vocal cues, and participant-level sources of variation.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Voz , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Confiança , Fala , Sinais (Psicologia)
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6606, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329058

RESUMO

Speech consists of a continuously-varying acoustic signal. Yet human listeners experience it as sequences of discrete speech sounds, which are used to recognise discrete words. To examine how the human brain appropriately sequences the speech signal, we recorded two-hour magnetoencephalograms from 21 participants listening to short narratives. Our analyses show that the brain continuously encodes the three most recently heard speech sounds in parallel, and maintains this information long past its dissipation from the sensory input. Each speech sound representation evolves over time, jointly encoding both its phonetic features and the amount of time elapsed since onset. As a result, this dynamic neural pattern encodes both the relative order and phonetic content of the speech sequence. These representations are active earlier when phonemes are more predictable, and are sustained longer when lexical identity is uncertain. Our results show how phonetic sequences in natural speech are represented at the level of populations of neurons, providing insight into what intermediary representations exist between the sensory input and sub-lexical units. The flexibility in the dynamics of these representations paves the way for further understanding of how such sequences may be used to interface with higher order structure such as lexical identity.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fonética , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Mapeamento Encefálico
6.
J Med Philos ; 47(4): 503-515, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333930

RESUMO

This article provides analysis of the mechanisms and outputs involved in language-use mediated by a neuroprosthetic device. It is motivated by the thought that users of speech neuroprostheses require sufficient control over what their devices externalize as synthetic speech if they are to be thought of as responsible for it, but that the nature of this control, and so the status of their responsibility, is not clear.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fala , Humanos
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18789, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335137

RESUMO

Selective listening to cocktail-party speech involves a network of auditory and inferior frontal cortical regions. However, cognitive and motor cortical regions are differentially activated depending on whether the task emphasizes semantic or phonological aspects of speech. Here we tested whether processing of cocktail-party speech differs when participants perform a shadowing (immediate speech repetition) task compared to an attentive listening task in the presence of irrelevant speech. Participants viewed audiovisual dialogues with concurrent distracting speech during functional imaging. Participants either attentively listened to the dialogue, overtly repeated (i.e., shadowed) attended speech, or performed visual or speech motor control tasks where they did not attend to speech and responses were not related to the speech input. Dialogues were presented with good or poor auditory and visual quality. As a novel result, we show that attentive processing of speech activated the same network of sensory and frontal regions during listening and shadowing. However, in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), peak activations during shadowing were posterior to those during listening, suggesting that an anterior-posterior distinction is present for motor vs. perceptual processing of speech already at the level of the auditory cortex. We also found that activations along the dorsal auditory processing stream were specifically associated with the shadowing task. These activations are likely to be due to complex interactions between perceptual, attention dependent speech processing and motor speech generation that matches the heard speech. Our results suggest that interactions between perceptual and motor processing of speech relies on a distributed network of temporal and motor regions rather than any specific anatomical landmark as suggested by some previous studies.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(4): 2357, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319224

RESUMO

The one-up one-down adaptive (staircase or up-down) procedure is often used to estimate the speech recognition threshold (SRT) in speech-in-noise testing. This article provides a brief historical overview of the one-up one-down procedure in psychophysics, discussing the groundbreaking early work that is still relevant to clinical audiology and scientific research. Next, this article focuses on two aspects of the one-up one-down adaptive procedure: first, the standard error of measurement (SEM) and, second, the fluctuations in the track [i.e., the standard deviation of the signal-to-noise ratios of the stimuli within the track (SDtrack)]. Simulations of ideal and non-ideal listeners and experimental data are used to determine and evaluate different relationships between the parameters slope of the speech recognition function, SRT, SEM, and SDtrack. Hearing loss and non-ideal behavior (inattentiveness, fatigue, and giving up when the task becomes too difficult) slightly increase the average value of SDtrack. SDtrack, however, poorly discriminates between reliable and unreliable SRT estimates.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala/métodos , Limiar Auditivo , Ruído
9.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(4): 2013, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319233

RESUMO

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a group of listeners having thresholds at 4 kHz exceeding 7.5 dB HL, and no more than "slight" hearing loss, would exhibit degradations in performance when "target" stimuli were masked tokens of speech. Intelligibility thresholds and detection thresholds were measured separately for speech masked by flat-spectrum noise or speech-shaped noise. Both NoSo and NoSπ configurations were employed. Consistent with findings of earlier investigations, when maskers and speech tokens were broadband, NoSo and NoSπ detection thresholds were substantially lower than intelligibility thresholds. More importantly, for the small cohorts tested, mean thresholds obtained from the ≤7.5 dB and >7.5 dB groups were equivalent. When maskers and speech targets were high-pass filtered at 500 Hz and above, the mean intelligibility thresholds obtained from the >7.5 dB group were about 4 dB higher than those obtained from the ≤7.5 dB group, independent of masker type and interaural configuration of the stimuli. In real-world listening situations, such deficits may manifest themselves as substantially reduced speech intelligibility and, perhaps, increased "listening effort" for listeners whose thresholds at 4 kHz exceed 7.5 dB HL and who have no more than "slight" hearing loss.


Assuntos
Surdez , Perda Auditiva , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Fala , Limiar Auditivo , Ruído , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Inteligibilidade da Fala
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(4): 2336, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319253

RESUMO

Speech perception testing, defined as providing standardized speech stimuli and requiring a listener to provide a behavioral and scored response, has been an integral part of the audiologic test battery since the beginning of the audiology profession. Over the past several decades, limitations in the diagnostic and prognostic validity of standard speech perception testing as routinely administered in the clinic have been noted, and the promotion of speech-in-noise testing has been highlighted. This review will summarize emerging and innovative approaches to speech-in-noise testing with a focus on five applications: (1) pediatric considerations promoting the measurement of sensory and cognitive components separately; (2) appropriately serving underrepresented populations with special attention to racial, ethnic, and linguistic minorities, as well as considering biological sex and/or gender differences as variables of interest; (3) binaural fitness for duty assessments of functional hearing for occupational settings that demand the ability to detect, recognize, and localize sounds; (4) utilization of speech-in-noise tests in pharmacotherapeutic clinical trials with considerations to the drug mechanistic action, the patient populations, and the study design; and (5) online and mobile applications of hearing assessment that increase accessibility and the direct-to-consumer market.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Criança , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala , Ruído , Audição/fisiologia , Testes Auditivos
11.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(4): 2073, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319243

RESUMO

The present study compares the production of fricatives in conversational versus read speech in American English. The goal is to examine which parameters contribute to the identification of fricatives across the two speech styles. The study surveys over 162 000 fricative tokens from the Buckeye Corpus [Pitt, Johnson, Hume, Kiesling, and Raymond (2005). Speech Commun. 45, 89-95] and the TIMIT Corpus [Zue and Seneff (1996). Recent Research towards Advanced Man-Machine Interface through Spoken Language (Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands), pp. 515-525]. A total of 18 different temporal and spectral measures are tested, including segment duration, preceding and following phone duration, spectral moments (at onset, midpoint, and/or offset), spectral peak frequency, etc. Results show that segment duration and midpoint spectral moments make the most prominent contribution to the categorization of fricatives for both speech styles. Spectral measures are more important for conversational speech, whereas duration plays a greater role for read speech. At the same time, the magnitude of the differences across speech styles is often low and many of the observed effects may be attributable to methodological differences across the corpora. Results may indicate that reduction of fricatives in conversational speech is more limited compared to the reduction of other types of speech sounds, such as plosives.


Assuntos
Idioma , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Acústica da Fala , Fonética , Fala
12.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(4): 2266, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319249

RESUMO

Room acoustic simulations using the finite-difference time-domain method on a wide frequency range can be computationally expensive and typically contain numerical dispersion. Numerical dispersion can be audible and, thus, constitutes an artifact in auralizations. There is a need to measure perceptual thresholds for numerical dispersion to achieve an optimal balance between computational complexity and audibility of dispersion. This work measures the perceptual detection thresholds for numerical dispersion in binaural auralizations of two acoustically different rooms. Numerical dispersion is incorporated into measured binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) by the means of filters that represent the dispersion that plane waves experience, which propagate in the simulation in the direction of the worst-case dispersion error. The results show that the perceptual detection threshold is generally lower for the most reverberant room and greatly depends on the source signal independently of the room in which the threshold is measured. It is the most noticeable in the pure BRIRs, i.e., with an impulse as source signal, and almost unnoticeable with speech. The results also show that there was no statistical evidence that the perceptual thresholds for the conditions where numerical dispersion was present or absent in the direct path of the BRIRs be different.


Assuntos
Acústica , Percepção da Fala , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala , Simulação por Computador , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia
13.
Br Dent J ; 233(9): 801-805, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369571

RESUMO

Head and neck cancer (HNC) and its treatment can have a significant impact on physical and psychosocial wellbeing. A multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach is critical to reduce the potential acute, long-term and late effects of treatment by optimising function at baseline, supporting people during treatment and with rehabilitation post treatment. The key focus for speech and language therapists is to support the holistic needs of people with a focus on speech, swallowing, voice and mouth opening. Effective management is reliant on working with MDT members and interventions are implemented against the background of robust multidimensional baseline evaluation. There have been significant advances in treatment modalities for both primary and recurrent HNC. These include highly conformal radiotherapy modalities, including: image-guided radiotherapy; parotid-sparing and dysphagia-optimised intensity-modulated radiotherapy; and the introduction of intensity-modulated proton therapy, as well as immunotherapy, transoral robotic surgery and surgery with advanced reconstructive techniques. Such treatment advances coupled with a changing patient demographic means that people with HNC are now living longer. However, this is not always without consequences and late treatment effects are a new challenge facing MDTs, requiring high levels of support and rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/psicologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/reabilitação , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fala , Trismo/etiologia , Trismo/reabilitação , Trismo/terapia
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20028, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414688

RESUMO

The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (left-vOT) plays a key role in reading. Interestingly, the area also responds to speech input, suggesting that it may have other functions beyond written word recognition. Here, we adopt graph theoretical analysis to investigate the left-vOT's functional role in the whole-brain network while participants process spoken sentences in different contexts. Overall, different connectivity measures indicate that the left-vOT acts as an interface enabling the communication between distributed brain regions and sub-networks. During simple speech perception, the left-vOT is systematically part of the visual network and contributes to the communication between neighboring areas, remote areas, and sub-networks, by acting as a local bridge, a global bridge, and a connector, respectively. However, when speech comprehension is explicitly required, the specific functional role of the area and the sub-network to which the left-vOT belongs change and vary with the quality of speech signal and task difficulty. These connectivity patterns provide insightful information on the contribution of the left-vOT in various contexts of language processing beyond its role in reading. They advance our general understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the flexibility of the language network that adjusts itself according to the processing context.


Assuntos
Lobo Occipital , Fala , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Temporal , Leitura
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 501, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Automatic and accurate recognition of various biomedical named entities from literature is an important task of biomedical text mining, which is the foundation of extracting biomedical knowledge from unstructured texts into structured formats. Using the sequence labeling framework and deep neural networks to implement biomedical named entity recognition (BioNER) is a common method at present. However, the above method often underutilizes syntactic features such as dependencies and topology of sentences. Therefore, it is an urgent problem to be solved to integrate semantic and syntactic features into the BioNER model. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a novel biomedical named entity recognition model, named BioByGANS (BioBERT/SpaCy-Graph Attention Network-Softmax), which uses a graph to model the dependencies and topology of a sentence and formulate the BioNER task as a node classification problem. This formulation can introduce more topological features of language and no longer be only concerned about the distance between words in the sequence. First, we use periods to segment sentences and spaces and symbols to segment words. Second, contextual features are encoded by BioBERT, and syntactic features such as part of speeches, dependencies and topology are preprocessed by SpaCy respectively. A graph attention network is then used to generate a fusing representation considering both the contextual features and syntactic features. Last, a softmax function is used to calculate the probabilities and get the results. We conduct experiments on 8 benchmark datasets, and our proposed model outperforms existing BioNER state-of-the-art methods on the BC2GM, JNLPBA, BC4CHEMD, BC5CDR-chem, BC5CDR-disease, NCBI-disease, Species-800, and LINNAEUS datasets, and achieves F1-scores of 85.15%, 78.16%, 92.97%, 94.74%, 87.74%, 91.57%, 75.01%, 90.99%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The experimental results on 8 biomedical benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our model, and indicate that formulating the BioNER task into a node classification problem and combining syntactic features into the graph attention networks can significantly improve model performance.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Fala , Conhecimento , Benchmarking
16.
Am Psychol ; 77(8): 890-891, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409118

RESUMO

O'Donohue and Fisher (2022) make some good arguments about how free speech has been jeopardized in recent years, but few if any of those arguments concern psychologists directly. Furthermore, because free speech is codified in the First Amendment, it is unclear why or how its inclusion in the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2017), would add anything meaningful. The arguments posed by O'Donohue and Fisher are far ranging but seldom specific to the work of psychologists. While the additional language on free speech might be well suited for the Ethics Code's aspirational principles, the proposed amendment is neither suitable nor necessary within the enforceable standards. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Idioma , Sociedades Científicas , Fala
17.
Am Psychol ; 77(8): 887-889, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409117

RESUMO

In arguing for the addition of an enforceable section on free speech to the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2017; hereinafter, referred to as the Ethics Code), O'Donohue and Fisher (2022) rely on insufficient evidence of a threat to free speech. They also privilege individualistic over communitarian values and calibrate the risks of racist speech narrowly, and at the individual level. A recent resolution by the American Psychological Association (2021) calls upon all psychologists to "eliminate processes and procedures that perpetuate racial injustice" (para. 29, p. 3). In response to that call, I examine evidence pertinent to the proposal and conclude that the recommended addition to the Ethics Code is not empirically supported and could serve to institutionalize racism. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Racismo , Fala , Sociedades Científicas , Códigos de Ética , Ética Profissional
18.
Am Psychol ; 77(8): 892-893, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409119

RESUMO

The ethically proper response to problematic speech is more speech and not censorship. To the extent that Jackson (2022) and Smith (2022) advocate for all to be able to criticize all, for example, for unempowered undergraduates to criticize privileged White male professors or for anyone to criticize racist or hate speech, we are in agreement. The speech involved in criticism can be risky and hence ought to be protected by the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2017). However, except in very circumscribed circumstances, to the extent that Jackson or Smith advocate for acts such as the suppression, censorship, or punishment of speech, we are in disagreement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sociedades Científicas , Fala , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Punição
19.
Trends Hear ; 26: 23312165221136934, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384325

RESUMO

Listening in a noisy environment is challenging, but many previous studies have demonstrated that comprehension of speech can be substantially improved by looking at the talker's face. We recently developed a deep neural network (DNN) based system that generates movies of a talking face from speech audio and a single face image. In this study, we aimed to quantify the benefits that such a system can bring to speech comprehension, especially in noise. The target speech audio was masked with signal to noise ratios of -9, -6, -3, and 0 dB and was presented to subjects in three audio-visual (AV) stimulus conditions: (1) synthesized AV: audio with the synthesized talking face movie; (2) natural AV: audio with the original movie from the corpus; and (3) audio-only: audio with a static image of the talker. Subjects were asked to type the sentences they heard in each trial and keyword recognition was quantified for each condition. Overall, performance in the synthesized AV condition fell approximately halfway between the other two conditions, showing a marked improvement over the audio-only control but still falling short of the natural AV condition. Every subject showed some benefit from the synthetic AV stimulus. The results of this study support the idea that a DNN-based model that generates a talking face from speech audio can meaningfully enhance comprehension in noisy environments, and has the potential to be used as a visual hearing aid.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Fala , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Redes Neurais de Computação
20.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(11): 4205-4227, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327494

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Differences between child-directed speech (CDS) by women and men are generally explained by either biological-evolutionary or gender-social theories. It is difficult to tease these two explanations apart for different-sex-parent families because women are usually also the main caregivers. Thus, this study aims to examine the influence of parental sex on CDS by investigating men and women who are in same-sex-parent families. METHOD: Twenty same-sex-parent families participated in the study-10 families in which the parents were two men and 10 families in which the parents were two women. The families were matched for toddler age (range: 9-24 months) and sex. CDS was recorded using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) device for 16 hr during a day. Each parent was also audio-recorded during a 30-min play session with his or her child. RESULTS: No difference was found between men and women across all the LENA measures, namely, adult word count, conversational turns count, and child vocalization count. The analysis of speech samples during parent-child play showed no difference between men and women in mean length of utterance and number of nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Pragmatic speech acts of initiations, responses to infants' actions, or vocalizations were similar in both sexes. Women used more "teaching" utterances than men, and men who were main caregivers used more "teaching" utterances than men who were secondary caregivers. Across both sexes, secondary caregivers used more "requests for actions" compared to main caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings support a functional-social approach and not a biological approach for explaining the use of CDS by men and women. These findings have clinical implications on the involvement of men in early intervention programs.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Fala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Fala/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Pais
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