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1.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(5): 80-86, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034182

RESUMO

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to study the dental status, control individual hygiene and assess the quality of life of patients with jaw defects in combination with medical osteonecrosis at the stages of orthopedic rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 38 patients were examined, divided into two groups of 19 people aged 49 to 74 years (average age - 61.5±4.25 years). The main group was comprised of patients after resection of the jaws for malignant neoplasms. The comparison group consisted of patients with partial tooth loss who do not have a history of cancer. All participants used individual hygiene products in the form of parodontax Complete protection toothpaste and parodontax Extra 0.2% mouthwash, along with dental prosthetics, according to a certain scheme. The analysis was performed at the beginning of the study, after 7, 14 days and 2 months. The results of prosthetics and the quality of life of patients in both groups were evaluated using a questionnaire developed by us, which allows us to evaluate various parameters (pain, functions, sensations, social activity). RESULTS: The dynamics of the values of the hygiene index, bleeding gums and qualitative analysis of mixed saliva confirm the positive effect of regular use of recommended hygiene products on the oral tissue. There was an increase in the number of buccal epithelial cells with a low degree of destruction, which indicates the restoration of the barrier properties of the epithelial layer. The orthopedic rehabilitation performed against the background of the use of personal hygiene products showed a positive dynamics of all the studied parameters. After applying prosthetics, patients in the control group noted the restoration of chewing and speech, improved appearance and mood. CONCLUSION: Orthopedic treatment of patients after jaw resection in combination with the complex use of PO and OP allows to solve the issue of their functional, cosmetic and social rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Higiene , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Radiographics ; 40(5): 1309-1317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870768

RESUMO

The recent shutting down of in-person events owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has elevated the popularity of web-based conferencing. This development provides an opportunity for educators to test their teaching skills on what, for many, is a new platform. Many of the basic elements of what constitutes an effective presentation are the same regardless of whether they are delivered in person or online. However, there are advantages and disadvantages of each mode of presentation, and understanding how to best leverage the features of an online platform will lead to a better educational experience for the presenter and audience. The effectiveness of any presentation is dependent on the ability of the speaker to communicate with the audience. This is accomplished by including as much audience participation as possible. Many of the techniques used to encourage audience participation in person can be adapted for use in online presentations (eg, the use of features such as chat, hand raising, polling, and question-and-answer sessions). In any type of presentation, both the quality of the content and the oral delivery are important. The author reviews the common elements of an effective presentation and how they can be optimized for online platforms. ©RSNA, 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Radiologia/métodos , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Apresentação de Dados , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Marketing , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Radiologia/tendências , Fala , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/tendências
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4525, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913209

RESUMO

To date we know little about natural emotion word repertoires, and whether or how they are associated with emotional functioning. Principles from linguistics suggest that the richness or diversity of individuals' actively used emotion vocabularies may correspond with their typical emotion experiences. The current investigation measures active emotion vocabularies in participant-generated natural speech and examined their relationships to individual differences in mood, personality, and physical and emotional well-being. Study 1 analyzes stream-of-consciousness essays by 1,567 college students. Study 2 analyzes public blogs written by over 35,000 individuals. The studies yield consistent findings that emotion vocabulary richness corresponds broadly with experience. Larger negative emotion vocabularies correlate with more psychological distress and poorer physical health. Larger positive emotion vocabularies correlate with higher well-being and better physical health. Findings support theories linking language use and development with lived experience and may have future clinical implications pending further research.


Assuntos
Emoções , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Vocabulário , Adolescente , Estado de Consciência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fala , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Redação , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(9): jrm00100, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present a case report that complements the conclusion of Stam et al. in their call to rehabilitation facilities to anticipate and prepare to address post intensive care syndrome in post-Covid-19 patients. METHODS: The case report presented here provides insight into treating mechanically ventilated post-Covid-19 patients. RESULTS: Early intervention with dysphagia therapy and speech therapy and ventilator-compatible speak-ing valves, provided within an interprofessional collaborative team, can mitigate the potentially negative consequences of prolonged intubation, long-term use of cuffed tracheostomy, and post intensive care syndrome resulting from Covid-19. CONCLUSION: Such a treatment approach can be used to address what is important to patients: to be able to speak with family and friends, eat what they want, and breathe spontaneously.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Transtornos de Deglutição/reabilitação , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação , Pneumologia/métodos , Fonoterapia/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cuidados Críticos , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Fala , Síndrome , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueostomia/métodos
7.
BMJ ; 370: m3700, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962976
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(36)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917603

RESUMO

Mandates for mask use in public during the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, worsened by global shortage of commercial supplies, have led to widespread use of homemade masks and mask alternatives. It is assumed that wearing such masks reduces the likelihood for an infected person to spread the disease, but many of these mask designs have not been tested in practice. We have demonstrated a simple optical measurement method to evaluate the efficacy of masks to reduce the transmission of respiratory droplets during regular speech. In proof-of-principle studies, we compared a variety of commonly available mask types and observed that some mask types approach the performance of standard surgical masks, while some mask alternatives, such as neck gaiters or bandanas, offer very little protection. Our measurement setup is inexpensive and can be built and operated by nonexperts, allowing for rapid evaluation of mask performance during speech, sneezing, or coughing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Filtração/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Respiração , Fala
9.
Codas ; 32(4): e20180227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756851

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the acoustic and perceptual-auditory results of the hearing impaired children and adolescents with hearing pairs and to correlate these results with parents' reports regarding speech auditory perception. METHOD: The participants were divided into two groups: Group I, 20 hearing-impaired children and adolescents and Group II, 20 children and adolescents with normal hearing. Acoustic analysis of the vowel /a/ and perceptual-auditory assessment of the vowel /a/ and speech were performed. The speech auditory perception of the GI was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale with adaptation for adolescent participants. The acoustic and perceptual-auditory voice results of the GI and GII were compared and these results were correlated with the performance in the auditory perception of the GI group. RESULTS: The groups I and II presented similar results, differing statistically in the long-term frequency variation (vF0) and the long-term amplitude variation (vAm) parameters of the vowel /a/ and speech resonance parameter. It was found a negative correlation between auditory perception performance with jitter, vF0 and general degree of vowel /a/. CONCLUSION: The vocal quality in GI was similar to their hearing peers in almost all the vocal parameters that were analyzed. The auditory perception influenced jitter, vF0 and general degree of voice parameters, in which hearing-impaired children and adolescents who presented higher scores for auditory perception were also able to keep a more controlled vocal emission.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Voz , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fala
11.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000840, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845876

RESUMO

Humans' propensity to acquire literacy relates to several factors, including the ability to understand speech in noise (SiN). Still, the nature of the relation between reading and SiN perception abilities remains poorly understood. Here, we dissect the interplay between (1) reading abilities, (2) classical behavioral predictors of reading (phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming), and (3) electrophysiological markers of SiN perception in 99 elementary school children (26 with dyslexia). We demonstrate that, in typical readers, cortical representation of the phrasal content of SiN relates to the degree of development of the lexical (but not sublexical) reading strategy. In contrast, classical behavioral predictors of reading abilities and the ability to benefit from visual speech to represent the syllabic content of SiN account for global reading performance (i.e., speed and accuracy of lexical and sublexical reading). In individuals with dyslexia, we found preserved integration of visual speech information to optimize processing of syntactic information but not to sustain acoustic/phonemic processing. Finally, within children with dyslexia, measures of cortical representation of the phrasal content of SiN were negatively related to reading speed and positively related to the compromise between reading precision and reading speed, potentially owing to compensatory attentional mechanisms. These results clarify the nature of the relation between SiN perception and reading abilities in typical child readers and children with dyslexia and identify novel electrophysiological markers of emergent literacy.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Ruído , Leitura , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento , Criança , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Neuroimagem , Fonética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853205

RESUMO

Disparate biases associated with datasets and trained classifiers in hateful and abusive content identification tasks have raised many concerns recently. Although the problem of biased datasets on abusive language detection has been addressed more frequently, biases arising from trained classifiers have not yet been a matter of concern. In this paper, we first introduce a transfer learning approach for hate speech detection based on an existing pre-trained language model called BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) and evaluate the proposed model on two publicly available datasets that have been annotated for racism, sexism, hate or offensive content on Twitter. Next, we introduce a bias alleviation mechanism to mitigate the effect of bias in training set during the fine-tuning of our pre-trained BERT-based model for hate speech detection. Toward that end, we use an existing regularization method to reweight input samples, thereby decreasing the effects of high correlated training set' s n-grams with class labels, and then fine-tune our pre-trained BERT-based model with the new re-weighted samples. To evaluate our bias alleviation mechanism, we employed a cross-domain approach in which we use the trained classifiers on the aforementioned datasets to predict the labels of two new datasets from Twitter, AAE-aligned and White-aligned groups, which indicate tweets written in African-American English (AAE) and Standard American English (SAE), respectively. The results show the existence of systematic racial bias in trained classifiers, as they tend to assign tweets written in AAE from AAE-aligned group to negative classes such as racism, sexism, hate, and offensive more often than tweets written in SAE from White-aligned group. However, the racial bias in our classifiers reduces significantly after our bias alleviation mechanism is incorporated. This work could institute the first step towards debiasing hate speech and abusive language detection systems.


Assuntos
Ódio , Modelos Teóricos , Racismo , Mídias Sociais , Fala , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0224956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756591

RESUMO

Research on infant vocal development has provided notable insights into vocal interaction with caregivers, elucidating growth in foundations for language through parental elicitation and reaction to vocalizations. A role for infant vocalizations produced endogenously, potentially providing raw material for interaction and a basis for growth in the vocal capacity itself, has received less attention. We report that in laboratory recordings of infants and their parents, the bulk of infant speech-like vocalizations, or "protophones", were directed toward no one and instead appeared to be generated endogenously, mostly in exploration of vocal abilities. The tendency to predominantly produce protophones without directing them to others occurred both during periods when parents were instructed to interact with their infants and during periods when parents were occupied with an interviewer, with the infants in the room. The results emphasize the infant as an agent in vocal learning, even when not interacting socially and suggest an enhanced perspective on foundations for vocal language.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Cuidadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756594

RESUMO

Speech perception in noise is challenging and is improved by binaural hearing. Since signal processing of assistive hearing devices often modifies or masks the peripheral binaural head-shadow or better-ear effects, central binaural processing should be measured separately. In a prospective study, 10 listeners with normal hearing were tested with the German matrix sentence test in a set-up with two loudspeakers located at opposite angles in the horizontal plane with respect to S0N0. The speech reception threshold (SRT) was investigated depending on the separation angle between speech and noise. The lowest (best) SRT was obtained for a separation of target and interfering source from S0N0 at an angle of about S±60°N∓60°. The derived normative curve was comparable to SRTs predicted by the binaural-speech-intelligibility-model. The systematic separation of signal and noise showed a significant improvement in speech intelligibility for normal-hearing people even for small separation angles. This experimental setting was verified. This study aimed to assess the effect of small sound source separation on binaural hearing and speech perception.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Audição/fisiologia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Orelha/fisiologia , Feminino , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Estudos Prospectivos , Equipamentos de Autoajuda/normas , Fala/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007992, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614826

RESUMO

Understanding how the human brain processes auditory input remains a challenge. Traditionally, a distinction between lower- and higher-level sound features is made, but their definition depends on a specific theoretical framework and might not match the neural representation of sound. Here, we postulate that constructing a data-driven neural model of auditory perception, with a minimum of theoretical assumptions about the relevant sound features, could provide an alternative approach and possibly a better match to the neural responses. We collected electrocorticography recordings from six patients who watched a long-duration feature film. The raw movie soundtrack was used to train an artificial neural network model to predict the associated neural responses. The model achieved high prediction accuracy and generalized well to a second dataset, where new participants watched a different film. The extracted bottom-up features captured acoustic properties that were specific to the type of sound and were associated with various response latency profiles and distinct cortical distributions. Specifically, several features encoded speech-related acoustic properties with some features exhibiting shorter latency profiles (associated with responses in posterior perisylvian cortex) and others exhibiting longer latency profiles (associated with responses in anterior perisylvian cortex). Our results support and extend the current view on speech perception by demonstrating the presence of temporal hierarchies in the perisylvian cortex and involvement of cortical sites outside of this region during audiovisual speech perception.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Som , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletrocorticografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filmes Cinematográficos , Fonética , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Codas ; 32(3): e20190058, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609224

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Identify factors related to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) representing more than one category and verify their association with sociodemographic and health care aspects in a speech-language pathology (SLP) outpatient clinic. METHOD: This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study based on a retrospective analysis of secondary data. One hundred eighty medical records of patients aged 5-16 years evaluated between 2010 and 2014 were included in the study. Sociodemographic and health care aspects were identified in these records, as well as presence of the ICF-CY Body Functions and Activities and Participation component categories. Analyses of the frequency distribution and measures of central tendency and dispersion of the variables, as well as Factor Analysis were carried out to create representative indicators of the ICF-CY categories identified. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and the Spearman's correlation were used to analyze the associations, adopting a statistical significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Two factors that presented statistically relevant associations with the sociodemographic and health care variables were identified for the Body Functions component. As for the Activities and Participation component, three factors predominantly associated with the health care variables were identified. CONCLUSION: Items representative of the ICF-CY Body Functions and Activities and Participation categories and their respective factorial loads were identified. Statistically significant associations were verified between them and the sociodemographic and health care variables analyzed.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde , Transtornos da Linguagem , Distúrbios da Fala , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico
17.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(33): 7093-7101, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668904

RESUMO

For estimating the infection risk from virus-containing airborne droplets, it is crucial to consider the interplay of all relevant physical-chemical effects that affect droplet evaporation and sedimentation times. For droplet radii in the range 70 nm < R < 60 µm, evaporation can be described in the stagnant-flow approximation and is diffusion-limited. Analytical equations are presented for the droplet evaporation rate, the time-dependent droplet size, and the sedimentation time, including evaporation cooling and solute osmotic-pressure effects. Evaporation makes the time for initially large droplets to sediment much longer and thus significantly increases the viral air load. Using recent estimates for SARS-CoV-2 concentrations in sputum and droplet production rates while speaking, a single infected person that constantly speaks without a mouth cover produces a total steady-state air load of more than 104 virions at a given time. In a midsize closed room, this leads to a viral inhalation frequency of at least 2.5 per minute. Low relative humidity, as encountered in airliners and inside buildings in the winter, accelerates evaporation and thus keeps initially larger droplets suspended in air. Typical air-exchange rates decrease the viral air load from droplets with an initial radius larger than 20 µm only moderately.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fala , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Algoritmos , Difusão , Humanos , Pandemias , Tamanho da Partícula , Medição de Risco , Água
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17049-17055, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636258

RESUMO

Natural habitats are being impacted by human pressures at an alarming rate. Monitoring these ecosystem-level changes often requires labor-intensive surveys that are unable to detect rapid or unanticipated environmental changes. Here we have developed a generalizable, data-driven solution to this challenge using eco-acoustic data. We exploited a convolutional neural network to embed soundscapes from a variety of ecosystems into a common acoustic space. In both supervised and unsupervised modes, this allowed us to accurately quantify variation in habitat quality across space and in biodiversity through time. On the scale of seconds, we learned a typical soundscape model that allowed automatic identification of anomalous sounds in playback experiments, providing a potential route for real-time automated detection of irregular environmental behavior including illegal logging and hunting. Our highly generalizable approach, and the common set of features, will enable scientists to unlock previously hidden insights from acoustic data and offers promise as a backbone technology for global collaborative autonomous ecosystem monitoring efforts.


Assuntos
Acústica , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Espectrografia do Som/classificação , Armas de Fogo , Agricultura Florestal , Som , Fala
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658934

RESUMO

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a syndrome characterized by cognitive decline greater than expected for an individual's age and education level. This study aims to determine whether voice quality and speech fluency distinguish patients with MCI from healthy individuals to improve diagnosis of patients with MCI. We analyzed recordings of the Cookie Theft picture description task produced by 26 patients with MCI and 29 healthy controls from Sweden and calculated measures of voice quality and speech fluency. The results show that patients with MCI differ significantly from HC with respect to acoustic aspects of voice quality, namely H1-A3, cepstral peak prominence, center of gravity, and shimmer; and speech fluency, namely articulation rate and averaged speaking time. The method proposed along with the obtainability of connected speech productions can enable quick and easy analysis of speech fluency and voice quality, providing accessible and objective diagnostic markers of patients with MCI.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfonia/fisiopatologia , Fala/fisiologia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(6. Vyp. 2): 54-60, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the network connections between clinical, cognitive, speech and oculographic parameters in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 104 patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 70 healthy subjects. Clinical assessment of the patients was performed using a number of scales: PANSS, CDSS, YMRS, SAS and BAS. Basic cognitive functions were assessed by BACS. Eye movements were recorded using the SMI RED-500 non-invasive eye tracking system. Several experimental paradigms were used - free viewing of animal images with subsequent description of these images, performing progressive saccades in the experimental Go/NoGo scheme, and performing anti-saccades. RESULTS: The severity of clinical symptoms, cognitive impairments, oculomotor parameters and characteristics of speech structure of written speech are largely independent, although not completely isolated from each other. Cognitive and oculomotor parameters have the largest number of connections. In this case, the results of cognitive tests are the central element of the «network¼ that connects other groups. CONCLUSION: Further development of the approach should be aimed at studying the influence of node changes on the structure of the network that would potentially allows the identification of the most effective points of application of therapeutic and rehabilitation programs.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Esquizofrenia , Animais , Cognição , Humanos , Movimentos Sacádicos , Fala
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