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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25237-25245, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978297

RESUMO

Many scientific reports document that asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals contribute to the spread of COVID-19, probably during conversations in social interactions. Droplet emission occurs during speech, yet few studies document the flow to provide the transport mechanism. This lack of understanding prevents informed public health guidance for risk reduction and mitigation strategies, e.g., the "6-foot rule." Here we analyze flows during breathing and speaking, including phonetic features, using orders-of-magnitude estimates, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments. We document the spatiotemporal structure of the expelled airflow. Phonetic characteristics of plosive sounds like "P" lead to enhanced directed transport, including jet-like flows that entrain the surrounding air. We highlight three distinct temporal scaling laws for the transport distance of exhaled material including 1) transport over a short distance (<0.5 m) in a fraction of a second, with large angular variations due to the complexity of speech; 2) a longer distance, ∼1 m, where directed transport is driven by individual vortical puffs corresponding to plosive sounds; and 3) a distance out to about 2 m, or even farther, where sequential plosives in a sentence, corresponding effectively to a train of puffs, create conical, jet-like flows. The latter dictates the long-time transport in a conversation. We believe that this work will inform thinking about the role of ventilation, aerosol transport in disease transmission for humans and other animals, and yield a better understanding of linguistic aerodynamics, i.e., aerophonetics.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fala/fisiologia , Aerossóis , Movimentos do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fonética , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração , Ventilação
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925961

RESUMO

Ruminative thought is a style of thinking which involves repetitively focusing upon one's own negative mood, its causes and its consequences. The negative effects of rumination are well-documented, but comparatively little is known about how rumination is experienced. The evaluative nature of rumination suggests that it could involve more inner speech than non-ruminative states. The present study (N = 31) combined facial electromyography and self-report questionnaires to determine the type of inner experience that occurs in rumination. The results showed that induced rumination involved similar levels of muscle activity related to inner speech as periods of induced distraction. However, experience sampling and questionnaire responses showed that rumination involved more verbal thought, and also involved more evaluative and dialogic inner speech than distraction. These findings contribute to the understanding of inner speech as a flexible phenomenon and confirms the importance of employing multiple methods to investigate inner speech. Future research should clarify the link between inner speech in rumination and its negative effects on wellbeing.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239487, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), restoration of binaural function via cochlear implant (CI) has been shown to improve speech understanding in noise. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in behavioral performance and cortical auditory responses following cochlear implantation. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. METHODS: Six adults with SSD were tested before and 12 months post-activation of the CI. Six normal hearing (NH) participants served as experimental controls. Speech understanding in noise was evaluated for various spatial conditions. Cortical auditory evoked potentials were recorded with /ba/ stimuli in quiet and in noise. Global field power and responses at Cz were analyzed. RESULTS: Speech understanding in noise significantly improved with the CI when speech was presented to the CI ear and noise to the normal ear (p<0.05), but remained poorer than that of NH controls (p<0.05). N1 peak amplitude measure in noise significantly increased after CI activation (p<0.05), but remained lower than that of NH controls (p<0.05) at 12 months. After 12 months of CI experience, cortical responses in noise became more comparable between groups. CONCLUSION: Binaural restoration in SSD patients via cochlear implantation improved speech performance noise and cortical responses. While behavioral performance and cortical auditory responses improved, SSD-CI outcomes remained poorer than that of NH controls in most cases, suggesting only partial restoration of binaural hearing.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Compreensão/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Estudos Prospectivos , Localização de Som/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0224956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756591

RESUMO

Research on infant vocal development has provided notable insights into vocal interaction with caregivers, elucidating growth in foundations for language through parental elicitation and reaction to vocalizations. A role for infant vocalizations produced endogenously, potentially providing raw material for interaction and a basis for growth in the vocal capacity itself, has received less attention. We report that in laboratory recordings of infants and their parents, the bulk of infant speech-like vocalizations, or "protophones", were directed toward no one and instead appeared to be generated endogenously, mostly in exploration of vocal abilities. The tendency to predominantly produce protophones without directing them to others occurred both during periods when parents were instructed to interact with their infants and during periods when parents were occupied with an interviewer, with the infants in the room. The results emphasize the infant as an agent in vocal learning, even when not interacting socially and suggest an enhanced perspective on foundations for vocal language.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Cuidadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756594

RESUMO

Speech perception in noise is challenging and is improved by binaural hearing. Since signal processing of assistive hearing devices often modifies or masks the peripheral binaural head-shadow or better-ear effects, central binaural processing should be measured separately. In a prospective study, 10 listeners with normal hearing were tested with the German matrix sentence test in a set-up with two loudspeakers located at opposite angles in the horizontal plane with respect to S0N0. The speech reception threshold (SRT) was investigated depending on the separation angle between speech and noise. The lowest (best) SRT was obtained for a separation of target and interfering source from S0N0 at an angle of about S±60°N∓60°. The derived normative curve was comparable to SRTs predicted by the binaural-speech-intelligibility-model. The systematic separation of signal and noise showed a significant improvement in speech intelligibility for normal-hearing people even for small separation angles. This experimental setting was verified. This study aimed to assess the effect of small sound source separation on binaural hearing and speech perception.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Audição/fisiologia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Orelha/fisiologia , Feminino , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Estudos Prospectivos , Equipamentos de Autoajuda/normas , Fala/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000840, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845876

RESUMO

Humans' propensity to acquire literacy relates to several factors, including the ability to understand speech in noise (SiN). Still, the nature of the relation between reading and SiN perception abilities remains poorly understood. Here, we dissect the interplay between (1) reading abilities, (2) classical behavioral predictors of reading (phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming), and (3) electrophysiological markers of SiN perception in 99 elementary school children (26 with dyslexia). We demonstrate that, in typical readers, cortical representation of the phrasal content of SiN relates to the degree of development of the lexical (but not sublexical) reading strategy. In contrast, classical behavioral predictors of reading abilities and the ability to benefit from visual speech to represent the syllabic content of SiN account for global reading performance (i.e., speed and accuracy of lexical and sublexical reading). In individuals with dyslexia, we found preserved integration of visual speech information to optimize processing of syntactic information but not to sustain acoustic/phonemic processing. Finally, within children with dyslexia, measures of cortical representation of the phrasal content of SiN were negatively related to reading speed and positively related to the compromise between reading precision and reading speed, potentially owing to compensatory attentional mechanisms. These results clarify the nature of the relation between SiN perception and reading abilities in typical child readers and children with dyslexia and identify novel electrophysiological markers of emergent literacy.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Ruído , Leitura , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento , Criança , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Neuroimagem , Fonética
7.
Radiología (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 62(4): 298-305, jul.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194247

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Describir los patrones normales de activación en el cerebelo de funciones específicas cerebrales (motor, lenguaje, memoria) y su relación topográfica en la corteza cerebelosa utilizando resonancia magnética funcional. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 25 sujetos sanos, 8 mujeres y 17 hombres de entre 16 y 64 años, 23 diestros y 2 zurdos, mediante resonancia magnética funcional basada en tareas de lenguaje, memoria, motor y visual, en equipo de resonancia de 1.5 Teslas. RESULTADOS: Se caracterizó la actividad funcional en el cerebelo asociada a los componentes motores, de lenguaje y memoria, describiendo la relación con las regiones topográficas, así como su relación funcional con áreas corticales cerebrales. CONCLUSIONES: El conocimiento sobre los patrones de normalidad de las características morfológicas y del comportamiento funcional en el cerebelo, así como su relación con el cerebro, es importante para el radiólogo y médico clínico en la evaluación del cerebelo y sus posibles condiciones patológicas


OBJECTIVES: To describe the normal patterns of cerebellar activation in specific cerebral functions (motor, language, memory) and their topographical correlations in the cerebellar cortex on functional magnetic resonance imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 25 healthy subjects (8 women and 17 men; 23 right-handed and 2 left-handed; age range, 16-64 years), who did language, memory, and motor tasks while undergoing 1.5T functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: We assessed functional activity of the cerebellum associated with motor, language, and memory components, describing their relations with topographical regions of the cerebellum and their functional relations with areas in the cerebral cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the normal patterns of morphological characteristics and functional behavior in the cerebellum as well as their relations with the brain is important for radiologists and clinicians evaluating the cerebellum and possible pathological conditions that affect it


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Fala/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Lateralidade Funcional , Cerebelo/lesões
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007992, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614826

RESUMO

Understanding how the human brain processes auditory input remains a challenge. Traditionally, a distinction between lower- and higher-level sound features is made, but their definition depends on a specific theoretical framework and might not match the neural representation of sound. Here, we postulate that constructing a data-driven neural model of auditory perception, with a minimum of theoretical assumptions about the relevant sound features, could provide an alternative approach and possibly a better match to the neural responses. We collected electrocorticography recordings from six patients who watched a long-duration feature film. The raw movie soundtrack was used to train an artificial neural network model to predict the associated neural responses. The model achieved high prediction accuracy and generalized well to a second dataset, where new participants watched a different film. The extracted bottom-up features captured acoustic properties that were specific to the type of sound and were associated with various response latency profiles and distinct cortical distributions. Specifically, several features encoded speech-related acoustic properties with some features exhibiting shorter latency profiles (associated with responses in posterior perisylvian cortex) and others exhibiting longer latency profiles (associated with responses in anterior perisylvian cortex). Our results support and extend the current view on speech perception by demonstrating the presence of temporal hierarchies in the perisylvian cortex and involvement of cortical sites outside of this region during audiovisual speech perception.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Som , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletrocorticografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filmes Cinematográficos , Fonética , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658934

RESUMO

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a syndrome characterized by cognitive decline greater than expected for an individual's age and education level. This study aims to determine whether voice quality and speech fluency distinguish patients with MCI from healthy individuals to improve diagnosis of patients with MCI. We analyzed recordings of the Cookie Theft picture description task produced by 26 patients with MCI and 29 healthy controls from Sweden and calculated measures of voice quality and speech fluency. The results show that patients with MCI differ significantly from HC with respect to acoustic aspects of voice quality, namely H1-A3, cepstral peak prominence, center of gravity, and shimmer; and speech fluency, namely articulation rate and averaged speaking time. The method proposed along with the obtainability of connected speech productions can enable quick and easy analysis of speech fluency and voice quality, providing accessible and objective diagnostic markers of patients with MCI.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfonia/fisiopatologia , Fala/fisiologia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484842

RESUMO

The development of large-scale corpora has led to a quantum leap in our understanding of speech in recent years. By contrast, the analysis of massive datasets has so far had a limited impact on the study of gesture and other visual communicative behaviors. We utilized the UCLA-Red Hen Lab multi-billion-word repository of video recordings, all of them showing communicative behavior that was not elicited in a lab, to quantify speech-gesture co-occurrence frequency for a subset of linguistic expressions in American English. First, we objectively establish a systematic relationship in the high degree of co-occurrence between gesture and speech in our subset of expressions, which consists of temporal phrases. Second, we show that there is a systematic alignment between the informativity of co-speech gestures and that of the verbal expressions with which they co-occur. By exposing deep, systematic relations between the modalities of gesture and speech, our results pave the way for the data-driven integration of multimodal behavior into our understanding of human communication.


Assuntos
Idioma , Linguística , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Comunicação , Expressão Facial , Gestos , Humanos , Semântica , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2839, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503986

RESUMO

Proper speech production requires auditory speech feedback control. Models of speech production associate this function with the right cerebral hemisphere while the left hemisphere is proposed to host speech motor programs. However, previous studies have investigated only spectral perturbations of the auditory speech feedback. Since auditory perception is known to be lateralized, with right-lateralized analysis of spectral features and left-lateralized processing of temporal features, it is unclear whether the observed right-lateralization of auditory speech feedback processing reflects a preference for speech feedback control or for spectral processing in general. Here we use a behavioral speech adaptation experiment with dichotically presented altered auditory feedback and an analogous fMRI experiment with binaurally presented altered feedback to confirm a right hemisphere preference for spectral feedback control and to reveal a left hemisphere preference for temporal feedback control during speaking. These results indicate that auditory feedback control involves both hemispheres with differential contributions along the spectro-temporal axis.


Assuntos
Cérebro/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1928): 20192712, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486976

RESUMO

Classic linguistic theory ascribes language change and diversity to population migrations, conquests, and geographical isolation, with the assumption that human populations have equivalent language processing abilities. We hypothesize that spectral and temporal characteristics make some consonant manners vulnerable to differences in temporal precision associated with specific population allele frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we modelled association between RU1-1 alleles of DCDC2 and manner of articulation in 51 populations spanning five continents, and adjusting for geographical proximity, and genetic and linguistic relatedness. RU1-1 alleles, acting through increased expression of DCDC2, appear to increase auditory processing precision that enhances stop-consonant discrimination, favouring retention in some populations and loss by others. These findings enhance classical linguistic theories by adding a genetic dimension, which until recently, has not been considered to be a significant catalyst for language change.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Fala/fisiologia , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559213

RESUMO

When looking at a speaking person, the analysis of facial kinematics contributes to language discrimination and to the decoding of the time flow of visual speech. To disentangle these two factors, we investigated behavioural and fMRI responses to familiar and unfamiliar languages when observing speech gestures with natural or reversed kinematics. Twenty Italian volunteers viewed silent video-clips of speech shown as recorded (Forward, biological motion) or reversed in time (Backward, non-biological motion), in Italian (familiar language) or Arabic (non-familiar language). fMRI revealed that language (Italian/Arabic) and time-rendering (Forward/Backward) modulated distinct areas in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, suggesting that visual speech analysis begins in this region, earlier than previously thought. Left premotor ventral (superior subdivision) and dorsal areas were preferentially activated with the familiar language independently of time-rendering, challenging the view that the role of these regions in speech processing is purely articulatory. The left premotor ventral region in the frontal operculum, thought to include part of the Broca's area, responded to the natural familiar language, consistent with the hypothesis of motor simulation of speech gestures.


Assuntos
Área de Broca/fisiologia , Gestos , Idioma , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e205719, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515796

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding the association of lifestyle factors with mild cognitive impairment enables the development of evidence-based interventions for delaying cognitive impairment. Objective: To explore whether objectively measured lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, conversation, and sleep, are associated with cortical amyloid burden and cerebral glucose metabolism in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 855 community-dwelling adults in Usuki, Oita Prefecture, Japan, aged 65 years or older. Data were collected from August 2015 to December 2017. Participants were reviewed to examine risk and protective lifestyle factors for dementia. Data analysis was conducted in June 2019. Exposures: Wearable sensors, carbon-11 labeled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography images, and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images. Main Outcomes and Measures: Wearable sensor data, such as walking steps, conversation time, and sleep, were collected from August 2015 to October 2017, and positron emission tomography images were collected from October 2015 to December 2017. A multiple regression model and change-point regression model were used to examine the association of lifestyle factors with mean amyloid or fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, assessed on the basis of a standardized uptake value ratio of the frontal lobes, temporoparietal lobes, and posterior cingulate gyrus with the cerebellar cortex as the reference region. The bootstrap method was used to obtain nonparametric 95% CIs on the associations of lifestyle factors with cognitive decline. Results: Of the 855 adults in the study, 118 (13.8%) were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment, with a mean (SD) age of 75.7 (5.8) years and 66 (55.9%) women. Total sleep time was inversely associated with fluorodeoxyglucose uptake after adjusting for covariates (ß = -0.287; 95% CI, -0.452 to -0.121, P < .001). Change-point regression showed an inverse association between total sleep time and mean amyloid uptake when sleep duration was longer than 325 minutes (B = -0.0018; 95% CI, -0.0031 to -0.0007). Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that total sleep time was associated with brain function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Sleep duration is a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia at the mild cognitive impairment stage.


Assuntos
Amiloide/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
15.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 134: 110051, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound research on speech production in normal speakers has long used quantitative measurements in different languages. However, no studies in this area have been conducted in the Persian language. This study investigated Persian speaking children scores on two single curve measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on four 7-8 years old Persian speaking children. The data for analysis was collected using an ultrasound machine in 2018-2019. The stimuli included a range of consonants including/p/,/t/,/f/,/k/and/s/in consonant-vowel sequences, with the vowels/a/and/i/. The measures do not require head stabilization. Statistical analyses were done using Linear mixed models in lmer software package of R version 3.6.2. The results were performed by Chi-squared and Tukey post hoc tests in R. RESULTS: In all of the consonants, the mean of two single curve measures in the context of/i/was greater than the context of/a/. However, there was no significant effect of the vowel context on one measure for the/k/. Also, these measures were significantly different in each of the Persian consonants and they showed consistent patterns across all of the participants (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: It seems the single curve measures are the valid value of tongue dorsum excursion for Persian speaking children. This study showed that measures of single curves are reliable for distinguish between consonants in vowel contexts and created robust results on lingual coarticulation of the consonants without the use of head stabilization.


Assuntos
Movimento , Fala/fisiologia , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Idioma , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fonética , Língua/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365075

RESUMO

Recent research on speech communication has revealed a tendency for speakers to imitate at least some of the characteristics of their interlocutor's speech sound shape. This phenomenon, referred to as phonetic convergence, entails a moment-to-moment adaptation of the speaker's speech targets to the perceived interlocutor's speech. It is thought to contribute to setting up a conversational common ground between speakers and to facilitate mutual understanding. However, it remains uncertain to what extent phonetic convergence occurs in voice fundamental frequency (F0), in spite of the major role played by pitch, F0's perceptual correlate, as a conveyor of both linguistic information and communicative cues associated with the speaker's social/individual identity and emotional state. In the present work, we investigated to what extent two speakers converge towards each other with respect to variations in F0 in a scripted dialogue. Pairs of speakers jointly performed a speech production task, in which they were asked to alternately read aloud a written story divided into a sequence of short reading turns. We devised an experimental set-up that allowed us to manipulate the speakers' F0 in real time across turns. We found that speakers tended to imitate each other's changes in F0 across turns that were both limited in amplitude and spread over large temporal intervals. This shows that, at the perceptual level, speakers monitor slow-varying movements in their partner's F0 with high accuracy and, at the production level, that speakers exert a very fine-tuned control on their laryngeal vibrator in order to imitate these F0 variations. Remarkably, F0 convergence across turns was found to occur in spite of the large melodic variations typically associated with reading turns. Our study sheds new light on speakers' perceptual tracking of F0 in speech processing, and the impact of this perceptual tracking on speech production.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 21(6): 322-334, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376899

RESUMO

The recognition of spoken language has typically been studied by focusing on either words or their constituent elements (for example, low-level features or phonemes). More recently, the 'temporal mesoscale' of speech has been explored, specifically regularities in the envelope of the acoustic signal that correlate with syllabic information and that play a central role in production and perception processes. The temporal structure of speech at this scale is remarkably stable across languages, with a preferred range of rhythmicity of 2- 8 Hz. Importantly, this rhythmicity is required by the processes underlying the construction of intelligible speech. A lot of current work focuses on audio-motor interactions in speech, highlighting behavioural and neural evidence that demonstrates how properties of perceptual and motor systems, and their relation, can underlie the mesoscale speech rhythms. The data invite the hypothesis that the speech motor cortex is best modelled as a neural oscillator, a conjecture that aligns well with current proposals highlighting the fundamental role of neural oscillations in perception and cognition. The findings also show motor theories (of speech) in a different light, placing new mechanistic constraints on accounts of the action-perception interface.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Periodicidade , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Humanos
18.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(3): 589-598, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on the selection of procedures for the treatment of submucous cleft palate, with scarce reports on long-term outcomes from single-surgeon experience. This study assessed the outcomes of using extended indication criteria of Furlow palatoplasty as the first-line procedure for the management of submucous cleft palate-associated velopharyngeal insufficiency. METHODS: Consecutive nonsyndromic patients with submucous cleft palate (n = 216) treated by a single surgeon between 1998 and 2018 were reviewed. Furlow palatoplasty was performed in all patients diagnosed with submucous cleft palate-associated velopharyngeal insufficiency, regardless of the age cutoff, number of Calnan triad features, or velopharyngeal gap size and pattern. Postoperative velopharyngeal function outcome (adequate, marginal, or inadequate) and the need for secondary surgery were investigated. Age at surgery, sex, submucous cleft palate type (classic and occult), and presence of complication were evaluated for potential associations with this outcome. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients aged 8.3 ± 4.6 years with occult submucous cleft palate were significantly (p < 0.001) older than those with the classic type (n = 169; 5.6 ± 3.1 years). Most (p < 0.001) of the included patients [n = 181 (83.8 percent)] achieved adequate postoperative velopharyngeal function outcome. Three patients (1.4 percent) presented surgery-related complications, including bleeding and partial wound disruption. Secondary speech surgery was recommended in 24 patients (11.1 percent). In the bivariate and multivariate analyses, none of the tested variables was found to be associated (all p > 0.05) with the postoperative velopharyngeal function outcome. CONCLUSION: The extended indication criteria of Furlow palatoplasty provided adequate velopharyngeal insufficiency management with a low complication rate and satisfactory speech outcome. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Palato Mole/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Fala/fisiologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/reabilitação , Pré-Escolar , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Palato Mole/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/etiologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/fisiopatologia
19.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401996

RESUMO

Purpose This study investigated the influence of the cleft type on the appearance of hypernasality after surgical maxillary advancement (MA). Methods Nasality was determined by measurement of nasalance (acoustic correlate of nasality) by nasometry. The study involved analysis of the nasalance scores of 17 individuals with isolated cleft palate (CP), 118 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 69 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), of both sexes, aged 18 to 28 years, after MA. Only individuals with normal nasalance scores indicating balanced resonance before MA were included in this study. Nasometry was performed 3 days before and 15 months after MA, on average. The proportion of patients who presented nasalance scores indicating hypernasality after surgery was calculated by the ANOVA test, and comparison among the different cleft types was evaluated by the chi-square test (p < 0.05). Results No significant difference was found in the proportions of individuals with hypernasality among the cleft types. Conclusion Nasometry showed that the appearance of hypernasality after MA in individuals with cleft palate with or without cleft lip occurred in similar proportions, regardless of the cleft type.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/efeitos adversos , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenda Labial/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila/cirurgia , Osteotomia de Le Fort/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Medida da Produção da Fala , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459800

RESUMO

Although having a long history of scrutiny in experimental psychology, it is still controversial whether wilful inner speech (covert speech) production is accompanied by specific activity in speech muscles. We present the results of a preregistered experiment looking at the electromyographic correlates of both overt speech and inner speech production of two phonetic classes of nonwords. An automatic classification approach was undertaken to discriminate between two articulatory features contained in nonwords uttered in both overt and covert speech. Although this approach led to reasonable accuracy rates during overt speech production, it failed to discriminate inner speech phonetic content based on surface electromyography signals. However, exploratory analyses conducted at the individual level revealed that it seemed possible to distinguish between rounded and spread nonwords covertly produced, in two participants. We discuss these results in relation to the existing literature and suggest alternative ways of testing the engagement of the speech motor system during wilful inner speech production.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fonética , Pensamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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