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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10426, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714752

RESUMO

Discriminating different cultivars of maca powder (MP) and detecting their authenticity after adulteration with potent adulterants such as maize and soy flour is a challenge that has not been studied with non-invasive techniques such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). This study developed models to rapidly classify and predict 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% w/w of soybean and maize flour in red, black and yellow maca cultivars using a handheld spectrophotometer and chemometrics. Soy and maize adulteration of yellow MP was classified with better accuracy than in red MP, suggesting that red MP may be a more susceptible target for adulteration. Soy flour was discovered to be a more potent adulterant compared to maize flour. Using 18 different pretreatments, MP could be authenticated with R2CV in the range 0.91-0.95, RMSECV 6.81-9.16 g/,100 g and RPD 3.45-4.60. The results show the potential of NIRS for monitoring Maca quality.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Pós , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Zea mays , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Zea mays/química , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Macau , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glycine max/química , Farinha/análise
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 11241-11250, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709728

RESUMO

The fungicide phenamacril has been employed to manage Fusarium and mycotoxins in crops, leading to persistent residues in the environment and plants. Detecting phenamacril is pivotal for ensuring environmental and food safety. In this study, haptens and artificial antigens were synthesized to produce antiphenamacril monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Additionally, gold nanoparticles coated with a polydopamine shell were synthesized and conjugated with mAbs, inducing fluorescence quenching in quantum dots. Moreover, a dual-readout immunochromatographic assay that combines the positive signal from fluorescence with the negative signal from colorimetry was developed to enable sensitive and precise detection of phenamacril within 10 min, achieving detection limits of 5 ng/mL. The method's reliability was affirmed by using spiked wheat flour samples, achieving a limit of quantitation of 0.05 mg/kg. This analytical platform demonstrates high sensitivity, outstanding accuracy, and robust tolerance to matrix effects, making it suitable for the rapid, onsite, quantitative screening of phenamacril residues.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fungicidas Industriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Colorimetria/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Cromatografia de Afinidade/instrumentação , Fluorescência , Triticum/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção , Farinha/análise
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10940, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740888

RESUMO

Improving the baking quality is a primary challenge in the wheat flour production value chain, as baking quality represents a crucial factor in determining its overall value. In the present study, we conducted a comparative RNA-Seq analysis on the high baking quality mutant "O-64.1.10" genotype and its low baking quality wild type "Omid" cultivar to recognize potential genes associated with bread quality. The cDNA libraries were constructed from immature grains that were 15 days post-anthesis, with an average of 16.24 and 18.97 million paired-end short-read sequences in the mutant and wild-type, respectively. A total number of 733 transcripts with differential expression were identified, 585 genes up-regulated and 188 genes down-regulated in the "O-64.1.10" genotype compared to the "Omid". In addition, the families of HSF, bZIP, C2C2-Dof, B3-ARF, BES1, C3H, GRF, HB-HD-ZIP, PLATZ, MADS-MIKC, GARP-G2-like, NAC, OFP and TUB were appeared as the key transcription factors with specific expression in the "O-64.1.10" genotype. At the same time, pathways related to baking quality were identified through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Collectively, we found that the endoplasmic network, metabolic pathways, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, hormone signaling pathway, B group vitamins, protein pathways, pathways associated with carbohydrate and fat metabolism, as well as the biosynthesis and metabolism of various amino acids, have a great deal of potential to play a significant role in the baking quality. Ultimately, the RNA-seq results were confirmed using quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR for some hub genes such as alpha-gliadin, low molecular weight glutenin subunit and terpene synthase (gibberellin) and as a resource for future study, 127 EST-SSR primers were generated using RNA-seq data.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transcriptoma , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Culinária , Pão , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Genótipo , Farinha
4.
J Texture Stud ; 55(3): e12836, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702990

RESUMO

A new technique known as dough crumb-sheet composite rolling (DC-SCR) was used to improve the quality of fresh noodles. However, there is a dearth of theoretical investigations into the optimal selection of specific parameters for this technology, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, the effects of dough crumb addition times in DC-SCR on the texture, cooking, and eating quality of fresh noodles were first studied. Then, the underlying regulation mechanism of DC-SCR technology on fresh noodles was analyzed in terms of moisture distribution and microstructure. The study demonstrated that the most significant enhancement in the quality of fresh noodles was achieved by adding dough crumbs six times. Compared with fresh noodles made without the addition of dough crumbs, the initial hardness and chewiness of fresh noodles made by adding six times of dough crumbs increased by 25.32% and 46.82%, respectively. In contrast, the cooking time and cooking loss were reduced by 28.45% and 29.69%, respectively. This quality improvement in fresh noodles made by DC-SCR came from the microstructural differences of the gluten network between the inner and outer layers of the dough sheet. A dense structure on the outside and a loose structure on the inside could endow the fresh noodles made by DC-SCR with higher hardness, a shortened cooking time, and less cooking loss. This study would provide a theoretical and experimental basis for creating high-quality fresh noodles.


Assuntos
Pão , Culinária , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Água , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Pão/análise , Dureza , Glutens/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Triticum/química , Humanos
5.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13952, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689465

RESUMO

Defatted Lagenaria siceraria seed flour (DLSSF) was obtained from defatted seed cake, dried, and ground through a sieve of 500 µm and characterized. A 2 × 4 factorial design (two flour hydration rates and four fat substitution rates) was used to produce a low-fat beef patty by replacing fat with DLSSF. Beef kidney fat was used to formulate the control sample. Chemical, physical, technological, sensory, and nutritional characteristics of low-fat beef patties manufactured were evaluated. DLSSF contains mainly protein. As fat replacers, DLSSF induces a significant increase in the pH of the raw and cooked patty, the moisture and protein contents, the cooking yield, the cohesion, chewiness, springiness, and lightness of the cooked beef patty with fat substitution rate. There is a decrease in fat content, total calories, water retention capacity, hardness, and redness of the cooked patty with a fat substitution rate. From the sensory analysis, the substitution of fat improves the acceptability of samples. Based on the overall parameters analyzed, DLSSF containing 60% water can be used to produce low-fat beef patty by replacing fat at 100%. From these results, hydrated DLSSF could be an effective method to solve the problems of noncommunicable diseases related to animal fat consumption.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Culinária , Farinha , Sementes , Sementes/química , Animais , Bovinos , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Cucurbitaceae/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Humanos , Água/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Paladar , Valor Nutritivo
6.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732559

RESUMO

(1) Background: Fortifying maize and wheat flours with folic acid has effectively reduced neural tube defect-affected births. However, maize and wheat flours may not be widely consumed in all countries; further reduction in neural tube defect-affected births could benefit from the identification of alternative food vehicles. We aimed to use dietary intake or apparent consumption data to determine alternative food vehicles for large-scale fortification with folic acid in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LILMICs) and identify current research related to examining the technological feasibility of fortifying alternative foods with folic acid. (2) Methods: We identified 81 LILMICs, defined by the World Bank's (WB) 2018 income classifications. To identify dietary intake or apparent consumption, we reviewed WB's Microdata Library and Global Health Data Exchange for national surveys from 1997-2018. We reviewed survey reports for dietary intake or apparent consumption data and analyzed survey datasets for population coverage of foods. We defined alternative food vehicles as those that may cover/be consumed by ≥30% of the population or households; cereal grains (maize and wheat flours and rice) were included as an alternative food vehicle if a country did not have existing mandatory fortification legislation. To identify current research on fortification with folic acid in foods other than cereal grains, we conducted a systematic review of published literature and unpublished theses, and screened for foods or food products. (3) Results: We extracted or analyzed data from 18 national surveys and countries. The alternative foods most represented in the surveys were oil (n = 16), sugar (n = 16), and salt (n = 14). The coverage of oil ranged from 33.2 to 95.7%, sugar from 32.2 to 98.4%, and salt from 49.8 to 99.9%. We found 34 eligible studies describing research on alternative foods. The most studied alternative foods for fortification with folic acid were dairy products (n = 10), salt (n = 6), and various fruit juices (n = 5). (4) Conclusions: Because of their high coverage, oil, sugar, and salt emerge as potential alternative foods for large-scale fortification with folic acid. However, except for salt, there are limited or no studies examining the technological feasibility of fortifying these foods with folic acid.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Ácido Fólico , Alimentos Fortificados , Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Triticum , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/prevenção & controle , Triticum/química , Grão Comestível/química , Farinha/análise , Zea mays/química , Países em Desenvolvimento
7.
J Proteome Res ; 23(5): 1649-1665, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574199

RESUMO

Plant-based adhesives, such as those made from wheat, have been prominently used for books and paper-based objects and are also used as conservation adhesives. Starch paste originates from starch granules, whereas flour paste encompasses the entire wheat endosperm proteome, offering strong adhesive properties due to gluten proteins. From a conservation perspective, understanding the precise nature of the adhesive is vital as the longevity, resilience, and reaction to environmental changes can differ substantially between starch- and flour-based pastes. We devised a proteomics method to discern the protein content of these pastes. Protocols involved extracting soluble proteins using 0.5 M NaCl and 30 mM Tris-HCl solutions and then targeting insoluble proteins, such as gliadins and glutenins, with a buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 4% CHAPS, 40 mM Tris, and 75 mM DTT. Flour paste's proteome is diverse (1942 proteins across 759 groups), contrasting with starch paste's predominant starch-associated protein makeup (218 proteins in 58 groups). Transformation into pastes reduces proteomes' complexity. Testing on historical bookbindings confirmed the use of flour-based glue, which is rich in gluten and serpins. High levels of deamidation were detected, particularly for glutamine residues, which can impact the solubility and stability of the glue over time. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange, Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the MassIVE partner repository with the data set identifier MSV000093372 (ftp://MSV000093372@massive.ucsd.edu).


Assuntos
Adesivos , Farinha , Glutens , Proteoma , Amido , Triticum , Triticum/química , Farinha/análise , Amido/química , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/química , Adesivos/química , Glutens/química , Glutens/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Gliadina/química , Gliadina/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 449: 139174, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604027

RESUMO

Five ingredients rich in RS (resistant starch) were assessed in a model system simulating baking process (water addition 30-50%, 180 °C/35 min) and in reformulated cakes (50% replacement of wheat flour). Moreover, two enzymatic methods used for RS determination (official and rapid) were compared. The combined effect of heating and water addition (50%) significantly decreased the RS content in all ingredients. Reformulated vegan cakes presented significantly lower RS values than those theoretically expected, according to the RS value of raw ingredients. The highest RS amount was observed for Hi Maize, which kept 84% and 72% of the initial RS content in the model systems and cake, respectively. Only the cakes made with Hi Maize reached the criteria for the health claim related to the reduction of post-prandial glycemic response (European Union regulation). Finally, differences between the official and rapid methods were less significant in the cakes than in the model systems.


Assuntos
Culinária , Farinha , Temperatura Alta , Amido , Zea mays , Zea mays/química , Farinha/análise , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Amido Resistente/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 449: 139265, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604036

RESUMO

The compositional, bioactive, functional, pasting, and thermal characteristics of native, dehulled, and germinated grass pea flour were examined. Germination significantly improved the protein content and bioactive properties while simultaneously reducing total carbohydrate and fat levels. However, dehulling increased the fat content, foaming, and emulsion properties. Dehulling and germination significantly increased (p < 0.05) the functional properties by improving flowability and cohesiveness. Although processing methods enhance functional properties, the pasting properties of dehulled and germinated flours differ significantly (p < 0.05) from the native flour. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate a reduction in percentage crystallinity in germinated flours. Overall, the study suggests that the dehulling and germination processes enhanced the quality of grass peas by improving nutritive value and functional attributes.


Assuntos
Farinha , Germinação , Lathyrus , Valor Nutritivo , Farinha/análise , Lathyrus/química , Lathyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manipulação de Alimentos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise
10.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 44(2): 31-37, Abr. 2024. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-15

RESUMO

Introducción: La quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), es un pseudocereal andino, el maíz (Zea mays L.) es uno de los principales cultivos del mundo, en la antigüedad se empleaba para la alimentación de las personas de sectores rurales y para dieta animal, ambos cereales tienes las propiedades para poder ser industrializados en el área de repostería como es el caso de las galletas Objetivo: Evaluar las formulaciones de galletas a base de harina de quinua (chenopodium quinoa) y maíz (zea mays) empleando diferentes hidrocoloides Materiales y métodos: Para la elaboración de las galletas se empleó un Diseños Completamente al Azar (D.C.A), con modelo factorial AxB, donde Factor A= Tipo de harina (quinua y maíz), Factor B= Hidrocoloides Resultados: La concentración del 60 % harina de quinua + harina de maíz 40 % + goma xantana, situó los mejores valores para las características fisicoquímicas. Sin embargo, el T5= 40 % harina de quinua + harina de maíz 60 % + goma xantana, obtuvo la mejor valoración en los perfiles sensoriales (color, textura, sabor y aceptabilidad), en cuanto a los análisis microbiológicos no se encontró presencia de E. coli, levaduras y mohosConclusión: En cuanto los resultados fisicoquímicos, se demostró que los tratamientos presentaron una humedad dentro de límites permisibles por la Norma Técnica Ecuatoriana INEN 2 085:2005. Galletas, Requisitos. Por su parte, el T2 resalto en el contenido de proteína (8.12 %) y carbohidratos (64.46 %). El T5 obtuvo mejores atributos sensoriales, Así mismo el análisis microbiológico presentó ausencia en E. coli, levaduras y mohos.(AU)


Introduction: Quinoa is a pseudocereal of high nutritionalvalue, rich in proteins, lipids, fiber, vitamins and gluten-free.On the other hand, corn is a cereal that is characterized by itshigh production and commercialization. In ancient times, it was used to feed people in rural areas and for animal feed. Itis important to point out that both cereals have the propertiesand characteristics to be used as raw material in the elabora-tion of food products.Objective: To evaluate the physicochemical and sensorycharacteristics of quinoa (C. quinoa) and corn (Z mays) flour-based cookies using different hydrocolloids.Materials and methods: For the production of the cook-ies, a completely randomized design (CRD) was used with anA*B factorial model, where factor A = quinoa flour/corn flourratio and factor B = hydrocolloids.Results: The concentration of 60% quinoa flour + 40%corn flour + xanthan gum gave the best values for the physic-ochemical characteristics. However, T5, which corresponds to40% quinoa flour + 60% corn flour + xanthan gum, obtainedthe best evaluation in the sensory profiles (color, texture, fla-vor and acceptability). In terms of microbiological analysis, noE. coli, yeasts or molds were found. For this reason, the safetyof the raw material and the final product is guaranteed.Conclusion: As for the physicochemical analyses, thetreatments presented a moisture content within the limits es-tablished by the Ecuadorian Technical Standard INEN 2085,requirements for cookies. Therefore, it is concluded that byincluding 60% quinoa flour + 40% corn flour + xanthan gum,the protein (8.12%) and carbohydrate (64.46%) content in-creased considerably. While the use of 40% quinoa flour +60% corn flour + xanthan gum allowed intensifying the sen-sory attributes, obtaining the best results. In addition, it wasdetermined that the raw material and final product is innocu-ous and free of microorganisms, being suitable for human consumption.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Chenopodium album , Farinha , Grão Comestível , Biscoitos , Fenômenos Químicos , Ciências da Nutrição
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 115, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564111

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with maggot meal (MM) in growing rabbits' diets on their performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In the 56 days feeding trials, sixty unsexed mixed breeds (New Zealand White x California) rabbits were allotted on a weight equalization basis into five dietary treatments where a standard corn-soybean meal based diet (0% of maggot meal) (MM0 diet) served as the while other diets had soybean meal replaced with MM at graded levels of 25, 50, 75 and 100% to give MM25, MM50, MM75, and MM100 diets respectively. Each treatment comprises of four replicates having three rabbits each (12 rabbits per treatment). Growth performance parameters were monitored and recorded weekly, carcass and organ weights evaluation was conducted on day 56. Nutrient digestibility commenced on the 56th day and lasted for 6 days. Feed and water were offered to the rabbits ad-libitum throughout the experimental period. All the performance parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by MM inclusion in the diet of rabbits. Rabbits fed MM100 diet had the highest (P < 0.05) final weight (FW), total weight gain (TWG), and the best feed conversion ratio (FCR). The feed cost reduced (P < 0.05) with inclusion of MM in rabbit's diet. Feed cost per kg live weight (FC/LW) (1110.79 ₦/kg) and feed cost per kg weight gain (FC/WG) (1110.62 ₦/kg) was lowest (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed MM100 diet. Crude protein digestibility (CPD) (74.05%) was highest (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed the MM100 diet. The feeding of MM75 and MM100 diets to rabbits resulted in increased (P < 0.05) dry matter digestibility (DMD) (68.22 and 69.34%), nitrogen free extract digestibility (NFED) (65.52 and 65.22%) and neutral detergent fibre digestibility (NDFD) (70.05 and 69.58%). The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retained (NR) (2.10 g/d) occurred in rabbits fed the MM100 diet. The dressing percentage (DP) (71.01%) increased (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed the MM100 diet. The weight of forelimbs (10.48 and 10.45%) and hind limbs (17.42 and 18.07%) were highest (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed MM50 and MM100 diets respectively. Total gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and liver weight were highest (P < 0.05) for rabbits fed MM0 and MM100 diets respectively. It was concluded that MM can conveniently replace SBM in the diets of rabbits up to 100% for improved growth performance and increased nutrient digestibility. In addition, it can enhance DP and increase the carcass yield of rabbits.


Assuntos
Dieta , Farinha , Animais , Coelhos , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Glycine max , Larva , Aumento de Peso
12.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13948, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623923

RESUMO

We compared nucleic acid-extracted torula yeast (NTY) with soybean meal (SBM) to evaluate NTY as a potential protein feed for ruminants in a metabolic trial using four castrated male goats. NTY was replaced isonitrogenously with SBM at a 25% crude protein (CP) level on a dry matter (DM) basis. NTY has 55% CP and 74% total digestive nutrients on DM. Absorbed N was lower on the NTY diet, but since the urinary N excretion was lower on the NTY diet, no significant between-diet difference in retained N was observed. The efficiency of N utilization (retained N/absorbed N) was significantly higher on the NTY diet. The Lys and Met contents (presumed limiting amino acids for dairy cattle) were higher in NTY than SBM, which may be why N utilization efficiency was higher for the NTY diet. Ruminal ammonia-N and blood serum N were lower on the NTY diet, suggesting that NTY has more rumen undegradable protein than SBM. There was no significant between-diet difference in the visceral disorder indicators or antioxidant activities. Our results indicate that NTY is a safe protein feed with a high CP ratio and high-quality amino acid profile for ruminants that is equivalent to SBM.


Assuntos
Cryptococcus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Bovinos , Masculino , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Farinha , Proteínas Alimentares/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Glycine max , Dieta/veterinária , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Digestão
13.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 84(2): 206-220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chia and flax seeds are rich in alphalinolenic acid (ALA), which is bioconverted into the active derivatives eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) having multiple beneficial effects. However, there is limited knowledge about the antiinflammatory effects of chia and flax integral flours diets rich in ALA. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of dietary supplementation with integral chia and flax flours in a murine model of LPSinduced systemic inflammation. METHODS: Balb/c mice were distributed into three groups: diet A (control), diet B (supplemented with integral chia flour), and diet C (supplemented with integral flax flour). Nutritional, hematological, and biochemical determinations were performed. ALA, EPA, and DHA were assessed by GC-MS in the liver, brain, cardiac and skeletal muscles. NF-kB immunoassays were performed in kidney, liver, and peritoneal macrophages, respectively. The phagocytic capacity was determined in peritoneal macrophages and the expression of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was assessed by RT-qPCR in the kidney, liver, and spleen. RESULTS: Diets B and C exhibited optimal nutritional adequacy and caused increased levels of ALA, EPA, and DHA in critical tissues compared to the control. The phagocytic capacity of murine peritoneal macrophages (p< 0.01) and IL-10 transcription increased, whereas the expression of NF-κB, IL-1Β, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased in animals fed both experimental diets. CONCLUSIONS: This work contributes to the current knowledge of the anti-inflammatory effects of chia and flax integral flours rich in ALA and reinforces the health advantages of their consumption.


Introducción: Las semillas de chía y lino son ricas en ácido alfa-linolénico (ALA), sus derivados activos eicosapentaenoico (EPA) y docosahexaenoico (DHA) ejercen probados efectos beneficiosos. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los efectos protectores de ambas semillas bajo la forma de harinas integrales, siendo de particular interés el efecto antiinflamatorio. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto antiinflamatorio de la suplementación dietaria con harinas integrales de semillas de chía y lino en un modelo murino de inflamación sistémica inducido por LPS. Métodos: Ratones de la cepa Balb/c fueron distribuidos en tres grupos: dieta A (control), dieta B (suplementada con harina integral de chía) y dieta C (suplementada con harina integral de lino). Se efecturaron determinaciones nutricionales, hematológicas y bioquímicas. El contenido de ALA, EPA y DHA en hígado, cerebro, corazón y músculo esquelético se determinó por cromatografía GC-MS. Se realizó la inmunodetección de NF-kB en macrófagos peritoneales, riñón e hígado. Se determinó la capacidad fagocítica de macrófagos peritoneales y se evaluó la expresión de citoquinas pro y antiinflamatorias por RT-qPCR en riñón, hígado y bazo. RESULTADOS: Las dietas B y C mostraron una adecuación nutricional óptima y generaron niveles elevados de ALA, EPA y DHA en tejidos críticos. La capacidad fagocítica de los macrófagos peritoneales (p< 0.01) y la transcripción de IL-10 aumentó, mientras que la expresión de NF-κB, IL-1Β, IL-6 y TNF-α disminuyó en animales de los grupos B y C. CONCLUSIONES: Este trabajo contribuye al conocimiento actual de los efectos antiinflamatorios de ambas harinas integrales y refuerza los beneficios de su consumo.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Linho , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Animais , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Camundongos , Farinha/análise , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino
14.
Molecules ; 29(8)2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675700

RESUMO

Crispbread is gaining popularity as a healthy snack or bread substitute. This is a lightweight dry type of flat food that stays fresh for a very long time due to its lack of water and usually contains different types of grain flour, including gluten-containing wheat or rye flour. The incorporation of legume purée into crispbread represents an innovative approach to enhancing the nutritional profile and taste of the product. The rheological properties of various legume purées (chickpea, white bean, black bean, and red bean) mixed with citrus pectin were examined, revealing significant differences in fluid behavior and viscosity. Crispbread formulations were analyzed for water content and activity, color, structure, FT-IR spectra, water vapor adsorption isotherms, and sensory evaluation. The results showed the possibility of obtaining crispbread based on the purée of legumes and citrus pectin. Crispbread enriched with red bean purée exhibited low water activity (0.156) and water content (3.16%), along with a continuous porous structure, and received the highest sensory evaluation score among the products. These findings can be treated as a basis for the development of other innovative recipes and combinations using legumes.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Reologia , Fabaceae/química , Verduras/química , Viscosidade , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/análise , Farinha/análise , Pão/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química
15.
Food Chem ; 449: 139321, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615637

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) (0.3-0.7 kV/cm) and/or germination (0-72 h, 20 °C) on faba beans prior to flour- and breadmaking. PEF (0.5 and 0.7 kV/cm) had no significant effect on the germination performance of faba bean but had a positive effect on in vitro starch and protein hydrolysis of PEF-treated beans germinated for 72 h. The incorporation of flour from soaked, germinated, PEF-treated, and PEF-treated+germinated faba beans into wheat bread, at 30% mass level, improved the nutritional composition (total starch and protein contents) and protein digestibility but it reduced the specific volume and increased the density, brownness, and hardness of the bread. This finding shows for the first time that PEF-treatment (<0.7 kV/cm) of faba beans followed by germination (72 h) improved in vitro starch and protein hydrolysis of its flour and the protein digestibility at gastric phase of its enriched wheat bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Digestão , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Germinação , Triticum , Vicia faba , Vicia faba/química , Vicia faba/metabolismo , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Farinha/análise , Pão/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amido/metabolismo , Amido/química , Eletricidade , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Hidrólise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688175

RESUMO

The present work aimed at the development and characterization of aroeira leaf flour (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi), obtained by lyophilization and drying in an air circulation oven. The technological, physical, physico-chemical, morphological, functional, and microbiological aspects were analyzed. Physico-chemical analysis identified the following properties with values provided respectively for fresh leaves (FOin) and flours (FES and FLIO): low water activity (0.984, 0.370, 0.387 g/100 g), moisture (64.52, 5.37, 7.97 g /100 g), ash (2.69, 6.51, and 6.89 g/100 g), pH (0.89, 4.45, 4.48 g/100 g), lipids (0.84, 1.67, 5.23 g/100 g), protein (3.29, 8.23, 14.12 g/100 g), carbohydrates (17.02, 53.12, 33.02 g/100 g), ascorbic acid (19.70, 34.20, 36.90 mg/100 g). Sources of fiber from plant leaves and flours (11.64, 25.1, 32.89 g/100 g) showed increased levels of luminosity. For NMR, the presence of aliphatic and aromatic compounds with olefinic hydrogens and a derivative of gallic acid were detected. The most abundant minerals detected were potassium and calcium. Micrographs identified the presence of irregular, non-uniform, and sponge-like particles. The main sugars detected were: fructose, glucose, and maltose. Malic, succinic, citric, lactic, and formic acids were found. Fifteen phenolic compounds were identified in the samples, highlighting: kaempferol, catechin, and caffeic acid. The values ​​found for phenolics were (447, 716.66, 493.31 mg EAG/100 g), flavonoids (267.60, 267.60, 286.26 EC/100 g). Antioxidant activity was higher using the ABTS method rather than FRAP for analysis of FOin, FES, and FLIO. Since the flours of the aroeira leaf have an abundant matrix of nutrients with bioactive properties and antioxidant activity, they have a potential for technological and functional use when added to food.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Farinha , Folhas de Planta , Folhas de Planta/química , Anacardiaceae/química , Farinha/análise , Liofilização , Carboidratos/análise , Carboidratos/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Schinus
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 416(13): 3173-3183, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568232

RESUMO

A certified reference material (CRM, KRISS 108-01-002) for zearalenone in corn flour was developed to assure reliable and accurate measurements in testing laboratories. Commercially available corn flour underwent freeze-drying, pulverization, sieving, and homogenization. The final product was packed in amber bottles, approximately 14 g per unit, and preserved at -70 °C. 13C18-Zearalenone was used as an internal standard (IS) for the certification of zearalenone by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC‒MS/MS) and for the analysis of α-zearalenol, ß-zearalenol, and zearalanone by LC‒MS/MS. The prepared CRM was sufficiently homogeneous, as the among-unit relative standard deviation for each mycotoxin ranged from 2.2 to 5.7 %. Additionally, the stability of the mycotoxins in the CRM was evaluated under different temperature conditions and scheduled test periods, including storage at -70°C, -20°C, and 4°C and room temperature for up to 12 months, 6 months, and 1 month, respectively. The content of each target mycotoxin in the CRM remained stable throughout the monitoring period at each temperature. Zearalenone content (153.6 ± 8.0 µg/kg) was assigned as the certified value. Meanwhile, the contents of α-zearalenol (1.30 ± 0.17 µg/kg), ß-zearalenol (4.75 ± 0.33 µg/kg), and zearalanone (2.09 ± 0.16 µg/kg) were provided as informative values.


Assuntos
Farinha , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Zea mays , Zearalenona , Zearalenona/análise , Zea mays/química , Farinha/análise , Farinha/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 267(Pt 2): 131315, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569985

RESUMO

Understanding the hierarchical structure and physicochemical properties of starch isolated from fermented dough with different times (0-120 min) is valuable for improving the quality of fermented dough-based products. The results indicate that fermentation disrupted the starch granule surface and decreased the average particle size from 19.72 µm to 18.45 µm. Short-term fermentation (< 60 min) disrupted the crystalline, lamellar, short-range ordered molecular and helical structures of starch, while long-term fermentation (60-120 min) elevated the ordered degree of these structures. For example, relative crystallinity and double helix contents increased from 23.7 % to 26.8 % and 34.4 % to 37.2 %, respectively. During short-term fermentation, the structural amorphization facilitated interactions between starch molecular chains and water molecules, which increased the peak viscosity from 275.4 to 320.6 mPa·s and the swelling power from 7.99 to 8.52 g/g. In contrast, starches extracted from long-term fermented dough displayed the opposite results. Interestingly, the hardness and springiness of starch gels gradually decreased as fermentation time increased. These findings extend our understanding of the starch structure-property relationship during varied fermentation stages, potentially benefiting the production of better-fermented foods.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Amido , Amido/química , Viscosidade , Fenômenos Químicos , Farinha/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Pão/análise
19.
Molecules ; 29(8)2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675714

RESUMO

Xylanase is an essential component used to hydrolyze the xylan in wheat flour to enhance the quality of bread. Presently, cold-activated xylanase is popularly utilized to aid in the development of dough. In this study, ancestral sequence reconstruction and molecular docking of xylanase and wheat xylan were used to enhance the activity and stability of a thermophilic xylanase. The results indicated that the ancestral enzyme TmxN3 exhibited significantly improved activity and thermal stability. The Vmax increased by 2.7 times, and the catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) increased by 1.7 times in comparison to TmxB. After being incubated at 100 °C for 120 min, it still retained 87.3% of its activity, and the half-life in 100 °C was 330 min, while the wild type xylanase was only 55 min. This resulted in an improved shelf life of bread, while adding TmxN3 considerably enhanced its quality with excellent volume and reduced hardness, chewiness, and gumminess. The results showed that the hardness was reduced by 55.2%, the chewiness was reduced by 40.11%, and the gumminess was reduced by 53.52%. To facilitate its industrial application, we further optimized the production conditions in a 5L bioreactor, and the xylanase activity reached 1.52 × 106 U/mL culture.


Assuntos
Pão , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases , Estabilidade Enzimática , Farinha , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Triticum , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Triticum/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo
20.
Food Funct ; 15(9): 5132-5146, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682288

RESUMO

Growing demand for sustainable, plant-based protein sources has stimulated interest in new ingredients for food enrichment. This study investigates the nutritional and digestive implications of enriching wheat dough with RuBisCO, in comparison to pea protein-enriched and gluten-enriched doughs. The protein quality and digestibility of these enriched doughs were analysed through dough characterization, in vitro digestion experiments and biochemical analysis of digesta. Our findings indicate that an enrichment at 10% of RuBisCO or pea proteins improves the chemical score and the in vitro PDCAAS (IV-PDCAAS) score of wheat dough as compared to the control dough. Digestibility assays suggest that RuBisCO introduction modifies the protein hydrolysis kinetics: the nitrogen release is lower during gastric digestion but larger during intestinal digestion than other samples. The analysis of the protein composition of the soluble and insoluble parts of digesta, using size-exclusion chromatography, reveals that the protein network in RuBisCO-enriched dough is more resistant to gastric hydrolysis than the ones of other doughs. Indeed, non-covalently bound peptides and disulfide-bound protein aggregates partly composed of RuBisCO subunits remain insoluble at the end of the gastric phase. The digestion of these protein structures is then mostly performed during the intestinal phase. These results are also discussed in relation to the digestive enzymatic cleavage sites, the presence of potential enzyme inhibitors, the protein aggregation state and the secondary structures of the protein network in each dough type.


Assuntos
Digestão , Glutens , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase , Triticum , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/química , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Glutens/química , Farinha/análise , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/metabolismo , Pisum sativum/química , Hidrólise , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química
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