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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130639, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348199

RESUMO

In this work, an ingredient containing non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), obtained from overripe bananas, was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vapor sorption isotherms. Soluble sugars from overripe bananas were extracted using ethanol, resulting in a solid NSP-rich fraction. The physical properties of this new ingredient and its response to temperature and water interactions are needed for its application as a fiber flour aggregate in food preparations. Results from thermal analyses, including gelatinization, glass transition and fusion, allowed building state diagrams, then compared to vapor sorption isotherms which resulted similar to a Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) type III isotherm at 25 °C, for NSP and standards samples as arabinoxylan and polygalacturonic acid. A good fit was obtained for the glass transition curves using the Kwei model. This approach enabled us to explore the stability of the material, regarding safety limits for microbial deterioration and structural changes due to glass transition.


Assuntos
Musa , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Farinha/análise , Polissacarídeos , Temperatura , Água
2.
Food Chem ; 368: 130815, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411856

RESUMO

The present investigation aimed at assessing the impact of biological processing techniques on bio-and techno-functional characteristics of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). Grains were exposed to soaking, germination, fermentation and combination of aforesaid treatments and significant variation (p < 0.05) in anti-nutritional factors, in vitro starch and protein digestibility, bioactive constituents and associated antioxidant potential was noted. Bioprocessed flours were characterized by altered functional properties due to hydrolytic action of activated enzymes. ATR-FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed structural variation in macromolecular arrangement, synthesis of bioactive compounds in bioprocessed flours and slight reduction in the crystallinity of starch molecules. Bioprocessed flours exhibited degraded protein matrix; however, only fermentation and combination treatments caused hydrolysis of granular starch. Principal component analysis was employed to validate the differences in processing treatments and observations. The results are suggestive that bioprocessed flours could serve as potential ingredients with improved techno-and bio-functionality in valorized cereal products.


Assuntos
Setaria (Planta) , Farinha , Germinação , Nutrientes , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Amido
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130843, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418692

RESUMO

This works proposed a feasibility study on NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics-assisted color histogram-based analytical systems (CACHAS) to determine and authenticate the cassava starch content in wheat flour. Prediction results of partial least squares (PLS) achieved coefficient of correlation (rpred) of 0.977 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.826 mg kg-1 for the certified additive-free wheat flour, while rpred of 0.995 and RMSEP of 1.004 mg kg-1 were obtained for the commercial wheat flour containing chemical additives. Additionally, Data-Driven Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (dd-SIMCA) presented similar predictive ability using NIR and CACHAS for the certified wheat flour, authenticating all target samples, besides correctly recognizing samples that could represent a fraud. No satisfactory results were obtained for the commercial wheat flour. Therefore, NIR spectroscopy is more useful to offer definitive quantitative and qualitative analysis, while CACHAS can only provide an alternative preliminary analysis.


Assuntos
Farinha , Manihot , Pão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Farinha/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Amido , Triticum
4.
Food Chem ; 368: 130842, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419794

RESUMO

This study proposes a preliminary assessment of the homogeneity and stability through digital image acquisition of a candidate for mechanically processed pumpkin seed meal reference material, exploring the concepts of homogeneity curve and the analysis of texture characteristics by Continuous-Level Moving Block through Robust Principal Component Analysis. This innovative methodology allowed us to examine the percentage of homogeneity in a set of samples, revealing an average of 41% with only one outlier in relation to the entire sample, indicating low homogeneity. In the stability study carried out after storing samples for 12 months at different temperatures, 83% of the samples were considered regular and 17% were outlier, which means that most of them were considered stable. Therefore, this methodology is useful for screening samples for homogeneity, by textural analysis, and detected non-homogeneity can be corrected in advance for quantification by standard protocols.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Farinha , Computadores , Farinha/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Padrões de Referência , Sementes
5.
Food Chem ; 367: 130729, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365245

RESUMO

The impact of endogenous wheat lipids on thermal characteristics, mixing behavior, non-linear rheological properties of gluten was studied to explore the contribution of wheat lipids to viscoelastic behavior of gluten under large processing deformations. Thermal analysis indicated higher denaturation temperature for vital wheat gluten (VWG) (69.2 ± 1.2 °C) due to reduced water affinity compared to lipid-removed vital wheat gluten (LRVWG) (63.6 ± 0.2 °C). Development time was reached 4 minutes earlier and consistency increased constantly for LRVWG as Farinograph mixing proceeded, suggesting higher affinity to water for gluten in the absence of lipids. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) tests showed a mixture of type III and IV non-linear behavior for gluten. Higher tendency to type III behavior for VWG indicated more extensibility in the presence of lipids. Higher elasticity and strain stiffening obtained for LRVWG under LAOS deformations accentuated the stabilizing effect of lipids on the viscoelastic nature of gluten network during processing.


Assuntos
Glutens , Triticum , Elasticidade , Farinha , Lipídeos , Reologia
6.
Food Chem ; 367: 130748, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375894

RESUMO

The development of a collaborative study as a requirement for the preparation of a laboratory reference material candidate is reported in this paper. The evaluation was performed by 13 laboratories invited to quantify the calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese and zinc; 8 of them presented results for all the analytes under investigation. The data were statistically analyzed by applying the z-score robust technique as recommended by ISO Guide 35. For the potassium element, laboratories 4 and 13 presented questionable results. Laboratory 5 proved to be unsatisfactory for calcium and zinc. ANOVA-PCA and DD-SIMCA were also applied to evaluate stability and interlaboratory studies results, respectively. It has been demonstrated that multivariate data analysis can be successfully applied as an alternative method to the recommendations made by ISO 13528 and ISO Guide 35 with defined confidence intervals.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Zea mays , Análise de Variância , Cálcio , Cobre , Farinha , Magnésio
7.
Food Chem ; 366: 130543, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284193

RESUMO

Differences in Mixolab measurements of dough processing were examined using, as a base, flour from pure breeding, isogenic, wheat lines carrying either the high molecular weight glutenin subunits 5 + 10 or 2 + 12. Before dough pasting, subunits 5 + 10 tend to form a stable gluten network relying mainly on disulfide bonds and hydrogen bonds, but 2 + 12 flour was prone to generating fragile protein aggregates dominated by disulfide bonds and hydrophobicity. During dough pasting, a broader protein network rich in un-extractable polymeric proteins, disulfide bonds and ß-sheets was formed in the dough with subunits 5 + 10, thus resulting in an extensive and compact protein-starch complex which was characterized by high thermal stability and low starch gelatinization, while in the dough of the 2 + 12 line, a porous protein-starch gel with fragmented protein aggregates was controlled by the combination of disulfide bonds, hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonds that facilitated the formation of antiparallel ß-sheets.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Pão , Glutens , Melhoramento Vegetal , Amido
8.
Food Chem ; 366: 130614, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304137

RESUMO

Understanding how starch constituent in frozen dough affected bread quality would be valuable for contributing to the frozen products with better quality. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, starch was fractionated from multiple freezing-thawing (F/T) treated dough and reconstituted with gluten. Results showed that F/T treatment destructed the molecular and supramolecular structures of starch, which were more severe as the F/T cycle increasing. These structural disorganizations made water molecules easier to permeate into the interior of starch granules and form hydrogen bonds with starch molecular chains, which elevated the peak, breakdown, setback and final viscosity of starch paste. In addition, F/T treatment resulted in decreased specific volume (from 1.54 to 0.90 × 103 m3/Kg) and increased hardness (from 42.98 to 52.31 N) for steamed bread. We propose the strengthened water absorption ability and accelerated intra- and inter-molecular rearrangement of starch molecules and weak stability of "starch-gluten matrices" would allow interpreting deteriorated bread quality.


Assuntos
Pão , Amido , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Congelamento , Glutens , Vapor
9.
Food Chem ; 366: 130609, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311231

RESUMO

Several grains such as wheat, rice, corn, oat, barley and rye are cultivated throughout the world. They are converted to variety of food products using a multitude of processing technologies to quench the growing organoleptic demands and consumers' preferences. Among them, corn, ranking third in wide consumption, is cost-effective and has long-term storability. Herein, ready-to-eat corn flours with variable starch digestion have been developed by processing at high temperature with shear using a twin screw continuous processor. The influence of processing temperature (121, 145 and 160°C) and moisture (25, 30 and 35%) has been studied. Results suggest both processing temperature and moisture modulate the rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) amounts of the flours. The presence or absence of oil in the flour further controls the starch digestion. The outcome is deemed to be helpful to design and develop healthy and palatable functional food products in addition to furthering the current market share for corn and other grains.


Assuntos
Farinha , Oryza , Digestão , Amido , Zea mays
10.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4376-4392, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514600

RESUMO

This research was intended to determine the effect of different cereal and pulse flours and commercial gluten-free flour on the mineral content, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds of the gluten-free tarhana (cereal-based fermented dry soup). In order to produce the gluten-free tarhana, white bean (BF), chickpea (CF), commercial gluten-free (GWF), yellow lentil (LF), and rice (RF) flours were used. The Mg, K, Al, and Mn contents of tarhanas obtained using different pulse and cereal flours were found to be quite high compared to tarhanas produced with commercial GWF. The utilization of different cereal and pulse flours in the tarhana formulation resulted in an increase in the percentage (30.37-51.47%) of the total polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPUFA). The highest (452.4 µg/g) and the lowest (241.17 µg/g) total concentration of all compounds were detected in BF and GWF, respectively. The highest number (21) of compounds belonged to terpenes and terpenoids, followed by acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alkanes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows that cereal and pulse flours can be used to produce acceptable tarhana with improved nutritional quality in terms of mineral and fatty acid contents. The results of the current study may be useful and applicable to food manufacturers producing gluten-free products for celiac patients.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Farinha , Minerais , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Grão Comestível/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/normas , Farinha/análise , Minerais/análise
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4354-4364, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519038

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of different yerba mate (YM) proportions (1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 g YM/100 g whole wheat flour (WWF) and particle sizes (245, 415.5, and 623.9 µm) on dough rheological properties, antioxidant activity, and bread characteristics. The addition of YM leaves led to a possible interaction between its phenolic compounds and the gluten network within the dough, without negative effects on dough formation. However, the larger YM particle size (623.9 µm) caused a weakening of the protein network, resulting in lower quality product compared to the other samples. Improved bread quality was found when the YM leaves were added at 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF. The total amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity increased as the proportion of YM increased in both flour and bread. Moreover, the phenolic compounds in 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF breads were stable during baking, showing no significant losses in the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. These results suggest the YM can be successfully incorporated into baked product, improving its functional characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study evaluates the technological quality of bakery product made by incorporating yerba mate leaves in whole wheat flour. The results will contribute to the production of a bread with greater functional properties due to the presence of polyphenols and phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Pão , Aditivos Alimentares , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Ilex paraguariensis , Folhas de Planta , Pão/análise , Pão/normas , Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Triticum/química
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4330-4353, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535898

RESUMO

Yellow pea (Pisumsativum L.) is an economically rich source of nutrients with health-promoting effects. However, the consumption of pea ingredients is minimal due to their off-flavor characteristics. The present study investigated the effect of Revtech heat treatment on the chemical profile and volatile compounds in split yellow pea flour. Revtech treatment (RT) was applied at 140°C with a residence time of 4 min in dry condition (RT 0%) and in the presence of 10% steam (RT 10%). Both thermal treatments resulted in a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in lipoxygenase activity and the concentration of key beany-related odors such as heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, octanal, and (E)-2-octenal. In addition, RT 10% resulted in a significant reduction in pentanal, 1-penten-3-ol, hexanal, and 1-hexanol compared to untreated flour. The content of known precursors of lipoxygenase such as linoleic and linolenic acids was found in higher concentrations in heat-treated flours, indicating the efficacy of Revtech technology in minimizing the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. No significant changes in the amino acid composition or the 29 selected phenolic compounds in pea flours were observed with Revtech processing except for two compounds, caffeic acid and gallocatechin, which were found at higher concentrations in RT 0%. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Thermal processing of split yellow pea flours at 140°C using Revtech technology successfully decreased the concentrations of volatile compounds responsible for beany off-flavor while improving the nutritional quality of studied yellow pea flours. These results provide valuable information to the food industry for developing novel pulse-based products with enhanced sensory characteristics.


Assuntos
Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Ervilhas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Ervilhas/química , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
13.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(5): 304-309, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wheat flour enrichment is a public health strategy recommended to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, including iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine iron content in enriched wheat flour and flour products and their contribution to nutritional recommendations for children. POPULATION AND METHODS: Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study based on the total diet study method. Enriched wheat flour (as per Law no. 25630) and the most frequently consumed flour products were analyzed. Products were selected using a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and a 24-hour recall interview with the parents of children aged 6 months to 7 years. Food iron levels were determined based on atomic absorption spectrometry and their contribution to the estimated average requirement was assessed. RESULTS: Enriched flour and flour products showed the expected iron amount, except for French bread and breadcrumbs. The contribution of studied products to iron requirements was 7 % in children aged 6 months to 1 year, 81 % in those aged 1-3 years, and 45 % in those older than 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: Except for French bread and breadcrumbs, studied flour and flour products showed the expected enrichment level. The consumption of this type of food does not provide significant amounts of iron to infants, but it does to children older than 1 year.


Assuntos
Farinha , Ferro , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Triticum
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 357: 109369, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474198

RESUMO

Aspergillus parasiticus is a pre-harvest and postharvest pathogen that is known to produce aflatoxin; however, it is less studied compared to A. flavus. Inappropriate storage conditions are a cause of food spoilage and growth of mycotoxigenic fungi especially in low moisture foods thus constituting hazards to health. Hence, this study investigated the behaviour of A. parasiticus on aflatoxin production in inoculated wheat flour as influenced by storage conditions using the response surface methodology. Twenty experimental runs consisting of independent variables (incubation temperature (A), time (B) and (C) moisture content) and responses (aflatoxin concentrations, i.e., AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFTOT) were developed. A central composite face-centered design was used with lower and upper limits: A (25-35 °C), B (7-15 days) and C (15-25%), while the non-inoculated wheat flour served as the negative control. Aflatoxin production was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) according to standard procedures. Numerical and graphical process variables were optimized, adequate models were predicted and optimal point prediction for aflatoxin concentration was determined. AFG1 concentrations ranged from 1.10 to 360.06 µg/g, AFG2 (0.91-446.94 µg/g), AFB2 (7.95-488.77 µg/g), AFB1 (17.21-20,666.6 µg/g) and AFTOT (15.91-21,851.09 µg/g). Aflatoxin concentration increased with increase in 'B' and 'A' but decreased with prolonged increase in 'B'. AFB1 concentrations in A. parasiticus inoculated wheat flour increased at prolonged 'B' and 'A' at constant moisture (12.09%). A reduced cubic model was significantly adequate to describe the relationship between process variables and responses (AFG1 and AFG2), cubic model (AFB1 and AFTOT) and a transformed square root cubic model for AFG2 concentrations (p ≤ 0.05). 'A' influenced AFG1 production more than 'C' while 'C' and 'A' had no significant effect on AFG2 production. Process variables 'AB' influenced AFB2 concentrations more than 'C' while 'A' had a more significant effect on the AFTOT production than 'B' (p ≤ 0.05). The predicted (R2) and adjusted coefficient of regression (adj R2) were in reasonable agreement. After optimal point prediction and validation, minimum aflatoxin concentration ≤ 0 µg/g could be achieved at the predicted conditions (A = 30.42 °C, B = 10.58 days and C = 14.49%) except in AFG2 (3.33 µg/g).


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aspergillus , Aspergillus flavus , Farinha , Triticum
15.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4522-4538, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561875

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the production of sustainable and biodegradable packages made from a little-explored by product of wheat-milling, the glue flour (GF). Films were produced by the casting method and the effect of the incorporation of glycerol, sorbitol, and GF in the properties of the films was investigated following the central composite rotational design (CCRD) approach. The results have been statistically analyzed by the response surface methodology and the desirability function. Due to the rich composition in amylaceous reserve (64.81%; 26% of amylose content), considerable protein content (11.23%), and fibers (8.28%), the GF proved to be suitable for use as a matrix in biopolymer films. All the properties were mainly influenced by the plasticizer type and GF concentration. Film plasticized with glycerol (run 13) was more flexible, had higher moisture (28.39%) content, and was more adhesive than the formulation made with sorbitol (run 11). Film elongation (ELO) ranged from 25.84% to 56.71%, and tensile strength (TS) from 0.10 to 2.8 MPa. The optimized process conditions were 8% for Cf, 0% for Cg, and 4% for Cs. Under these conditions, the films presented low moisture (12.1%), moderate solubility (35.5%) and TS (1.64 MPa), and high ELO (72.06%). This study showed that GF is a promising source for the development of biodegradable films. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Films made from a by product of wheat flour (glue flour) have technological potential to be used as packaging for food products. The valorization of a by product of the agribusiness without pre-treatment for the production of biodegradable films was made possible. The study by casting technique is a previous for scale-up production.


Assuntos
Farinha , Embalagem de Alimentos , Triticum , Farinha/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Plastificantes , Solubilidade , Resistência à Tração , Triticum/química
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112721, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478987

RESUMO

Previous studies reported adverse effects of genetically engineered maize that produces insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on the water flea Daphnia magna. In the current study, effects of flour, leaves, or pollen from stacked Bt maize that contains six Bt proteins (SmartStax) in two plant backgrounds on life table parameters of D. magna were investigated. Adverse effects were observed for Bt maize flour, originating from different production fields and years, but not for leaves or pollen, produced from plants grown concurrently in a glasshouse. Because leaves contained eight to ten times more Cry protein than flour, the effects of the flour were probably not caused by the Cry proteins, but by compositional differences between the plant backgrounds. Furthermore, considering the natural range of variation in the response of D. magna to conventional maize lines, the observed effects of Bt maize flour were unlikely to be of biological relevance. Our study demonstrates how Cry protein effects can be separated from plant background effects in non-target studies using Bt plant material as the test substance and how detected effects can be judged for their biological relevance.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Daphnia/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Farinha , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética
17.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110459, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399459

RESUMO

The Glycemic Index (GI) indicates the effect of a food product on the increase/decrease in postprandial blood glucose levels. Monitoring the glycemic response is important, as it is associated with the human nutrition absorption. However, human or animal blood sampling involves financial, ethical, and other challenges. Accordingly, in the recent past, many human digestion models have been developed to understand the intricate changes that occur during human digestion and absorption processes. Dynamic models help in studying the digestion mechanics and hypotheses related to the health effects of food ingredients in controlled conditions. The objective of this study is to predict the GI of different biscuit composition using an engineered small intestine system, considering a mass transfer approach and in-silico simulation. Different GI was predicted for biscuits: 62 for plain biscuits (N) containing only refined wheat flour; 57 for finger millet flour biscuits (F); 51 for wheat bran fortified biscuits (W). The results were close to human in-vivo values; GI of 76 for plain biscuits (N); 58 for finger millet biscuits (F) and 41 for wheat bran fortified (W) biscuits, respectively (with no significant difference in the GI values of Engineered model and human glucose blood sampling results) which was confirmed with Bland-Altmann statistics. This finding will help in predicting the glycemic response of new biscuit products serving as an alternative approach to human blood sampling for GI analysis.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Farinha , Animais , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Intestino Delgado , Triticum
18.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110474, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399471

RESUMO

The effects of enzymatic extraction strategies on extractability, bioconversion, and bioaccessibility of biologically active isoflavone aglycones, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from full-fat soy flour were evaluated. Protease, tannase, and cellulase enzymes were used individually or in combination. Except for the protease treatment, all enzymatic treatments increased the extraction of biologically active isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) compared with the control. The use of a mixture of protease, tannase, and cellulase resulted in increased extractability and/or bioconversion of aglycones from soy flour, indicating a synergistic effect amongst the enzymes. Daidzein and genistein concentrations increased from 29.0 to 158.2 µg/g and from 27.0 to 156.5 µg/g (compared to the control), respectively. Furthermore, enzymatic extraction followed by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the bioaccessibility of isoflavone aglycones, total phenolic content (by 22-45%), and antioxidant activity (by 15-22%) of the extracts. These results demonstrate that enzyme selection is an efficient strategy to maximize the extraction, bioconversion, and bioaccessibility of bioactive isoflavones from soy flour, which could contribute to health benefits associated with the consumption of soy-rich products.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Soja , Digestão , Farinha , Genisteína
19.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110489, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399485

RESUMO

Knowledge on the functional and nutritional properties of wet roasted pulses can increase the utilization of processed pulses as ingredients in food products. This study investigated the effects of tempering different pulse [chickpea (CP), green lentil (GL), navy bean (NB) and yellow pea (YP)] seeds to 20 or 30% moisture prior to roasting (160℃ for 30 min) on the functional properties and nutritional quality of their resulting flours. The surface charge of each pulse remained the same (p > 0.05) after wet roasting and there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the different raw pulse flours. The oil holding capacity (OHC) of GL (~2 g/g) was not improved by wet roasting (p > 0.05) whereas the other pulses generally had better OHC for one or both of the tempering moistures used prior to roasting. Foaming properties of all pulses decreased after heat treatment with the exception of both foaming capacity (107%) and stability (~71%) for GL tempered to 20% moisture prior to roasting (p > 0.05). Raw GL had inferior foaming properties compared to the other raw pulse flours (p < 0.001). Emulsion properties of the wet roasted pulses were similar to those of the control (raw flour) for each pulse. Solubility decreased with roasting regardless of the tempering moisture (p < 0.05) whereas in general the in vitro protein digestibility increased. Small improvements (2.4-6.9% increase) in the in vitro protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score were found for GL and NB tempered to 20% moisture before roasting and roasted YP at either moisture content (p < 0.05). Wet roasting increased (p < 0.05) the rapidly digestible starch content, more so with a tempering moisture of 30%. Overall the results from this study will allow for the utilization of wet roasted pulses as ingredients based on their functional properties and protein quality.


Assuntos
Cicer , Lens (Planta) , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes
20.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110536, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399513

RESUMO

As lupin has emerged popularity as dietary protein and nutritional source, our present research was aimed to demonstrate the antidiabetic and organ-protective activities of nine cultivars of Australian sweet lupin seed flours by means of in vitro and in vivo assays accompanied by identification of their bioactive phytocompounds and exploration of underlying mechanisms of their hypoglycemic activity using in silico approach. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities inhibition and glucose uptake assays identified Jenabillup seed flours for exhibiting the most potential antidiabetic activity amongst the nine cultivars. In vivo antidiabetic and major organ-protective activities were investigated on streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia and organ damages in Wister rat model. Along with attenuating hyperglycemia and retreating major organ damages, the biochemical imbalance in cardiac, hepatic and renal markers were well-balanced by Jenabillup seed flours treatment. These activities of lupin seed flours were insignificantly affected by thermal processing. Moreover, in silico investigation of 106 phytochemicals identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the seed flour extracts of nine cultivars revealed that more than 35% of compounds possess moderate to high binding affinity to α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. These bioactive compounds act synergistically to exert potential hypoglycemic activity. Cross-docking and binding energy calculation by molecular mechanics/generalized Born volume integration (MM/GBVI) model suggest actinomycin C2 as a potential inhibitor of both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. These findings acclaim that Australian sweet lupin seed flours may be considered not only as functional food, but also for further development of effective drugs in pharmaceuticals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and resultant organ damages.


Assuntos
Farinha , Hipoglicemiantes , Animais , Austrália , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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