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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2553: 95-120, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227541

RESUMO

Future applications of synthetic biology will rely on deploying engineered cells outside of lab environments for long periods of time. Currently, a significant roadblock to this application is the potential for deactivating mutations in engineered genes. A recently developed method to protect engineered coding sequences from mutation is called Constraining Adaptive Mutations using Engineered Overlapping Sequences (CAMEOS). In this chapter we provide a workflow for utilizing CAMEOS to create synthetic overlaps between two genes, one essential (infA) and one non-essential (aroB), to protect the non-essential gene from mutation and loss of protein function. In this workflow we detail the methods to collect large numbers of related protein sequences, produce multiple sequence alignments (MSAs), use the MSAs to generate hidden Markov models and Markov random field models, and finally generate a library of overlapping coding sequences through CAMEOS scripts. To assist practitioners with basic coding skills to try out the CAMEOS method, we have created a virtual machine containing all the required packages already installed that can be downloaded and run locally.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Alinhamento de Sequência
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6515, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316320

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides but lacking canonical coding sequences. Apparently unable to produce peptides, lncRNA function seems to rely only on RNA expression, sequence and structure. Here, we exhaustively detect in-vivo translation of small open reading frames (small ORFs) within lncRNAs using Ribosomal profiling during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. We show that around 30% of lncRNAs contain small ORFs engaged by ribosomes, leading to regulated translation of 100 to 300 micropeptides. We identify lncRNA features that favour translation, such as cistronicity, Kozak sequences, and conservation. For the latter, we develop a bioinformatics pipeline to detect small ORF homologues, and reveal evidence of natural selection favouring the conservation of micropeptide sequence and function across evolution. Our results expand the repertoire of lncRNA biochemical functions, and suggest that lncRNAs give rise to novel coding genes throughout evolution. Since most lncRNAs contain small ORFs with as yet unknown translation potential, we propose to rename them "long non-canonical RNAs".


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Seleção Genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 525, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study presents results of research on the evolution of plastid genomes in Stipa L. which is a large genus of the Poaceae family, comprising species diverse in terms of geographic distribution, growing under highly variated habitat conditions. Complete plastome sequences of 43 taxa from Stipeae and Ampelodesmae tribes were analyzed for the variability of the coding regions against the background of phylogenetic relationships within the genus Stipa. The research hypothesis put forward in our research was that some of coding regions are affected by a selection pressure differentiated between individual phylogenetic lines of Stipa, potentially reducing the phylogenetic informativeness of these CDS. The study aimed to answer the question, which genes evolve in Stipa most rapidly and what kind of changes in the properties of encoded amino acids this entails. Another goal of this research was to find out whether individual genes are affected by positive selection and finally, whether selective pressure is uniform within the genus or does it vary between particular evolutionary lines within the genus. RESULTS: Results of our study proved the presence of selective pressure in 11 genes: ccsA, matK, ndhC, ndhF, ndhK, rbcL, rpoA rpoC1, rpoC2, rps8 and rps11. For the first time the effect of positive selection on the rps8, rps11, and ndhK genes was documented in grasses. The varied pace of evolution, different intensity and effects of selective pressure have been demonstrated between particular phylogenetic lines of the genus tested. CONCLUSIONS: Positive selection in plastid genome in Stipa mostly affects photosynthetic genes. The potential strongest adaptive pressure was observed in the rbcL gene, especially in the oldest evolutionary group comprising Central Asian high-mountain species: S. basiplumosa, S. klimesii, S. penicillata and S. purpurea, where adaptive pressure probably affected the amino acids directly related to the efficiency of CO2 assimilation.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos , Poaceae , Poaceae/genética , Filogenia , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Aminoácidos , Evolução Molecular
4.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366438

RESUMO

The presence of viruses is less explored in Mucoromycota as compared to other fungal groups such as Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Recently, more and more mycoviruses are identified from the early-diverging lineages of fungi. We have determined the genome of 11 novel dsRNA viruses in seven different Umbelopsis strains with next-generation sequencing (NGS). The identified viruses were named Umbelopsis ramanniana virus 5 (UrV5), 6a (UrV6a); 6b (UrV6b); 7 (UrV7); 8a (UrV8a); 8b (UrV8b); Umbelopsis gibberispora virus 1 (UgV1); 2 (UgV2) and Umbelopsis dimorpha virus 1a (UdV1a), 1b (UdV1b) and 2 (UdV2). All the newly identified viruses contain two open reading frames (ORFs), which putatively encode the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Based on the phylogeny inferred from the RdRp sequences, eight viruses (UrV7, UrV8a, UrV8b, UgV1, UgV2, UdV1a, UdV1b and UdV2) belong to the genus Totivirus, while UrV5, UrV6a and UrV6b are placed into a yet unclassified but well-defined Totiviridae-related group. In UrV5, UgV1, UgV2, UrV8b, UdV1a, UdV2 and UdV1b, ORF2 is predicted to be translated as a fusion protein via a rare +1 (or -2) ribosomal frameshift, which is not characteristic to most members of the Totivirus genus. Virus particles 31 to 32 nm in diameter could be detected in the examined fungal strains by transmission electron microscopy. Through the identification and characterization of new viruses of Mucoromycota fungi, we can gain insight into the diversity of mycoviruses, as well as into their phylogeny and genome organization.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Micovírus , Vírus de RNA , Totiviridae , Micovírus/genética , Totiviridae/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA , Filogenia , Ascomicetos/genética , Genoma Viral , Vírus de RNA/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla
5.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366547

RESUMO

Short open reading frames (sORFs) are a newly identified family of genes, and the functions of most sORF genes and their encoded peptides (SEPs) are still unknown. In this study, two ATP synthase subunits were identified in kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) as SEPs, namely MjATP5I and MjATP5L. They were widely distributed in all of the tested tissues of shrimp and upregulated in hemocytes and intestines in response to WSSV challenge. The injection of recombinant proteins (rMjATP5I and rMjATP5L) increased the expression of Ie1 and Vp28, while the knockdown of MjATP5I and MjATP5L decreased the expression of Ie1 and Vp28. All of the results suggest that MjATP5I and MjATP5L were beneficial for WSSV replication. Further exploration found that MjATP5I and MjATP5L RNAi significantly improved the shrimp survival rates, reduced ATP production, and upregulated the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes post viral challenge, and the two ATPase subunits and Relish negatively regulated each other. These results reveal that MjATP5I and MjATP5L facilitated WSSV duplication by regulating the production of ATP contents and the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in shrimp.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1 , Animais , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Penaeidae/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina
6.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366554

RESUMO

A virome screen was performed on a new breeding line, KB1, of blackcurrant. Rhabdovirus-like particles were observed by electron microscopy in ultrathin sections of flower stalks, and the complete genome sequence of a novel virus, provisionally named blackcurrant rhabdovirus 2 (BCRV2), was determined and verified using high-throughput sequencing. The genomic organization of BCRV2 was characteristic of cytorhabdoviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) and included seven genes: 3 ́- N-P´-P-P3-M-G-L -5 ́. BLASTP analysis revealed that the putative L protein had the highest amino acid sequence identity (75 %) with strawberry virus 2. BCRV2 was detected in Cryptomyzusgaleopsidis, but efficient transmission by this aphid was not confirmed. Of note, we observed coinfection of the KB1 line with blackcurrant-associated rhabdovirus (BCaRV) by RT-PCR. This is likely the first evidence of the presence of a cyto- and a nucleorhabdovirus in a single host.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Rhabdoviridae , Ribes , Coinfecção/genética , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Doenças das Plantas , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rhabdoviridae/genética
7.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366565

RESUMO

The genus totivirus in the family Totiviridae contains double-stranded RNA viruses. Their genome has two open reading frames (ORFs) that encode capsid protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The toti-like viruses recently identified in Anopheles sp. and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (AaTV) share the same genome organization as other totiviruses. The AaTVs that have been described in distinct geographical regions are monophyletic. In this study, we show that AaTV sequences can be grouped into at least three phylogenetic clades (named A, B, and C). Clades A and B are composed of AaTV sequences from mosquitoes collected in the Caribbean region (Guadeloupe), and clade C contains sequences from the USA. These clades may represent AaTV lineages that are locally adapted to their host populations. We also identified three recombinant AaTV strains circulating in mosquitoes in Guadeloupe. Although these strains have different chimeric patterns, the position of the recombination breakpoint was identical in all strains. Interestingly, this breakpoint is located in a hairpin-like structure in the intergenic region of the AaTV genome. This RNA structure may stall RNA polymerase processivity and consequently induce template switching. In vitro studies should be conducted to further investigate the biological significance of AaTV's intergenic region as a recombination hotspot.


Assuntos
Aedes , Totiviridae , Totivirus , Animais , Totivirus/genética , Aedes/genética , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , DNA Intergênico/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Totiviridae/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Recombinação Genética
8.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366490

RESUMO

Monkeypox virus, the causative agent of the 2022 monkeypox outbreak, is a double-stranded DNA virus in the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. Genes in terminal regions of Orthopoxvirus genomes mostly code for host-pathogen interaction proteins and are prone to selective pressure and modification events. Using viral whole genome sequencing, we identified twenty-five total clinical samples with ORF-disrupting mutations, including twenty samples encoding nonsense mutations in MPXVgp001/191 (OPG001), MPXVgp004/188 (OPG015), MPXVgp010 (OPG023), MPXVgp030 (OPG042), MPXVgp159 (OPG0178), or MPXVgp161 (OPG181). Additional mutations include a frameshift leading to an alternative C-terminus in MPXVgp010 (OPG023) and an insertion in an adenine homopolymer at the beginning of the annotated ORF for MPXVgp153 (OPG151), encoding a subunit of the RNA polymerase, suggesting the virus may instead use the start codon that encodes Met9 as annotated. Finally, we detected three samples with large (>900 bp) deletions. These included a 913 bp deletion that truncates the C-terminus of MPXVgp010 (OPG023); a 4205 bp deletion that eliminates MPXVgp012 (OPG025), MPXVgp013 (OPG027), and MPXVgp014 (OPG029) and truncates MPXVgp011 (OPG024; D8L) and MPXVgp015 (OPG030); and a 6881 bp deletion that truncates MPXVgp182 (OPG210) and eliminates putative ORFs MPXVgp184, MPXVgp185 (OPG005), and MPXVgp186, as well as MPXVgp187 (OPG016), and MPXVgp188 (OPG015) from the 3' ITR only. MPXVgp182 encodes the monkeypox-specific, highly immunogenic surface glycoprotein B21R which has been proposed as a serological target. Overall, we find greater than one-tenth of our sequenced MPXV isolates have at least one gene inactivating mutation and these genes together comprised greater than one-tenth of annotated MPXV genes. Our findings highlight non-essential genes in monkeypox virus that may be evolving as a result of selective pressure in humans, as well as the limitations of targeting them for therapeutics and diagnostic testing.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Varíola dos Macacos , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Mutação , Ohio , Washington , Fases de Leitura Aberta
9.
Elife ; 112022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346220

RESUMO

Naturally produced peptides (<100 amino acids) are important regulators of physiology, development, and metabolism. Recent studies have predicted that thousands of peptides may be translated from transcripts containing small open-reading frames (smORFs). Here, we describe two peptides in Drosophila encoded by conserved smORFs, Sloth1 and Sloth2. These peptides are translated from the same bicistronic transcript and share sequence similarities, suggesting that they encode paralogs. Yet, Sloth1 and Sloth2 are not functionally redundant, and loss of either peptide causes animal lethality, reduced neuronal function, impaired mitochondrial function, and neurodegeneration. We provide evidence that Sloth1/2 are highly expressed in neurons, imported to mitochondria, and regulate mitochondrial complex III assembly. These results suggest that phenotypic analysis of smORF genes in Drosophila can provide a wealth of information on the biological functions of this poorly characterized class of genes.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/química , Neurônios
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1035364, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339346

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen usually controlled by antibiotics in mariculture. Notably, traditional antibiotic therapy is becoming less effective because of the emergence of bacterial resistance, hence new strategies need to be found to overcome this challenge. Bacteriophages, a class of viruses that lyse bacteria, can help us control drug-resistant bacteria. In this study, a novel Vibrio parahaemolyticus phage phiTY18 isolated from the coastal water of Xiamen was explored. Transmission electron microscopy showed that phiTY18 had an icosahedral head of 130.0 ± 1.2 nm diameter and a contractile tail of length of 66.7 ± 0.6 nm. The phage titer could reach 7.2×1010 PFU/mL at the optimal MOI (0.01). The phage phiTY18 had a degree of tolerance to heat and acid and base. At the temperature of 50°C (pH7.0, 1h) the survival phages reached 1.28×106 PFU/mL, and at pH 5-9 (30°C, 1h), the survival phages was greater than 6.37×107 PFU/mL Analysis of the phage one-step growth curve revealed that it had a latent period of 10min, a rise period of 10min, and an average burst size of the phage was 48 PFU/cell. Genome sequencing and analysis drew that phage phiTY18 had double-stranded DNA (191,500 bp) with 34.90% G+C content and contained 117 open reading frames (ORFs) and 24 tRNAs. Phylogenetic tree based on major capsid protein (MCP) revealed that phage phiTY18 (MW451250) was highly related to two Vibrio phages phiKT1024 (OM249648) and Va1 (MK387337). The NCBI alignment results showed that the nucleotide sequence identity was 97% and 93%, respectively. In addition, proteomic tree analysis indicated that phage phiTY18, phiKT1024, and Va1 were belong to the same virus sub-cluster within Myoviridae. This study provides a theoretical basis for understanding the genomic characteristics and the interaction between Vibrio parahaemolyticus phages and their host.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Bacteriófagos/genética , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Filogenia , Proteômica , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Água
11.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298845

RESUMO

We report the analysis of the genome of a novel Alphabaculovirus, Parapoynx stagnalis nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate 473 (PastNPV-473), from cadavers of the rice case bearer, Parapoynx stagnalis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), collected in rice fields in Kerala, India. High-throughput sequencing of DNA from PastNPV occlusion bodies and assembly of the data yielded a circular genome-length contig of 114,833 bp with 126 annotated opening reading frames (ORFs) and six homologous regions (hrs). Phylogenetic inference based on baculovirus core gene amino acid sequence alignments indicated that PastNPV is a member of the group I clade of viruses in genus Alphabaculovirus, but different phylogenetic methods yielded different results with respect to the placement of PastNPV and four similarly divergent alphabaculoviruses in the group I clade. Branch lengths and Kimura-2-parameter pairwise nucleotide distances indicated that PastNPV-473 cannot be classified in any of the currently listed species in genus Alphabaculovirus. A unique feature of the PastNPV genome was the presence of an ORF encoding a homolog of Ran GTPase, a regulator of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. PastNPV appears to have acquired a homolog of Ran relatively recently from a lepidopteran host via horizontal gene transfer.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Nucleopoliedrovírus , Animais , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Nucleotídeos
12.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298677

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health burden worldwide, causing approximately 20 million infections and 70,000 deaths annually. The viral capsid protein is encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of the HEV genome. Most ORF2 protein present in body fluids is the glycosylated secreted form of the protein (ORF2S). A recent study suggested that ORF2S is not necessary for the HEV life cycle. A previously reported efficient HEV cell culture system can be used to understand the origin and life cycle of ORF2S but is not sufficient for functional research. A more rapid and productive method for yielding ORF2S could help to study its antigenicity and immunogenicity. In this study, the ORF2S (tPA) expression construct was designed as a candidate tool. A set of representative anti-HEV monoclonal antibodies was further used to map the functional antigenic sites in the candidates. ORF2S (tPA) was used to study antigenicity and immunogenicity. Indirect ELISA revealed that ORF2S (tPA) was not antigenically identical to HEV 239 antigen (p239). The ORF2S-specific antibodies were successfully induced in one-dose-vaccinated BALB/c mice. The ORF2S-specific antibody response was detected in plasma from HEV-infected patients. Recombinant ORF2S (tPA) can act as a decoy to against B cells. Altogether, our study presents a design strategy for ORF2S expression and indicates that ORF2S (tPA) can be used for functional and structural studies of the HEV life cycle.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Camundongos , Animais , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética
13.
Genetica ; 150(6): 355-366, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287311

RESUMO

Short Tandem repeats (STRs) often occur within coding regions and adaptive selection could play a vital role in shaping the landscape of coding STRs. Here, we identified 849, 1282 and 1501 genes that contained 966, 1565 and 1921 STRs in the coding regions of the giant panda, polar bear and brown bear genomes, respectively. The results showed that coding STRs were subject to strong selection on STR type, motif, repetition and mode of evolution. Coding STRs were primarily found in regulatory genes. Of the three ursids studied, we found 585 differential genes in the giant panda. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the significant enrichment term (insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway) exerted direct carbohydrate metabolic effects in vivo in this species. The enrichment of this pathway suggested that the giant panda's ability to absorb carbohydrates (starch) and adapt to a bamboo diet might be enhanced by variable coding STRs. We also identified 377 conserved coding STRs located in 377 genes across the three species. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis showed that these genes were significantly enriched in two pathway involved in key physiological processes, including cardiovascular function and energy metabolism regulation. This study provides an important resource for future studies on the regulation of rapid diet and environmental adaptation of species by coding STRs.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Ursidae/genética , Ursidae/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Genoma , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética
14.
PLoS Biol ; 20(10): e3001826, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256614

RESUMO

Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) transcripts are known to be highly expressed in cancers, yet their activity in nondiseased tissue is largely unknown. Using the GTEx RNA-seq dataset from normal tissue sampled at autopsy, we characterized individual expression of the recent HERV-K (HML-2) provirus group across 13,000 different samples of 54 different tissues from 948 individuals. HML-2 transcripts could be identified in every tissue sampled and were elevated in the cerebellum, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. A total of 37 different individual proviruses were expressed in 1 or more tissues, representing all 3 LTR5 subgroups. Nine proviruses were identified as having long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription, 7 of which belonged to the most recent LTR5HS subgroup. Proviruses of different subgroups displayed a bias in tissue expression, which may be associated with differences in transcription factor binding sites in their LTRs. Provirus expression was greater in evolutionarily older proviruses with an earliest shared ancestor of gorilla or older. HML-2 expression was significantly affected by biological sex in 1 tissue, while age and timing of death (Hardy score) had little effect. Proviruses containing intact gag, pro, and env open reading frames (ORFs) were expressed in the dataset, with almost every tissue measured potentially expressing at least 1 intact ORF (gag).


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos , Provírus , Masculino , Humanos , Provírus/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(19): 11229-11242, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36259651

RESUMO

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) ubiquitously exist in normal and cancer cells. Despite their prevalent distribution, the functions of most long ncRNAs remain uncharacterized. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe expresses >1800 ncRNAs annotated to date, but most unconventional ncRNAs (excluding tRNA, rRNA, snRNA and snoRNA) remain uncharacterized. To discover the functional ncRNAs, here we performed a combinatory screening of computational and biological tests. First, all S. pombe ncRNAs were screened in silico for those showing conservation in sequence as well as in secondary structure with ncRNAs in closely related species. Almost a half of the 151 selected conserved ncRNA genes were uncharacterized. Twelve ncRNA genes that did not overlap with protein-coding sequences were next chosen for biological screening that examines defects in growth or sexual differentiation, as well as sensitivities to drugs and stresses. Finally, we highlighted an ncRNA transcribed from SPNCRNA.1669, which inhibited untimely initiation of sexual differentiation. A domain that was predicted as conserved secondary structure by the computational operations was essential for the ncRNA to function. Thus, this study demonstrates that in silico selection focusing on conservation of the secondary structure over species is a powerful method to pinpoint novel functional ncRNAs.


Assuntos
Schizosaccharomyces , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Diferenciação Sexual , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/química , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta
16.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 618, 2022 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229544

RESUMO

Structural variants (SV) have been linked to important bovine disease phenotypes, but due to the difficulty of their accurate detection with standard sequencing approaches, their role in shaping important traits across cattle breeds is largely unexplored. Optical mapping is an alternative approach for mapping SVs that has been shown to have higher sensitivity than DNA sequencing approaches. The aim of this project was to use optical mapping to develop a high-quality database of structural variation across cattle breeds from different geographical regions, to enable further study of SVs in cattle. To do this we generated 100X Bionano optical mapping data for 18 cattle of nine different ancestries, three continents and both cattle sub-species. In total we identified 13,457 SVs, of which 1,200 putatively overlap coding regions. This resource provides a high-quality set of optical mapping-based SV calls that can be used across studies, from validating DNA sequencing-based SV calls to prioritising candidate functional variants in genetic association studies and expanding our understanding of the role of SVs in cattle evolution.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Genômica , Animais , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(6): e2401, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209386

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection occurs worldwide. The HEV genome includes three to four open reading frames (ORF1-4). ORF1 proteins are essential for viral replication, while the ORF3 protein is an ion channel involved in the exit of HEV from the infected cells. ORF2 proteins form the viral capsid required for HEV invasion and assembly. They also suppress interferon production and inhibit antibody-mediated neutralisation of HEV, allowing the virus to hijack the host immune response. ORF2 is the only detectable viral protein in the human liver during HEV infection and it is secreted in the plasma, stool, and urine of HEV-infected patients, making it a reliable diagnostic marker. The plasma HEV ORF2 antigen level can predict the outcome of HEV infections. Hence, monitoring HEV ORF2 antigen levels may be useful in assessing the efficacy of anti-HEV therapy. The ORF2 antigen is immunogenic and includes epitopes that can induce neutralising antibodies; therefore, it is a potential HEV vaccine candidate. In this review, we highlighted the different forms of HEV ORF2 protein and their roles in HEV pathogenesis, diagnosis, monitoring the therapeutic efficacy, and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Epitopos
18.
Virus Genes ; 58(6): 589-593, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183048

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has a global distribution with diverse hosts, including mammals and avians. In this study, an avian Hepatitis E virus (aHEV) strain with a high mortality rate of about 30%, designated as SDXT20, was obtained from the liver of 30-week-old Hubbard chickens with severe hepatosplenomegaly in 2020 in Eastern China and HEV was proved to be the only pathogen by next-generation sequencing. Its complete genome, which encodes three open reading frames (ORFs), is 6649 nt in length. ORF1-3 encodes three proteins with lengths of 1532 aa, 606 aa, and 82 aa, respectively, and ORF2 and ORF3 overlap with each other. BLAST-based similarity analysis of the complete viral genome demonstrated that SDXT20 had merely 80.5-92.2% similarity with avian Avihepevirus magniiecur strains and 50.4%-54.8% lower similarity with Paslahepevirus balayani, Rocahepevirus ratti, and Chirohepevirus eptesici species. Further genetic evolution analysis of the complete genome and ORF2 revealed that the isolate was genetically distinct from known aHEVs, and it belonged to a novel genetically distinct aHEV. This study provides data for further analysis of the multi-host and cross-host genetic evolution of HEVs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Hepevirus , Animais , Hepevirus/genética , Galinhas , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/veterinária , Genoma Viral/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , China , Mamíferos
19.
PLoS Genet ; 18(10): e1010460, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315596

RESUMO

Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are present in over half of all human mRNAs. uORFs can potently regulate the translation of downstream open reading frames through several mechanisms: siphoning away scanning ribosomes, regulating re-initiation, and allowing interactions between scanning and elongating ribosomes. However, the consequences of these different mechanisms for the regulation of protein expression remain incompletely understood. Here, we performed systematic measurements on the uORF-containing 5' UTR of the cytomegaloviral UL4 mRNA to test alternative models of uORF-mediated regulation in human cells. We find that a terminal diproline-dependent elongating ribosome stall in the UL4 uORF prevents decreases in main ORF protein expression when ribosome loading onto the mRNA is reduced. This uORF-mediated buffering is insensitive to the location of the ribosome stall along the uORF. Computational kinetic modeling based on our measurements suggests that scanning ribosomes dissociate rather than queue when they collide with stalled elongating ribosomes within the UL4 uORF. We identify several human uORFs that repress main ORF protein expression via a similar terminal diproline motif. We propose that ribosome stalls in uORFs provide a general mechanism for buffering against reductions in main ORF translation during stress and developmental transitions.


Assuntos
Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ribossomos , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética
20.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 123, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307763

RESUMO

The genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains many insertions/deletions (indels) from the genomes of other SARS-related coronaviruses. Some of the identified indels have recently reported to involve relatively long segments of 10-300 consecutive bases and with diverse RNA sequences around gaps between virus species, both of which are different characteristics from the classical shorter in-frame indels. These non-classical complex indels have been identified in non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3), the S1 domain of the spike (S), and open reading frame 8 (ORF8). To determine whether the occurrence of these non-classical indels in specific genomic regions is ubiquitous among broad species of SARS-related coronaviruses in different animal hosts, the present study compared SARS-related coronaviruses from humans (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2), bats (RaTG13 and Rc-o319), and pangolins (GX-P4L), by performing multiple sequence alignment. As a result, indel hotspots with diverse RNA sequences of different lengths between the viruses were confirmed in the Nsp2 gene (approximately 2500-2600 base positions in the overall 29,900 bases), Nsp3 gene (approximately 3000-3300 and 3800-3900 base positions), N-terminal domain of the spike protein (21,500-22,500 base positions), and ORF8 gene (27,800-28,200 base positions). Abnormally high rate of point mutations and complex indels in these regions suggest that the occurrence of mutations in these hotspots may be selectively neutral or even benefit the survival of the viruses. The presence of such indel hotspots has not been reported in different human SARS-CoV-2 strains in the last 2 years, suggesting a lower rate of indels in human SARS-CoV-2. Future studies to elucidate the mechanisms enabling the frequent development of long and complex indels in specific genomic regions of SARS-related coronaviruses would offer deeper insights into the process of viral evolution.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quirópteros , Vírus da SARS , Animais , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , COVID-19/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Pangolins
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