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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(1): 257-267, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629570

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the association of sociodemographic factors and lifestyle with the consumption of in natura or minimally processed (INMP) foods, ultra-processed foods (UPFs), and fruits and vegetables. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 403 children, aged 4 to 7 years, from a retrospective cohort. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables were investigated using a sociodemographic questionnaire. Food consumption was assessed by three food records. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to analyze associations. Children with lower income had a higher consumption of INMP foods and a lower consumption of UPFs. A shorter time spent at school was associated with a lower consumption of INMP foods and a higher consumption of UPFs. Children with more screen time and less educated parents consumed less fruits and vegetables. Unfavorable sociodemographic factors were associated with a better profile of food consumption according to the level of processing, except for fruits and vegetables. The longer time spent at school and a shorter screen time contributed to a healthier diet.


Este estudo objetivou avaliar a associação de fatores sociodemográficos e estilo de vida com consumo de alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados (INMP), ultraprocessados (AUP) e frutas e hortaliças. Trata-se de estudo transversal com 403 crianças de 4 a 7 anos de uma coorte retrospectiva. Variáveis sociodemográficas e estilo de vida foram investigadas através do questionário sociodemográfico. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por três registros alimentares. Empregaram-se análises de regressão linear bivariadas e multivariadas para analisar as associações. Crianças com menor renda apresentaram maior consumo de alimentos INMP e menor consumo de AUP. Menor tempo de permanência na escola associou-se ao menor consumo de alimentos INMP e maior consumo de AUP. Crianças com maior tempo de tela e com pais de menor escolaridade, consumiram menos frutas e hortaliças. Fatores sociodemográficos desfavoráveis se associaram ao melhor perfil de consumo de alimentos segundo o nível de processamento, exceto para frutas e hortaliças. O maior tempo de permanência na escola e menor tempo de tela contribuíram para uma alimentação mais saudável.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Tempo de Tela , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Fast Foods , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social , Verduras
2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 53: 277-281, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Having healthier, less processed hospital menus is an emerging issue. Diets high in ultra-processed foods (UPF) have lower nutrient density, but the incidence of UPF in hospital menus has not been previously addressed. The present study determined the presence of UPF, minimally processed foods (MPF) and processed culinary ingredients (PCI) and their correlations with provided energy and nutrients. METHODS: We recorded the hospital diet for 14 consecutive days and analyzed it with the USDA database, and published NOVA values. RESULTS: The NOVA score of the menu was 1.90, 1.80-1.93, while the energy from UPF was 25.2%, 23.2%-29.9% (medians, interquartile ranges). Energy from UPF was positively related to beta-cryptoxanthin and negatively associated with dietary cholesterol and manganese. In contrast, the energy from MPF and PCI was positively associated with energy, protein, zinc, selenium, iron and B12. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, MPF and PCI in hospital diets relate to higher energy, protein and several micronutrients, which is essential to combat hospital malnutrition.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Dieta , Nutrientes
3.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678252

RESUMO

Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption impacts nutrient intake and plays an important role in non-communicable diseases (NCD), even among schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the food consumption of this population and its relationship with laboratory and anthropometric aspects. A sample of 190 subjects aged 5 to 19 y was randomly selected for dietary, laboratory, and anthropometric assessment. Statistical inference was calculated using Spearman's correlation. Excess weight was observed in 34%, a high Waist-to-Height Ratio in 9%, and hypertriglyceridemia in 17% of the subjects, higher among those from urban schools (45%, p = 0.011; 15%, p = 0.015; 24%, p = 0.026, respectively). UPF consumption represented 21% of caloric intake and showed a positive correlation with trans fatty acids (r = 0.70) and sugar (r = 0.59) intake. Unprocessed food consumption showed a weak, but significant, correlation with Body Mass Index (r = 0.22) and Waist Circumference (r = 0.23), while processed meat showed a negative correlation with serum ferritin (r = -0.16) and vitamins D (r = -0.20) and B12 (r = -0.15). These findings highlight the need for public policies to promote Food and Nutritional Security for schoolchildren to prevent NCD and nutritional deficiencies.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Oligoelementos , Ácidos Graxos trans , Humanos , Criança , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos trans/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes , Estudos Transversais , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Dieta , Açúcares , Manipulação de Alimentos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673771

RESUMO

The quality of diet and nutritional status during pregnancy are crucial to optimize maternal and fetal health. Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are increasingly prevalent in pregnancy groups despite being nutritionally unbalanced and associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study, conducted with data from 229 pregnant women, aimed to investigate the association between UPFs consumption and dietary nutrient intake of pregnant women assisted by Primary Health Care (PHC) in Federal District (DF), Brazil. Food consumption was assessed through two non-consecutive 24-h food records and categorized by the extent of processing using the NOVA classification. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the association between the quintiles of UPF consumption and the total energy and nutrients intake. Mean daily energy intake was 1741 kcal, with 22.6% derived from UPFs. Greater UPF consumption was associated with reduced intake of unprocessed and minimally processed food. The highest quintile of UPFs was positively associated with higher total energy, trans fat, and sodium intake; and inversely associated with the diet content of protein, fiber, iron, magnesium, potassium, copper, zinc, selenium, and folate. Greater UPFs intake negatively impacts the nutritional quality of the diet and impoverishes the nutrient intake of pregnant women. Reducing UPF consumption may broadly improve dietary guidelines adherence in pregnant women and promote maternal and neonatal health.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fast Foods
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(2): 643-656, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651414

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with the consumption of in natura or minimally processed and ultra-processed foods (UPFs) by adolescents in the Metropolitan Region of Greater Vitória, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The data were obtained between 2016 and 2017. Logistic regression was adopted for the multivariate analysis. A total of 2,285 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 participated in the study. Greater consumption of minimally processed foods was associated with the adolescent doing paid work (OR=1.27; 95%CI=1.04-1.56), a high family income (OR=1.5; 95%CI=1.10-2.17), and engagement in physical activity (OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.45-2.63). Having brown/black skin (OR=1.3; 95%CI=1.02-1.61) and the habit of eating while surfing the web (OR=1.4; 95%CI=1.02-1.88) increased the chances of consuming UPFs. Being enrolled in a private school and being in the third/fourth year of high school reduced UPF consumption by 41.7% and 37.2%, respectively. It is concluded that greater purchasing power and engagement in physical activity influenced the consumption of minimally processed foods. On the other hand, self-reporting as brown/black and internet use increased the chances of greater UPF consumption.


Este estudo transversal teve como objetivo analisar as características sociodemográficas e de estilo de vida associadas ao consumo de alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados e ultraprocessados (AUP) por adolescentes da Região Metropolitana da Grande Vitória - Espírito Santo, Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos entre 2016 e 2017. Adotou-se a regressão logística para a análise multivariada. Participaram do estudo 2285 adolescentes entre 15 e 19 anos. O maior consumo de alimentos minimamente processados foi associado ao trabalho remunerado do adolescente (OR=1,27; IC95%: 1,04-1,56), a alta renda familiar (OR=1,5; IC95%=1,10-2,17) e a prática de atividade física (OR=1,9; IC95%=1,45-2,63). A cor da pele parda/preta (OR=1,3; IC95%=1,02-1,61) e o hábito de comer enquanto navega na internet (OR=1,4; IC95%=1,02-1,88) aumentaram as chances de consumir os AUP. Estar matriculados em escolas particulares e no terceiro/quarto ano do ensino médio reduziram em 41,7% e 37,2%, respectivamente, o consumo dos AUP. Conclui-se que o maior poder aquisitivo e a prática de atividade física influenciaram o alto consumo dos alimentos minimamente processados. Por outro lado, se declarar da cor da pele parda/preta e a utilização da internet ao comer aumentam as chances para a maior ingestão dos AUP.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Brasil , Fast Foods , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos
6.
CJEM ; 25(1): 1-2, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617613

Assuntos
Fast Foods , Humanos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 72, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between the local food environment, diet and diet-related disease is mixed, particularly in the UK. One reason may be the use of more distal outcomes such as weight status and cardiovascular disease, rather than more proximal outcomes such as food purchasing. This study explores associations between food environment exposures and food and drink purchasing for at-home and out-of-home (OOH) consumption. METHODS: We used item-level food and drink purchase data for London and the North of England, UK, drawn from the 2019 Kantar Fast Moving Consumer Goods panel to assess associations between food environment exposures and household-level take-home grocery (n=2,118) and individual-level out-of-home (n=447) food and drink purchasing. Density, proximity and relative composition measures were created for both supermarkets and OOH outlets (restaurants and takeaways) using a 1 km network buffer around the population-weighted centroid of households' home postcode districts. Associations between food environment exposure measures and frequency of take-home food and drink purchasing, total take-home calories, calories from fruits and vegetables, high fat, salt and sugar products, and ultra-processed foods (UPF), volume of take-home alcoholic beverages, and frequency of OOH purchasing were modelled using negative binomial regression adjusted for area deprivation, population density, and individual and household socio-economic characteristics. RESULTS: There was some evidence for an inverse association between distance to OOH food outlets and calories purchased from ultra-processed foods (UPF), with a 500 m increase in distance to the nearest OOH outlet associated with a 1.1% reduction in calories from UPF (IR=0.989, 95%CI 0.982-0.997, p=0.040). There was some evidence for region-specific effects relating to purchased volumes of alcohol. However, there was no evidence for an overall association between food environment exposures and take-home and OOH food and drink purchasing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some evidence for exposure to OOH outlets and UPF purchases, this study finds limited evidence for the impact of the food environment on household food and drink purchasing. Nonetheless, region-specific effects regarding alcohol purchasing indicate the importance of geographical context for research and policy.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comércio , Meio Ambiente , Alimentos , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Restaurantes , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 14, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The processing of food can cause changes that turn them into risk factors for chronic diseases. A higher degree of food processing is associated with the development of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and the prevalence of MetS and its risk factors, focusing on a population group especially subjected to precarious living conditions and food insecurity. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study with women (19 to 59 years) from Quilombola communities of Alagoas. The socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, health status, lifestyle, and food intake (24-h recall) variables were analyzed. The dependent variable was the MetS, defined using the harmonization criteria of the Joint Interim Statement, and its components. The foods consumed were categorized according to the Nova Classification, assuming the highest UPF consumption as risk exposure. The measure of association was the prevalence ratio (PR) and respective 95%CI, calculated by Poisson regression with robust variance. We also analyzed the association with the Nova score of UPF consumption. RESULTS: We investigated 895 women (38.9 ± 11.0 years), of whom 48.3% had MetS. On average, 15.9% of the total energy intake came from UPF. Lower Nova scores were associated with a lower prevalence of diabetes and low HDL. Higher UPF consumption was associated with a 30% higher prevalence of hypertension (PR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.06-1.61). CONCLUSION: The highest UPF consumption was positively associated with the prevalence of hypertension, while a lower Nova score was a protective factor against diabetes and low HDL. UPF consumption in Quilombola communities is important but lower than that observed in the Brazilian population in general. It is suggested that public health programs be implemented to promote healthy eating while valuing the existing eating habits and traditions among the remaining Brazilian Quilombola people.


RESUMO: INTRODUçãO: O processamento de alimentos pode causar alterações que os transformam em fatores de risco para doenças crônicas. Um maior grau de processamento de alimentos está associado ao desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), incluindo a síndrome metabólica (SM). O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a relação entre o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados (AUP) e a prevalência de SM e seus fatores de risco, com foco em um grupo populacional especialmente submetido a precárias condições de vida e insegurança alimentar. MéTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional com mulheres (19 a 59 anos) de comunidades Quilombolas de Alagoas. Foram analisadas as variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas, antropométricas, estado de saúde, estilo de vida e ingestão alimentar (recordatório de 24 horas). A variável dependente foi a SM, definida a partir dos critérios de harmonização do Joint Interim Statement, e seus componentes. Os alimentos consumidos foram categorizados de acordo com a Classificação Nova, assumindo como exposição de risco o maior consumo de AUP. A medida de associação foi a razão de prevalência (RP) e respectivo IC 95%, calculado por regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Também analisou-se a associação com o Escore Nova de consumo de AUP. RESULTADOS: Foram investigadas 895 mulheres (38,9 ± 11,0 anos), das quais 48,3% tinham SM. Em média, 15,9% da ingestão total de energia provinham de AUP. Escores Nova mais baixos foram associados a uma menor prevalência de diabetes e HDL baixo. O maior consumo de AUP se associou a uma prevalência 30% maior de hipertensão arterial (RP = 1,30; IC95%: 1,06-1,61). CONCLUSãO: O maior consumo de AUP se associou positivamente à prevalência de hipertensão, enquanto o menor escore Nova foi fator de proteção contra diabetes e baixo HDL. O consumo de AUP nas comunidades Quilombolas é relevante, mas inferior ao observado na população brasileira em geral. Sugere-se a implementação de programas de saúde pública que promovam a alimentação saudável, valorizando os hábitos e tradições alimentares existentes entre os remanescentes Quilombolas brasileiros.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos
9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 31(2): 506-514, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and BMI and to what extent this association is moderated by availability of fast-food (FF) outlets and pay-for-use physical activity (PA) facilities. METHODS: Baseline data of adults in Lifelines (N = 146,629) were linked to Statistics Netherlands and a register using geocoding to compute, respectively, NSES (i.e., low, middle, high) and the number of FF outlets and PA facilities within 1 km of the residential address. Multivariable multilevel linear regression analyses were performed to examine the association between NSES and BMI. Two-way and three-way interaction terms were tested to examine moderation by FF outlets and PA facilities. RESULTS: Participants living in low NSES areas had a higher BMI than participants living in high (B [95% CI]: 0.76 [0.65 to 0.87]) or middle NSES areas (B [95% CI]: 0.40 [0.28 to 0.51]), independent of individual socioeconomic status. Although two- and three-way interactions between NSES, FF outlets, and PA facilities were significant, stratified analyses did not show consistent moderation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: People living in lower NSES areas had a higher BMI, independent of their individual socioeconomic status. The study found no clear moderation of FF outlets and PA facilities. Environmental factors that may mitigate NSES differences in BMI should be the subject of future research.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Classe Social , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fast Foods , Características de Residência
10.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111990, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461297

RESUMO

Most studies on the impact of climate change on foods focus on the consequences to security and safety. In the present study we provide scientific evidence on an overlooked aspect of climate change related to the microbiological stability of foods. Most microbiologically stable processed foods are contaminated with spores of thermophilic spoilage bacteria which are highly heat-resistant and can survive thermal processing. Current temperatures during distribution and storage in temperate climates do not allow growth of thermophilic bacteria to levels that can cause spoilage, ensuring their microbiological stability. Our findings suggest that the latter limiting condition can be eliminated by global warming. By assessing different global warming scenarios for 38 European cities in a case study with canned milk, we show that failing to limit the increase of global mean surface temperature below 2 °C can lead to a very high risk of spoilage and subsequently cause a collapse of the shelf-stable food chain.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura , Cadeia Alimentar , Fast Foods
11.
Eat Weight Disord ; 27(8): 3609-3625, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mental health and sleep quality are associated with genetics and nutrient and energy intake. The present study examined the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and genetic risk score (GRS) and their interactions on mental health and sleep quality in Iranian women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 278 overweight and obese females aged between 18 and 56 years. According to the NOVA classification system, 37 food groups and beverages were collected using a 147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The blood parameters of all participants were assessed. Mini-column kit (type G; Genall; Exgene) and the PCR-RFLP method were used to extract DNA and determine gene polymorphism, respectively. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including Caveolin_1 (Cav_1), Melanocortin4 receptor (MC4R), and cryptochrome circadian regulator 1 (CRY1), were used to calculate GRS. The individual risk allele (0, 1, 2) for each SNP was calculated using the incremental genetic model. RESULTS: After controlling for confounders, a significant interaction was found for depression (ß = 0.026, 95% CI 0.003, 0.049, P = 0.028) and depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) score (ß = 0.059, 95% CI 0.001, 0.117, P = 0.046) on the NOVA classification system and GRS. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed a significant interaction between GRS and the NOVA classification system on mental disorders, including depression, DASS score and stress. There was also a significant relationship between the NOVA classification system and anxiety, DASS score, sleep quality and depression. Furthermore, a partially significant association was observed between GRS and stress. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.


Assuntos
Qualidade do Sono , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Mental , Irã (Geográfico) , Fast Foods , Fatores de Risco , Dieta
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497855

RESUMO

Service value is a crucial dominant indicator in customer decision-making. However, there is a lack of hospitality literature that investigates the multi-dimensional service value in emerging markets. Thus, this study aims to create a multi-dimensional scale for service value and to analyze how different service value dimensions affect customers repurchase intentions at fast-food restaurants. We make a conceptual framework with eight constructs, including service value and repurchase intention. A self-administrated questionnaire is used to gather empirical data from fast-food restaurant customers in Egypt. We employ confirmatory factor analysis to extract the model's reliability and validity. Moreover, we use a structural equation model to extract the model regressions and correlations using AMOS software. We find that each of the eight proposed service value variables impacts fast-food restaurant customers' repurchase intention. However, the factors that strongly influence customers' preferences to make more purchases are service equity, confidence benefits, service quality, and service reputation. We contribute to the literature on hospitality customer value and repurchasing intentions by presenting a comprehensive multi-dimensional service value framework that affects customers' repurchase intentions in fast-food restaurants. Practically, eight service value variables can help managers of fast-food restaurants meet customer needs and gain a competitive advantage. We suggest many crucial recommendations to restaurant managers regarding the priority of the service value constructs. For example, managers should consider service equity, service quality, and service reputations as a priority of the restaurant service value.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Restaurantes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fast Foods , Intenção
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(12): e2248320, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574248

RESUMO

Importance: There is increasing interest in strategies to encourage more environmentally sustainable food choices in US restaurants through the use of menu labels that indicate an item's potential impact on the world's climate. Data are lacking on the ideal design of such labels to effectively encourage sustainable choices. Objective: To test the effects of positive and negative climate impact menu labels on the environmental sustainability and healthfulness of food choices compared with a control label. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial used an online national US survey conducted March 30 to April 13, 2022, among a nationally representative sample of adults (aged ≥18 years) from the AmeriSpeak panel. Data were analyzed in June to October 2022. Interventions: Participants were shown a fast food menu and prompted to select 1 item they would like to order for dinner. Participants were randomized to view menus with 1 of 3 label conditions: a quick response code label on all items (control group); green low-climate impact label on chicken, fish, or vegetarian items (positive framing); or red high-climate impact label on red meat items (negative framing). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was an indicator of selecting a sustainable item (ie, one without red meat). Secondary outcomes included participant health perceptions of the selected item and the Nutrition Profile Index (NPI) score of healthfulness. Results: Among 5049 participants (2444 female [51.6%]; 789 aged 18-29 years [20.3%], 1532 aged 30-44 years [25.9%], 1089 aged 45-59 years [23.5%], and 1639 aged ≥60 years [30.4%]; 142 Asian [5.3%], 611 Black [12.1%], and 3197 White [63.3%]; 866 Hispanic [17.2%]), high- and low-climate impact labels were effective at encouraging sustainable selections from the menu. Compared with participants in the control group, 23.5% more participants (95% CI, 13.7%-34.0%; P < .001) selected a sustainable menu item when menus displayed high-climate impact labels and 9.9% more participants (95% CI, 1.0%-19.8%; P = .03) selected a sustainable menu item when menus displayed low-climate impact labels. Across experimental conditions, participants who selected a sustainable item rated their order as healthier than those who selected an unsustainable item, according to mean perceived healthfulness score (control label: 3.4 points; 95% CI, 3.2-3.5 points vs 2.5 points; 95% CI, 2.4-2.6 points; P < .001; low-impact label: 3.7 points; 95% CI, 3.5-3.8 points vs 2.6 points; 95% CI, 2.5-2.7 points; P < .001; high-impact label: 3.5 points; 95% CI, 3.3-3.6 points vs 2.7 points; 95% CI, 2.6-2.9 points; P < .001). Participants in the high-climate impact label group selected healthier items according to mean (SE) NPI score (54.3 [0.2] points) compared with those in the low-climate impact (53.2 [0.2] points; P < .001) and control (52.9 [0.3] points; P < .001) label groups. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial's findings suggest that climate impact menu labels, especially negatively framed labels highlighting high-climate impact items (ie, red meat), were an effective strategy to reduce red meat selections and encourage more sustainable choices. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05482204.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Humanos , Feminino , Mudança Climática , Preferências Alimentares , Restaurantes
14.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501120

RESUMO

The present systematic scope review intended to compile state-of-the-art information about the food environment around schools, exploring the main methods used to describe the food environment around schools as well as the possible effects that this environment can promote on the health of children and adolescents. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses-extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist and guidelines were followed to ensure a robust and repeatable methodological process. A systematic search was performed in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Science Direct, Web of Science, LILACS, and Scopus, as well as in related articles, a manual search of reference lists and gray literature. Forty-six studies were selected. There was no standardization regarding distances from food establishments to schools, methods of analysis, and software used. The food environment around the schools was characterized by the wide availability of food establishments, especially fast food, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores known for offering a wide variety of unhealthy foods. Regarding the correlations with the health of children and adolescents, the evidence points to possible interferences of the food environment known as obesogenic, but it cannot be related only to the school environment since most of the acquisition and consumption of food usually happens around family homes. Conducting standardized and comprehensive studies evaluating food choices in the school environment and their interrelationships is very important to ensure children's food and nutrition security and minimize negative health outcomes in the medium and long term.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional
15.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501210

RESUMO

(1) Background: During adolescence, there are significant changes in food consumption, such as reducing the consumption of in natura or minimally processed foods and increasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods. Thus, eating habits can influence sleep duration and, consequently, affect the quality of life of young people. This study thus aims to estimate the association of consumption of in natura or minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed foods with sleep durations in adolescents. (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including 964 adolescents (18 to 19 years old) from the 1997 to 1998 birth cohort in São Luís, Maranhão. Food consumption was assessed using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and stratified based on the NOVA classification. Sleep duration was verified using accelerometry in hours. The analysis of the association between the consumption of in natura or minimally processed, processedand ultra-processed foods with sleep durations in adolescents used crude and adjusted linear regression (by gender, age, skin color, education, economic class, work, consumption of alcohol, smoking, screen time, physical activity, use of illicit drugs, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and lean and fat mass). A directed acyclic graph (DAG) was used to determine the minimum set of adjustment factors. (3) Results: Of the 964 individuals evaluated, 52.0% were female. The mean sleep duration was 6 h (± 0.95). In the crude and adjusted analyses, no association was observed between food consumption according to the degree of processing and adolescent sleep durations. (4) Conclusion: There was no association between the consumption of in natura or minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed foods with sleep durations.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Ingestão de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Dieta
16.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 148, 2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with increased risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Little is known about current patterns of ultra-processed foods intake in Australia. The aim of this study was to examine the amount and type of ultra-processed foods purchased by Australian households in 2019 and determine whether purchases differed by socio-economic status (SES). We also assessed whether purchases of ultra-processed foods changed between 2015 and 2019.  METHODS: We used grocery purchase data from a nationally representative consumer panel in Australia to assess packaged and unpackaged grocery purchases that were brought home between 2015 to 2019. Ultra-processed foods were identified according to the NOVA system, which classifies foods according to the nature, extent and purpose of industrial food processing. Purchases of ultra-processed foods were calculated per capita, using two outcomes: grams/day and percent of total energy. The top food categories contributing to purchases of ultra-processed foods in 2019 were identified, and differences in ultra-processed food purchases by SES (Index of Relative Social Advantage and Disadvantage) were assessed using survey-weighted linear regression. Changes in purchases of ultra-processed foods between 2015 to 2019 were examined overall and by SES using mixed linear models. RESULTS: In 2019, the mean ± SD total grocery purchases made by Australian households was 881.1 ± 511.9 g/d per capita. Of this, 424.2 ± 319.0 g/d per capita was attributable to purchases of ultra-processed foods, which represented 56.4% of total energy purchased. The largest food categories contributing to total energy purchased included mass-produced, packaged breads (8.2% of total energy purchased), chocolate and sweets (5.7%), biscuits and crackers (5.7%) and ice-cream and edible ices (4.3%). In 2019, purchases of ultra-processed foods were significantly higher for the lowest SES households compared to all other SES quintiles (P < 0.001). There were no major changes in purchases of ultra-processed foods overall or by SES over the five-year period. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2015 and 2019, ultra-processed foods have consistently made up the majority of groceries purchased by Australians, particularly for the lowest SES households. Policies that reduce ultra-processed food consumption may reduce diet-related health inequalities.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Austrália , Características da Família , Alimentos , Fast Foods
17.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558369

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and mental health symptoms in a nationally representative sample of the Brazilian adolescent student population. Cross-sectional analyses with data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE 2019) were performed. Self-reported information was obtained for the frequency of five mental health symptoms in the last month and the consumption of thirteen UPFs in the last 24 h. Generalized linear models adjusting for the main confounders were performed for each sex. Of the 94,767 adolescent students (52.4% girls) included, 8.1% of the boys and 27.2% of the girls reported "almost always" or "always" having at least four of the five mental health symptoms. In the fully adjusted models, compared to the boys who consumed ≤3 UPF, those consuming ≥6 UPF reported more frequent symptoms of poor mental health (ß-coefficient = 0.27 [0.03, 0.51]; p-for-trend = 0.005). A similar association was observed in girls (ß-coefficient = 0.31 [0.13, 0.50]; p-for-trend = 0.001). In conclusion, in this large sample of adolescent students from an entire country, the higher the consumption of UPF was, the higher the frequency of reported symptoms of poor mental health. These findings remained significant regardless of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, self-perceived body image, and bullying victimization.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Estudantes , Dieta
18.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558472

RESUMO

Restaurant food is one of the important sources of sodium intake in China. We aimed to determine whether a restaurant-based comprehensive intervention program may induce lower sodium content in restaurant food. A randomized controlled trial was implemented between 2019 and 2020 in 192 restaurants in China. After baseline assessment, the restaurants were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a control group (1:1). Comprehensive activities designed for intervention restaurants were conducted for one year. The primary outcome was the difference in change of sodium content estimated by the mean values of five best-selling dishes for each restaurant, from baseline to the end of the trial between groups. In total, 66 control restaurants and 80 intervention restaurants completed the follow-up assessment. The average sodium content of dishes at baseline was 540.9 ± 176.8 mg/100 g in control and 551.9 ± 149.0 mg/100 g in intervention restaurants. The mean effect of intervention after adjusting for confounding factors was -43.63 mg/100 g (95% CI: from -92.94 to 5.66, p = 0.08), representing an 8% reduction in sodium content. The restaurant-based intervention led to a modest but not significant reduction in the sodium content of restaurant food. There is great urgency for implementing effective and sustainable salt reduction programs, due to the rapid increase in the consumption of restaurant food in China.


Assuntos
Restaurantes , Sódio na Dieta , Sódio , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Fast Foods , China
19.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 417, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Added flavors are a marker for ultra-processing of food and a strong link exists between the intake of ultra-processed food and the development of obesity. The objective of the present article is to assess animal and human data elucidating the impact of added flavors on the regulation of food intake and body weight gain, as well as to define areas for future research. MAIN TEXT: Mechanistic studies suggest that added flavors induce overeating and body weight gain by two independent mechanisms: Added flavors promote hedonic eating and override homeostatic control of food intake, as well as disrupt flavor-nutrient learning and impair the ability to predict nutrients in food items. Supporting these potential mechanisms, added flavors increase feed intake and body weight as compared to non-flavored control diets in a broad range of animal studies. They are actively promoted by feed additive manufacturers as useful tools to improve palatability, feed intake, and performance parameters. In humans, added flavors are extensively tested concerning toxicity; however, no data exist concerning their impact on food intake and body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Added flavors are potential contributors to the obesity epidemic and further studies focusing on their role in humans are urgently required. These studies include obesity interventions specifically targeting food items with added flavors and cohort studies on independent associations between added flavor intake and metabolic, as well as cardiovascular, morbidity, and mortality.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Aumento de Peso , Animais , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Peso Corporal , Fast Foods
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2155, 2022 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health bodies in Australia remain concerned about marketing of unhealthy commodities; namely unhealthy food, alcohol and gambling products. Children are particularly susceptible to the influence of unhealthy commodity marketing. This study explored adults' perceptions of unhealthy commodities sponsorship in elite sport and policies to restrict them. METHODS: Four focus groups of 7-8 frequent sport spectators were recruited, including parents and non-parents, and located in inner and outer suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Results were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Participants identified the contradictions of healthy messages of sport and unhealthy commodities, while highlighting the commercial value of sport sponsorship to sporting clubs. There is concern around children's exposure to effective and integrated marketing techniques when viewing sport, which encouraged unhealthy habits. Support for restricting sponsorship related to perceived product harm, with gambling viewed as having the greatest health impact. Participants were supportive of policies that reduced exposure of unhealthy commodities to children, but were concerned about the financial risk to sporting clubs. Governments and sports associations were identified as holding responsibility for enacting changes. CONCLUSION: A number of options were identified for advocates to gain public and political traction to reduce unhealthy commodity sponsorship. There is potential for shifts away from unhealthy sponsorship by both governments and sports associations.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Esportes , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Fast Foods , Austrália , Etanol
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