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1.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836203

RESUMO

Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are negatively perceived by part of the scientific community, the public, and policymakers alike, to the extent they are sometimes referred to as not "real food". Many observational surveys have linked consumption of UPFs to adverse health outcomes. This narrative synthesis and scientific reappraisal of available evidence aims to: (i) critically evaluate UPF-related scientific literature on diet and disease and identify possible research gaps or biases in the interpretation of data; (ii) emphasize the innovative potential of various processing technologies that can lead to modifications of the food matrix with beneficial health effects; (iii) highlight the possible links between processing, sustainability and circular economy through the valorisation of by-products; and (iv) delineate the conceptual parameters of new paradigms in food evaluation and classification systems. Although greater consumption of UPFs has been associated with obesity, unfavorable cardiometabolic risk factor profiles, and increased risk for non-communicable diseases, whether specific food processing techniques leading to ultra-processed formulations are responsible for the observed links between UPFs and various health outcomes remains elusive and far from being understood. Evolving technologies can be used in the context of sustainable valorisation of food processing by-products to create novel, low-cost UPFs with improved nutritional value and health potential. New paradigms of food evaluation and assessment should be funded and developed on several novel pillars-enginomics, signalling, and precision nutrition-taking advantage of available digital technologies and artificial intelligence. Research is needed to generate required scientific knowledge to either expand the current or create new food evaluation and classification systems, incorporating processing aspects that may have a significant impact on health and wellness, together with factors related to the personalization of foods and diets, while not neglecting recycling and sustainability aspects. The complexity and the predicted immense size of these tasks calls for open innovation mentality and a new mindset promoting multidisciplinary collaborations and partnerships between academia and industry.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fast Foods/economia , Manipulação de Alimentos/economia , Saúde , Humanos , Invenções , Valor Nutritivo
2.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804848

RESUMO

Research on the impact of school and community food environments on adolescent food choice is heavily reliant on objective rather than subjective measures of food outlets around schools and homes. Gaining the perspective of adolescents and how they perceive and use food environments is needed. The aim of this study was to explore adolescent's perception and use of the food environment surrounding their schools. Purposive sampling was used to recruit schools. Mapping exercises and discussion groups were facilitated with 95 adolescents from six schools. Thematic analysis showed that adolescents are not loyal to particular shops but are attracted to outlets with price discounts, those with 'deli' counters and sweets. Cost, convenience and choice are key factors influencing preference for food outlets and foods. Quality, variety and health were important factors for adolescents but these features, especially affordable healthy food, were hard to find. Social factors such as spending time with friends is also an important feature of food environments that deserves further attention. Adolescents' perceptions of their food environment provide insights into features that can be manipulated to enable healthy choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Adolescente , Fast Foods/economia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799532

RESUMO

Online food delivery (OFD) platforms have changed how consumers purchase food prepared outside of home by capitalising on convenience and smartphone technology. Independent food outlets encompass a substantial proportion of partnering outlets, but their offerings' nutritional quality is understudied. Little is also known as to how OFD platforms influence consumer choice. This study evaluated the nutritional quality and marketing attributes of offerings from independent takeaway outlets available on Sydney's market-leading OFD platform (UberEats®). Complete menus and marketing attributes from 202 popular outlets were collected using web scraping. All 13841 menu items were classified into 38 food and beverage categories based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Of complete menus, 80.5% (11,139/13,841) were discretionary and 42.3% (5849/13,841) were discretionary cereal-based mixed meals, the largest of the 38 categories. Discretionary menu items were more likely to be categorised as most popular (OR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.9-3.2), accompanied by an image (OR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.5) and offered as a value bundle (OR: 6.5, 95% CI 4.8-8.9). Two of the three discretionary food categories were more expensive than their healthier Five Food Group counterparts (p < 0.02). The ubiquity of discretionary choices offered by independent takeaways and the marketing attributes employed by OFD platforms has implications for public health policy. Further research on the contribution of discretionary choices and marketing attributes to nutritional intakes is warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Fast Foods , Alimentos , Refeições , Valor Nutritivo , Restaurantes , Austrália , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods/economia , Alimentos/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos
4.
J Nutr ; 151(2): 387-394, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For decades, Americans have increasingly relied on food away from home (FAFH) despite its association with negative health outcomes. Little is known about FAFH frequency and expenditures of adults with lower food security (FS) and their association with health outcomes, such as BMI. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated patterns of adults' FAFH purchases by FS status and other demographic characteristics, and examined the association between FAFH frequency and BMI in adults of varying levels of FS. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Consumer Behavior Survey, Food Security Survey, and anthropometric measurements to assess FAFH frequency and expenditures, FS, and calculated BMI of adults (≥18 y) who participated in the NHANES 2007-2014 (n = 20,733). We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the association between FAFH frequency quartiles (quartile 1: 0 n/wk; quartile 2: 1-2 n/wk; quartile 3: 3-4 n/wk; quartile 4: ≥5 n/wk) and BMI by FS category. RESULTS: Although FAFH frequency was similar across FS levels, adults with high FS spent more dollars (${\$}$213.60) and a greater proportion (29.4%) of their food budget on FAFH compared with adults with marginal, low, and very low FS (${\$}$133.00, ${\$}$116.20, ${\$}$103.30 and 21.4%, 19.7%, 20.0%, respectively). Obesity prevalence was highest in adults with low FS (42.9%) and very low FS (41.5%), and lowest in adults with high FS (33.7%). FAFH frequency and BMI were positively associated in adults with high (P < 0.001), marginal (P = 0.025), and low (P = 0.024) FS, but not in adults with very low FS (P = 0.589). CONCLUSIONS: FAFH is frequent in adults regardless of FS status. The positive association between FAFH and BMI is the strongest in adults with high FS, the group with the lowest prevalence of obesity. Conversely, BMI was not associated with FAFH in adults with very low FS, despite their higher prevalence of obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Fast Foods/economia , Segurança Alimentar , Restaurantes , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos
5.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study estimated the monetary cost of diets with higher and lower caloric shares of ultraprocessed food products (UPF) and unprocessed/minimally processed foods (MPF) in Belgium for various sociodemographic groups. METHODS: Data from the latest nationally representative Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014-2015 (n = 3146; 3-64 years) were used. Dietary data were collected through two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (food diaries for children). Average prices for >2000 food items (year 2014) were derived from GfK ConsumerScan panel data and linked with foods consumed in the FCS. Foods eaten were categorized by their extent of processing using the NOVA classification. The average caloric share (percentage of daily energy intake) of UPF and MPF were calculated. The mean diet cost was compared across the UPF and MPF contribution tertiles, using linear regression. RESULTS: The average price per 100 kcal for UPF was significantly cheaper (EUR 0.55; 95%CI = 0.45-0.64) than for MPF (EUR 1.29; 95% CI = 1.27-1.31). UPF contributed between 21.9% (female adults) and 29.9% (young boys), while MPF contributed between 29.5% (male adolescents) and 42.3% (female adults) to the daily dietary cost. The contribution of MPF to the daily dietary cost was significantly higher for individuals with a higher household education level compared to those with a lower household education level (p < 0.01). Adjusted for covariates, the average dietary cost per 2000 kcal was significantly lower for individuals in the highest compared to the lowest tertile for the proportion of daily energy consumed from UPF (EUR -0.37 ± 0.13; p = 0.006), and significantly higher for individuals in the highest compared to the lowest tertile for proportion of daily energy consumed from MPF (EUR 1.18 ± 0.12, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Diets with a larger caloric share of UPF were significantly cheaper than those with a lower contribution of these products, while the opposite was found for MPF. Policies that improve relative affordability and accessibility of MPF are recommended.


Assuntos
Dieta/economia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Manipulação de Alimentos/economia , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fast Foods/economia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Public Health ; 65(7): 1067-1077, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the use of persuasive advertising strategies in ultra-processed food (UPF) advertisements broadcast on the three most popular free-to-air television channels in Brazil. METHODS: The programming of the selected channels was recorded on eight non-consecutive days from April 2018 (6:00 am-12:00 am). Information from each advertising piece was collected through an electronic questionnaire based on the INFORMAS protocol. Food products were classified according to the NOVA classification system. Marketing strategies were investigated in UPF advertisements and stratified into three groups. Principal component analysis was used to identify patterns of strategies. Linear regression models were employed to investigate the association between the patterns and food groups. RESULTS: In total, 90.77% of the food-related advertisements contained at least one UPF, and 96% of them included one or more persuasive advertising strategies. Five advertising patterns were identified and associated with the UPF food groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that food advertising on Brazilian free television is marked by UPF, with the predominant use of persuasive advertising strategies, demonstrating a lack of enforcement of the current regulatory legislation in the country.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/economia , Marketing/instrumentação , Marketing/métodos , Comunicação Persuasiva , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956376

RESUMO

Vending machines contribute to growing levels of obesity. They typically contain energy dense, high fat snacks and attempts at persuading consumers to switch to healthier snacks sold within the same machine have had limited success. This study explored the health benefits and cost effectiveness of the complete replacement of regular snacks with healthy items. Two vending machines were manipulated in a 6-month trial, with a healthy and regular range of products alternated between the two machines every fortnight. Healthy vending resulted in a 61% drop in calories sold relative to regular vending, significant with time and product range as random factors. There was no evidence of compensatory behaviour from nearby shop sales nor in multi-item purchases from vending machines. The impact on profit was less clear. Sales dropped by 30% during healthy vending but variability across product range meant that the change was not significant. Overall our results demonstrate that complete healthy vending can be introduced in hospitals without a catastrophic loss in sales nor compensatory behaviours that offset the public health gains of consuming healthier products.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Lanches , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/economia , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos/economia , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Lojas no Hospital/economia , Lojas no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , País de Gales
8.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(11): 1982-1990, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To cope with the pressure of modern life, consumer demand for convenience foods has increased in the last decades. The current study set out to compare the costs of buying industrially processed dishes and of preparing them at home. DESIGN: Direct purchase costs of industrially processed dishes frequently consumed in France (n 19) and of the ingredients needed for their home-prepared counterparts (n 86) were collected from four major food retailers' websites in Montpellier, France. Mean prices and energy density were calculated for four portions. Costs related to energy used by cooking appliances and time spent preparing dishes were further estimated. SETTING: Montpellier, France. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: Based on the costs of ingredients and energy used for cooking, dishes prepared at home cost less (-0·60 € per four portions, P < 0.001) than industrially processed dishes, but when the cost of time was taken into account, the industrially processed dishes were much cheaper (-5·34 € per four portions, P < 0.001) than their home-prepared counterparts. There was no difference in energy density between industrially processed and home-prepared dishes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that industrially processed dishes are more profitable to consumers when the cost of time for preparing dishes at home is valued. Given the ever greater demands of everyday life, more account should be taken of the additional cost to consumers of the time they spend preparing meals at home.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Culinária/economia , Dieta/economia , Fast Foods/economia , Características da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , França , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(4): 589-598, 2020 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To estimate the relationship between the price of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity in Brazil and examine whether the relationship differed according to socioeconomic status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the national Household Budget Survey from 2008/09 (n = 55 570 households, divided in 550 strata) were used. Weight and height of all individuals were used. Weight was measured by using portable electronic scales (maximum capacity of 150 kg). Height (or length) was measured using portable stadiometers (maximum capacity: 200 cm long) or infant anthropometers (maximum capacity: 105 cm long). Multivariate regression models (log-log) were used to estimate price elasticity. An inverse association was found between the price of ultra-processed foods (per kg) and the prevalence of overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) in Brazil. The price elasticity for ultra-processed foods was -0.33 (95% CI: -0.46; -0.20) for overweight and -0.59 (95% CI: -0.83; -0.36) for obesity. This indicated that a 1.00% increase in the price of ultra-processed foods would lead to a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity of 0.33% and 0.59%, respectively. For the lower income group, the price elasticity for price of ultra-processed foods was -0.34 (95% CI: -0.50; -0.18) for overweight and -0.63 (95% CI: -0.91; -0.36) for obesity. CONCLUSION: The price of ultra-processed foods was inversely associated with the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazil, mainly in the lowest socioeconomic status population. Therefore, the taxation of ultra-processed foods emerges as a prominent tool in the control of obesity.


Assuntos
Orçamentos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Renda , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade Infantil/economia , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 493-502, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food advertising is a major contributor to obesity, and fast food (FF) restaurants are top advertisers. Research on the impact of food advertising in adolescents is lacking and no prior research has investigated neural predictors of food intake in adolescents. Neural systems implicated in reward could be key to understanding how food advertising drives food intake. OBJECTIVES: To investigate how neural responses to both unhealthy and healthier FF commercials predict food intake in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 171 adolescents (aged 13-16 y) who ranged from normal weight to obese completed an fMRI paradigm where they viewed unhealthy and healthier FF and nonfood commercials. Adolescents then consumed a meal in a simulated FF restaurant where foods of varying nutritional profiles (unhealthy compared with healthier) were available. RESULTS: Greater neural activation in reward-related regions (nucleus accumbens, r = 0.29; caudate nucleus, r = 0.27) to unhealthy FF commercials predicted greater total food intake. Greater responses to healthier FF relative to nonfood commercials in regions associated with reward (i.e., nucleus accumbens, r = 0.24), memory (i.e., hippocampus, r = 0.32), and sensorimotor processes (i.e., anterior cerebellum, r = 0.33) predicted greater total food and unhealthier food intake, but not healthier food intake. Lower activation in neural regions associated with visual attention and salience (e.g., precuneus, r = -0.35) to unhealthy relative to healthier FF commercials predicted healthier food intake. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that FF commercials contribute to overeating in adolescents through reward mechanisms. The addition of healthier commercials from FF restaurants is unlikely to encourage healthier food intake, but interventions that reduce the ability of unhealthy FF commercials to capture attention could be beneficial. However, an overall reduction in the amount of FF commercials exposure for adolescents is likely to be the most effective approach.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods/economia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Publicidade , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Recompensa , Televisão
11.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(2): 348-355, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand price incentives to upsize combination meals at fast-food restaurants by comparing the calories (i.e. kilocalories; 1 kcal = 4·184 kJ) per dollar of default combination meals (as advertised on the menu) with a higher-calorie version (created using realistic consumer additions and portion-size changes). DESIGN: Combination meals (lunch/dinner: n 258, breakfast: n 68, children's: n 34) and their prices were identified from online menus; corresponding nutrition information for each menu item was obtained from a restaurant nutrition database (MenuStat). Linear models were used to examine the difference in total calories per dollar between default and higher-calorie combination meals, overall and by restaurant. SETTING: Ten large fast-food chain restaurants located in the fifteen most populous US cities in 2017-2018. PARTICIPANTS: None. RESULTS: There were significantly more calories per dollar in higher-calorie v. default combination meals for lunch/dinner (default: 577 kJ (138 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 707 kJ (169 kcal)/dollar, difference: 130 kJ (31 kcal)/dollar, P < 0·001) and breakfast (default: 536 kJ (128 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 607 kJ (145 kcal)/dollar, difference: 71 kJ (17 kcal)/dollar, P = 0·009). Results for children's meals were in the same direction but were not statistically significant (default: 536 kJ (128 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 741 kJ (177 kcal)/dollar, difference: 205 kJ (49 kcal)/dollar, P = 0·053). Across restaurants, the percentage change in calories per dollar for higher-calorie v. default combination meals ranged from 0·1 % (Dunkin' Donuts) to 55·0 % (Subway). CONCLUSIONS: Higher-calorie combination meals in fast-food restaurants offer significantly more calories per dollar compared with default combination meals, suggesting there is a strong financial incentive for consumers to 'upsize' their orders. Future research should test price incentives for lower-calorie options to promote healthier restaurant choices.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/economia , Refeições , Tamanho da Porção/economia , Restaurantes/economia , Desjejum , Comércio/métodos , Gorduras na Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Almoço , Motivação , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Porção/estatística & dados numéricos , Sódio na Dieta , Estados Unidos
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(11): 4053-4060, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039506

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o consumo de produtos ultraprocessados e fatores associados em crianças pré-púberes. Estudo transversal realizado com 378 crianças de 8 e 9 anos matriculadas em escolas públicas e privadas de Viçosa-MG. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por três recordatórios de 24h. Os dados dietéticos foram tabulados no software Diet Pro® 5i, para quantificar o consumo energético. Para análise dos grupos de consumo alimentar foi utilizada a técnica Two-Step Cluster, por meio do software Stata versão 13.0. Os alimentos foram agrupados e classificados como marcadores de alimentação "saudável" e "não saudável". A associação entre as variáveis sociodemográficas e os grupos formados foi verificada por meio da Regressão de Poisson. Obteve-se a formação de dois grupos alimentares: "saudável" e "não saudável". A ingestão calórica de ultraprocessados foi menor no grupo "saudável" (20,5%) em relação ao "não saudável" (24,1%; P=0,043). No modelo multivariado, crianças de escola privada (RP = 1,25, P<0,001), que não recebiam Bolsa Família (RP=1,13, P=0,036) e cuja mãe trabalhava (RP=1,38, P<0,001) apresentaram maior chance de consumo "não saudável". O consumo de produtos ultraprocessados associou-se ao maior poder aquisitivo das famílias de crianças pré-púberes.


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of ultra-processed foods and associated factors in prepubertal children. It is a cross-sectional study with 378 children aged 8 and 9 years enrolled in public and private schools in Viçosa-MG. Food intake was assessed by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary data were entered into the Diet Pro® 5i software to quantify energy intake. The Two-Step Cluster technique was used to analyze food consumption groups, with the Stata 13 software package. The foods were grouped and classified as "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating markers. The association between the sociodemographic variables and the groups formed was examined by Poisson Regression. Two food groups were formed: "healthy" and "unhealthy". The caloric intake of ultra-processed foods was lower in the "healthy" group (20.5%) than in the "unhealthy" group (24.1%; P = 0.043). The multivariate model showed that private school children (PR = 1.25, P <0.001), who did not receive Bolsa Familia (PR = 1.13, P = 0.036) and had working mothers (PR = 1.38, P <0.001) had increased probability of unhealthy food consumption. Ultra-processed food intake was associated with greater purchasing power of families of prepubertal children.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Família , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/economia , Comportamento Alimentar , Fast Foods/economia , Dieta Saudável/economia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(11): 4053-4060, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664378

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of ultra-processed foods and associated factors in prepubertal children. It is a cross-sectional study with 378 children aged 8 and 9 years enrolled in public and private schools in Viçosa-MG. Food intake was assessed by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary data were entered into the Diet Pro® 5i software to quantify energy intake. The Two-Step Cluster technique was used to analyze food consumption groups, with the Stata 13 software package. The foods were grouped and classified as "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating markers. The association between the sociodemographic variables and the groups formed was examined by Poisson Regression. Two food groups were formed: "healthy" and "unhealthy". The caloric intake of ultra-processed foods was lower in the "healthy" group (20.5%) than in the "unhealthy" group (24.1%; P = 0.043). The multivariate model showed that private school children (PR = 1.25, P <0.001), who did not receive Bolsa Familia (PR = 1.13, P = 0.036) and had working mothers (PR = 1.38, P <0.001) had increased probability of unhealthy food consumption. Ultra-processed food intake was associated with greater purchasing power of families of prepubertal children.


O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o consumo de produtos ultraprocessados e fatores associados em crianças pré-púberes. Estudo transversal realizado com 378 crianças de 8 e 9 anos matriculadas em escolas públicas e privadas de Viçosa-MG. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por três recordatórios de 24h. Os dados dietéticos foram tabulados no software Diet Pro® 5i, para quantificar o consumo energético. Para análise dos grupos de consumo alimentar foi utilizada a técnica Two-Step Cluster, por meio do software Stata versão 13.0. Os alimentos foram agrupados e classificados como marcadores de alimentação "saudável" e "não saudável". A associação entre as variáveis sociodemográficas e os grupos formados foi verificada por meio da Regressão de Poisson. Obteve-se a formação de dois grupos alimentares: "saudável" e "não saudável". A ingestão calórica de ultraprocessados foi menor no grupo "saudável" (20,5%) em relação ao "não saudável" (24,1%; P=0,043). No modelo multivariado, crianças de escola privada (RP = 1,25, P<0,001), que não recebiam Bolsa Família (RP=1,13, P=0,036) e cuja mãe trabalhava (RP=1,38, P<0,001) apresentaram maior chance de consumo "não saudável". O consumo de produtos ultraprocessados associou-se ao maior poder aquisitivo das famílias de crianças pré-púberes.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/economia , Dieta Saudável/economia , Família , Fast Foods/economia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3222-3232, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600843

RESUMO

The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the occurrence of transferable genes conferring resistance to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB ), vancomycin, beta-lactams, and aminoglycosides in 32 samples from eight batches of ready-to-eat crickets (Acheta domesticus) commercialized by four European Union producers (two batches per producer). Bacterial DNA extracted directly from the insects was subjected to optimized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested-PCR assays for the qualitative detection of 12 selected antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. Microbial enumeration demonstrated high counts of spore-forming bacteria and total mesophilic aerobes. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between different producers and insect batches. Regarding AR genes, a high prevalence of genes conferring resistance to tetracycline [tet(M), tet(O), tet(K), tet(S)] was observed, together with the presence of genes conferring resistance to erythromycin [erm(B), erm(C)], beta-lactams (blaZ and mecA), and aminoglycosides [aac(6')-Ie aph(2")-Ia]. We performed a principal component analysis based on the AR gene frequencies that differentiated samples of batch 1 from those of batch 2. This analysis provided evidence for a difference between the producer from France and all the other producers among the batch 1 samples. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Overall, an intrabatch variation was seen in the transferable resistances among different producers. This evidence, coupled with the observed differences in the viable counts, suggests a low standardization of the production processes. Hence, a prudent use of antimicrobials during the rearing of insects destined for human consumption is strongly recommended, as well as a need for a full standardization of production technologies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Gryllidae/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fast Foods/economia , França , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
16.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(18): 3395-3404, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify differences in the availability, variety, quality and price of unprocessed and ultra-processed foods in supermarkets and similar establishments in neighbourhoods with different social deprivation levels at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Obesogenic Environment Study in São Paulo's Food Store Observation Tool (ESAO-S) was applied in thirty-three supermarket chains, wholesale and retail supermarkets. RESULTS: Fruits, vegetables and ultra-processed foods were available in almost all establishments, without differences according to Health Vulnerability Index (HVI; which varies from 0 to 1 point and the higher the worse; P > 0·05). Most establishments were concentrated in low vulnerability areas and offered healthy foods with greater variety and quality, despite higher prices. The Healthy Food Store Index (HFSI; which varies from 0 to 16 points and the higher the best) was calculated from the ESAO-S and the mean score was 8·91 (sd 1·51). The presence and variety of unprocessed foods count as positive points, as do the absence of ultra-processed products. When HFSI was stratified by HVI, low HVI neighbourhoods presented higher HFSI scores, compared with medium, high and very high HVI neighbourhoods (P = 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: Supermarkets and similar establishments are less dense in areas of greater social deprivation and have lower prices of healthy foods, but the variety and quality of those foods are worse, compared with areas of low vulnerability. We found worse HFSI for supermarkets located in areas with greater vulnerability. Those findings can guide specific public policies improving the urban food environment.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods/economia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the productivity impacts of a policy intervention on the prevention of premature mortality due to obesity. METHODS: A simulation model of the Australian population over the period from 2003 to 2030 was developed to estimate productivity gains associated with premature deaths averted due to an obesity prevention intervention that applied a 10% tax on unhealthy foods. Outcome measures were the total working years gained, and the present value of lifetime income (PVLI) gained. Impacts were modelled over the period from 2003 to 2030. Costs are reported in 2018 Australian dollars and a 3% discount rate was applied to all future benefits. RESULTS: Premature deaths averted due to a junk food tax accounted for over 8,000 additional working years and a $307 million increase in PVLI. Deaths averted in men between the ages of 40 to 59, and deaths averted from ischaemic heart disease, were responsible for the largest gains. CONCLUSIONS: The productivity gains associated with a junk food tax are substantial, accounting for almost twice the value of the estimated savings to the health care system. The results we have presented provide evidence that the adoption of a societal perspective, when compared to a health sector perspective, provides a more comprehensive estimate of the cost-effectiveness of a junk food tax.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Dieta Hiperlipídica/economia , Fast Foods/economia , Mortalidade Prematura , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/economia
18.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e026652, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Traditional methods for creating food composition tables struggle to cope with the large number of products and the rapid pace of change in the food and drink marketplace. This paper introduces foodDB, a big data approach to the analysis of this marketplace, and presents analyses illustrating its research potential. DESIGN: foodDB has been used to collect data weekly on all foods and drinks available on six major UK supermarket websites since November 2017. As of June 2018, foodDB has 3 193 171 observations of 128 283 distinct food and drink products measured at multiple timepoints. METHODS: Weekly extraction of nutrition and availability data of products was extracted from the webpages of the supermarket websites. This process was automated with a codebase written in Python. RESULTS: Analyses using a single weekly timepoint of 97 368 total products in March 2018 identified 2699 ready meals and pizzas, and showed that lower price ready meals had significantly lower levels of fat, saturates, sugar and salt (p<0.001). Longitudinal analyses of 903 pizzas revealed that 10.8% changed their nutritional formulation over 6 months, and 29.9% were either discontinued or new market entries. CONCLUSIONS: foodDB is a powerful new tool for monitoring the food and drink marketplace, the comprehensive sampling and granularity of collection provides power for revealing analyses of the relationship between nutritional quality and marketing of branded foods, timely observation of product reformulation and other changes to the food marketplace.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Sacarose Alimentar/análise , Fast Foods/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Coleta de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fast Foods/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Marketing , Refeições , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15 Suppl 4: e12781, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225708

RESUMO

Promotion of breast milk substitutes (BMS) and inappropriate marketing of commercially produced complementary foods (CPCF), including through television, can negatively influence infant and young child feeding. The World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly (WHA) resolutions prohibit such advertising and require manufacturers and distributors to comply with its provisions; however, such regulations at national level may vary. Advertisements require Ministry of Health approval in Cambodia but are not regulated in Senegal. Television stations were monitored for 13 months in Phnom Penh and for 3 months in Dakar to assess advertisements for BMS and CPCF. Ten television channels (out of 16) in Phnom Penh and four (out of 20) in Dakar aired advertisements for BMS. Three and five channels, respectively, aired advertisements for CPCF. All BMS advertised in Phnom Penh were for children over 1 year of age. BMS products for children 6+ months of age and 1+ years of age were advertised in Dakar. Average air time for BMS advertisements was 189.5 min per month in Phnom Penh and 29.7 min in Dakar. Air time for CPCF advertisements averaged 3.2 min per month and 13.6 min, respectively. Fewer than half of BMS advertisements and three quarters of CPCF advertisements explicitly stated an age of use for products. Nutrition and health claims were common across BMS advertisements. This study illustrates the need to adopt, regulate, monitor, and enforce legislation prohibiting BMS promotion, as well as to implement regulations to prevent inappropriate promotion of CPCF.


Assuntos
Publicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Substitutos do Leite/economia , Substitutos do Leite/legislação & jurisprudência , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Camboja , Fast Foods/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Lactente , Direito Internacional , Leite Humano , Política Nutricional/economia , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevalência , Senegal , Televisão/legislação & jurisprudência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15 Suppl 4: e12775, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225707

RESUMO

Unhealthy snack food and beverage (USFB) consumption among young children has been noted in many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), however, there is a lack of information on the contribution of these foods to children's diets in these contexts. This study describes the nutrient profiles and costs of snacks consumed by young children in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, and assesses the proportion of total energy intake from nonbreastmilk foods (%TEI-NBF) contributed by USFB and factors associated with high USFB consumption. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 745 randomly sampled primary caregivers of children aged 12-23 months. Of 239 unique snack foods and beverages consumed, 180 (75.3%) were classified as unhealthy based on nutrient profiling, with 158 of these being commercially branded. Median cost/100 kcal of USFB was lower as compared with healthy snacks. Ninety-one percent of children had consumed a USFB in the previous 24 hr, with these foods contributing a mean %TEI-NBF of 24.5 ± 0.7 among all children. Biscuits (10.8%), candy/chocolate (3.5%), and savoury snacks (3.4%) provided the largest %TEI-NBF. Children who were older, female, or from the poorest households had significantly higher odds of high USFB consumption, whereas children whose caregivers were of upper caste/ethnicity or had achieved tertiary education had lower odds of consumption than other children. To reduce USFB consumption, interventions should seek to further understand social/cultural drivers of feeding practices, target disadvantaged populations, and ensure caregivers are fully aware of the nutritional quality of food products they choose for their children.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Valor Nutritivo , Lanches , Bebidas/economia , Doces , Cuidadores , Chocolate , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Grão Comestível , Fast Foods/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nepal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da População Urbana
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