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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 119(6): 1056-1065, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832708

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ultra-processed food (UPF) intake has been associated with a higher risk of obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The initial data on the relationship between UPF consumption and cancer risk were derived from retrospective observational studies with conflicting results. This systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies aimed to investigate the association between UPF consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risk. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for prospective cohort studies that compared the highest vs the lowest level of UPF consumption according to NOVA food classification and reported the risk of gastrointestinal cancers by subsite. The association with cancer was quantified as hazard ratios (HR) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Five prospective cohort studies were included in this review comprising 1,128,243 participants (241,201 participants in the highest and 223,366 in the lowest levels of UPF consumption). The mean follow-up ranged from 5.4 to 28 years. The highest UPF consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.21; P = 0.01; I2 = 31%), colon cancer (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.02-1.23; P = 0.02; I2 = 0%), and non-cardia gastric cancer (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.02-2.00; P = 0.04; I2 = 0%) compared with the lowest UPF intake. However, no association was found between high UPF consumption and hepatocellular, esophageal, pancreatic, gastric cardia, and rectal cancer. DISCUSSION: The highest level of UPF consumption was significantly associated with colorectal and non-cardia gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Humanos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Alimento Processado
2.
BMJ ; 385: e078476, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of ultra-processed food consumption with all cause mortality and cause specific mortality. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Female registered nurses from 11 US states in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2018) and male health professionals from all 50 US states in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2018). PARTICIPANTS: 74 563 women and 39 501 men with no history of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or diabetes at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of ultra-processed food intake measured by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every four years with all cause mortality and cause specific mortality due to cancer, cardiovascular, and other causes (including respiratory and neurodegenerative causes). RESULTS: 30 188 deaths of women and 18 005 deaths of men were documented during a median of 34 and 31 years of follow-up, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quarter of ultra-processed food consumption, participants in the highest quarter had a 4% higher all cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.07) and 9% higher mortality from causes other than cancer or cardiovascular diseases (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The all cause mortality rate among participants in the lowest and highest quarter was 1472 and 1536 per 100 000 person years, respectively. No associations were found for cancer or cardiovascular mortality. Meat/poultry/seafood based ready-to-eat products (for example, processed meat) consistently showed strong associations with mortality outcomes (hazard ratios ranged from 1.06 to 1.43). Sugar sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages (1.09, 1.07 to 1.12), dairy based desserts (1.07, 1.04 to 1.10), and ultra-processed breakfast food (1.04, 1.02 to 1.07) were also associated with higher all cause mortality. No consistent associations between ultra-processed foods and mortality were observed within each quarter of dietary quality assessed by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, whereas better dietary quality showed an inverse association with mortality within each quarter of ultra-processed foods. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that a higher intake of ultra-processed foods was associated with slightly higher all cause mortality, driven by causes other than cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The associations varied across subgroups of ultra-processed foods, with meat/poultry/seafood based ready-to-eat products showing particularly strong associations with mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Causas de Morte , Fast Foods , Neoplasias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos de Coortes , Idoso , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimento Processado
3.
Neurology ; 102(11): e209432, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are linked to cardiometabolic diseases and neurologic outcomes, such as cognitive decline and stroke. However, it is unclear whether food processing confers neurologic risk independent of dietary pattern information. We aimed to (1) investigate associations between UPFs and incident cognitive impairment and stroke and (2) compare these associations with other commonly recommended dietary patterns in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study. This prospective, observational cohort study enrolled Black and White adults in the United States from 2003 to 2007. METHODS: The NOVA system was used to categorize items from a baseline food frequency questionnaire according to the level of processing. Participants with incomplete or implausible self-reported dietary data were excluded. Consumption for each category (grams) was normalized to total grams consumed. Scores quantifying adherence to a Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet were also calculated. Incident cognitive impairment was defined using performance relative to a normative sample on memory and fluency assessments. Incident stroke was identified through adjudicated review of medical records. RESULTS: The cognitive impairment cohort (n = 14,175) included participants without evidence of impairment at baseline who underwent follow-up testing. The stroke cohort (n = 20,243) included participants without a history of stroke. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, a 10% increase in relative intake of UPFs was associated with higher risk of cognitive impairment (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.24, p = 1.01 × 10-5) and intake of unprocessed or minimally processed foods with lower risk of cognitive impairment (HR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94, p = 1.83 × 10-4). Greater intake of UPFs (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14, p = 1.12 × 10-2) and unprocessed or minimally processed foods (HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.95, p = 2.13 × 10-4) were also associated with risk of stroke in multivariable Cox models. The effect of UPFs on stroke risk was greater among Black than White participants (UPF-by-race interaction HR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.03-1.29, p = 1.50 × 10-2). Associations between UPFs and both cognitive impairment and stroke were independent of adherence to the Mediterranean, DASH, and MIND diets. DISCUSSION: Food processing may be important to brain health in older adults independent of known risk factors and adherence to recommended dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , População Branca , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimento Processado
4.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 61: 8-14, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI) is critical to developing many chronic diseases. In turn, it has been shown that the diet can modulate favorably or unfavorably the inflammatory status. Thus, evaluating the diet from appropriate approaches is fundamental; to do so, there are different proposals for dietary indexes. We aimed to: (i) investigate the association between three well-known dietary indexes and LGSI biomarkers; (ii) test these associations individually or in combination with an indicator of ultra-processed foods (UFPs) intake. (iii) as an additional aim, hypothesizing that all the indexes should be capable of identifying the inflammatory potential of diet, we tested the hypothesis that these indexes agree and correlate with each other. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based data of adults and older persons (n = 583). Dietary data were obtained through two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) and calculated for Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS); Brazilian Healthy Eating Index - Revised (BHEI-R) and energy ingested from UPFs (UPFs ratio). An LGSI score was created from some plasma inflammatory biomarkers [C-Reactive Protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and adiponectin]. Logistic and linear regression models tested the associations between dietary indexes and LGSI score. RESULTS: The MSDPS and DII were significantly associated with our inflammatory score, but the BHEI-R did not. Including UPFs in regression models did not increase the strength of these associations. CONCLUSIONS: From the three scores, the dietary inflammatory index and the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score (MSDPS) were the ones that showed significant association with the inflammatory biomarker. The combination of the indexes with a ratio of UPF intake did not increase the significance of our analyses. The best agreement between the indexes was found between MSDPS and UPFs ratio; the only pair of indexes considered concordant and correlated was the BHEI-R and DII.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Inflamação , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Adulto , Dieta , Dieta Mediterrânea , Brasil , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Dieta Saudável , Adiponectina/sangue , Alimento Processado
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 369, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing incidence of negative outcomes during pregnancy, our research team conducted a dose-response systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption and common adverse pregnancy outcomes including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia (PE), preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. UPFs are described as formulations of food substances often modified by chemical processes and then assembled into ready-to-consume hyper-palatable food and drink products using flavors, colors, emulsifiers, and other cosmetic additives. Examples include savory snacks, reconstituted meat products, frozen meals that have already been made, and soft drinks. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed using the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases up to December 2023. We pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Our analysis (encompassing 54 studies with 552,686 individuals) revealed a significant association between UPFs intake and increased risks of GDM (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.27; I2 = 77.5%; p < 0.001; studies = 44; number of participants = 180,824), PE (RR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.59; I2 = 80.0%; p = 0.025; studies = 12; number of participants = 54,955), while no significant relationships were found for PTB, LBW and SGA infants. Importantly, a 100 g increment in UPFs intake was related to a 27% increase in GDM risk (RR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.51; I2 = 81.0%; p = 0.007; studies = 9; number of participants = 39,812). The non-linear dose-response analysis further indicated a positive, non-linear relationship between UPFs intake and GDM risk Pnonlinearity = 0.034, Pdose-response = 0.034), although no such relationship was observed for PE (Pnonlinearity = 0.696, Pdose-response = 0.812). CONCLUSION: In summary, both prior to and during pregnancy, chronic and excessive intake of UPFs is associated with an increased risk of GDM and PE. However, further observational studies, particularly among diverse ethnic groups with precise UPFs consumption measurement tools, are imperative for a more comprehensive understanding.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Fast Foods , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimento Processado
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 450, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the association between ultra-processed foods and age-related hearing loss. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses based on data from a nationally representative sample of 1075 adults aged over 50 in the US was performed. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for hearing loss according to ultra-processed foods intake quartiles were calculated using a multiple adjusted logistic regression model. Restricted cubic spline model was used to flexibly model potential nonlinear relations between ultra-processed foods intake and possibility of hearing loss. We also explored statistical interactions and conducted subgroup analyses where they were found to be significant. RESULTS: Ultra-processed foods intake was significantly correlated with high-frequency hearing loss. After controlling for all covariables, individuals in the fourth quartile of Ultra-processed foods consumption had a 2.8 times higher chance of developing high-frequency hearing loss than individuals in the first quartile of Ultra-processed foods consumption. We also found that the association was more significant in non-Hispanic whites. CONCLUSIONS: This study discovered an association between Ultra-processed foods intake and the incidence of high-frequency hearing loss, which was more significant in non-Hispanic whites.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alimento Processado
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2411852, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758555

RESUMO

Importance: High intake of ultraprocessed foods (UPFs) has been associated with higher cardiometabolic risk in adults; however, the evidence in children is limited. Objective: To investigate the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Obesity Risk Assessment Longitudinal Study (CORALS). Design, Setting, and Participants: This baseline cross-sectional analysis was conducted using the data of CORALS participants recruited between March 22, 2019, and June 30, 2022. Preschool children (aged 3-6 years) were recruited from schools and centers in 7 cities in Spain. Inclusion criteria included informed consent signed by parents or caregivers and having a completed a set of questionnaires about the child's prenatal history at home. Exclusion criteria included low command of Spanish or unstable residence. Exposure: Energy-adjusted UPF consumption (in grams per day) from food frequency questionnaires and based on the NOVA food classification system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age- and sex-specific z scores of adiposity parameters (body mass index [BMI], fat mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and waist circumference) and cardiometabolic parameters (diastolic and systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) were estimated using linear regression models. Results: Of 1509 enrolled CORALS participants, 1426 (mean [SD] age, 5.8 [1.1] years; 698 boys [49.0%]) were included in this study. Mothers of children with high UPF consumption were younger, had a higher BMI, were more likely to have overweight or obesity, and had lower education levels and employment rates. Compared with participants in the lowest tertile of energy-adjusted UPF consumption, those in the highest tertile showed higher z scores of BMI (ß coefficient, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.35), waist circumference (ß coefficient, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.35), fat mass index (ß coefficient, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.00-0.32), and fasting plasma glucose (ß coefficient, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.37) and lower z scores for HDL cholesterol (ß coefficient, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.36 to -0.02). One-SD increments in energy-adjusted UPF consumption were associated with higher z scores for BMI (ß coefficient, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.17), waist circumference (ß coefficient, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.02-0.15), fat mass index (ß coefficient, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-1.18), and fasting plasma glucose (ß coefficient, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03-0.17) and lower HDL cholesterol (ß coefficient, -0.07; 95% CI, -0.15 to -0.00). Substituting 100 g of UPFs with 100 g of unprocessed or minimally processed foods was associated with lower z scores of BMI (ß coefficient, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.01), fat mass index (ß coefficient, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.00), and fasting plasma glucose (ß coefficient, -0.04; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.01). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that high UPF consumption in young children is associated with adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors, highlighting the need for public health initiatives to promote the replacement of UPFs with unprocessed or minimally processed foods.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Obesidade Infantil/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia
8.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(5): 172, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758298

RESUMO

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition whose pathogenesis is not well established. An association between HS and obesity is suggested but few studies explore specific dietary drivers. Non-Hispanic Blacks have the highest HS prevalence and obesity rates as well as the highest UPFs consumption rates, as opposed to Hispanics who have the lowest prevalence of HS despite having the second highest obesity rates in the US. Instead, Hispanics have the lowest UPFs consumption and highest minimally processed foods consumption rates in the US. Since HS appears to correlate more with processed food intake than obesity, we explored this connection more carefully. To identify correlations, we cross referenced 3 sources: (1) relative search volume (RSV) on Google Searches for HS. (2) Published data on prevalence of HS and UPFs consumption by nation, state, race, and age. (3) NHANES data on variation of diet patterns in the US. We identified a strong correlation of RSV and UPFs and HS by country (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and state in the US (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001) compared to a negative control (melanoma with UPFs; r = 0.35, p = 0.14 by country and r = 0.22, p = 0.23 by state). The variation in searches for HS from 2004 till 2018 (p < 0.0001) was strongly correlated with the increase in UPFs consumption (r = 0.79, p = 0.019) and inversely correlated with the decrease in minimally-processed foods consumption in the US (r = - 0.941, p = 0.0005). These results suggest an association between UPFs consumption and HS, and the need for future studies to address whether limiting UPFs might ameliorate HS.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Hidradenite Supurativa , Obesidade , Humanos , Hidradenite Supurativa/epidemiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimento Processado
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 593-594, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591308

RESUMO

There is a vast multitude of foodstuffs available, and health care professionals find it challenging to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy offerings. Recent evidence suggests that ultra processed foods should be avoided, as they are associated with harmful effects on health. This communication defines and describes ultra-processed foods, using the internationally accepted NOVA classification. It uses South Asian examples to make the concept easy to understand for South Asian readers.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimento Processado , Humanos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia
12.
Clin Nutr ; 43(5): 1190-1199, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to analyze the prospective association between adherence to the ultra-processed dietary pattern and risk of depressive outcomes using original data from the NutriNet Brasil cohort and via a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that have investigated the same association. METHODS: In our original research analysis, we used data from 15,960 adults (≥18 y) participating in the NutriNet Brasil cohort study, free of depression or depressive symptoms during the baseline (77.5% women, 45.8 ± 13.0 y). The mean dietary share of ultra-processed foods (%Kcal/d), calculated from two baseline 24-h dietary recalls, was used to measure the adherence to the ultra-processed dietary pattern. New cases of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 over the follow-up period (mean: 18.3 months). Cox proportional hazards models were used for the main analyses. In our systematic review and meta-analysis, we incorporated effect estimates from six prospective cohort studies that have examined the same association, including ours. RESULTS: In the adjusted model, each 10% increase in the dietary share of ultra-processed foods was associated with a 10% increase in the hazard of incident cases of depressive symptoms (HR:1.10; 95%CI: 1.07-1.14). This association was slightly attenuated in the models including potential mediators. In our meta-analysis of six prospective studies, high versus low exposure to ultra-processed foods was associated with a summary hazard ratio of depressive outcomes of 1.32; 95%CI: 1.19-1.46; I2: 71%. CONCLUSION: A higher adherence to the ultra-processed dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk of developing depressive outcomes in the NutriNet Brasil cohort and in the meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Depressão , Fast Foods , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Padrões Dietéticos
13.
Clin Nutr ; 43(6): 1363-1371, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption, genetic susceptibility, and the risk of osteoarthritis (OA) remain unknown. This study was to examine the effect of UPF consumption, genetic susceptibility, and their interactions on hip/knee OA. METHODS: Cohort analyses included 163,987 participants from the UK Biobank. Participants' UPF consumption was derived from their 24-h dietary recall using a questionnaire. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) of 70 and 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for hip and knee OA were constructed. FINDINGS: After 1,461,447 person-years of follow-up, 11,540 patients developed OA. After adjustments, compared to participants in the low quartile of UPF consumption, those in the high quartile had a 10 % (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.18) increased risk of knee OA. No significant association was found between UPF consumption and hip OA. Replacing 20% of UPF diet weight with an equivalent proportion of unprocessed or minimally processed food caused a 6% (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98) decreased risk of knee OA, respectively. A significant interaction was found between UPF consumption, genetic predisposition, and the risk of knee OA (P = 0.01). Participants with lower OA-GRS scores experienced higher knee OA risks due to UPF consumption. INTERPRETATION: UPF consumption was associated with a higher risk of knee OA but not hip OA, particularly in those with lower genetic susceptibility. These results highlight the importance of reducing UPF consumption to prevent knee OA.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Osteoartrite do Quadril , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/genética , Osteoartrite do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Adulto , Alimento Processado
14.
Clin Nutr ; 43(6): 1386-1394, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ultra-processed food (UPF) intake has increased sharply over the last few decades and has been consistently asserted to be implicated in the development of non-communicable diseases. We aimed to evaluate and update the existing observational evidence for associations between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and human health. METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase from inception to March 2023 to identify and update meta-analyses of observational studies examining the associations between UPF consumption, as defined by the NOVA classification, and a wide spectrum of health outcomes. For each health outcome, we estimated the summary effect size, 95% confidence interval (CI), between-study heterogeneity, evidence of small-study effects, and evidence of excess-significance bias. These metrics were used to evaluate evidence credibility of the identified associations. RESULTS: This umbrella review identified 39 meta-analyses on the associations between UPF consumption and health outcomes. We updated all meta-analyses by including 122 individual articles on 49 unique health outcomes. The majority of the included studies divided UPF consumption into quartiles, with the lowest quartile being the reference group. We identified 25 health outcomes associated with UPF consumption. For observational studies, 2 health outcomes, including renal function decline (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.33) and wheezing in children and adolescents (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.34, 1.49), showed convincing evidence (Class I); and five outcomes were reported with highly suggestive evidence (Class II), including diabetes mellitus, overweight, obesity, depression, and common mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: High UPF consumption is associated with an increased risk of a variety of chronic diseases and mental health disorders. At present, not a single study reported an association between UPF intake and a beneficial health outcome. These findings suggest that dietary patterns with low consumption of UPFs may render broad public health benefits.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Humanos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Metanálise como Assunto , Feminino , Alimento Processado
15.
Nutr Bull ; 49(2): 199-208, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623590

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and identify their association with obesity and abdominal obesity in adult women of reproductive age living in situations of social vulnerability in Maceió, Northeastern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study carried out between October 2020 and May 2021. An anthropometric evaluation was carried out to assess obesity and abdominal obesity. A dietary assessment was also conducted using a 24-h food recall to determine the calorie intake from UPF. To estimate intra-individual variability in food consumption, the probabilistic Multiple Source Method was used. These data in the form of tertiles were used to analyse the association between the consumption of UPF and obesity and abdominal obesity. Logistic regressions were used to analyse the association. A directed acyclic graph (DAG) was created for this analysis. This study included 1702 women of which 53.7% were 31 years old or older, and 74.2% lived in poverty. It identified that 36.5% and 38.1% of the women had obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively, and that an average of 33.8% of calories consumed came from UPF. In the analysis of association guided by the DAG, it was observed that women with a high-calorie intake from UPF had a 1.3 times higher probability of being obese. It was also observed that women with a moderate and high-calorie intake from UPF were 1.4 and 1.3 times more likely, respectively, to have abdominal obesity. Thus, it can be concluded that socially vulnerable women in Brazil have a relatively high consumption of UPF and that this condition increases the probability of obesity in this population group.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fast Foods , Obesidade Abdominal , Obesidade , Populações Vulneráveis , Humanos , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Ingestão de Energia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimento Processado
16.
Biomolecules ; 14(4)2024 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38672494

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined by the outcome of interconnected metabolic factors that directly increase the prevalence of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Currently, obesity is considered one of the most relevant topics of discussion because an epidemic heave of the incidence of obesity in both developing and underdeveloped countries has been reached. According to the World Obesity Atlas 2023 report, 38% of the world population are presently either obese or overweight. One of the causes of obesity is an imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure, where nutritional imbalance due to consumption of high-calorie fast foods play a pivotal role. The dynamic interactions among different risk factors of obesity are highly complex; however, the underpinnings of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia for obesity incidence are recognized. Fast foods, primarily composed of soluble carbohydrates, non-nutritive artificial sweeteners, saturated fats, and complexes of macronutrients (protein-carbohydrate, starch-lipid, starch-lipid-protein) provide high metabolic calories. Several experimental studies have pointed out that dairy proteins and peptides may modulate the activities of risk factors of obesity. To justify the results precisely, peptides from dairy milk proteins were synthesized under in vitro conditions and their contributions to biomarkers of obesity were assessed. Comprehensive information about the impact of proteins and peptides from dairy milks on fast food-induced obesity is presented in this narrative review article.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Proteínas do Leite , Obesidade , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Animais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Peptídeos , Búfalos , Bovinos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2291, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480685

RESUMO

Poor diets are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Exposure to low-quality food environments saturated with fast food outlets is hypothesized to negatively impact diet. However, food environment research has predominantly focused on static food environments around home neighborhoods and generated mixed findings. In this work, we leverage population-scale mobility data in the U.S. to examine 62M people's visits to food outlets and evaluate how food choice is influenced by the food environments people are exposed to as they move through their daily routines. We find that a 10% increase in exposure to fast food outlets in mobile environments increases individuals' odds of visitation by 20%. Using our results, we simulate multiple policy strategies for intervening on food environments to reduce fast-food outlet visits. This analysis suggests that optimal interventions are informed by spatial, temporal, and behavioral features and could have 2x to 4x larger effect than traditional interventions focused on home food environments.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fast Foods , Humanos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Características de Residência
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