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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 156(5): 271-274, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470930

RESUMO

Vertebral bone and limb bone are formed by endochondral ossification, which is replaced with bone tissue by osteoblasts after cartilage formation. Bone growth is regulated by the balance between epiphyseal chondrocyte proliferation and ossification. We attempted to elucidate the mechanism of chondrocyte differentiation and maturation regulated by the Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (Erk5) signal. Erk5 is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, which includes Erk1/2, JNK, and p38. Mesenchymal stem cell-specific Erk5-deficient mice exhibited the phenotype of deformities of the metatarsal bones, enlargement of the long bones in limbs, and overgrowth of cartilage tissue. Based on this result, we searched for factors that directly phosphorylate Erk5, and We demonstrated that Erk5 directly phosphorylates and activates Smurf2 (a ubiquitin E3 ligase) at Thr249 to activate its function and promotes ubiquitination-mediated degradation. The TGF-ß-Smad signal suppresses the proliferation of many cells and regulates the production of extracellular matrix. Our findings may lead to the development of novel drugs targeting TGF-ß associated diseases. In this paper, we investigated the function of Smurf2Thr249 phosphorylation and the possibility as new therapeutic target for various diseases.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360701

RESUMO

Solid platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), consisting of coagulated plasma from fractionated blood, has been proposed to be a suitable carrier for recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to target mesenchymal cells during bone regeneration. However, whether solid PRF can increase the expression of BMPs in mesenchymal cells remains unknown. Proteomics analysis confirmed the presence of TGF-ß1 but not BMP2 in PRF lysates. According to the existing knowledge of recombinant TGF-ß1, we hypothesized that PRF can increase BMP2 expression in mesenchymal cells. To test this hypothesis, we blocked TGF-ß receptor 1 kinase with SB431542 in gingival fibroblasts exposed to PRF lysates. RT-PCR and immunoassays confirmed that solid PRF lysates caused a robust SB431542-dependent increase in BMP2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Additionally, fractions of liquid PRF, namely platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and the buffy coat (BC) layer, but not heat-denatured PPP (Alb-gel), greatly induced the expression of BMP2 in gingival fibroblasts. Even though PRF has no detectable BMPs, PRF lysates similar to recombinant TGF-ß1 had the capacity to provoke canonical BMP signaling, as indicated by the nuclear translocation of Smad1/5 and the increase in its phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that PRF can activate TGF-ß receptor 1 kinase and consequently induce the production of BMP2 in cells of the mesenchymal lineage.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Regeneração Óssea , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gengiva/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteômica , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21824, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370353

RESUMO

Crosstalk between multiple components underlies the formation of mature vessels. Although the players involved in angiogenesis have been identified, mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between them are still unclear. Using the ex vivo aortic ring assay, we set out to dissect the interactions between two key angiogenic signaling pathways, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor ß (TGFß), with members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of matrix modifying enzymes. We find an interplay between VEGF, TGFß, and the LOXs is essential for the formation of mature vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC)-coated vessels. RNA sequencing analysis further identified an interaction with the endothelin-1 pathway. Our work implicates endothelin-1 downstream of TGFß in vascular maturation and demonstrate the complexity of processes involved in generating vSMC-coated vessels.


Assuntos
Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445415

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells are effective in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but have shown limited efficacy against solid tumors. Here, we demonstrated an approach to inhibit recurrence of B cell lymphoma by co-expressing both a human anti-CD19-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) CAR (CD19 CAR) and a TGF-ß/IL-7 chimeric switch receptor (tTRII-I7R) in T cells (CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells). The tTRII-I7R was designed to convert immunosuppressive TGF-ß signaling into immune-activating IL-7 signaling. The effect of TGF-ß on CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells was assessed by western blotting. Target-specific killing by CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells was evaluated by Eu-TDA assay. Daudi tumor-bearing NSG (NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ-/-) mice were treated with CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells to analyze the in vivo anti-tumor effect. In vitro, CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells had a lower level of phosphorylated SMAD2 and a higher level of target-specific cytotoxicity than controls in the presence of rhTGF-ß1. In the animal model, the overall survival and recurrence-free survival of mice that received CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cells were significantly longer than in control mice. These findings strongly suggest that CD19 CAR-tTRII-I7R-T cell therapy provides a new strategy for long-lasting, TGF-ß-resistant anti-tumor effects against B cell lymphoma, which may lead ultimately to increased clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Interleucina-7/genética , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Células K562 , Linfoma de Células B/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360646

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. TGF-ß is a pleiotropic cytokine and has been recognized as a key mediator of DN. However, anti-TGF-ß treatment for DN remains controversial due to the diverse role of TGF-ß1 in DN. Thus, understanding the regulatory role and mechanisms of TGF-ß in the pathogenesis of DN is the initial step towards the development of anti-TGF-ß treatment for DN. In this review, we first discuss the diverse roles and signaling mechanisms of TGF-ß in DN by focusing on the latent versus active TGF-ß1, the TGF-ß receptors, and the downstream individual Smad signaling molecules including Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7. Then, we dissect the regulatory mechanisms of TGF-ß/Smad signaling in the development of DN by emphasizing Smad-dependent non-coding RNAs including microRNAs and long-non-coding RNAs. Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies for DN by targeting TGF-ß signaling with various therapeutic approaches are discussed.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208383

RESUMO

Hereditary retinal degenerations like retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are among the leading causes of blindness in younger patients. To enable in vivo investigation of cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for photoreceptor cell death and to allow testing of therapeutic strategies that could prevent retinal degeneration, animal models have been created. In this study, we deeply characterized the transcriptional profile of mice carrying the transgene rhodopsin V20G/P23H/P27L (VPP), which is a model for autosomal dominant RP. We examined the degree of photoreceptor degeneration and studied the impact of the VPP transgene-induced retinal degeneration on the transcriptome level of the retina using next generation RNA sequencing (RNASeq) analyses followed by weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). We furthermore identified cellular subpopulations responsible for some of the observed dysregulations using in situ hybridizations, immunofluorescence staining, and 3D reconstruction. Using RNASeq analysis, we identified 9256 dysregulated genes and six significantly associated gene modules in the subsequently performed WGCNA. Gene ontology enrichment showed, among others, dysregulation of genes involved in TGF-ß regulated extracellular matrix organization, the (ocular) immune system/response, and cellular homeostasis. Moreover, heatmaps confirmed clustering of significantly dysregulated genes coding for components of the TGF-ß, G-protein activated, and VEGF signaling pathway. 3D reconstructions of immunostained/in situ hybridized sections revealed retinal neurons and Müller cells as the major cellular population expressing representative components of these signaling pathways. The predominant effect of VPP-induced photoreceptor degeneration pointed towards induction of neuroinflammation and the upregulation of neuroprotective pathways like TGF-ß, G-protein activated, and VEGF signaling. Thus, modulation of these processes and signaling pathways might represent new therapeutic options to delay the degeneration of photoreceptors in diseases like RP.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neuroproteção/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Transcrição Genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/complicações , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/patologia , Rodopsina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281266

RESUMO

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent cells which can differentiate into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and fat cells. Under pathological stress, reduced bone formation in favour of fat formation in the bone marrow has been observed through a switch in the differentiation of BMSCs. The bone/fat switch causes bone growth defects and disordered bone metabolism in bone marrow, for which the mechanisms remain unclear, and treatments are lacking. Studies suggest that small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) could participate in regulating BMSC differentiation by disrupting the post-transcription of target genes, leading to bone/fat formation changes. This review presents an emerging concept of microRNA regulation in the bone/fat formation switch in bone marrow, the evidence for which is assembled mainly from in vivo and in vitro human or animal models. Characterization of changes to microRNAs reveals novel networks that mediate signalling and factors in regulating bone/fat switch and homeostasis. Recent advances in our understanding of microRNAs in their control in BMSC differentiation have provided valuable insights into underlying mechanisms and may have significant potential in development of new therapeutics.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Smad/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281283

RESUMO

ß-thalassaemia is a rare genetic condition caused by mutations in the ß-globin gene that result in severe iron-loading anaemia, maintained by a detrimental state of ineffective erythropoiesis (IE). The role of multiple mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of the disease has been recently unravelled. The unbalanced production of α-globin is a major source of oxidative stress and membrane damage in red blood cells (RBC). In addition, IE is tightly linked to iron metabolism dysregulation, and the relevance of new players of this pathway, i.e., hepcidin, erythroferrone, matriptase-2, among others, has emerged. Advances have been made in understanding the balance between proliferation and maturation of erythroid precursors and the role of specific factors in this process, such as members of the TGF-ß superfamily, and their downstream effectors, or the transcription factor GATA1. The increasing understanding of IE allowed for the development of a broad set of potential therapeutic options beyond the current standard of care. Many candidates of disease-modifying drugs are currently under clinical investigation, targeting the regulation of iron metabolism, the production of foetal haemoglobin, the maturation process, or the energetic balance and membrane stability of RBC. Overall, they provide tools and evidence for multiple and synergistic approaches that are effectively moving clinical research in ß-thalassaemia from bench to bedside.


Assuntos
Eritropoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritropoese/fisiologia , Talassemia beta/tratamento farmacológico , Talassemia beta/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/uso terapêutico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/metabolismo , Hepcidinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Ferro/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Globinas beta/genética , Talassemia beta/sangue
9.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 634, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a major cause of low back pain (LBP). Following disc injury, nerve growth factor (NGF) concentrations rise in IVDs, and anti-NGF therapy has been shown to attenuate LBP in humans. Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) in degenerative IVDs and in in vitro studies suggest that these factors promote NGF production. However, whether these factors regulate NGF in vivo remains unclear. Thus, we studied NGF regulation in a mouse model of IVD injury. METHODS: After inducing IVD injury, we examined mRNA levels of Tnfa, Tgfb, and Ngf in IVDs from control and IVD-injured mice across 7 days. To do this, we used magnetic cell separation to isolate CD11b ( +) (macrophage-rich) and CD11b (-) (IVD cell-rich) cell fractions from injured IVDs. To study the effect of TNF-α on Ngf expression, we examined Ngf expression in injured IVDs from C57BL/6 J and Tnfa-knockout (KO) mice (C57BL/6 J background). To study the effect of TGF-ß on Ngf expression, C57/BL6J mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of either the TGF-ß inhibitor SB431542 or DMSO solution (vehicle) one and two days before harvesting IVDs. RESULTS: mRNA expression of Tnfa, Tgfb, and Ngf was significantly increased in injured IVDs. Tnfa was predominantly expressed in the CD11b ( +) fraction, and Tgfb in the CD11b (-) fraction. Ngf expression was comparable between CD11b ( +) and CD11b (-) fractions, and between wild-type and Tnfa-KO mice at post-injury day (PID) 1, 3, and 7. SB431542 suppressed TGF-ß-mediated Ngf expression and NGF production in vitro. Further, administration of SB431542 significantly reduced Ngf expression in IVDs such that levels were below those observed in vehicle-treated animals at PID3 and PID7. CONCLUSION: A TGF-ß inhibitor reduced Ngf expression in a mouse model of IVD injury, suggesting that TGF-ß may regulate NGF expression in vivo.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Disco Intervertebral , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4208, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244516

RESUMO

The transcriptional regulators underlying induction and differentiation of dense connective tissues such as tendon and related fibrocartilaginous tissues (meniscus and annulus fibrosus) remain largely unknown. Using an iterative approach informed by developmental cues and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), we establish directed differentiation models to generate tendon and fibrocartilage cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) by activation of TGFß and hedgehog pathways, achieving 90% induction efficiency. Transcriptional signatures of the mESC-derived cells recapitulate embryonic tendon and fibrocartilage signatures from the mouse tail. scRNA-seq further identify retinoic acid signaling as a critical regulator of cell fate switch between TGFß-induced tendon and fibrocartilage lineages. Trajectory analysis by RNA sequencing define transcriptional modules underlying tendon and fibrocartilage fate induction and identify molecules associated with lineage-specific differentiation. Finally, we successfully generate 3-dimensional engineered tissues using these differentiation protocols and show activation of mechanotransduction markers with dynamic tensile loading. These findings provide a serum-free approach to generate tendon and fibrocartilage cells and tissues at high efficiency for modeling development and disease.


Assuntos
Fibrocartilagem/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/fisiologia , Tendões/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Fibrocartilagem/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Camundongos , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Tendões/citologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Tretinoína/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209455

RESUMO

Glucose-based solutions remain the most used osmotic agents in peritoneal dialysis (PD), but unavoidably they contribute to the loss of peritoneal filtration capacity. Here, we evaluated at a molecular level the effects of XyloCore, a new PD solution with a low glucose content, in mesothelial and endothelial cells. Cell viability, integrity of mesothelial and endothelial cell membrane, activation of mesothelial and endothelial to mesenchymal transition programs, inflammation, and angiogenesis were evaluated by several techniques. Results showed that XyloCore preserves mesothelial and endothelial cell viability and membrane integrity. Moreover XyloCore, unlike glucose-based solutions, does not exert pro-fibrotic, -inflammatory, and -angiogenic effects. Overall, the in vitro evidence suggests that XyloCore could represent a potential biocompatible solution promising better outcomes in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Soluções para Diálise/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Diálise Peritoneal , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Impedância Elétrica , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mesoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210094

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking (CS) is one of the main factors related to avoidable diseases and death across the world. Cigarette smoke consists of numerous toxic compounds that contribute to the development of osteoporosis and fracture nonunion. Exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) was proven to be a safe and effective therapy to support bone fracture healing. The aims of this study were to investigate if extremely low frequency (ELF-) PEMFs may be beneficial to treat CS-related bone disease, and which effect the duration of the exposure has. In this study, immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells (SCP-1 cells) impaired by 5% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) were exposed to ELF-PEMFs (16 Hz) with daily exposure ranging from 7 min to 90 min. Cell viability, adhesion, and spreading were evaluated by Sulforhodamine B, Calcein-AM staining, and Phalloidin-TRITC/Hoechst 33342 staining. A migration assay kit was used to determine cell migration. Changes in TGF-ß signaling were evaluated with an adenoviral Smad2/3 reporter assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot. The structure and distribution of primary cilia were analyzed with immunofluorescent staining. Our data indicate that 30 min daily exposure to a specific ELF-PEMF most effectively promoted cell viability, enhanced cell adhesion and spreading, accelerated migration, and protected TGF-ß signaling from CSE-induced harm. In summary, the current results provide evidence that ELF-PEMF can be used to support early bone healing in patients who smoke.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cílios/efeitos dos fármacos , Cílios/imunologia , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4404, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285225

RESUMO

Activation of fibroblasts is essential for physiological tissue repair. Uncontrolled activation of fibroblasts, however, may lead to tissue fibrosis with organ dysfunction. Although several pathways capable of promoting fibroblast activation and tissue repair have been identified, their interplay in the context of chronic fibrotic diseases remains incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence that transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) activates autophagy by an epigenetic mechanism to amplify its profibrotic effects. TGFß induces autophagy in fibrotic diseases by SMAD3-dependent downregulation of the H4K16 histone acetyltransferase MYST1, which regulates the expression of core components of the autophagy machinery such as ATG7 and BECLIN1. Activation of autophagy in fibroblasts promotes collagen release and is both, sufficient and required, to induce tissue fibrosis. Forced expression of MYST1 abrogates the stimulatory effects of TGFß on autophagy and re-establishes the epigenetic control of autophagy in fibrotic conditions. Interference with the aberrant activation of autophagy inhibits TGFß-induced fibroblast activation and ameliorates experimental dermal and pulmonary fibrosis. These findings link uncontrolled TGFß signaling to aberrant autophagy and deregulated epigenetics in fibrotic diseases and may contribute to the development of therapeutic interventions in fibrotic diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Epigênese Genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Fibrose , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células NIH 3T3 , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111657, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243626

RESUMO

Cancer remains one of the debilitating health threats to mankind in view of its incurable nature. Many factors are complicit in the initiation, progression and establishment of cancers. Early detection of cancer is the only window of hope that allows for appreciable management and possible limited survival. However, understanding of cancer biology and knowledge of the key factors that interplay at multi-level in the initiation and progression of cancer may hold possible avenues for cancer treatment and management. In particular, dysregulation of growth factor signaling such as that of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) and its downstream mediators play key roles in various cancer subtypes. Expanded understanding of the context/cell type-dependent roles of TGF-ß and its downstream signaling mediators in cancer may provide leads for cancer pharmacotherapy. Reliable information contained in original articles, reviews, mini-reviews and expert opinions on TGF-ß, cancer and the specific roles of TGF-ß signaling in various cancer subtypes were retrieved from major scientific data bases including PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Web of Science core collections just to mention but a sample by using the following search terms: TGF-ß in cancer, TGF-ß and colorectal cancer, TGF-ß and brain cancer, TGF-ß in cancer initiation, TGF-ß and cell proliferation, TGF-ß and cell invasion, and TGF-ß-based cancer therapy. Retrieved information and reports were carefully examined, contextualized and synchronized into a coherent scientific content to highlight the multiple roles of TGF-ß signaling in normal and cancerous cells. From a conceptual standpoint, development of pharmacologically active agents that exert non-specific inhibitory effects on TGF-ß signaling on various cell types will undoubtedly lead to a plethora of serious side effects in view of the multi-functionality and pleiotropic nature of TGF-ß. Such non-specific targeting of TGF-ß could derail any beneficial therapeutic intention associated with TGF-ß-based therapy. However, development of pharmacologically active agents designed specifically to target TGF-ß signaling in cancer cells may improve cancer pharmacotherapy. Similarly, specific targeting of downstream mediators of TGF-ß such as TGF-ß type 1 and II receptors (TßRI and TßRII), receptor-mediated Smads, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and importing proteins in cancer cells may be crucial for cancer pharmacotherapy.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204587

RESUMO

Structural disturbances of the subchondral bone are a hallmark of osteoarthritis (OA), including sclerotic changes, cystic lesions, and osteophyte formation. Osteocytes act as mechanosensory units for the micro-cracks in response to mechanical loading. Once stimulated, osteocytes initiate the reparative process by recruiting bone-resorbing cells and bone-forming cells to maintain bone homeostasis. Osteocyte-expressed sclerostin is known as a negative regulator of bone formation through Wnt signaling and the RANKL pathway. In this review, we will summarize current understandings of osteocytes at the crossroad of allometry and mechanobiology to exploit the relationship between osteocyte morphology and function in the context of joint aging and osteoarthritis. We also aimed to summarize the osteocyte dysfunction and its link with structural and functional disturbances of the osteoarthritic subchondral bone at the molecular level. Compared with normal bones, the osteoarthritic subchondral bone is characterized by a higher bone volume fraction, a larger trabecular bone number in the load-bearing region, and an increase in thickness of pre-existing trabeculae. This may relate to the aberrant expressions of sclerostin, periostin, dentin matrix protein 1, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, insulin-like growth factor 1, and transforming growth factor-beta, among others. The number of osteocyte lacunae embedded in OA bone is also significantly higher, yet the volume of individual lacuna is relatively smaller, which could suggest abnormal metabolism in association with allometry. The remarkably lower percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes, together with clustering of Runx-2 positive pre-osteoblasts, may suggest altered regulation of osteoblast differentiation and osteoblast-osteocyte transformation affected by both signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix. Aberrant osteocyte morphology and function, along with anomalies in molecular signaling mechanisms, might explain in part, if not all, the pre-osteoblast clustering and the uncoupled bone remodeling in OA subchondral bone.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Articulações/fisiologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Remodelação Óssea , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
16.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21738, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245615

RESUMO

The heavy metal Cadmium (Cd), a widespread environmental contaminant, poses serious hazards to human health and is considered a metallohormone and carcinogen. In women with uterine fibroids, there is a significant association between blood Cd levels and increased fibroid tumor size. The aim of this study was to determine if benign human uterine leiomyoma (fibroid) cells could be malignantly transformed in vitro by continuous Cd exposure and, if so, explore a molecular mechanism by which this could occur. We found when fibroid cells were exposed to 10 µM CdCl2 for 8 weeks, a robust and fast-growing Cd-Resistant Leiomyoma (CR-LM) cell culture was established. The CR-LM cells formed viable colonies in soft agar and had increased cytoplasmic glycogen aggregates, enhanced cell motility, a higher percentage of cells in G2/M phase, and increased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. NanoString analysis showed downregulation of genes encoding for extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as collagens, fibronectins, laminins, and SLRP family proteins, whereas genes involved in ECM degradation (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP10) were significantly upregulated. A volcano plot showed that the top differentially genes favored cancer progression. Functional analysis by ingenuity pathway analysis predicted a significant inhibition of TGFB1 signaling, leading to enhanced proliferation and attenuated fibrosis. Prolonged Cd exposure altered phenotypic characteristics and dysregulated genes in fibroid cells predicative of progression towards a cancer phenotype. Therefore, continuous Cd exposure alters the benign characteristics of fibroid cells in vitro, and Cd exposure could possibly pose a health hazard for women with uterine fibroids.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
17.
FEBS Lett ; 595(16): 2147-2159, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245002

RESUMO

Stem cell-based therapy has been highlighted as a potential avenue to promote tissue regeneration, where stimulation of stem cells to differentiate into the targeted cell type is essential. One of the factors that induce stem cells to differentiate is their surrounding microenvironment. In this study, the correlation between mild reductant and early osteogenic commitment was evaluated. A cell surface-reducing microenvironment significantly silenced the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signaling pathway of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), followed by increased focal adhesion and inhibition of cell membrane protein dimerization. Furthermore, in vivo transplantation of MSCs exposed to the reducing microenvironment resulted in an early osteogenic commitment and neobone formation. Thus, these results highlight the potential of cell surface-reducing microenvironment to influence early osteogenic commitment.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular , Osteogênese , Adesão Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299192

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling triggers diverse biological actions in inflammatory diseases. In tissue fibrosis, it acts as a key pathogenic regulator for promoting immunoregulation via controlling the activation, proliferation, and apoptosis of immunocytes. In cancer, it plays a critical role in tumor microenvironment (TME) for accelerating invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. Increasing evidence suggest a pleiotropic nature of TGF-ß signaling as a critical pathway for generating fibrotic TME, which contains numerous cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), extracellular matrix proteins, and remodeling enzymes. Its pathogenic roles and working mechanisms in tumorigenesis are still largely unclear. Importantly, recent studies successfully demonstrated the clinical implications of fibrotic TME in cancer. This review systematically summarized the latest updates and discoveries of TGF-ß signaling in the fibrotic TME.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Biochimie ; 187: 144-151, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102254

RESUMO

Relaxin (RLX) is a heterodimeric, polypeptide hormone that has natural anti-fibrotic activity in many organs. During the chronic liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are phenotypically transformed into myofibroblasts. This process is known as activation of HSCs. Activated HSCs play a central role in hepatic fibrosis. Quiescent HSCs were shown to express low levels of RLX receptors such as RXFP1 and RXFP2. Upon chronic liver injury, HSCs are activated and express high levels of the RLX receptors. ML290, an agonist of RXFP1 has been reported to have antifibrotic effect in vitro as well as in vivo. Serelaxin, a recombinant human RLX-2 treatment has reduced hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension in experimental models due to its vasodilation properties by inducing intrahepatic nitric oxide level. Serelaxin has also produced a neutral effect when studied against human cirrhosis-related portal hypertension in clinical trials. RLX is a potent collagen synthesis inhibitor and it has extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling properties by promoting matrix metalloproteinases and downregulating expression of metalloproteinases inhibitors. Available reports suggest that RLX could induce ECM remodeling and suppress the profibrogenic transforming growth factor-ß signaling and thereby regress hepatic fibrosis. Though RLX has natural antifibrotic activity, its antifibrotic molecular mechanisms especially in hepatic fibrosis condition are not reported. This review exclusively focuses antifibrotic effect of RLX on hepatic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Relaxina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Colágeno/biossíntese , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/metabolismo , Hipertensão Portal/patologia , Hipertensão Portal/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
20.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7110-7125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093874

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive fatal interstitial lung disease characterized by abnormal transition and proliferation of fibroblasts. The uncontrolled transition of fibroblasts, commonly known as myofibroblasts, are the principal source of the enormous extracellular matrix (ECM) depositing in lung parenchyma, leading to gradual failure of gas exchange and mortality of the patients. However, up to now, rare effective therapeutic strategies have been developed to blockade fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) in IPF. Method: We illustrated that the lungs originated from IPF patients and mice with pulmonary fibrosis are characterized by the overexpression of sushi-repeat-containing protein, X-linked 2 (SRPX2). Further functionality studies identified the pivotal role of SRPX2 in FMT. Mechanistically, SRPX2 was involved in a TGFßR1/SMAD3/SRPX2/AP1/SMAD7 positive feedback loop. Specifically, SRPX2 was upregulated by TGF-ß1 in a TGFßR1/SMAD3-dependent manner, after which SRPX2 in turn repressed the expression of AP1, subsequently minimized SMAD7 expression, through which it reduced the formation of inhibitory complex with TGFßR1 and enhanced SMAD signaling pathway to promote FMT and exacerbate pulmonary fibrosis. Notably, intratracheal administration of siRNA-loaded liposomes could effectively suppress the expression of Srpx2 in the lung and remarkably protect mice against BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, concomitant with a significant reduction of FMT. Results: Accordingly, these data indicate that Srpx2 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and suggests the strategy aiming at silencing Srpx2 could be a promising therapeutic approach against pulmonary fibrosis in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Terapia Genética/métodos , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/terapia , Idoso , Animais , Movimento Celular/genética , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mioblastos/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , RNA-Seq , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína Smad7/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
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