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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5191, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057632

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex and pivotal process involved in organogenesis and is related to several pathological processes, including cancer and fibrosis. During heart development, EMT mediates the conversion of epicardial cells into vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac interstitial fibroblasts. Here, we show that the oncogenic transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a key regulator of EMT in epicardial cells and that its genetic overexpression in mouse epicardium is lethal due to heart defects linked to impaired EMT. TFEB specifically orchestrates the EMT-promoting function of transforming growth factor (TGF) ß, and this effect results from activated transcription of thymine-guanine-interacting factor (TGIF)1, a TGFß/Smad pathway repressor. The Tgif1 promoter is activated by TFEB, and in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate its increased expression when Tfeb is overexpressed. Furthermore, Tfeb overexpression in vitro prevents TGFß-induced EMT, and this effect is abolished by Tgif1 silencing. Tfeb loss of function, similar to that of Tgif1, sensitizes cells to TGFß, inducing an EMT response to low doses of TGFß. Together, our findings reveal an unexpected function of TFEB in regulating EMT, which might provide insights into injured heart repair and control of cancer progression.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Organogênese , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 149: 112906, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068772

RESUMO

Delphinium trichophorum Franch (DTF), a species endemic to China, has been widely used for centuries in Tibet as an indigenous medicine for treating cough, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis. Hetisine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids have been reported to be characteristic and active ingredients. Herein, five ones with relatively high contents in D. trichophorum, including 2α,11α,13ß-triacetylhetisine (DTF1), trichodelphinine A (DTF2), trichodelphinine D (DTF3), 2α-acetyl-11α,13ß-dihydroxyhetisine (DTF4), and trichodelphinine C (DTF5), were investigated for anti-fibrosis effects using fibroblasts induced by TGF-ß1 or LPS for the first time. The results showed that all five tested compounds decreased hydroxyproline (HYP) levels and inhibited the abnormal proliferation of 3T6 and HFL-1 cells induced by either TGF-ß1 or LPS. Moreover, DTF1 and DTF2 attenuated the production of collagen (Col-1 and Col-3) at relatively low doses, suggesting their higher efficiency among the five alkaloids. Based on large-scale ligand-based pharmacophore modeling, TGFBR1 was screened as a potential target for these tested alkaloids. The molecular docking results also exhibited high-affinity interactions between TGFBR1 and five alkaloids, especially DTF1 and DTF2. Further experiments revealed that DTF1 and DTF2 could inhibit the expression of TGF-ß1 and α-SMA and the phosphorylation of Smad3 and Smad4 while restoring the expression of Smad7 protein. Overall, DTF1 and DTF2 may reduce collagen generation and delay the development of pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway. Our results provide experimental and theoretical evidence for DTF1 and DTF2 as superior candidates for further development of anti-fibrotic drugs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Delphinium , Diterpenos , Fibrose Pulmonar , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Delphinium/metabolismo , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 149: 112931, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068784

RESUMO

The genesis and development of renal fibrosis involve a variety of pathways closely related to inflammation, cytokines, oxidative stress and metabolic abnormalities. Renal fibrosis is the result of a complex combination of a variety of lesions. Epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells is considered the key to renal fibrosis. Losartan is a typical Angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor antagonist and relaxes blood vessels. In this study, we investigated the effects of losartan on Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction (UUO) model mice by studying the changes in the TGF-ß/Smad and metabolomics. Male C57BL/6 J mice were intervened with the UUO model and given losartan (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/d) for 28 consecutive days. The results showed that losartan could reduce UUO-induced abnormal serum metabolic spectrum and renal function. It could also improve renal tubular-interstitial injury and fibrosis by reducing tubulointerstitial dilation and collagen deposition. In addition, losartan promoted the expression of Smurf2 and Smurf1, i.e., Smad7 and E3 ubiquitin-linked enzymes, in the nucleus to degrade the type I receptor of TGF-ß1 (TßR-I) and P-Smad2/3 to inhibit renal tubular epithelial cells EMT. In summary, these findings indicated that losartan could regulate the TGF-ß/Smad and metabolic pathway in UUO model mice through ubiquitination to reduce renal fibrosis.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Obstrução Ureteral , Animais , Fibrose , Rim , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Losartan/farmacologia , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/complicações , Obstrução Ureteral/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5481552, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119923

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is identified as a widespread chronic progressive disease jeopardizing public health which characterized by gradually loss of renal function. However, there is no efficient therapy to prevail over this disease. Our study was attempting to reveal hirudin's regulation to renal fibrosis as well as the molecular mechanism. We built renal fibrosis models on both cell and animal levels, which were subsequently given with hirudin disposal; then, we performed the transwell assay to estimate the cells' migration and had our detection to relevant proteins with western blot and immunofluorescence. Finally, we commenced both the identification and the determination to the hirudin targeted proteins and its downstream signaling pathways with the methods of network pharmacology. And the results turned out that when it was compared with the model group, the group with hirudin addition came with the suppression in the migration of renal tubular epithelial cells NRK-52E and with a conspicuous decline in the expressions of fibronectin, N-cadherin, vimentin, TGF-ß, and snail. After that, we predicted that there were 17 hirudin target points mainly involving in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. Our outcomes of the animal level demonstrated that the conditions of interstitial fibrosis, severe tubular dilatation or atrophy, inflammatory cell infiltration, and massive accumulation of interstitial collagen in the model group were withdrawn after the addition of hirudin. In addition, p-PDGFRß, p-PI3K, and p-AKT protein expressions were significantly reduced, and the PI3K/AKT pathway was downregulated after hirudin treatment in the model group of NRK-52E cells and animals. Therefore, we had our conclusion that hirudin is capable of suppressing the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway as well as the EMT by decreasing PDGFRß phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Fibrose , Hirudinas/farmacologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Vimentina/metabolismo
5.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 135, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115986

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling has a paradoxical role in cancer progression, and it acts as a tumor suppressor in the early stages but a tumor promoter in the late stages of cancer. Once cancer cells are generated, TGF-ß signaling is responsible for the orchestration of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and supports cancer growth, invasion, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy resistance. These progressive behaviors are driven by an "engine" of the metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Recent studies have revealed that TGF-ß signaling regulates cancer metabolic reprogramming and is a metabolic driver in the tumor metabolic microenvironment (TMME). Intriguingly, TGF-ß ligands act as an "endocrine" cytokine and influence host metabolism. Therefore, having insight into the role of TGF-ß signaling in the TMME is instrumental for acknowledging its wide range of effects and designing new cancer treatment strategies. Herein, we try to illustrate the concise definition of TMME based on the published literature. Then, we review the metabolic reprogramming in the TMME and elaborate on the contribution of TGF-ß to metabolic rewiring at the cellular (intracellular), tissular (intercellular), and organismal (cancer-host) levels. Furthermore, we propose three potential applications of targeting TGF-ß-dependent mechanism reprogramming, paving the way for TGF-ß-related antitumor therapy from the perspective of metabolism.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Carcinógenos , Humanos , Ligantes , Neoplasias/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274607, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108271

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells can be obtained and multiplied from various sources and have a very high capacity to release exosomes. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles containing biological signaling molecules. This study aimed to determine the effect of MSC-derived exosomes as a drug delivery system for paclitaxel in cervical cancer cells. In this study, human MSC were isolated from wharton jelly of umbilical cord tissue (WJ-MSC), and cells were characterized by CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD34 staining. Exosomes were released in WJ-MSC cells with serum-starved conditions for 48 hours, and particle sizes and structures were examined with zeta-sizer and TEM. In addition, exosomes CD9, CD63, and CD81 markers were checked by western blot. Paclitaxel was loaded into exosomes (Exo-PAC) by electroporation and then incubated with Hela cervical cancer cells for 24 hours. TGF-ß, SMAD, Snail, Slug, ß-catenin, Notch, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bax, Bcl-2 protein and gene expression levels were analyzed in Hela cells. As a result, low concentration Exo-PAC induced apoptosis, and suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition proteins in Hela cells. In this study, it has been demonstrated that WJ-MSCs can be used as drug delivery systems for cervical cancer if exosomes are produced scalably in the future.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Geleia de Wharton , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Geleia de Wharton/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15525, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109624

RESUMO

Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are transcribed from the same genomic locus as their partner gene but from the opposite DNA strand and overlap with the partner gene transcript. Here, we developed a simple and convenient program termed CCIVR (comprehensive cis-NATs identifier via RNA-seq data) that comprehensively identifies all kinds of cis-NATs based on genome annotation with expression data obtained from RNA-seq. Using CCIVR with genome databases, we demonstrated total cis-NAT pairs from 11 model organisms. CCIVR analysis with RNA-seq data from parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryonic stem cells identified well-known imprinted cis-NAT pair, KCNQ1/KCNQ1OT1, ensuring the availability of CCIVR. Finally, CCIVR identified cis-NAT pairs that demonstrate inversely correlated expression upon TGFß stimulation including cis-NATs that functionally repress their partner genes by introducing epigenetic alteration in the promoters of partner genes. Thus, CCIVR facilitates the investigation of structural characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in numerous processes in various species.


Assuntos
Canal de Potássio KCNQ1 , RNA Antissenso , Canal de Potássio KCNQ1/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Antissenso/genética , RNA Antissenso/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ácidos Urônicos
8.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 24(1): 210, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activation of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is known to exert broad anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of dersimelagon, a novel oral MC1R agonist, as a therapeutic agent for systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: The effects of dersimelagon phosphoric acid (MT-7117) on skin fibrosis and lung inflammation were evaluated in bleomycin (BLM)-induced SSc murine models that were optimized for prophylactic and therapeutic evaluation. Microarray-based gene expression analysis and serum protein profiling were performed in the BLM-induced SSc models. The effect of MT-7117 on transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß)-induced activation of human dermal fibroblasts was evaluated in vitro. Immunohistochemical analyses of MC1R expression in the skin of SSc patients were performed. RESULTS: Prophylactic treatment with MT-7117 (≥ 0.3 mg/kg/day p.o.) significantly inhibited skin fibrosis and lung inflammation, and therapeutic treatment with MT-7117 (≥ 3 mg/kg/day p.o.) significantly suppressed the development of skin fibrosis in the BLM-induced SSc models. Gene array analysis demonstrated that MT-7117 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect via suppression of the activation of inflammatory cells and inflammation-related signals; additionally, vascular dysfunction was extracted as the pathology targeted by MT-7117. Serum protein profiling revealed that multiple SSc-related biomarkers including P-selectin, osteoprotegerin, cystatin C, growth and differentiation factor-15, and S100A9 were suppressed by MT-7117. MT-7117 inhibited the activation of human dermal fibroblasts by suppressing TGF-ß-induced ACTA2 (encoding α-smooth muscle actin) mRNA elevation. MC1R was expressed by monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessels (endothelial cells), fibroblasts, and epidermis (keratinocytes) in the skin of SSc patients, suggesting that these MC1R-positive cells could be targets for MT-7117. CONCLUSIONS: MT-7117 demonstrates disease-modifying effects in preclinical models of SSc. Investigations of its mechanism of action and target expression analyses indicate that MT-7117 exerts its positive effect by affecting inflammation, vascular dysfunction, and fibrosis, which are all key pathologies of SSc. The results of the present study suggest that MT-7117 is a potential therapeutic agent for SSc. A phase 2 clinical trial investigating the efficacy and tolerability of MT-7117 in patients with early, progressive diffuse cutaneous SSc is currently in progress.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Animais , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Pele/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
9.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(9): 758, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056008

RESUMO

Metastatic breast cancer cannot be cured, and alteration of fatty acid metabolism contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we were interested in the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 5 (Elovl5) in breast cancer. We observed that breast cancer tumors had a lower expression of Elovl5 than normal breast tissues. Furthermore, low expression of Elovl5 is associated with a worse prognosis in ER+ breast cancer patients. In accordance with this finding, decrease of Elovl5 expression was more pronounced in ER+ breast tumors from patients with metastases in lymph nodes. Although downregulation of Elovl5 expression limited breast cancer cell proliferation and cancer progression, suppression of Elovl5 promoted EMT, cell invasion and lung metastases in murine breast cancer models. The loss of Elovl5 expression induced upregulation of TGF-ß receptors mediated by a lipid-droplet accumulation-dependent Smad2 acetylation. As expected, inhibition of TGF-ß receptors restored proliferation and dampened invasion in low Elovl5 expressing cancer cells. Interestingly, the abolition of lipid-droplet formation by inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity reversed induction of TGF-ß receptors, cell invasion, and lung metastasis triggered by Elovl5 knockdown. Altogether, we showed that Elovl5 is involved in metastasis through lipid droplets-regulated TGF-ß receptor expression and is a predictive biomarker of metastatic ER+ breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 453, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new type of stable noncoding RNA and have been proven to play a crucial role in osteoporosis. This study explored the role and mechanism of hsa_circ_0001485 in osteogenic differentiation. METHODS: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis were performed according to the previous sequencing data in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) before and after the induction of osteogenic differentiation on the differentially expressed circRNAs, to screen out signaling pathways associated with osteogenic differentiation. The hFOB 1.19 cells were used to verify the function and mechanism of specific circRNAs in osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, small interfering fragments and overexpression plasmids were used to determine the role of specific circRNAs during osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, pull-down experiments and mass spectrometry were performed to determine the proteins that bind to specific circRNAs. RESULTS: The KEGG and GO enrichment analyses showed that the TGFß-BMP signaling pathway was related to the osteogenic differentiation process, and four circRNAs were associated with the pathway. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that hsa_circ_0001485 expression was increased during the osteogenic differentiation process of BMSCs. Knockdown of hsa_circ_0001485 suppressed the activity of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme and the expression of RUNX2, osteopontin, and osteocalcin in the osteogenic hFOB 1.19 cells, whereas overexpression of hsa_circ_0001485 promoted their expression. Additionally, we found that hsa_circ_0001485 and BMPR2 targeted binding to activate the TGFß-BMP signaling pathway and promoted osteogenic differentiation through mass spectrometry analysis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that hsa_circ_0001485 is highly expressed in the osteogenic hFOB 1.19 cells, which activate the TGFß-BMP pathway through targeted binding of BMPR2, and plays a positive role in regulating osteogenic differentiation.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , MicroRNAs , Osteogênese , RNA Circular , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/genética , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(10): 6, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094643

RESUMO

Purpose: Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid produced by a traditional Chinese plant, was recently attributed multiple effects on lipometabolism, inflammation, and fibrosis. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is highly associated with these pathologic changes. Thus, we aimed to examine the potential therapeutic effect of BBR in an in vitro model of TAO. Methods: Orbital fibroblasts (OFs) obtained from control donors (n = 6) or patients with TAO (n = 6) were cultured. The CCK-8 assay was conducted for assessing the optimal concentration range. Oil Red O staining, Western blotting, and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) were conducted to assess adipogenesis in OFs. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to screen the key pathways of the antiadipogenic effect mediated by BBR. Along with incremental concentrations of BBR, IL-1ß-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules was determined by ELISA and qRT-PCR. In addition, TGF-ß-induced hyaluronan (HA) production and fibrosis were evaluated by ELISA, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. Results: TAO-OFs, but not control fibroblasts (CON-OFs), were readily differentiated into adipocytes with the commercial medium. Intracellular lipid accumulation was dose-dependently decreased by BBR, and adipogenic markers were also downregulated. Moreover, the PPARγ and AMPK pathways were screened out by RNA-seq and their downstream effectors were suppressed by BBR. Besides, BBR attenuated IL-1ß-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules in both TAO-OFs and CON-OFs by blocking nuclear factor-κB signaling. BBR's inhibitory effect on TGF-ß-mediated tissue remodeling was also confirmed in OFs. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate BBR has outstanding capabilities of controlling adipogenesis, inflammation, HA production, and fibrosis in OFs, highlighting its potential therapeutic role in TAO management.


Assuntos
Berberina , Oftalmopatia de Graves , Berberina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Oftalmopatia de Graves/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Órbita/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
12.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 368, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main risk factor for glaucoma, which might cause the activation of astrocytes in optic nerve head. To determine the effect of mechanical stretch on the astrocytes, we investigated the changes in cell phenotype, proteins of interest and signaling pathways under biaxial stretch. METHOD: The cultured astrocytes in rat optic nerve head were stretched biaxially by 10 and 17% for 24 h, respectively. Then, we detected the morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of the stretched cells, and performed proteomics analysis. Protein expression was analyzed by Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry. Proteins of interest and signaling pathways were screened using Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and pathway enrichment analysis, and the results were verified by western blot and the gene-chip data from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. RESULT: The results showed that rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in response to stimulation by mechanical stress and proliferation rate of astrocytes decreased under 10 and 17% stretch condition, while there was no significant difference on the apoptosis rate of astrocytes in both groups. In the iTRAQ quantitative experiment, there were 141 differential proteins in the 10% stretch group and 140 differential proteins in the 17% stretch group. These proteins include low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP6), caspase recruitment domain family, member 10 (CARD10), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) and tetraspanin (CD81). The western blot results of LRP6, THBS1 and CD81 were consistent with that of iTRAQ experiment. ANTXR2 and CARD10 were both differentially expressed in the mass spectrometry results and GEO database. We also screened out the signaling pathways associated with astrocyte activation, including Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, ECM-receptor interaction, and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: Mechanical stimulation can induce changes in cell phenotype, some proteins and signaling pathways, which might be associated with astrocyte activation. These proteins and signaling pathways may help us have a better understanding on the activation of astrocytes and the role astrocyte activation played in glaucomatous optic neuropathy.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Disco Óptico , Animais , Astrócitos , Glaucoma/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Ratos , Trombospondina 1/metabolismo , Trombospondina 1/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores/farmacologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , beta Catenina/farmacologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 945513, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119028

RESUMO

This systematic review aimed to investigate immune-inflammatory and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis biomarkers in individuals with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) compared to healthy control. The search was performed in five databases until 4 November 2021. Two reviewers independently conducted screenings, data extraction, risk of bias, and methodological quality assessment of 14 unique studies. All studies reported the source of the fluid analyzed: nine studies used serum, two used plasma, one used serum and plasma, and two studies used salivary cortisol. We found preliminary and limited evidence (only one study for each biomarker) of increased levels in growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), interleukin-23 (IL-23), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1) in NSLBP. Inconsistent and limited evidence was identified for interleukin-10 (IL-10). Although C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels appear to increase in NSLBP, only one study per each biomarker reported statistically significant differences. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) showed no significant differences. Regarding cortisol, one study showed a significant increase and another a significant decrease. More robust evidence between GDF-15, IL-23, TGF-ß, and sTNF-R1 with NSLBP is needed. Moreover, contrary to the findings reported in previous studies, when comparing results exclusively with healthy control, insufficient robust evidence for IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP was found in NSLBP. In addition, cortisol response (HPA-related biomarker) showed a dysregulated functioning in NSLBP, with incongruent evidence regarding its directionality. Therefore, our effort is to find adjusted evidence to conclude which immune-inflammatory and HPA axis biomarkers are altered in NSLBP and how much their levels are affected. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42020176153, identifier CRD42020176153.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Mol Med Rep ; 26(5)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102309

RESUMO

Depletion of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expression has previously been reported to promote hypertrophy, dysfunction and fibrosis in stress overload­induced hearts; however, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. In the present study, the mechanism underlying the activation of cysteine­rich angiogenic protein 61 (Cyr61) by ATF3 in hyperproliferative and fibrotic human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs), induced by angiotensin II (Ang II), was evaluated. The mRNA and protein expression levels of ATF3 and Cyr61 were assessed using reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. The Cell Counting Kit­8 assay was used to assess cell viability. Cell migration was assessed using the wound healing assay and western blotting, whereas the extent of cell fibrosis was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. The binding site of ATF3 to the Cyr61 promoter was predicted using the JASPAR database, and verified using luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The results demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of ATF3 were significantly upregulated in Ang II­induced HCFs. Overexpression of ATF3 significantly inhibited the Ang II­induced viability, migration and fibrosis of HCFs, whereas ATF3 knockdown mediated significant opposing effects. Mechanistically, ATF3 was demonstrated to transcriptionally activate Cyr61. Cyr61 silencing was subsequently revealed to reverse the effects of ATF3 overexpression on HCFs potentially via regulation of the TGF­ß/Smad signaling pathway. The results of the present study suggested that ATF3 could suppress HCF viability and fibrosis via the TGF­ß/Smad signaling pathway by activating the transcription of Cyr61.


Assuntos
Fator 3 Ativador da Transcrição , Angiotensina II , Fator 3 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 3 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Angiogênicas , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Cisteína , Fibrose , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
15.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1690-1700, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073930

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Kirenol possesses anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and anti-arthritic effects. However, its reno-protective effects against diabetic nephropathy (DN) have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the reno-protective effects of kirenol against DN and clarifies the potential mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mesangial cells were treated with 20 µM kirenol and 10 ng/mL human recombinant TGF-ß1 or 30 mM glucose for 24 h. Then the cells were harvested to assay the expression of the target genes or proteins. Thirty C57BL/6J male mice were given high-fat diet with streptozotocin injection to induce diabetes and then were randomized into three groups (n = 10): vehicle administration (DM group), 2 mg/kg kirenol (DM + kirenol group) and 200 mg/kg metformin (Met group) for 3 months, orally. A healthy group (Con, n = 10) was included as the control. RESULTS: Compared to the DM group, kirenol treatment decreased the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and NF-κB (0.64- and 0.43-fold) as well as the accumulation of FN and Col IV (0.58- and 0.35-fold); moreover, the expression of IκBα was restored to normal level by kirenol treatment both in vivo and in vitro. After kirenol treatment, IL-6 expression was decreased 0.35- and 0.57-fold, and TNF-α expression was decreased 0.34- and 0.46-fold, in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Furthermore, kirenol alleviated the glomerular basement membrane thickness and foot process fusion. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Kirenol could alleviate DN by downregulating the TGF-ß/Smads and the NF-κB signal pathway. Our study provides a potential mechanism for the treatment of DN with kirenol.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Diterpenos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 935114, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059455

RESUMO

Fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) develops due to the impaired reparative processes following lung tissue damage. Cellular senescence has been reported to contribute to the progression of fibrosis. However, the mechanisms by which these senescent cells initiate and/or drive the progression of lung tissue fibrosis are not yet fully understood. We demonstrated that p21WAF1/CIP1- and p16INK4A-pathway-dependent senescence in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) were both involved in the initiation and progression of lung fibrosis in murine bleomycin (BLM)-induced ILD. p21WAF1/CIP1-senescent AEC2 emerged rapidly, as early as 1 day after the intratracheal instillation of BLM. Their number subsequently increased and persisted until the later fibrosis phase. Very few p16INK4A-senescent AEC2 emerged upon the instillation of BLM, and their increase was slower and milder than that of p21WAF1/CIP1+ AEC2. AEC2 enriched with senescent cells sorted from BLM-ILD lungs expressed senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)-related genes, including Il6, Serpin1, Tnfa, Ccl2, Tgfb, and Pdgfa, at the initiation and chronic phases of fibrosis, exhibiting distinct expression patterns of magnitude that were dependent on the disease phase. Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes increased in the lungs immediately after the instillation of BLM and interstitial macrophages increased from day 3. The expression of Acta2 and Col1a1 was upregulated as early as day 1, indicating the activation of fibroblasts. We speculated that IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and TGF-ß contributed to the accumulation of senescent cells during the progression of fibrosis in an autocrine and paracrine manner. In addition, CCL2, produced in large amounts by senescent AEC2, may have induced the infiltration of Ly6C+ inflammatory monocytes in the early phase, and TGF-ß and PDGFa from senescent AEC2 may contribute to the activation of fibroblasts in the very early phases. Our study indicated that senescent AEC2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosing ILD throughout the course of the disease and provides insights into its pathogenesis, which may lead to the development of new therapeutic methods targeting senescent cells or SASP molecules.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares , Fibrose Pulmonar , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Bleomicina , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/fisiologia , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Fibrose , Camundongos , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 942468, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072589

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) is a long-known modulator of immune responses but has seemingly contradictory effects on B cells. Among cytokines, TGFß has the particularity of being produced and secreted in a latent form and must be activated before it can bind to its receptor and induce signaling. While the concept of controlled delivery of TGFß signaling via αvß8 integrin-mediated activation has gained some interest in the field of mucosal immunity, the role of this molecular mechanism in regulating T-dependent B cell responses is just emerging. We review here the role of TGFß and its activation, in particular by αvß8 integrin, in the regulation of mucosal IgA responses and its demonstrated and putative involvement in regulating germinal center (GC) B cell responses. We examine both the direct effect of TGFß on GC B cells and its ability to modulate the functions of helper cells, namely follicular T cells (Tfh and Tfr) and follicular dendritic cells. Synthetizing recently published works, we reconcile apparently conflicting data and propose an innovative and unified view on the regulation of the GC reaction by TGFß, highlighting the role of its activation by αvß8 integrin.


Assuntos
Centro Germinativo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Linfócitos B , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 875593, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090996

RESUMO

Background: Biliary atresia (BA) is a childhood liver disease characterized by fibrous obstruction and obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary system and is one of the most common and serious biliary disorders in infants. Significant inflammation and fibrosis of the liver and biliary tract are the most prominent features, regardless of the initial damage to the BA. Abnormalities in innate or adaptive immunity have been found in human patients and mouse models of BA. We previously reported that children with BA had abnormal lipid metabolism, including free serum carnitine. Objective: To study gene and protein expression levels of the hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) signaling pathway and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in BA and BA fibrosis, and assess their clinical values. Methods: Low expression of PPARα and NR1H4 (FXR) in BA were validated in the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Functional differences were determined by gene set enrichment analysis based on of PPARα and NR1H4 expression. BA patients from GSE46960 were divided into two clusters by using consensus clustering according to PPARα, NR1H4, and SMAD3 expression levels, and immunoinfiltration analysis was performed. Finally, 58 cases treated in our hospital were used for experimental verification. (IHC: 10 Biliary atresia, 10 choledochal cysts; PCR: 10 Biliary atresia, 14 choledochal cysts; WB: 10 Biliary atresia, 4 choledochal cysts). Results: Bioinformatics analysis showed that the expression of PPARα, CYP7A1 and NR1H4 (FXR) in the biliary atresia group was significantly lower than in the control group. More BA-specific pathways, including TGFß signaling pathway, P53 signaling pathway, PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway, etc., are enriched in BA patients with low PPARα and NR1H4 expression. In addition, low NR1H4 expression is abundant in inflammatory responses, IL6/STAT3 signaling pathways, early estrogen responses, IL2 STAT5 signaling pathways, and TGFß signaling pathways. The TGFß signaling pathway was significant in both groups. According to the expression of PPARα, NR1H4 and SMAD3, a key node in TGFß pathway, BA patients were divided into two clusters using consensus clustering. In cluster 2, SMAD3 expression was high, and PPARα and NR1H4 expression were low. In contrast to cluster 1, immune cell infiltration was higher in cluster 2, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARα and NR1H4 in BA patients were lower than in the control group by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Conclusions: The downregulation of PPARα and NR1H4 (FXR) signaling pathway may be closely related to biliary atresia.


Assuntos
Atresia Biliar , Cisto do Colédoco , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Atresia Biliar/genética , Criança , Cisto do Colédoco/metabolismo , Fibrose , Humanos , Lactente , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078047

RESUMO

Interleukin-2 is central to the induction and maintenance of both natural (nTreg) and induced Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (iTreg). Thus, signals that modulate IL-2 availability may, in turn, also influence Treg homeostasis. Using global knockout and cell-specific knockout mouse models, we evaluated the role of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 4d (Arl4d) in regulatory T-cell biology. We show that the expression of Arl4d in T cells restricts both IL-2 production and responsiveness to IL-2, as measured by the phosphorylation of STAT5. Arl4d-deficient CD4 T cells converted more efficiently into Foxp3+ iTreg in vitro in the presence of αCD3ε and TGFß, which was associated with their enhanced IL-2 secretion. As such, Arl4d-/- CD4 T cells induced significantly less colonic inflammation and lymphocytic infiltration in a model of transfer colitis. Thus, our data reveal a negative regulatory role for Arl4d in CD4 T-cell biology, limiting iTreg conversion via the restriction of IL-2 production, leading to reduced induction of Treg from conventional CD4 T cells.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2 , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
20.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078078

RESUMO

Cachexia is a metabolic syndrome consisting of massive loss of muscle mass and function that has a severe impact on the quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Up to 20% of lung cancer patients and up to 80% of pancreatic cancer patients are diagnosed with cachexia, leading to death in 20% of them. The main drivers of cachexia are cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1/GDF15) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). Besides its double-edged role as a tumor suppressor and activator, TGF-ß causes muscle loss through myostatin-based signaling, involved in the reduction in protein synthesis and enhanced protein degradation. Additionally, TGF-ß induces inhibin and activin, causing weight loss and muscle depletion, while MIC-1/GDF15, a member of the TGF-ß superfamily, leads to anorexia and so, indirectly, to muscle wasting, acting on the hypothalamus center. Against this background, the blockade of TGF-ß is tested as a potential mechanism to revert cachexia, and antibodies against TGF-ß reduced weight and muscle loss in murine models of pancreatic cancer. This article reviews the role of the TGF-ß pathway and to a minor extent of other molecules including microRNA in cancer onset and progression with a special focus on their involvement in cachexia, to enlighten whether TGF-ß and such other players could be potential targets for therapy.


Assuntos
Caquexia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Animais , Caquexia/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Qualidade de Vida , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores
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