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1.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14630, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold a promising potential for rescuing dopaminergic neurons in therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). This study clarifies a TREM2-dependent mechanism explaining the function of iPSC differentiation in neuronal repair of PD. METHODS: PD-related differentially expressed genes were screened by bioinformatics analyses and their expression was verified using RT-qPCR in nigral tissues of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. Following ectopic expression and depletion experiments in iPSCs, cell differentiation into dopaminergic neurons as well as the expression of dopaminergic neuronal markers TH and DAT was measured. Stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA was used to develop a mouse model of PD, which was injected with iPSC suspension overexpressing TREM2 to verify the effect of TREM2 on neuronal repair. RESULTS: TREM2 was poorly expressed in the nigral tissues of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. In the presence of TREM2 overexpression, the iPSCs showed increased expression of dopaminergic neuronal markers TH and DAT, which facilitated the differentiation of iPSCs into dopaminergic neurons. Mechanistic investigations indicated that TREM2 activated the TGF-ß pathway and induced iPSC differentiation into dopaminergic neurons. In vivo data showed that iPSCs overexpressing TREM2 enhanced neuronal repair in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. CONCLUSION: This work identifies a mechanistic insight for TREM2-mediated TGF-ß activation in the regulation of neuronal repair in PD and suggests novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Camundongos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Oxidopamina/toxicidade , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
2.
J Cell Biol ; 223(4)2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407425

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) and HER2 signaling collaborate to promote breast cancer progression. However, their molecular interplay is largely unclear. TGF-ß can activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and AKT, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we report that TGF-ß enhances HER2 activation, leading to the activation of MAPK and AKT. This process depends on the TGF-ß type I receptor TßRI kinase activity. TßRI phosphorylates HER2 at Ser779, promoting Y1248 phosphorylation and HER2 activation. Mice with HER2 S779A mutation display impaired mammary morphogenesis, reduced ductal elongation, and branching. Furthermore, wild-type HER2, but not S779A mutant, promotes TGF-ß-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and lung metastasis of breast cells. Increased HER2 S779 phosphorylation is observed in human breast cancers and positively correlated with the activation of HER2, MAPK, and AKT. Our findings demonstrate the crucial role of TGF-ß-induced S779 phosphorylation in HER2 activation, mammary gland development, and the pro-oncogenic function of TGF-ß in breast cancer progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Receptor ErbB-2 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/química , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I/metabolismo , Mama/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Cells ; 13(4)2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391973

RESUMO

Conjunctival fibrosis is a serious clinical concern implicated in a wide spectrum of eye diseases, including outcomes of surgery for pterygium and glaucoma. It is mainly driven by chronic inflammation that stimulates conjunctival fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts over time, leading to abnormal wound healing and scar formation. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulation was found to suppress transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)-induced myofibroblastic differentiation in various stromal cells such as skin and pulmonary fibroblasts, as well as corneal keratocytes. Here, we evaluated the in vitro effects of stimulation of the sGC enzyme with the cell-permeable pyrazolopyridinylpyrimidine compound BAY 41-2272 in modulating the TGFß1-mediated profibrotic activation of human conjunctival fibroblasts. Cells were pretreated with the sGC stimulator before challenging with recombinant human TGFß1, and subsequently assayed for viability, proliferation, migration, invasiveness, myofibroblast marker expression, and contractile properties. Stimulation of sGC significantly counteracted TGFß1-induced cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and acquisition of a myofibroblast-like phenotype, as shown by a significant downregulation of FAP, ACTA2, COL1A1, COL1A2, FN1, MMP2, TIMP1, and TIMP2 mRNA levels, as well as by a significant reduction in α-smooth muscle actin, N-cadherin, COL1A1, and FN-EDA protein expression. In addition, pretreatment with the sGC stimulator was capable of significantly dampening TGFß1-induced acquisition of a contractile phenotype by conjunctival fibroblasts, as well as phosphorylation of Smad3 and release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-6. Taken together, our findings are the first to demonstrate the effectiveness of pharmacological sGC stimulation in counteracting conjunctival fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition, thus providing a promising scientific background to further explore the feasibility of sGC stimulators as potential new adjuvant therapeutic compounds to treat conjunctival fibrotic conditions.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos , Miofibroblastos , Humanos , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ceratócitos da Córnea/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3517, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347040

RESUMO

Aqueous humor (AH) and blood levels of transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) are elevated in idiopathic primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) representing a disease biomarker of unclear status and function. Tsk mice display a POAG phenotype and harbor a mutation of fibrillin-1, an important regulator of TGFß bioavailability. AH TGFß2 was higher in Tsk than wild-type (WT) mice (by 34%; p = 0.002; ELISA); similarly, AH TGFß2 was higher in human POAG than controls (2.7-fold; p = 0.00005). As in POAG, TGFß1 was elevated in Tsk serum (p = 0.01). Fibrillin-1 was detected in AH from POAG subjects and Tsk mice where both had similar levels relative to controls (p = 0.45). 350 kDa immunoblot bands representing WT full-length fibrillin-1 were present in human and mouse AH. A 418 kDa band representing mutant full-length fibrillin-1 was present only in Tsk mice. Lower molecular weight fibrillin-1 antibody-reactive bands were present in similar patterns in humans and mice. Certain bands (130 and 32 kDa) were elevated only in human POAG and Tsk mice (p ≤ 0.04 relative to controls) indicating discrete isoforms relevant to disease. In addition to sharing a phenotype, Tsk mice and human POAG subjects had common TGFß and fibrillin-1 features in AH and also blood that are pertinent to understanding glaucoma pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Fibrilina-1/genética , Fibrilina-1/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
5.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 25(1): 18, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disease with complex pathogenesis, short median survival time, and high mortality. There are few effective drugs approved for pulmonary fibrosis treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of praziquantel (PZQ) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PZQ in pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model induced by BLM. Parameters investigated included survival rate, lung histopathology, pulmonary collagen deposition, mRNA expression of key genes involved in pulmonary fibrosis pathogenesis, the activity of fibroblast, and M2/M1 macrophage ratio. RESULTS: We found that PZQ improved the survival rate of mice and reduced the body weight loss induced by BLM. Histological examination showed that PZQ significantly inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells, collagen deposition, and hydroxyproline content in BLM-induced mice. Besides, PZQ reduced the expression of TGF-ß and MMP-12 in vivo and inhibited the proliferation of fibroblast induced by TGF-ß in vitro. Furthermore, PZQ affected the balance of M2/M1 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that PZQ could ameliorate BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice by affecting the balance of M2/M1 macrophages and suppressing the expression of TGF-ß and MMP-12. These findings suggest that PZQ may act as an effective anti-fibrotic agent for preventing the progression of pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar , Animais , Camundongos , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/uso terapêutico , Pulmão , Fibrose , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 204, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an aggressive tumor of the gastrointestinal tract, which is a major public health concern worldwide. Despite numerous studies, the precise mechanism of metastasis behind its progression remains elusive. As a member of the containing olfactomedin domains protein family, olfactomedin 2 (OLFM2) may play a role in tumor metastasis. It is highly expressed in colorectal cancer, and its role in the metastasis of CRC is still unclear. As such, this study seeks to explore the function of OLFM2 on CRC metastasis and its potential mechanisms. METHODS: Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to study the expression of OLFM2 in human CRC and adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown and overexpression OLFM2 cell lines were constructed using siRNA and overexpression plasmids to explore the role of OLFM2 in the migration and invasion of CRC through transwell, and wound healing experiments. Finally, the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) -related proteins and TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway-related proteins was investigated using western blotting. RESULTS: In this study, we observed an elevation of OLFM2 expression levels in CRC tissues. To investigate the function of OLFM2, we overexpressed and knocked down OLFM2. We discovered that OLFM2 knockdown inhibited migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression increased while N-cadherin and Vimentin expression were opposite. It is no surprise that overexpressing OLFM2 had the opposite effects. We also identified that OLFM2 knockdown resulted in reduced TGF-ßR1 and downstream molecules p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, which are related to the TGF-ß / Smad pathway. In contrast, overexpressing OLFM2 significantly boosted their expression levels. CONCLUSION: The protein OLFM2 has been identified as a crucial determinant in the progression of CRC. Its mechanism of action involves the facilitation of EMT through the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway. Given its pivotal role in CRC, OLFM2 has emerged as a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target for the disease. These results indicate the potential of OLFM2 as a valuable biomarker for CRC diagnosis and treatment and highlight the need for further research exploring its clinical significance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3811, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361039

RESUMO

Previous studies have confirmed that ascorbic acid (AA) can promote cartilage repair and improve cartilage differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the use of microfracture (MFX) combined with AA to repair cartilage damage has not been studied. This study established a rabbit animal model and treated cartilage injury with different concentrations of AA combined with MFX. Macroscopic observations, histological analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of TGF-ß, AKT/Nrf2, and VEGF mRNA expression were performed. The results showed that intra-articular injection of AA had a positive effect on cartilage repair mediated by microfractures. Moreover, 10 mg/ml AA was the most effective at promoting cartilage repair mediated by microfractures. Intra-articular injection of AA promoted the synthesis of type II collagen and the formation of glycosaminoglycans by downregulating the mRNA expression of TGF-ß and VEGF. In summary, this study confirmed that AA could promote cartilage repair after MFX surgery.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Fraturas de Estresse , Animais , Coelhos , Fraturas de Estresse/patologia , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
8.
Development ; 151(4)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372390

RESUMO

Embryogenesis results from the coordinated activities of different signaling pathways controlling cell fate specification and morphogenesis. In vertebrate gastrulation, both Nodal and BMP signaling play key roles in germ layer specification and morphogenesis, yet their interplay to coordinate embryo patterning with morphogenesis is still insufficiently understood. Here, we took a reductionist approach using zebrafish embryonic explants to study the coordination of Nodal and BMP signaling for embryo patterning and morphogenesis. We show that Nodal signaling triggers explant elongation by inducing mesendodermal progenitors but also suppressing BMP signaling activity at the site of mesendoderm induction. Consistent with this, ectopic BMP signaling in the mesendoderm blocks cell alignment and oriented mesendoderm intercalations, key processes during explant elongation. Translating these ex vivo observations to the intact embryo showed that, similar to explants, Nodal signaling suppresses the effect of BMP signaling on cell intercalations in the dorsal domain, thus allowing robust embryonic axis elongation. These findings suggest a dual function of Nodal signaling in embryonic axis elongation by both inducing mesendoderm and suppressing BMP effects in the dorsal portion of the mesendoderm.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Padronização Corporal/genética , Proteína Nodal/genética , Proteína Nodal/metabolismo , Morfogênese/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
9.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298981, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359038

RESUMO

Inflammation is thought to contribute to the etiology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). It is well-known that disruption in metabolism in immune cells contributes to inflammation in several inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cellular bioenergetics is altered in monocytes and lymphocytes from women with IC/BPS, and if these alterations correlate with systemic inflammatory markers. Age and BMI matched adult healthy women (HS; n = 18) and women with IC/BPS (n = 18) were included in the study. Blood was collected to assess cellular bioenergetics in monocytes and lymphocytes using a Seahorse XF96 Analyzer and plasma cytokine levels were measured using Meso Scale Discovery immunoassays. The correlation between bioenergetic parameters, cytokines, and demographics was determined using Pearson correlation coefficients. Means of the two groups were compared using the two-group t-test. Patients with IC/BPS had reduced monocyte oxygen consumption rates and glycolytic rates compared to healthy subjects. In contrast, lymphocytes from these patients had increased oxygen consumption rates and glycolytic rates. Several cytokines and chemokines including Interferon-gamma (IFN-É£), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-ɑ), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were significantly elevated in the plasma of patients with IC/BPS. However, Transforming growth factor (TGF-ß) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were significantly decreased in IC/BPS patients compared to HS. In addition, Interferon gamma (IFN-É£), TNF-ɑ, IL-8, and TGF-ß levels correlated with several bioenergetic parameters in monocytes or lymphocytes from healthy subjects. In contrast, TNF-ɑ and IL-8 correlated with bioenergetic parameters in monocytes from IC/BPS patients. Monocyte and lymphocyte cellular bioenergetics and plasma cytokine levels are different in patients with IC/PBS compared to HS. It appears that systemic inflammation is greater in this cohort which may negatively impact immune cell function. The relationship between cellular bioenergetics and inflammation in monocytes and lymphocytes could be important in understanding the pathogenesis of IC/PBS and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Cistite Intersticial , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Cistite Intersticial/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
10.
Oncol Res ; 32(3): 477-487, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361760

RESUMO

Intracellular communications between breast cancer and fibroblast cells were reported to be involved in cancer proliferation, growth, and therapy resistance. The hallmarks of cancer-fibroblast interactions, consisting of caveolin 1 (Cav1) and mono-carboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) (metabolic coupling markers), along with IL-6, TGFß, and lactate secretion, are considered robust biomarkers predicting recurrence and metastasis. In order to promote a novel phenotype in normal fibroblasts, we predicted that breast cancer cells could be able to cause loss of Cav1 and increase of MCT4, as well as elevate IL-6 and TGFß in nearby normal fibroblasts. We created a co-culture model using breast cancer (4T1) and normal fibroblast (NIH3T3) cell lines cultured under specific experimental conditions in order to directly test our theory. Moreover, we show that long-term co-culture of breast cancer cells and normal fibroblasts promotes loss of Cav1 and gain of MCT4 in adjacent fibroblasts and increase lactate secretion. These results were validated using the monoculture of each group separately as a control. In this system, we show that metformin inhibits IL-6 and TGFß secretion and re-expresses Cav1 in both cells. However, MCT4 and lactate stayed high after treatment with metformin. In conclusion, our work shows that co-culture with breast cancer cells may cause significant alterations in the phenotype and secretion of normal fibroblasts. Metformin, however, may change this state and affect fibroblasts' acquired phenotypes. Moreover, mitochondrial inhibition by metformin after 8 days of treatment, significantly hinders tumor growth in mouse model of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Metformina , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Feminino , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Células NIH 3T3 , Estresse Oxidativo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
11.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(2): e13606, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dopamine (D) and serotonin (5-HT) pathways contribute to psoriasis pathobiology. Disruptions incite increased inflammatory mediators, keratinocyte activation and deterioration, and worsening symptoms. Brilaroxazine (RP5063), which displays potent high binding affinity to D2/3/4 and 5-HT1A/2A/2B/7 receptors and a moderate affinity to serotonin transporter (SERT), may affect the underlying psoriasis pathology. METHODS: An imiquimod-induced psoriatic mouse model (BALB/c) evaluated brilaroxazine's activity in a topical liposomal-aqueous gel (Lipogel) formulation. Two of the three groups (n = 6 per) underwent induction with 5% imiquimod, and one group received topical brilaroxazine Lipogel (Days 1-11). Assessments included (1) Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores (Days 1-12), skin histology for Baker score based on H&E stained tissue (Day 12), and serum blood collection for serum cytokine analysis (Day 12). One-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnett's t-test evaluated significance (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Imiquimod-induced animal Baker scores were higher versus Sham non-induced control's results (p < 0.001). Brilaroxazine Lipogel had significantly (p = 0.003) lower Baker scores versus the induced Psoriasis group. Brilaroxazine PASI scores were lower (p = 0.03) versus the induced Psoriasis group (Days 3-12), with the greatest effect in the last 3 days. The induced Psoriasis group showed higher Ki-67 and TGF-ß levels versus non-induced Sham controls (p = 0.001). The brilaroxazine Lipogel group displayed lower levels of these cytokines versus the induced Psoriasis group, Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and TGF-ß (p = 0.008), and no difference in TNF-α levels versus Sham non-induced controls. CONCLUSION: Brilaroxazine Lipogel displayed significant activity in imiquimod-induced psoriatic animals, offering a novel therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos , Psoríase , Animais , Camundongos , Imiquimode/efeitos adversos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Serotonina/farmacologia , Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/farmacologia , Citocinas/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças
12.
FASEB J ; 38(4): e23491, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363556

RESUMO

According to recent research, metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has emerged as an important underlying etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism of MAFLD-HCC is still unclear. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is the key molecule to mediate the signal of inflammatory NF-κB pathway. This study aims to investigate the potential dysregulation of TRAF2 and its biological function in MAFLD-HCC. Huh7 TRAF2-/- demonstrated increased tumor formation ability compared to huh7 TRAF2+/+ when stimulated with transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß). The decisive role of TGF-ß in the development of MAFLD-HCC was confirmed through the specific depletion of TGF-ß receptor II gene in the hepatocytes (Tgfbr2ΔHep) of mice. In TRAF2-/- cells treated with TGF-ß, both the glycolysis rate and lipid synthesis were enhanced. We proved the signal of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) could be activated in the presence of TGF-ß, and was enhanced in TRAF2-/- cells. The coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments revealed that TRAF2 fortified the Smurf2-mediated ubiquitination degradation of AXIN1. Hence, TRAF2 depletion resulted in increased Smad7 degradation induced by AXIN1, thus promoting the TGF-ß signal. We also discovered that PLX-4720 could bind with AXIN1 and restrained the tumor proliferation of TRAF2-/- in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Our findings indicate that TRAF2 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of MAFLD-HCC. The reduction of TRAF2 expression leads to the enhancement of the TGF-ß-mTORC1 pathway by facilitating AXIN1-mediated Smad7 degradation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Camundongos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Proteína Smad7/genética , Proteína Smad7/metabolismo
13.
Int Wound J ; 21(2): e14762, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356162

RESUMO

Ischemic ulcers pose a multifaceted clinical dilemma for patients with atherosclerosis, frequently compounded by suboptimal wound healing mechanisms. The dual function of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 3 (TGF-ß3) in ischemic ulcer healing is not fully comprehended, despite its involvement in modulating inflammatory responses and tissue regeneration. The main aim of this investigation was to clarify the functions and mechanisms by which TGF-ß3 regulates inflammatory responses and promotes wound healing in patients with ischemic ulcers who have atherosclerosis. Between August 2022 and November 2023, this cross-sectional investigation was conducted on 428 patients diagnosed with atherosclerotic ischemic ulcers in Haikou, China. The expression and function of TGF-ß3 were examined throughout the different stages of wound healing, including inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. In addition to documenting patient demographics and ulcer characteristics, an analysis was conducted on biopsy samples to determine the expression of TGF-ß3, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers. A subset of patients were administered topical TGF-ß3 in order to evaluate its therapeutic effects. The expression pattern of TGF-ß3 was found to be stage-dependent and significant, exhibiting increased levels during the phase of inflammation and reduced activity in subsequent phases. TGF-ß3 levels were found to be greater in ulcers that were larger and deeper, especially in inflammatory phase. TGF-ß3 applied topically induced discernible enhancement in ulcer healing parameters, such as reduction in ulcer depth and size. The therapeutic significance of TGF-ß3 was emphasised due to its twofold function of regulating the inflammatory environment and facilitating the regeneration of damaged tissues. Ischemic ulcer lesion healing is significantly influenced by TGF-ß3, which functions as an anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediator. Its correlation with ulcer characteristics and stages of healing suggests that it may have utility as a targeted therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta3 , Humanos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Estudos Transversais , Inflamação , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/análise , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta3/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta3/farmacologia , Úlcera , Cicatrização
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339020

RESUMO

The mechanism of fish gonadal sex differentiation is complex and regulated by multiple factors. It has been widely known that proper steroidogenesis in Leydig cells and sex-related genes in Sertoli cells play important roles in gonadal sex differentiation. In teleosts, the precise interaction of these signals during the sexual fate determination remains elusive, especially their effect on the bi-potential gonad during the critical stage of sexual fate determination. Recently, all-testis phenotypes have been observed in the cyp17a1-deficient zebrafish and common carp, as well as in cyp19a1a-deficient zebrafish. By mating cyp17a1-deficient fish with transgenic zebrafish Tg(piwil1:EGFP-nanos3UTR), germ cells in the gonads were labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). We classified the cyp17a1-deficient zebrafish and their control siblings into primordial germ cell (PGC)-rich and -less groups according to the fluorescence area of the EGFP labelling. Intriguingly, the EGFP-labelled bi-potential gonads in cyp17a1+/+ fish from the PGC-rich group were significantly larger than those of the cyp17a1-/- fish at 23 days post-fertilization (dpf). Based on the transcriptome analysis, we observed that the cyp17a1-deficient fish of the PGC-rich group displayed a significantly upregulated expression of amh and gsdf compared to that of control fish. Likewise, the upregulated expressions of amh and gsdf were observed in cyp19a1a-deficient fish as examined at 23 dpf. This upregulation of amh and gsdf could be repressed by treatment with an exogenous supplement of estradiol. Moreover, tamoxifen, an effective antagonist of both estrogen receptor α and ß (ERα and Erß), upregulates the expression of amh and gsdf in wild-type (WT) fish. Using the cyp17a1- and cyp19a1a-deficient zebrafish, we provide evidence to show that the upregulated expression of amh and gsdf due to the compromised estrogen signaling probably determines their sexual fate towards testis differentiation. Collectively, our data suggest that estrogen signaling inhibits the expression of amh and gsdf during the critical time of sexual fate determination, which may broaden the scope of sex steroid hormones in regulating gonadal sex differentiation in fish.


Assuntos
Hormônios Peptídicos , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Gônadas/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Testículo/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
15.
Brain Behav ; 14(1): e3351, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common type of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanism of conditioned medium (CM) in VaD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The rats were divided into four groups of control (n = 9), sham-operation (n = 10), VaD with vehicle (n = 9), and VaD with CM (n = 12) that received CM on days 4, 14, and 24 after 2VO. Before sacrificing the rats, cognitive performance was assessed through the open-field (OP), passive-avoidance, and Morris-water maze. The field-potential recording was used to investigate basal synaptic transmission (BST) and long-term potentiation (LTP). Subsequently, the hippocampus was dissected, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the expression levels of ß1-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß), glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and NR2B genes. RESULTS: The results indicated impaired performance in behavioral tests in 2VO rats, coupled with reductions in BST and LTP induction. The expression levels of ß1-catenin, IGF-1, PSD-95, and TGF-ß genes decreased, whereas NR2B and GSK-3ß expression increased. Treatment with CM restores the expression of PSD-95 and GSK-3ß as well as fear-memory, spatial learning, and grooming number without a positive effect on memory retrieval, time spent on the periphery and center of OP. The BST recovered upon administration of CM but, the LTP induction was still impaired. CONCLUSION: The recovery of BST in VaD rats appears to be the most important outcome of this study which is caused by the improvement of gene expression and leads to the restoration of fear memory.


Assuntos
Demência Vascular , Ratos , Animais , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large , Transmissão Sináptica , Cognição , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Cateninas/metabolismo , Cateninas/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo
16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(4): 1436-1451, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385079

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with high incidence and mortality, accounting for approximately 90% of liver cancer. The development of HCC is a complex process involving the abnormal activation or inactivation of multiple signaling pathways. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß)/Small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) signaling pathway regulates the development of HCC. TGF-ß activates intracellular SMADs protein through membrane receptors, resulting in a series of biological cascades. Accumulating studies have demonstrated that TGF-ß/SMAD signaling plays multiple regulatory functions in HCC. However, there is still controversy about the role of TGF-ß/SMAD in HCC. Because it involves different pathogenic factors, disease stages, and cell microenvironment, as well as upstream and downstream relationships with other signaling pathways. This review will summary the regulatory mechanism of the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling pathway in HCC, involving the regulation of different pathogenic factors, different disease stages, different cell populations, microenvironments, and the interaction with microRNAs. In addition, we also introduced small molecule inhibitors, therapeutic vaccines, and traditional Chinese medicine extracts based on targeting the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling pathway, which will provide future research direction for HCC therapy targeting the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 702: 149591, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) mediated immunomodulation by secreting certain bioactive cytokines has been recognized as a promising approach for disease treatment. However, microenvironmental oxygen tension affect immunomodulatory functions and activate autophagy in BMSCs. The mechanism governing BMSCs immunomodulation in hypoxia hasn't been expounded clearly. The aim of this study is to investigate the function of pathological hypoxia on immunomodulatory properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and its possible mechanism. METHODS: BMSCs were cultured in either normoxia (21 % oxygen) or hypoxia (0.1 % oxygen) for 24 h, then electron microscopy (EM) and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the activation of autophagy. Besides autophagy-related markers were monitored by Western blotting. Atg5 siRNA induced autophagic inhibition. Additional, gene expression levels of Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to detect BMSCs related cytokines. Both the proliferation and apoptosis of CD4+ T cell in co-culture were detected by flow cytometry. Exogenous anti-IL-10 antibody and anti-TGF-ß1 antibody were used in co-cultured BMSCs-CM and CD4+ T cells, which enabled us to assess how autophagy affected BMSCs-mediated CD4+ T cell proliferation in low oxygen tension. RESULT: Compared with normal BMSCs, Hypo-BMSCs enhanced the immunosuppressive effect of BMSCs on CD4+ T cell proliferation, while si-atg5 weakened the inhibition of Hypo-BMSCs. Furthermore, exogenous anti-TGF-ß1 antibody and the addition of anti-TGF-ß1 antibody reversed the immunosuppressive ability of Hypo-BMSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that BMSCs possess significant immunosuppression on CD4+T cell through IL-10 and TGF-ß1 dependent of autophagy in hypoxic microenvironment.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Autofagia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea
18.
Mol Immunol ; 167: 34-42, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340674

RESUMO

Myopia is widely recognized as an epidemic. Studies have found a link between Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-ß) and myopia, but the specific molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, a monocular model in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) was established to verify the molecular mechanism of TGF-ß in myopia. The results indicated that there were significant changes in TGF-ßs during the treatment of myopia, which could enhance the refractive ability and axial length of the eye. Immunohistochemical staining, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and immunoblotting results showed a significant upregulation of MMP2 and NF-κB levels, and a significant downregulation of COL-I expression in the TGF-ß treated eyes, suggesting that NF-κB and MMP2 are involved in the signaling pathways of TGF-ßs induced myopia and axial elongation. Moreover, the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, IL-1ß, TNF-α, TAK1, and NF-κB in the retina were all significantly elevated. This indicates that TGF-ß stimulates the inflammatory response of retinal pigment epithelial cells through the TAK1-NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests that TGF-ß promotes the progression of myopia by enhancing intraocular inflammation.


Assuntos
Miopia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Retina , Miopia/genética , Miopia/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
19.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 128, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360757

RESUMO

In pathologies including cancer, aberrant Transforming Growth Factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling exerts profound tumor intrinsic and extrinsic consequences. Intense clinical endeavors are underway to target this pathway. Central to the success of these interventions is pinpointing factors that decisively modulate the TGF-ß responses. Betaglycan/type III TGF-ß receptor (TßRIII), is an established co-receptor for the TGF-ß superfamily known to bind directly to TGF-ßs 1-3 and inhibin A/B. Betaglycan can be membrane-bound and also undergo ectodomain cleavage to produce soluble-betaglycan that can sequester its ligands. Its extracellular domain undergoes heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan modifications, transforming betaglycan into a proteoglycan. We report the unexpected discovery that the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains on betaglycan are critical for the ectodomain shedding. In the absence of such glycosaminoglycan chains betaglycan is not shed, a feature indispensable for the ability of betaglycan to suppress TGF-ß signaling and the cells' responses to exogenous TGF-ß ligands. Using unbiased transcriptomics, we identified TIMP3 as a key inhibitor of betaglycan shedding thereby influencing TGF-ß signaling. Our results bear significant clinical relevance as modified betaglycan is present in the ascites of patients with ovarian cancer and can serve as a marker for predicting patient outcomes and TGF-ß signaling responses. These studies are the first to demonstrate a unique reliance on the glycosaminoglycan chains of betaglycan for shedding and influence on TGF-ß signaling responses. Dysregulated shedding of TGF-ß receptors plays a vital role in determining the response and availability of TGF-ßs', which is crucial for prognostic predictions and understanding of TGF-ß signaling dynamics.


Assuntos
Glicosaminoglicanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Heparitina Sulfato/metabolismo
20.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(2): e3945, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362935

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small and conserved noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. These groups of RNAs are crucial in various cellular processes, especially in mediating disease pathogenesis, particularly cancer. The dysregulation of miRNAs was reported in many cancer types, including nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), which is a malignant tumor of the nasopharynx. In this review, miRNAs involvement in crucial signaling pathways associated with NPC such as PTEN/PI3K/AKT, TGFß/SMAD, RAS/MAPK, Wnt/ß-catenin and pRB-E2F was investigated. miRNAs could function as tumor suppressor-miR or onco-miR in NPC profoundly influenced cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, migration, and metastasis. This comprehensive review of current literature provided a thorough profile of miRNAs and their interplay with the aforementioned signaling pathways in NPC. Understanding these molecular interactions could remarkably impact the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic strategies for NPC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Humanos , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo
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