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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1361326, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572322

RESUMO

Spinal tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary type that is often secondary to pulmonary or systemic infections. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection often leads to the balance of immune control and bacterial persistence. In this study, 64 patients were enrolled and the clinicopathological and immunological characteristics of different age groups were analyzed. Anatomically, spinal tuberculosis in each group mostly occurred in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Imaging before preoperative anti-tuberculosis therapy showed that the proportion of abscesses in the older group was significantly lower than that in the younger and middle-aged groups. However, pathological examination of surgical specimens showed that the proportion of abscesses in the older group was significantly higher than that in the other groups, and there was no difference in the granulomatous inflammation, caseous necrosis, inflammatory necrosis, acute inflammation, exudation, granulation tissue formation, and fibrous tissue hyperplasia. B cell number was significantly lower in the middle-aged and older groups compared to the younger group, while the number of T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and NK cells did not differ. Meaningfully, we found that the proportion of IL-10 high expression and TGF-ß1 positive in the older group was significantly higher than that in the younger group. TNF-α, CD66b, IFN-γ, and IL-6 expressions were not different among the three groups. In conclusion, there are some differences in imaging, pathological, and immune features of spinal tuberculosis in different age groups. The high expression of IL-10 and TGF-ß1 in older patients may weaken their anti-tuberculosis immunity and treatment effectiveness.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Citocinas/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300548, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578740

RESUMO

Biomechanical cue within the tissue microenvironment is known to play a critical role in regulating cell behaviors and maintaining tissue homeostasis. As hydrostatic pressure often increases in biliary system under pathological states, we investigated the effect of the moderate elevation of the hydrostatic pressure on biliary epithelial cells, especially on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells were loaded to hydrostatic pressure using a commercial device. We found that loading the cells to 50 mmHg hydrostatic pressure induced obvious morphological changes and significantly upregulated vimentin, ZEB1, and pSmad2/3, fibronectin, and collagen 1α. All changes induced by hydrostatic pressure loading were effectively mitigated by either ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) or ALK5 inhibitor (SB-431542). Our in vitro experimental data suggests that hydrostatic pressure loading induces EMT of cholangiocytes through RhoA/ROCK and TGF-ß/Smad pathways. Elevated hydrostatic pressure in biliary duct system under pathological states may promote the biliary epithelial cells shifting to profibrotic and mesenchymal characteristics.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Pressão Hidrostática , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105831, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582594

RESUMO

Paraquat (PQ) causes fatal poisoning that leads to systemic multiple organ fibrosis, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 plays a critical role in this process. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of AZ12601011 (a small molecular inhibitor of TGFßRI) on PQ-induced multiple organ fibrosis. We established a mouse model of PQ in vivo and used PQ-treated lung epithelial cell (A549) and renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) in vitro. Haematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining revealed that AZ12601011 ameliorated pulmonary, hepatic, and renal fibrosis, consistent with the decrease in the levels of fibrotic indicators, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen-1, in the lungs and kidneys of PQ-treated mice. In vitro data showed that AZ12601011 suppressed the induction of α-SMA and collagen-1 in PQ-treated A549 cells and TECs. In addition, AZ12601011 inhibited the release of inflammatory factors, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α. Mechanistically, TGF-ß and TGFßRI levels were significantly upregulated in the lungs and kidneys of PQ-treated mice. Cellular thermal shift assay and western blotting revealed that AZ12601011 directly bound with TGFßRI and blocked the activation of Smad3 downstream. In conclusion, our findings revealed that AZ12601011 attenuated PQ-induced multiple organ fibrosis by blocking the TGF-ß/Smad3 signalling pathway, suggesting its potential for PQ poisoning treatment.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Paraquat , Fibrose Pulmonar , Camundongos , Animais , Paraquat/toxicidade , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Colágeno/toxicidade , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores/toxicidade
4.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(3): e4005, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583082

RESUMO

Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an inevitable consequence of all progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to a substantial health burden worldwide. Icariin, an active flavonoid glycoside obtained from Epimedium species, exerts potential antifibrotic effect. The study aimed to explore the protective effects of icariin against tubulointerstitial fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced CKD mice and TGF-ß1-treated HK-2 cells, and furthermore, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrated that icariin significantly improved renal function, alleviated tubular injuries, and reduced fibrotic lesions in UUO mice. Furthermore, icariin suppressed renal inflammation, reduced oxidative stress as evidenced by elevated superoxide dismutase activity and decreased malondialdehyde level. Additionally, TOMM20 immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscope revealed that mitochondrial mass and morphology of tubular epithelial cells in UUO mice was restored by icariin. In HK-2 cells treated with TGF-ß1, icariin markedly decreased profibrotic proteins expression, inhibited inflammatory factors, and protected mitochondria along with preserving mitochondrial morphology, reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) overproduction, and preserving membrane potential. Further investigations demonstrated that icariin could activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway both in vivo and in vitro, whereas inhibition of Nrf2 by ML385 counteracted the protective effects of icariin on TGF-ß1-induced HK-2 cells. In conclusion, icariin protects against renal inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis at least partly through Nrf2-mediated attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction, which suggests that icariin could be developed as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of CKD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Obstrução Ureteral , Camundongos , Animais , Rim/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose , Inflamação/metabolismo
5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(4): 6, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564194

RESUMO

Purpose: Antibodies against collagen XIII have previously been identified in patients with active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Although collagen XIII expression has been described in extraocular muscles and orbital fat, its detailed localization in extraocular and thyroid tissues and the connection to autoimmunity for collagen XIII remain unclear. Our objective was to map the potential targets for these antibodies in the tissues of the orbit and thyroid. Methods: We evaluated the expression of collagen XIII in human patient and mouse orbital and thyroid tissues with immunostainings and RT-qPCR using Col13a1-/- mice as negative controls. COL13A1 expression in Graves' disease and goiter thyroid samples was compared with TGF-ß1 and TNF, and these were also studied in human thyroid epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Results: Collagen XIII expression was found in the neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions of extraocular muscles, blood vessels of orbital connective tissue and fat and the thyroid, and in the thyroid epithelium. Thyroid expression was also seen in germinal centers in Graves' disease and in neoplastic epithelium. The expression of COL13A1 in goiter samples correlated with levels of TGF-B1. Upregulation of COL13A1 was reproduced in thyroid epithelial cells treated with TGF-ß1. Conclusions: We mapped the expression of collagen XIII to various locations in the orbit, demonstrated its expression in the pathologies of the Graves' disease thyroid and confirmed the relationship between collagen XIII and TGF-ß1. Altogether, these data add to our understanding of the targets of anti-collagen XIII autoantibodies in TAO.


Assuntos
Bócio , Doença de Graves , Oftalmopatia de Graves , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Oftalmopatia de Graves/genética , Órbita , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Colágeno , Anticorpos
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8080, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582767

RESUMO

Pre-injured lungs are prone to injury progression in response to mechanical ventilation. Heterogeneous ventilation due to (micro)atelectases imparts injurious strains on open alveoli (known as volutrauma). Hence, recruitment of (micro)atelectases by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is necessary to interrupt this vicious circle of injury but needs to be balanced against acinar overdistension. In this study, the lung-protective potential of alveolar recruitment was investigated and balanced against overdistension in pre-injured lungs. Mice, treated with empty vector (AdCl) or adenoviral active TGF-ß1 (AdTGF-ß1) were subjected to lung mechanical measurements during descending PEEP ventilation from 12 to 0 cmH2O. At each PEEP level, recruitability tests consisting of two recruitment maneuvers followed by repetitive forced oscillation perturbations to determine tissue elastance (H) and damping (G) were performed. Finally, lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion at end-expiratory airway opening pressures (Pao) of 20, 10, 5 and 2 cmH2O after a recruitment maneuver, and processed for design-based stereology to quantify derecruitment and distension. H and G were significantly elevated in AdTGF-ß1 compared to AdCl across PEEP levels. H was minimized at PEEP = 5-8 cmH2O and increased at lower and higher PEEP in both groups. These findings correlated with increasing septal wall folding (= derecruitment) and reduced density of alveolar number and surface area (= distension), respectively. In AdTGF-ß1 exposed mice, 27% of alveoli remained derecruited at Pao = 20 cmH2O. A further decrease in Pao down to 2 cmH2O showed derecruitment of an additional 1.1 million alveoli (48%), which was linked with an increase in alveolar size heterogeneity at Pao = 2-5 cmH2O. In AdCl, decreased Pao resulted in septal folding with virtually no alveolar collapse. In essence, in healthy mice alveoli do not derecruit at low PEEP ventilation. The potential of alveolar recruitability in AdTGF-ß1 exposed mice is high. H is optimized at PEEP 5-8 cmH2O. Lower PEEP folds and larger PEEP stretches septa which results in higher H and is more pronounced in AdTGF-ß1 than in AdCl. The increased alveolar size heterogeneity at Pao = 5 cmH2O argues for the use of PEEP = 8 cmH2O for lung protective mechanical ventilation in this animal model.


Assuntos
Atelectasia Pulmonar , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Camundongos , Animais , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Pulmão , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiologia
7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 25(4): 341-353, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584095

RESUMO

Kidney fibrosis is an inevitable result of various chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) and significantly contributes to end-stage renal failure. Currently, there is no specific treatment available for renal fibrosis. ELA13 (amino acid sequence: RRCMPLHSRVPFP) is a conserved region of ELABELA in all vertebrates; however, its biological activity has been very little studied. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of ELA13 on transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-treated NRK-52E cells and unilateral ureteral occlusion (UUO) mice. Our results demonstrated that ELA13 could improve renal function by reducing creatinine and urea nitrogen content in serum, and reduce the expression of fibrosis biomarkers confirmed by Masson staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot. Inflammation biomarkers were increased after UUO and decreased by administration of ELA13. Furthermore, we found that the levels of essential molecules in the mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways were reduced by ELA13 treatment in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, ELA13 protected against kidney fibrosis through inhibiting the Smad and ERK signaling pathways and could thus be a promising candidate for anti-renal fibrosis treatment.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Obstrução Ureteral , Camundongos , Animais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Obstrução Ureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Rim/metabolismo , Fibrose , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
8.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 32(3): 201-207, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584100

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphooxidase 4 (NOX4) inhibitors GKT137831 and M2-type macrophages on oxidative stress markers NOX4, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the rat hepatic stellate cell line (HSC-T6). Methods: Rat bone marrow macrophages were extracted and induced using interleukin (IL)-4 to differentiate them into M2 phenotype macrophages. HSC-T6 activation was performed with 5 µg/L transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1). The proliferation condition of HSC-T6 cells stimulated by the NOX4 inhibitor GKT137831 at a concentration gradient of 5 to 80 µmol/L after 48 hours was detected using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The optimal drug concentration was chosen and divided into an HSC co-culture group (the control group) and five experimental groups: the TGF-ß1 stimulation group, the TGF-ß1 +GKT137831 stimulation group, the M2-type macrophage + HSC co-culture group, the M2-type macrophage +TGF-ß1 stimulation group, and the M2-type + TGF-ß1 + GKT137831 stimulation group. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production level was detected in each cell using the DCFH-DA probe method. NOX4, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Nrf2, and HO-1 levels in each group of HSC cells were detected using the qRT-PCR method and the Western blot method. The t-test was used to compare the two groups. The one-way ANOVA method was used to compare multiple groups. Results: Intracellular ROS increased significantly following TGF-ß1 stimulation. ROS relative levels in each cell group were 1.03±0.11, 3.88±0.07, 2.90±0.08, 0.99±0.06, 3.30±0.05, 2.21±0.11, F = 686.1, P = 0.001, respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of NOX4, α-SMA, Nrf2, and HO-1 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). After the addition of GKT137831, ROS, and NOX4, α-SMA mRNA and protein expression were comparatively decreased in the TGF-ß1 stimulation group (P < 0.05), while mRNA and protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased (P < 0.05). The expression of ROS and NOX4, as well as α-SMA mRNA and protein, produced by HSC were significantly decreased in the co-culture group compared to the single culture group after TGF-ß1 stimulation (P < 0.05). After the addition of GKT137831, ROS, NOX4, α-SMA mRNA, and protein expression were further reduced in the co-culture group compared with the single culture group (P < 0.05), while the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 were further increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: NOX4 inhibitor GKT137831 can reduce RO, NOX4, and α-SMA levels while increasing Nrf2 and HO-1 levels in hepatic stellate cells. After M2-type macrophage co-culture, GKT137831 assists in lowering ROS, NOX4, and α-SMA levels while accelerating Nrf2 and HO-1 levels in hepatic stellate cells, which regulates the balance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidative stress systems, thereby antagonizing the fibrosis process.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Fígado , Pirazolonas , Piridonas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Ratos , Animais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7652, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561456

RESUMO

Considering the effect of SIRT1 on improving myocardial fibrosis and GAS5 inhibiting occurrence and development of myocardial fibrosis at the cellular level, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether LncRNA GAS5 could attenuate cardiac fibrosis through regulating mir-217/SIRT1, and whether the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was involved in this process. Isoprenaline (ISO) was given subcutaneously to the male C57BL/6 mice to induce myocardial fibrosis and the AAV9 vectors were randomly injected into the left ventricle of each mouse to overexpress GAS5. Primary myocardial fibroblasts (MCFs) derived from neonatal C57BL/6 mice and TGF-ß1 were used to induce fibrosis. And the GAS5 overexpressed MCFs were treated with mir-217 mimics and mir-217 inhibitor respectively. Then the assays of expression levels of NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1ß and SIRT1 were conducted. The findings indicated that the overexpression of GAS5 reduced the expression levels of collagen, NLRP3, Capase-1, IL-1ß and SIRT1 in ISO treated mice and TGF-ß1 treated MCFs. However, this effect was significantly weakened after mir-217 overexpression, but was further enhanced after knockdown of mir-217. mir-217 down-regulates the expression of SIRT1, leading to increased activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent pyroptosis. LncRNA GAS5 alleviates cardiac fibrosis induced via regulating mir-217/SIRT1 pathway.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Inflamassomos , Sirtuína 1/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibrose
10.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 67(2): 17-19, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the applicability of IHC staining method: with TGF-ß1 antibodies (serial examination, statistically processed results) and with mast cell tryptase antibodies for injuries vitality determination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 261 skin autopsy samples with mechanical injuries from 29 persons were divided to 3 groups (87 in each group): vital injuries, postmortal injuries, control non-injured samples. A routine histological examination using standard H&E stain and IHC both with TGF-ß1 and mast cells tryptase antibodies was performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The positive TGF-ß1 staining (score 2-3) was found in keratinocytes in vitally injured skin and the negative or weak one (score 0-1) was found in control postmortally injured and non-injured samples. Additionally, dermal TGF-ß1 expression was found in some vitally injured skin samples. The difference between vitally injured skin and control samples was statistically significant (p<0.05). No significant difference of dermal mast cells density in groups 1, 2, 3 was found.


Assuntos
Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Pele/lesões , Autopsia
11.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 44(3): 428-436, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of metformin for regulating tumor-stromal cell cross-talk in breast cancer. METHODS: Tumor associated fibroblasts (CAFs) co-cultured with breast cancer cells were treated with metformin, and the changes in expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), p-AMPK, stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the CAFs were detected using ELISA, RT-qPCR or Western blotting; Transwell assay was used to evaluate the invasiveness of the tumor cells and its changes following treatment with exogenous SDF-1, IL-8 and TGF-ß1. The effects of HIF-1α shRNA or overexpression plasmid, AMPK shRNA, and treatment with OG (a proline hydroxylase inhibitor) or 2-OXO (a proline hydroxylase activator) were examined on p-AMPK, HIF-1α, SDF-1 and IL-8 expressions and invasiveness of the CAFs. RESULTS: Metformin treatment significantly increased the expression levels of p-AMPK, SDF-1 and IL-8 (P<0.05) and decreased HIF-1α expression (P<0.05) without affecting AMPK expression level (P>0.05) in the CAFs. The invasion ability of metformintreated breast cancer cells was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Exogenous SDF-1 and IL-8, HIF-1α overexpression, and OGinduced upregulation of HIF-1α all significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of metformin on breast cancer cell invasion (P<0.05) and HIF-1α, SDF-1 and IL-8 expressions in CAFs (P<0.05). Transfection with HIF-1α shRNA or treatment with 2-OXO significantly decreased the invasiveness of breast cancer cells (P<0.05). P-AMPK knockdown significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of metformin on HIF-1α expression in CAFs and on invasion of breast cancer cells (P<0.05). Treatment with TGF-ß1 partially decreased the inhibitory effect of metformin on HIF-1α expression in CAFs and invasiveness of the breast cancer cells (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Metformin suppresses HIF-1α expression in CAFs to block tumor-stromal cross talk in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Metformina , Humanos , Feminino , Metformina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos
12.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 12(4): e1237, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe myocarditis is often accompanied by cardiac fibrosis, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. CXCL4 is a chemokine that has been reported to have pro-inflammatory and profibrotic functions. The exact role of CXCL4 in cardiac fibrosis remains unclear. METHODS: Viral myocarditis (VMC) models were induced by intraperitoneal injection of Coxsackie B Type 3 (CVB3). In vivo, CVB3 (100 TCID50) and CVB3-AMG487 (CVB3: 100 TCID50; AMG487: 5 mg/kg) combination were administered in the VMC and VMC+AMG487 groups, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, severity score, Masson staining, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to measure myocardial morphology in VMC. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to quantify inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and CXCL4). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) levels were analyzed by commercial kits. CXCL4, CXCR3B, α-SMA, TGF-ß1, Collagen I, and Collagen III were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: In vivo, CVB3-AMG487 reduced cardiac injury, α-SMA, Collagen I and Collagen III levels, and collagen deposition in VMC+AMG487 group. Additionally, compared with VMC group, VMC+AMG group decreased the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α). In vitro, CXCL4/CXCR3B axis activation TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 pathway promote mice cardiac fibroblasts differentiation. CONCLUSION: CXCL4 acts as a profibrotic factor in TGF-ß1/Smad2/3 pathway-induced cardiac fibroblast activation and ECM synthesis, and eventually progresses to cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, our findings revealed the role of CXCL4 in VMC and unveiled its underlying mechanism. CXCL4 appears to be a potential target for the treatment of VMC.


Assuntos
Acetamidas , Infecções por Coxsackievirus , Miocardite , Pirimidinonas , Camundongos , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Interleucina-6 , Colágeno , Fibrose
13.
Connect Tissue Res ; 65(2): 161-169, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COL1A1 proximal promoter contains two GC-rich regions and two inverted CCAAT boxes. The transcription factors Sp1 and CBF bind to the GC sequence at -122 to -115 bp and the inverted CCAAT box at -101 to -96 bp, respectively, and stimulate COL1A1 transcriptional activity. METHODS: To further define the regulatory mechanisms controlling COL1A1 expression by Sp1 and CBF, we introduced 2, 4, 6, or 8 thymidine nucleotides (T-tracts) at position -111 bp of the COL1A1 gene promoter to increase the physical distance between these two binding sites and examined in vitro the transcriptional activities of the resulting constructs and their response to TGF-ß1.`. RESULTS: Insertion of 2 or 4 nucleotides decreased COL1A1 promoter activity by up to 70%. Furthermore, the expected increase in COL1A1 transcription in response to TGF-ß1 was abolished. Computer modeling of the modified DNA structure indicated that increasing the physical distance between the Sp1 and CBF binding sites introduces a rotational change in the DNA topology that disrupts the alignment of Sp1 and CBF binding sites and likely alters protein-protein interactions among these transcription factors or their associated co-activators. CONCLUSION: The topology of the COL1A1 proximal promoter is crucial in determining the transcriptional activity of the gene and its response to the stimulatory effects of TGF-ß1.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , DNA , Nucleotídeos
14.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 237: 113857, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552289

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a prevalent cerebrovascular disorder. The inflammation induced by cerebral hemorrhage plays a crucial role in the secondary injury of ICH and often accompanied by a poor prognosis, leading to disease exacerbation. However, blood-brain barrier (BBB) limiting the penetration of therapeutic drugs to the brain. In this paper, our primary objective is to develop an innovative, non-invasive, safe, and targeted formulation. This novel approach aims to synergistically harness the combined therapeutic effects of drugs to intervene in inflammation via a non-injectable route, thereby significantly mitigating the secondary damage precipitated by inflammation following ICH. Thus, a novel "anti-inflammatory" cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with targeting ability were constructed, which can enhance the stability of curcumin(CUR) and siRNA. We successfully developed SLN loaded with TGF-ß1 siRNA and CUR (siRNA/CUR@SLN) that adhere to the requirements of drug delivery system by transnasal brain targeting. Through the characterization of nanoparticle properties, cytotoxicity assessment, in vitro pharmacological evaluation, and brain-targeting evaluation after nasal administration, siRNA/CUR@SLN exhibited a nearly spherical structure with a particle size of 125.0±1.93 nm, low cytotoxicity, high drug loading capacity, good sustained release function and good stability. In vitro anti-inflammatory results showcasing its remarkable anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, in vivo pharmacological studies revealed that siRNA/CUR@SLN can be successfully delivered to brain tissue. Furthermore, it also elicited an effective anti-inflammatory response, alleviating brain inflammation. These results indicated that favorable brain-targeting ability and anti-inflammatory effects of siRNA/CUR@SLN in ICH model mice. In conclusion, our designed siRNA/CUR@SLN showed good brain targeting and anti-inflammatory effect ability after nasal administration, which lays the foundation for the treatment of inflammation caused by ICH and offers a novel approach for brain-targeted drug delivery and brings new hope.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas , Camundongos , Animais , Curcumina/química , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Nanopartículas/química , Encéfalo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Tamanho da Partícula , Portadores de Fármacos/química
15.
Gene ; 911: 148351, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose is to unveil Andrographolide's potential multi-target and multi-mechanism therapeutic effects in treating OA via systematic network pharmacological analysis and cell experimental validation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, we gathered data from Andrographolide and OA-related databases to obtain information on Andrographolide's biological properties and the targets linked with OA. We developed a bioinformatic network about Andrographolide and OA, whereby we analyzed the network to identify potential therapeutic targets and mechanisms of action of Andrographolide. Subsequently, we used molecular docking to analyze the binding sites of Andrographolide to the target proteins. At the same time, SDF-1 was used to construct an OA cell model to verify the therapeutic effect of Andrographolide on OA and its effect on target proteins. RESULTS: Our experimental results show that Andrographolide has excellent pharmaceutical properties, by Lipinski's rules for drugs, suggesting that this compound can be considered to have a high therapeutic potential in drug development. 233 targets were preliminarily investigated, the mechanisms through which Andrographolide targets OA primarily involve the TNF signaling pathway, PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and TLR signaling pathway. These mechanisms target OA by influencing immune and inflammatory responses in the joints, regulating apoptosis to prevent chondrocyte death. Finally, TNF-α, STAT3, TP53, IL-6, JUN, IL-1ß, HIF-1α, TGF-ß1, and AKT1 were identified as 9 key targets of Andrographolide anti-OA. In addition, our molecular docking analyzes with cell experimental validation further confirm the network pharmacology results. According to our molecular docking results, Andrographolide can bind to all the hub target proteins and has a good binding ability (binding energy < -5 kcal/mol), with the strongest binding affinity to AKT1 of -9.2 kcal/ mol. The results of cell experiments showed that Andrographolide treatment significantly increased the cell viability and the expression of COL2A1 and ACAN proteins. Moreover, 30 µM Andrographolide significantly reversed SDF-1-induced increases in the protein expression of TNF-α, STAT3, TP53, IL-6, JUN, IL-1ß, HIF-1α, and TGF-ß1, and decreases in the protein expression of AKT1. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the potential therapeutic targets and mechanisms of action of Andrographolide in OA treatment. Our findings suggest that Andrographolide is a promising candidate for drug development in the management of OA.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Interleucina-6 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
16.
JCI Insight ; 9(7)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441961

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a coinhibitory T cell checkpoint, is also expressed on macrophages in pathogen- or tumor-driven chronic inflammation. Increasing evidence underscores the importance of PD-1 on macrophages for dampening immune responses. However, the mechanism governing PD-1 expression in macrophages in chronic inflammation remains largely unknown. TGF-ß1 is abundant within chronic inflammatory microenvironments. Here, based on public databases, significantly positive correlations between PDCD1 and TGFB1 gene expression were observed in most human tumors. Of note, among immune infiltrates, macrophages as the predominant infiltrate expressed higher PDCD1 and TGFBR1/TGFBR2 genes. MC38 colon cancer and Schistosoma japonicum infection were used as experimental models for chronic inflammation. PD-1hi macrophages from chronic inflammatory tissues displayed an immunoregulatory pattern and expressed a higher level of TGF-ß receptors. Either TGF-ß1-neutralizing antibody administration or macrophage-specific Tgfbr1 knockdown largely reduced PD-1 expression on macrophages in animal models. We further demonstrated that TGF-ß1 directly induced PD-1 expression on macrophages. Mechanistically, TGF-ß1-induced PD-1 expression on macrophages was dependent on SMAD3 and STAT3, which formed a complex at the Pdcd1 promoter. Collectively, our study shows that macrophages adapt to chronic inflammation through TGF-ß1-triggered cooperative SMAD3/STAT3 signaling that induces PD-1 expression and modulates macrophage function.


Assuntos
Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Animais , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
17.
Cancer Lett ; 588: 216768, 2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453045

RESUMO

Hedgehog signaling is activated in response to liver injury, and modulates organogenesis. However, the role of non-canonical hedgehog activation via TGF-ß1/SMAD3 in hepatic carcinogenesis is poorly understood. TGF-ß1/SMAD3-mediated non-canonical activation was found in approximately half of GLI2-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and two new GLI2 isoforms with transactivating activity were identified. Phospho-SMAD3 interacted with active GLI2 isoforms to transactivate downstream genes in modulation of stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, chemo-resistance and metastasis in poorly-differentiated hepatoma cells. Non-canonical activation of hedgehog signaling was confirmed in a transgenic HBV-associated HCC mouse model. Inhibition of TGF-ß/SMAD3 signaling reduced lung metastasis in a mouse in situ hepatic xenograft model. In another cohort of 55 HCC patients, subjects with high GLI2 expression had a shorter disease-free survival than those with low expression. Moreover, co-positivity of GLI2 with SMAD3 was observed in 87.5% of relapsed HCC patients with high GLI2 expression, indicating an increased risk of post-resection recurrence of HCC. The findings underscore that suppressing the non-canonical hedgehog signaling pathway may confer a potential strategy in the treatment of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo
18.
Dent Med Probl ; 61(1): 53-64, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a critical chronic metabolic disease. Several treatment modalities are currently under investigation. Both bee venom (BV) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can possibly offer an approach for treating type I diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti-diabetic effect of BV as compared to BMSCs on the tongue mucosa of diabetic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 52 male albino rats were used in the current study. The rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: group 1 (control); group 2 (streptozocin (STZ)); group 3 (BV-treated); and group 4 (BMSC-treated). Diabetes mellitus was induced via an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of STZ in the rats from groups 2, 3 and 4. Following the diagnosis of DM, the rats in group 3 were injected with a daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg of BV, while the rats in group 4 were treated with a single injection of BMSCs. All rats were euthanized after 4 weeks, and their tongues were dissected and divided into halves. The right halves of the tongues were utilized for the histological examination, followed by morphometric analysis. In contrast, the left halves were used to detect the local gene expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). RESULTS: Group 2 revealed marked disruption in the morphology of the fungiform and filiform papillae, and atrophic epithelial changes in both dorsal and ventral surface epithelium as compared to other groups. Group 4 showed a significantly larger number of taste buds, and a higher gene expression of TGF-ß1 and VEGF as compared to groups 2 and 3. Additionally, BV and BMSCs effectively increased the thickness of dorsal and ventral surface epithelium as compared to group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with BMSCs was associated with significant improvement in the morphology and number of lingual epithelial cells and taste buds in the tongues of diabetic rats as compared to BV-treated rats, which was due to the local upregulation of TGF-ß1 and VEGF gene expression.


Assuntos
Venenos de Abelha , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Língua , Venenos de Abelha/farmacologia
19.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 15(1): 66, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) a potentially effective disease-modulating therapy for diabetic nephropathy (DN) but their clinical translation has been hampered by incomplete understanding of the optimal timing of administration and in vivo mechanisms of action. This study aimed to elucidate the reno-protective potency and associated mechanisms of single intravenous injections of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) following shorter and longer durations of diabetes. METHODS: A streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of diabetes and DN was established in C57BL/6 mice. In groups of diabetic animals, human (h)UC-MSCs or vehicle were injected intravenously at 8 or 16 weeks after STZ along with vehicle-injected non-diabetic animals. Diabetes-related kidney abnormalities was analyzed 2 weeks later by urine and serum biochemical assays, histology, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines were quantified by ELISA. The expression of autophagy-related proteins within the renal cortices was investigated by immunoblotting. Bio-distribution of hUC-MSCs in kidney and other organs was evaluated in diabetic mice by injection of fluorescent-labelled cells. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic controls, diabetic mice had increases in urine albumin creatinine ratio (uACR), mesangial matrix deposition, podocyte foot process effacement, glomerular basement membrane thickening and interstitial fibrosis as well as reduced podocyte numbers at both 10 and 18 weeks after STZ. Early (8 weeks) hUC-MSC injection was associated with reduced uACR and improvements in multiple glomerular and renal interstitial abnormalities as well as reduced serum IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-ß1 compared to vehicle-injected animals. Later (16 weeks) hUC-MSC injection also resulted in reduction of diabetes-associated renal abnormalities and serum TGF-ß1 but not of serum IL-6 and TNF-α. At both time-points, the kidneys of vehicle-injected diabetic mice had higher ratio of p-mTOR to mTOR, increased abundance of p62, lower abundance of ULK1 and Atg12, and reduced ratio of LC3B to LC3A compared to non-diabetic animals, consistent with diabetes-associated suppression of autophagy. These changes were largely reversed in the kidneys of hUC-MSC-injected mice. In contrast, neither early nor later hUC-MSC injection had effects on blood glucose and body weight of diabetic animals. Small numbers of CM-Dil-labeled hUC-MSCs remained detectable in kidneys, lungs and liver of diabetic mice at 14 days after intravenous injection. CONCLUSIONS: Single intravenous injections of hUC-MSCs ameliorated glomerular abnormalities and interstitial fibrosis in a mouse model of STZ-induced diabetes without affecting hyperglycemia, whether administered at relatively short or longer duration of diabetes. At both time-points, the reno-protective effects of hUC-MSCs were associated with reduced circulating TGF-ß1 and restoration of intra-renal autophagy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Rim/anormalidades , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Anormalidades Urogenitais , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Injeções Intravenosas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Interleucina-6 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Autofagia , Fibrose , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
20.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 243, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal fibrosis is the prevailing complication induced by prolonged exposure to high glucose in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. METHODS: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, we conducted an integrated analysis of the transcriptome and chromatin accessibility profiles of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HMrSV5) during high-glucose treatment. RESULTS: Our study identified 2775 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to high glucose-triggered pathological changes, including 1164 upregulated and 1611 downregulated genes. Genome-wide DEGs and network analysis revealed enrichment in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), inflammatory response, hypoxia, and TGF-beta pathways. The enriched genes included VEGFA, HIF-1α, TGF-ß1, EGF, TWIST2, and SNAI2. Using ATAC-seq, we identified 942 hyper (higher ATAC-seq signal in high glucose-treated HMrSV5 cells than in control cells) and 714 hypo (lower ATAC-seq signal in high glucose-treated HMrSV5 cells versus control cells) peaks with differential accessibility in high glucose-treated HMrSV5 cells versus controls. These differentially accessible regions were positively correlated (R = 0.934) with the nearest DEGs. These genes were associated with 566 up- and 398 downregulated genes, including SNAI2, TGF-ß1, HIF-1α, FGF2, VEGFA, and VEGFC, which are involved in critical pathways identified by transcriptome analysis. Integrated ATAC-seq and RNA-seq analysis also revealed key transcription factors (TFs), such as HIF-1α, ARNTL, ELF1, SMAD3 and XBP1. Importantly, we demonstrated that HIF-1α is involved in the regulation of several key genes associated with EMT and the TGF-beta pathway. Notably, we predicted and experimentally validated that HIF-1α can exacerbate the expression of TGF-ß1 in a high glucose-dependent manner, revealing a novel role of HIF-1α in high glucose-induced pathological changes in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our study provides a comprehensive view of the role of transcriptome deregulation and chromosome accessibility alterations in high glucose-induced pathological fibrotic changes in HPMCs. This analysis identified hub genes, signaling pathways, and key transcription factors involved in peritoneal fibrosis and highlighted the novel glucose-dependent regulation of TGF-ß1 by HIF-1α. This integrated approach has offered a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of peritoneal fibrosis and has indicated potential therapeutic targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Fibrose Peritoneal , Humanos , Cromatina/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
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