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2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 336: 108901, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075694

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common zoonotic pathogens that cause foodborne illnesses worldwide. The main objectives of the current study were therefore to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. aureus isolated from goats in Korea and to investigate the molecular characteristics of identified methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In the study, 481 S. aureus isolates (431 from the nasal cavity and 50 from carcass) were recovered from 1146 carcasses and nasal swabs between July 2018 and January 2019. Approximately 82% and 72.6% of nasal and carcass isolates, respectively, were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, with the highest rate of resistance to penicillin, followed by resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Relatively small proportions of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. However, all S. aureus isolates were sensitive to linezolid, rifampin, and vancomycin. Six MRSA isolates were obtained, three each from the nasal cavity and carcass. MRSA isolates were of two sequence types (ST) (ST72 and ST398), three spa types (t664, t324, and t571), and two SCCmec types (IV and V). The ST72 MRSA isolates had identical PFGE profiles. In addition, ST72 MRSA-SCCmec IV isolates carried at least six staphylococcal leukotoxin- and enterotoxin-encoding genes (lukED, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seq). The remaining ST398 isolate carried only the lukED gene and was additionally resistant to eight non-ß-lactam antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MRSA from goats in Korea. There is a possibility of transmission of MRSA from goat to human or contamination of food products. Therefore, regular microbiological investigation in goats, farms, and slaughterhouses is critical to determine the existence of virulent and multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. aureus and to implement preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cabras/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterotoxinas , Exotoxinas , Fazendas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite/microbiologia , República da Coreia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 101: 217-226, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334517

RESUMO

A total of 713 research papers about field monitor experiments of heavy metals in farmland and urban soils in China, published from 2000 to 2019, were obtained. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the level of China's heavy metal pollution in soils, mainly focusing on eight heavy metals. It was found that the average concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) in China were 0.19, 30.74, 85.86, 25.81, 0.074, 67.37, 27.77 and 8.89 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with the background value (0.097 mg/kg), the Cd content showed a twofold (0.19 mg/kg) rise in farmland soils and a threefold (0.29 mg/kg) rise in urban soils. The decreasing order of the mean Igeo was Cd (1.77) > Pb (0.62) > Zn (0.60) > Cu (0.58) > Hg (0.57) > Cr (0.54) > Ni (0.47) > As (0.28). Nearly 33.54% and 44.65% of sites in farmland and urban soils were polluted with Cd. The average concentrations of eight heavy metals were not sensitive change in recent two decades in farmland and urban soils. The average Pn values for urban (2.52) and farmland (2.15) soils showed that heavy metal pollution in urban soils was more serious than that in farmland, and the middle Yangtze River regions, where industrial activity dominates, were the most polluted. The meta-analysis comprehensively evaluated the current pollution situation of soil heavy metal, and provided important basis for soil management and environment prevention in China.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 71-83, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997586

RESUMO

This study assessed the farm-level economic and environmental impacts from the use of genetically modified (GM) corn in Vietnam (resistant to Lepidopteran pests of corn and tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate). It was largely based on a farmer survey conducted in 2018-19. The GM varieties out-performed conventional varieties in terms of yield by +30.4% (+15.2% if the yield comparison is with only the nearest performing equivalent conventional varieties) and reduced the cost of production by between US $26.47 per ha and US $31.30 per ha. For every extra US $1 spent on GM seed relative to conventional seed, farmers gained between an additional US $6.84 and US $12.55 in extra income. The GM maize technology also reduced insecticide and herbicide use. The average amount of herbicide active ingredient applied to the GM crop area was 26% lower (1.66 kg per ha) than the average value for the conventional corn area (2.26 kg/ai per ha) and in terms of the associated environmental impact of the herbicide use, as measured by the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) indicator, it was lower by 36% than the average value applicable to the conventional corn area. Insecticides were used on a significantly lower GM crop area and, when used, in smaller amounts. The average amount of insecticide applied to the GM corn crop was significantly lower by 78% (0.08 kg/ai per ha) than the average value for the conventional corn area (0.36 kg/ai per ha) and in terms of the associated environmental impact of the insecticide use, as measured by the EIQ indicator, it was also lower by 77% than the average value for conventional corn (14.06 per ha).


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Fazendas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 411-421, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372494

RESUMO

Clarifying the characteristic of soil enzymatic activity and stoichiometry variations as well as their influencing factors following farmland abandonment have important implications for understanding soil nutrient availability after revegetation and for illuminating the underlying mechanisms of soil nutrient cycling in ecosystems. To determine microbial nutrient limitations after farmland abandonment and to explore the driving factors of the variations in soil enzymatic activity and stoichiometry along a chronosequence of abandoned farmlands (0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-year-old) in the Loess Hilly Region, China, the potential activities of carbon (C)-, nitrogen (N)-, and phosphorus (P)-acquiring enzymes, soil physicochemical properties, and plant diversity and family composition were measured. The results showed that the activities of ß-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased significantly with the increasing years of land abandonment, whereas the activity of ß-1,4-glucosidase (BG) showed the opposite change trend. Additionally, the ratios of BG:(NAG+LAP) and BG:ALP had the same variation trend with BG activity, which decreased significantly with increasing time, but the ratio of (NAG+LAP):ALP showed an increasing trend and then decreased, with the highest values observed in the 20-year sites. Moreover, the vector length of soil enzymatic stoichiometry decreased significantly as the years of land abandonment inceased, suggesting a reduced microbial C limitation after farmland abandonment. The vector angles <45°were observed at farmlands (0-year sites) and 10-year sites, whereas angles >45°were detected at 20-and 30-year sites, indicating that soil microbial communities were N-limited in the first 10 years of land abandonment and thereafter were P-limited. The redundancy analysis (RDA) reveled that soil organic C content, total N content, the C:N and C:P ratios, soil pH values, and plant diversity had significant effects on soil enzymatic activity and stoichiometry. A variation partitioning analysis (VPA) further demonstrated that edaphic and vegetation factors explained 62.0% of the total variance of soil enzymatic activity and stoichiometry. It should be noted that the interaction between vegetation characteristics and soil physicochemical properties was the major factor affecting soil enzymatic activity and stoichiometry, which explained 37.1% of the variance of the soil enzyme characteristics. Collectively, the application of P fertilizer should be considered to mitigate the deficiency of available P in the ecosystem during farmland abandonment, and these findings may provide a theoretical basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles as well as guiding soil nutrient management and the sustainable development of the ecological environment.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Carbono/análise , China , Fazendas , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128215, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182126

RESUMO

The effluent from conventional treatment process (including anaerobic digestion and anoxic-oxic treatment) for pig farm wastewater was difficult to treat due to its low ratio of biochemical oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/CODCr) (<0.1). In the present study, electro-Fenton (EF) was used to improve the biodegradability of the mentioned effluent and the properties of self-prepared CeO2-doped multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) electrodes were also studied. An excellent H2O2 production (165 mg L-1) was recorded, after an 80-min electrolysis, when the mass ratio of MWCNTs, CeO2 and pore-forming agent (NH4HCO3) was 6:1:1. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that addition of NH4HCO3 and the doping of CeO2 could increase the superficial area of the electrode as well as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electro-catalytic performance. The BOD5/CODCr of the wastewater from the first stage AO process increased from 0.08 to 0.45 and CODCr reduced 71.5% after an 80-min electrolysis, with 0.3 mM Fe2+ solution. The non-biodegradable chemical pollutants from the first stage AO process were degraded by EF. The non-biodegradable pollutants identified by LC-MS/MS in the effluent from AO process including aminopyrine, oxadixyl and 3-methyl-2-quinoxalinecarboxylic acid could be degraded by EF process, with the removal rates of 81.86%, 34.39% and 7.13% in 80 min, and oxytetracycline with the removal rate of 100% in 20 min. Therefore, electro-Fenton with the new CeO2-doped MWCNTs cathode electrode will be a promising supplement for advanced treatment of pig farm wastewater.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Eletrólise/métodos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Catálise , Eletrodos , Fazendas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Suínos
7.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128408, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182150

RESUMO

The safety of creating fish farms in agricultural settings was evaluated by growing Piaractus mesopotamicus in a pond, while crops where cultivated in a nearby field under a pesticide application regime typical of the Pampa region. Atrazine, glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were detected in the water of the pond at concentrations ranging between 92 and 118 µg/L for atrazine, 12 and 221 µg/L for glyphosate and 21 and 117 µg/L for AMPA. Atrazine and malathion were detected in fish muscles at concentrations ranging between 70 and 105 µg/kg for atrazine and 8.6 and 23.7 µg/kg for malathion. Compared to fish raised in a pisciculture, fish from the agricultural pond presented reduced values of pack cell volume, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, together with significantly greater cholinesterase activity in both plasma and liver and reduced glutathione-S-transferase activity in the liver. A comet assay also demonstrated that P. mesopotamicus from the agricultural pond presented a significantly greater level of DNA damage in both erythrocytes and gill cells. Overall, the present study demonstrates that pisciculture ponds established in an agricultural setting may receive pesticides applied to nearby cultures and that these pesticides may be taken up by the fish and affect their physiology and health. The accumulation of pesticides residues in fish flesh may also present a risk to human consumers and should be closely controlled.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Agricultura , Animais , Atrazina , Colinesterases , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Peixes , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Tanques/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 334: 127386, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712494

RESUMO

Elemental composition was used to characterize and differentiate 14 wines made from the identical clone of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir (clone 667). The vineyards span distances which range from several hundred meters to 1540 km and their elevations vary from near sea level to nearly 500 m. Twenty-seven elements were observed above the limit of quantitation by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the wines from at least half of the 14 sites. Concentrations of several elements, including Mo, Er, Na, Li, Cs and Pb, varied by 10-fold across the 14 wines. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) of elemental composition with juice chemistry and site characterization show associations consistent with expectations, such as high Ca with high clay content. These results demonstrate that even when grapevine clone and winemaking protocol are controlled, composition differences in wines produced from sites are mediated by diverse soil and microclimate conditions.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Vitis , Vinho/análise , California , Fazendas , Espectrometria de Massas , Microclima , Solo/química , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Food Chem ; 337: 127720, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777572

RESUMO

The sensorial and chemical differences among Pinot noir wines from different vineyard locations were investigated. Grapes of a single Pinot noir clone were grown on twelve different vineyard sites along the U.S. West Coast. Wines from a single vintage (2015) were made using a standardized protocol and equipment. Sensorial (i.e. aroma, taste, and mouthfeel) and chemical (i.e. polyphenolic and volatile) differences were observed among these wines at two aging time points (8- and 20- months). Vineyard location (i.e. latitude and longitude) was one of the main factors describing the major differences between the wines, while other details (i.e. soil type (60 cm), rootstock age, soil pH, rootstock type, and vines/acres) were possibly important for defining unique aging characteristics of certain vineyards. Overall, single clone Pinot noir grapes grown in different regions but made under standardized winemaking produced wines with unique chemical and sensorial profiles, which generally persisted throughout aging.


Assuntos
Paladar , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vinho/análise , Fazendas , Solo , Estados Unidos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127768, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777611

RESUMO

Heavy metals and antimicrobial resistant bacteria in livestock and poultry environments can cause declines in production and significant economic losses, leading to potential environmental and public health issues. In this study, the heavy metal pollution status of livestock breeding water bodies in the Dawen river basin of Shandong Province in China was evaluated, and a total of 10 heavy metals were measured. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted for Escherichia coli strains isolated from the water samples. The results showed that among all the metals, copper, zinc, and iron were detected at each sampling point, followed by nickel (detection rate of 95.74%), arsenic (detection rate of 89.36%), selenium (detection rate of 68.09%), lead (detection rate of 27.66%), and mercury (detection rate of 12.77%). Cadmium and hexavalent chromium were not detected. The contents of nine heavy metals were below the existing water standard values in China, whereas the iron pollution index in the water body in the study area was large and may pose a potential risk. A total of 17 E. coli isolates showed different resistance to ß-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, quinolone antibiotics and chloramphenicol, but were mainly resistant to ß-lactams and tetracyclines. The detection rate of the tetA resistance gene was relatively high, indicating the overuse of cephalosporins and tetracyclines. The results of the present study might provide evidence of metal pollution and theoretical basis on the treatment of colibacillosis in the livestock industries.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Metais Pesados/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Indústria de Laticínios , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Fazendas , Rios/química , Rios/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
11.
Food Chem ; 338: 127834, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810810

RESUMO

The use of starters during fermentation has been gaining momentum as it can warrant high-quality chocolate. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Pichia kudriavzevii (Pk) during on-farm fermentation on physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics and levels of methylxanthines and bioactive amines of cocoa. Four treatments were used: ScPk (1:1), only Sc, only Pk, and no starter (control). The starters lead to changes throughout fermentation, but provided fermented cocoa with similar pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. ScPk shortened fermentation time by 24 h. The ScPk fermented and dried cocoa had higher levels of monomeric phenols, methylxanthines, phenylethylamine and lower levels of the putrefactive amines - putrescine and cadaverine (p < 0.05). The results were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Based on these results, the mixture of both yeasts species is a promising starter for cocoa fermentation decreasing duration time and modulating high-quality components.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Cacau/microbiologia , Chocolate/microbiologia , Pichia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Aminas/metabolismo , Cafeína/análise , Catequina/análise , Fazendas , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise , Temperatura , Teobromina/análise , Teofilina/análise , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141694, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871373

RESUMO

We determined the immediate impact of exposure to antibiotic-treated animals on housing soil microbiome and resistome. Fecal (n = 36) and soil (n = 108) samples from dairy calves (n = 6) treated with and without florfenicol over 30 days were collected. There were temporary changes in the gut microbiome of antibiotic-treated calves as measured by Shannon diversity (16S rRNA gene sequencing; P = 0.03), but not in the housing soil microbiome (P > 0.05). Droplet-digital PCR demonstrated that floR gene increased by 1-log in soil exposed to treated animals (P < 0.001), but it remained relatively stable in the control soil whereby calves were not treated with antibiotic. Resistome in exposed soil was largely modified (P = 0.004) with the overall prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) significantly elevated (3.8-fold increase by day 10; P = 0.01). In addition to florfenicol, enriched ARGs collectively conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, elfamycins, macrolides-lincosamides-streptrogramin A/B, and beta-lactams. Quantitative PCR validated that ARGs including str and tetG in soil exposed to florfenicol-treated calves had gradually increased fold-change difference relative to the control soil over time. Moreover, a greater diversity of transferrable ARGs was observed in exposed soil and these were associated with a greater diversity of bacterial species. Evaluation of on-farm effects to soil in situ after exposure to antibiotic-treated animals can help design effective managements to mitigate antibiotic resistance in food-animal production.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Solo , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124139, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971337

RESUMO

This study was focused on the changes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their potential host bacteria during the swine manure composting on sub-scale farms. Eight target ARGs increased 427% on average, with a trend of increase at early stage and decrease at later stage, and the main reduction stage appeared in maturity stage. The abundance of ARGs was mainly affected by the community succession of potential host bacteria. Composting could reduce the abundance of potential host bacteria of ARGs as well as pathogens such as Pseudomonas, and reduce the environmental risks of swine manure. N/C and S levels had a positive effect on the potential host of most ARGs. Prolonging the maturity period would inhibit the growth of potential host bacteria of ARGs during composting, therefore inhibiting the transmission of ARGs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Esterco , Suínos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 144160, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373750

RESUMO

The exposure of non-target wildlife to anticoagulant compounds used for rodent control is a well-known phenomenon. Exposure can be primary when non-target species consume bait or secondary via uptake of poisoned animals by mammalian and avian predators. However, nothing is known about the exposure patterns in passerine birds that are commonly present on farms where rodent control is conducted. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to screen for residues of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in liver tissue of passerine birds that were present during rodent control with a product containing brodifacoum (BR). The 222 birds of 13 species were bycatch of rodent snap trapping in 2011-2013 on 11 livestock farms run synchronously with baiting. During baiting, ARs were detected in about 30% of birds; 28% carried BR. In liver tissue of 54 birds that carried BR, concentrations ranged from 4 to 7809 ng/g (mean 490 ± 169 ng/g). Among common bird species with AR residues, BR was most prevalent in robins (Erithacus rubecula) (44%) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis) (41%). Mean BR concentration was highest in great tits (Parus major) (902 ± 405 ng/g). The occurrence and concentrations of BR residues were about 30% higher in birds collected close to bait stations compared to birds collected further away. The results demonstrate that several ground feeding songbird species are exposed to ARs used on farms. If BR was present in liver tissue, concentrations were variable, which may imply a combination of primary and secondary exposure of songbirds. Exposure was mostly restricted to the immediate surroundings of farms where bait was used, which might limit the transfer to the wider environment. Efforts should be made to reduce the access for birds to AR bait to prevent high exposure.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas , Passeriformes , Rodenticidas , Animais , Anticoagulantes , Fazendas , Ratos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111234, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916529

RESUMO

The activity and fate of heavy metals (HMs) from mining and smelting activities in farmland soil is of great significance to effectively prevent the excessive enrichment of HMs in crops. This study focuses on Baiyin area, a typical mining city in northwest China. In this example, the sources, speciation, and fate of HMs in the farmland soil, and the migration and enrichment characteristics of HMs in the different parts of crops planted in different areas were studied in detail combining the chemical sequential extraction and Pb isotope approaches. Results showed that the mean anthropogenic contributions of HMs in farmland soils were approximately 85%, 88%, 76%, and 41% for the ore district (OD), Xidagou sewage irrigation area (XSIA), Dongdagou sewage irrigation area, and the Yellow River irrigation area, respectively, and the risk that HMs were excessively accumulated in crops in OD and XSIA was high. Compared with soil residual fractions, the isotope ratios 206Pb/207Pb in non-residual fractions (1.1304-1.1669) were closer to the values of local ores, suggesting that anthropogenic HMs from mining and smelting activities were mainly enriched in the non-residual fractions. The isotope ratios 206Pb/207Pb in crops (1.1398-1.1686) further confirmed that those anthropogenic HMs were more easily absorbed and concentrated by crops. HMs contents in leaves from OD and XSIA were generally higher than that in roots, suggesting that atmospheric deposition in OD and XSIA had a greater impact on the HMs concentration of crop leaves,while the excess rate of HMs in grain/fruit was the lowest in all parts of crops. The division and classification of crop planting in mining area can effectively help minimize the risk that HMs from anthropogenic source enter the human body through the food chain.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Cidades , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fazendas , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Rios , Esgotos , Solo/química
16.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128246, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297193

RESUMO

Various kinds of vanadium (V) ore mining areas produced serious contamination have been widely recognized, while less relevant research was about the associated health risk and V distribution level for farmland soils around. This study assessed the contamination characteristics and associated human health risk of V in the surface farmland soils near various V ore mining areas. The bioremediation of V contamination by indigenous microbes from them was also evaluated. The farmland soils near stone coal area (Hunan province, China) showed the highest mean concentration of V (543.91 mg/kg), posing high non-carcinogenic risks, with high hazard quotient (HQ) value of 1.29 for children. While, V values of sampled soils near V titanomagnetite, petroleum associated minerals and uvanite areas were lower than that near stone coal area, also with lower HQ values (<1.00). Within 60 h, the removal efficiency of V(V) reached 98.4% with farmland soils near uvanite area, suggesting feasibility of V bioremediation via indigenous microbes. Bacterial communities after long-term cultivation (240 d) with V(V) were dominated by native microbes able to tolerate or reduce the toxicity of V(V), such as Ruminococcaceae_incertae_sedis, Trichococcus and Comamonas. This work is helpful for calling attention to V pollution of farmland near various V ore mining areas and formulating effective strategies for V(V) contamination bioremediation.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Mineração , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Vanádio/análise
17.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111408, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181403

RESUMO

Understanding the processes related to the adoption of best environmental practices is an important challenge to support the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Our paper aims to contribute to this issue by analyzing the relation between farm's organizational design and environmental performance. We used data of 47562 dairy farms from the 2010 French Agricultural Census and employed econometric analysis to study the correlation between farm's internal and external factors and environmental performance. The environmental performance is approached by a score based on the adoption of nine best management practices. The results show that while the internal, structural and managerial resources, through which farms can increase their absorptive capacity, play an important role, external factors, particularly the type of market environment in which farms operate, play a key role in environmental performance. The results also highlight the central role of farms' spatial environment and, more specifically, the strong correlation with the environmental performance of the neighboring dairy farms. Finally, policies to promote locally farmer's experience exchanges, to supporting diversification, high quality products and short circuits can bust the environmental performance of dairy sector.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas
18.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111453, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220511

RESUMO

I) BACKGROUND: Carbon footprint studies of locally produced and consumed wine are missing. II) PURPOSE(S): The objective of the present study was to identify management strategies and carbon reduction potentials for a sustainable wine production based on the carbon footprint and the water footprint of locally grown grapes and wine locally produced and consumed. III) METHODS: Two wineries (A and B) were investigated, both of which grow the same white (Riesling) and the same red grape (Pinot Noir/Spätburgunder) on the same rootstock in the Rhine river valley of Germany. The study was based on PAS 2050-1 (BSI) and comprised 99% primary data derived from historical farm records. System boundaries ranged from planting of the grapevines to eventual disposal of a typical 0.75 L glass bottle, which served as the functional unit (FU). IV) RESULTS: The product carbon footprint (PCF) was 1.91 ±â€¯0.3 kg CO2eq/bottle (A) or 1.69 ±â€¯0.3 (B) kg CO2eq/bottle of white wine and 1.86 ±â€¯0.3 kg CO2eq/bottle of red wine for both wineries. These results were attributed to the consumer behaviour (22-30%), followed by the use and production of glass bottles (20-27%). Grapevine cultivation amounted to 0.3-0.4 kg CO2eq/bottle; grape processing caused ca. 0.05-0.06 kg CO2eq/bottle, packaging 0.5-0.6 kg CO2eq/bottle, distribution 0.2-0.4 kg CO2eq/bottle, while use and disposal of the glass bottles emitted 0.5-0.6 kg CO2eq/bottle. The plant protection chemicals caused only ca. 1.4% and organic fertilizer ca. 2.8% of the product carbon footprint (PCF). Red and white wine appeared commensurate in their PCF within 3-8% in both vineyards. The water footprint was ca. 5.7 ±â€¯0.6 (A) and 2.1 ±â€¯0.4 (B) L blue water/bottle for both red and white wine. V) DISCUSSION: The results are discussed with higher carbon footprint values for wine from overseas. We have identified the following reduction potentials such as the following management strategies: VI) RECOMMENDATIONS: a) reduction of fossil fuels for gas heating of the premises and for farm vehicles, b) the use of lightweight glass bottles and c) alternative means of transport for the consumer purchase at the winery when using a private vehicle.


Assuntos
Vinho , Carbono , Pegada de Carbono , Fazendas , Alemanha , Vinho/análise
19.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111550, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129030

RESUMO

Agriculture is responsive to weather and climate variability. In addition to the climatic stressors, coastal agriculture is influenced by non-climatic factors. Therefore, understanding farmers' perception of the causes of their changes in farm management plays a key role in motivating them to adopt agricultural adaptations. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in coastal farm management in Bangladesh over the last decade compared to the previous one. We explored whether the causes of those changes were climatic or non-climatic as perceived by the farmers and the factors that shaped their perceptions. We interviewed 381 farmers sampled from ten subdistricts along the coast of Bangladesh. Descriptive statistics showed that the farmers had changed on average 10 to 11 farm management practices. Though the average value was 67%, a higher number of farmers in the western coastal zone mentioned that climate change had impacts on their farm management. Adoption of rice crop-related adaptations was greater than livestock, fisheries or general agricultural practices. According to the discriminant function analysis, discriminative variables were perception of climatic impacts on farm productivity, climate change awareness, involvement with non-farm jobs, age, education, organizational affiliation, number of changed farm practices, and meteorologically consistent perception of rainfall and temperature. Lessons learned from this research are that the farmers should better understand the link between climate change and farm management practices while motivating them to implement adaptation strategies. This could be achieved by improving farmers' climate change awareness, perceptions of changes in climatic parameters and involvement with farm-related associations.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Animais , Bangladesh , Mudança Climática , Fazendas , Humanos , Percepção
20.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111407, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221672

RESUMO

To adapt is to survive. However, sub-Saharan Africa, although highly dependent on agriculture, is vulnerable, most affected, with low-adaptive capacity. Luckily, the region is blessed with inherent adaptation-related strengths that are within reach, to counteract uncertainty in climatic patterns which are expected to continue well into the future. One such strength is a bimodal rainfall pattern that avails the 'hidden' multiple season-cropping systems that have the potential to produce four types of crops in a single plot in a single year: short-rains crops, long-rains crops, permanent crops and fruit crops. Despite burgeoning literature on adaptation, the impact of multiple season-cropping systems has not been adequately investigated. This study applies a novel approach to measure its impact on productivity of more than 10,000 smallholder plots using an endogenous switching regression framework. The study finds that plots that adopt multiple season-cropping systems produce higher quantities, earn more crop revenue, and are less likely to be affected by rainfall variability in comparison to plots that engage in single season-cropping systems. As the fight against climate change continues, there is need to move the needle on adaptation and consider strategies that are within reach. The multiple season-cropping systems provide this opportunity and emphasises the benefit of engaging in agriculture throughout the year and producing long-rains, short rains, permanent and fruits crops.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Frutas , Agricultura , Fazendas , Chuva , Estações do Ano
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