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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115828, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240979

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal properties of Gaultheria have been used in traditional medicine to treat pain and inflammation. AIM OF THE STUDY: Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties of Gaultheria trichophylla Royle extract and salicylate-rich fraction in vivo, in vitro, and in silico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory of extract and a salicylate-rich fraction (at doses of 100, 200, 300, and 150 mg/kg) were assessed using healthy albino mice employing acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test, carrageenan-induced inflammation, and croton oil-induced edema. For in vitro testing of extracts COX and LOX enzyme inhibition assays were used. Molecular docking studies were conducted for in silico testing of the inhibitory activity of the dominant compound Gaultherin against COX and LOX. RESULTS: G-EXT 200 and 300 and G-SAL 150 mg/kg reduced pyrexia significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). G-EXT-200, 300, and G-SAL 150 reduce the writing to a significant level (p > 0.05, p < 0.01). G-EXT 200 and 300 and G-SAL 150 mg/kg doses the analgesic effect was significant (p > 0.05, p > 0.01) and was comparable to tramadol. G-EXT 100 200, 300 mg/kg showed 43.8%, 47.94% and 56% respectively. G-SAL 150 mg, rich in salicylates, showed maximum inhibition of 65.75% next to standard drug diclofenac with 76.7% inhibition. G-EXT 100 and 200 mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in ear edema. With 300 mg/kg dose the effect was more (61.89%, p < 0.01). The salicylate-rich fraction G-SAL and Celecoxib showed an almost similar effect (p < 0.01). Significance inhibition was shown in the COX-2 test (G-EXT 39.70 and G-SAL 77.20 IC50 µg/ml) and in the 5-LOX test (G-EXT 28.3 and G-SAL 39.70 IC50 µg/ml). The preliminary in silico results suggest that the investigated compound showed excellent inhibitory activity against COX and LOX enzymes as evident from the free binding energy. Molecular docking revealed that Gaultherin binds well in the COX and LOX enzyme catalytic region. CONCLUSION: The extract and salicylate-rich fraction obtained from G. trichophylla showed significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects in vivo, in vitro, and in silico assays that support its use in traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos , Ericaceae , Gaultheria , Animais , Camundongos , Gaultheria/química , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Salicilatos/química , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Salicilatos/uso terapêutico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carragenina , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 45(6): 179-183, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clozapine-induced fever is frequently documented in the early stages of administration. Fever during clozapine treatment often presents a clinical challenge, because there are no established guideline to decide when fever is the adverse effect. Although the etiology of clozapine-induced fevers remains unknown, evidence has suggested that fever may develop secondarily to a generalized inflammatory response as a manifestation of the immune-modulating effects of clozapine. CASE PRESENTATION: We presented a 59-year-old male patient with a treatment-resistant schizophrenia, who was introduced clozapine for the first time. He became febrile on day 14 at 75 mg/d. He was diagnosed clozapine-induced fever, which was improved by dose reduction on day 27 at 25 mg/d. However, we noticed significant high levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine on day 29, which resulted in withdrawal of clozapine. Also, we found continuous eosinophilia on day 33. After we provided conservative therapy with appropriate intravenous fluids, his kidney function and eosinophilic counts returned to normal on day 59 and day 53, respectively. The time-sequential changes of levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α suggested that the upregulated cytokines play a role on clozapine-induced fever and subsequent eosinophilia under severe renal failure condition. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first case presentation of clozapine-induced fever discussing the mechanism, differential diagnosis, and decision making of clozapine treatment focusing on plasma cytokines. If once fever occurs, an extensive medical workup for the fever and a careful systemic medical management should be promptly proceeded to avoid clozapine-associated severe complications.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Clozapina , Eosinofilia , Esquizofrenia , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/induzido quimicamente , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 356, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is recommended following cardiac arrest; however, time to target temperature varies in clinical practice. We hypothesised the effects of a target temperature of 33 °C when compared to normothermia would differ based on average time to hypothermia and those patients achieving hypothermia fastest would have more favorable outcomes. METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis of the TTM-2 trial, patients after out of hospital cardiac arrest were randomized to targeted hypothermia (33 °C), followed by controlled re-warming, or normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, ≥ 37.8 °C). The average temperature at 4 h (240 min) after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was calculated for participating sites. Primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcome was poor functional outcome at 6 months (score of 4-6 on modified Rankin scale). RESULTS: A total of 1592 participants were evaluated for the primary outcome. We found no evidence of heterogeneity of intervention effect based on the average time to target temperature on mortality (p = 0.17). Of patients allocated to hypothermia at the fastest sites, 71 of 145 (49%) had died compared to 68 of 148 (46%) of the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.07; 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.36). Poor functional outcome was reported in 74/144 (51%) patients in the hypothermia group, and 75/147 (51%) patients in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia 1.01 (95% CI 0.80-1.26). CONCLUSIONS: Using a hospital's average time to hypothermia did not significantly alter the effect of TTM of 33 °C compared to normothermia and early treatment of fever.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipotermia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Temperatura Baixa , Febre/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04084, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403158

RESUMO

Background: Hospital referral and admission in many- low and middle-income countries are not feasible for many young infants with sepsis/possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI). The effectiveness of simplified antibiotic regimens when referral to a hospital was not feasible has been shown before. We analysed the pooled data from the previous trials to compare the risk of poor clinical outcome for young infants with PSBI with the two regimens containing injectable procaine penicillin and gentamicin with the oral amoxicillin plus gentamicin regimen currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) when referral is not feasible. Methods: Infant records from three individually randomised trials conducted in Africa and Asia were collated in a standard format. All trials enrolled young infants aged 0-59 days with any sign of PSBI (fever, hypothermia, stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, or severe chest indrawing). Eligible young infants whose caretakers refused hospital admission and consented were enrolled and randomised to a trial reference arm (arm A: procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin) or two experimental arms (arm B: oral amoxicillin and gentamicin or arm C: procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin initially, followed by oral amoxicillin). We compared the rate of poor clinical outcomes by day 15 (deaths till day 15, treatment failure by day 8, and relapse between day 9 and 15) in reference arm A with experimental arms and present risk differences with 95% confidence interval (CI), adjusted for trial. Results: A total of 7617 young infants, randomised to arm A, arm B, or arm C in the three trials, were included in this analysis. Most were 7-59 days old (71%) and predominately males (56%). Slightly over one-fifth of young infants had more than one sign of PSBI at the time of enrolment. Severe chest indrawing (45%), fever (43%), and feeding problems (25%) were the most common signs. Overall, those who received arm B had a lower risk of poor clinical outcome compared to arm A for both per-protocol (risk difference = -2.1%, 95% CI = -3.8%, -0.4%; P = 0.016) and intention-to-treat (risk difference = -1.8%, 95% CI = -3.5%, -0.2%; P = 0.031) analyses. Those who received arm C did not have an increased risk of poor clinical outcome compared to arm A for both per-protocol (risk difference = -1.1%, 95% CI = -2.8%, 0.6%) and intention-to-treat (risk difference = -0.8%, 95% CI = -2.5%, 0.9%) analyses. Overall, those who received arm B had a lower risk of poor clinical outcome compared to the combined arms A and C for both per-protocol (risk difference = -1.6%, 95% CI = -3.5%, -0.1%; P = 0.035) and intention-to-treat (risk difference = -1.4%, 95% CI = -2.8%, -0.1%; P = 0.049) analyses. Conclusions: Analysis of pooled individual patient-level data from three large trials in Africa and Asia showed that the WHO-recommended simplified antibiotic regimen B (oral amoxicillin and injection gentamicin) was superior to regimen A (injection procaine penicillin and injection gentamicin) and combined arms A and C (injection procaine penicillin and injection gentamicin, followed by oral amoxicillin) in terms of poor clinical outcome for the outpatient treatment of young infants with PSBI when inpatient treatment was not feasible. Registration: AFRINEST study [9] is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000286044. SATT Bangladesh study [10] is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00844337. SATT Pakistan study [11] is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01027429.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Penicilina G Procaína , Lactente , Masculino , Humanos , Penicilina G Procaína/uso terapêutico , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/induzido quimicamente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , África , Febre , Paquistão
5.
Ann Emerg Med ; 80(6): 508-560, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403996
6.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 44(12): 968-970, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395452

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Episodic hypereosinophilia and angioedema syndrome, also known as Gleich syndrome, is a rare entity characterized by recurrent episodes of eosinophilia, angioedema, urticaria, fever and weight gain with spontaneous resolution. It is classified as an idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Unlike other hypereosinophilic syndromes, it has a low risk for internal organ damage. We report the case of a 42-year-old male with a 28-year history of recurrent erythematous wheals and plaques and persistent hypereosinophilia. Physical examination revealed a well-defined subcutaneous nodule on his right lower limb that increased in size with each episode of angioedema. Histopathology evidenced a lipoma with intense eosinophil infiltration within the mature adipose tissue, while the specimen of the wheal revealed scarce perivascular and interstitial eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate. Diagnosis of episodic angioedema with eosinophilia syndrome was made based on clinical and laboratory findings.


Assuntos
Angioedema , Eosinofilia , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Urticária , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Angioedema/etiologia , Angioedema/patologia , Eosinofilia/complicações , Eosinofilia/patologia , Febre
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2107, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever is one of the warning signs of poor health in children. Care-seeking in febrile children is importance in reducing child deaths and morbidity. This care-seeking by parents in children with fever is however relatively low in sub-Sahara Africa. The aim of this study is to improve understanding of the behaviour of caregivers in seeking care for children under five with fever and to identify associated modifiable risk factors in Togo. METHODS: Data from a 2013-2014 cross-sectional nationally representative malaria indicator survey was used. Advice or care-seeking is defined as any child under 5 years of age with fever in the two weeks prior to the interview for whom advice or treatment was sought in a public medical area, private medical area, store, market, or from an itinerant medicine seller. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed using Generalized Linear Models. RESULTS: A total of 1359 febrile children out of 6529 children under five were enrolled. Care had been sought in 38.9% of cases. In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with formal care seeking were accessibility to the nearest health center (aOR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.18-1.95], mother's education level secondary and above (aOR = 1.85, 95% [1.32-2.59]), mothers who identified as belonging to animist/traditionalist religions compared to mothers who belonged to a formal religion (catholic (aOR = 2. 28, 95% [1.55-3.37]), Muslim (aOR = 2.41, 95% [1.67-3.47]), and Protestant (aOR = 1.9, 95% [1.37-2.65]), Maritime region (aOR = 0.49, 95% [0.29-0.82]) compared to Lome commune. CONCLUSION: Interventions should specifically target women with limited education, not identifying as part of an official church and at longer distance from health center.


Assuntos
Febre , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Transversais , Togo/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/terapia , Mães
9.
Malar J ; 21(1): 341, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-density malaria infections (LDMI) are defined as infections that are missed by the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and/or microscopy which can lead to continued transmission and poses a challenge in malaria elimination efforts. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of LDMI in febrile cases using species-specific nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests in the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project, where routine diagnosis was conducted using RDT. METHODS: Every 10th fever case from a cross-sectional community based fever surveillance was tested with RDT, microscopy and nested PCR. Parasite DNA was isolated from the filter paper using Chelex based method. Molecular diagnosis by nested PCR was performed targeting 18SrRNA gene for Plasmodium species. RESULTS: The prevalence of malaria was 2.50% (436/17405) diagnosed by PCR, 1.13% (196/17405) by RDT, and 0.68% (118/ 17,405) by microscopy. Amongst 17,405 febrile samples, the prevalence of LDMI was 1.51% (263/17405) (95% CI 1.33-1.70), which were missed by conventional methods. Logistic regression analysis revealed that illness during summer season [OR = 1.90 (p < 0.05)] and cases screened within three days of febrile illness [OR = 5.27 (p < 0.001)] were the statistically significant predictors of LDMI. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malaria among febrile cases using PCR was 2.50% (436/17405) as compared to 1.13% (196/17405) by RDT. Higher number of the LDMI cases were found in subjects with ≤ 3 days mean duration of reported fever, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). This observation suggests that an early detection of malaria with a more sensitive diagnostic method or repeat testing of the all negative cases may be useful for curtailing malaria transmission. Therefore, malaria elimination programme would benefit from using more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods, such as PCR.


Assuntos
Malária , Plasmodium falciparum , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Estudos Transversais , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Febre/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31361, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397388

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Paxlovid has shown the potential decreasing the hospitalization rate of mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and death in few of clinical trials, and is expected to the most promising medicine targeting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SRAS-COV-2). However, there are no enough evidences to show it effectiveness for all patients with SARS-COV-2, especially among elderly patients and newest Omicron variant. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: A 79 year's old female patient was admitted to hospital because of the moderate COVID-19 caused by the Omicron variant BA2.0. He presented the initial syndromes including Xerostomia, cough and fever. Chest computed tomography (CT) scanning at admission showed the exudation lesions on lung. The laboratory examination revealed that there are increased C-reactive protein (CRP), Ferritin and erythrocytesedimentationrate (ESR) and decreased white blood cells. INTERVENTIONS: The oral Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir) was administrated on second day after admission. OUTCOMES: The syndromes of Xerostomia, cough and fever was improved on third day after use of Paxlovid. The levels of CRP, ESR and counts of white blood cells returned the normal after three days of admission. The chest CT scanned on the third and sixth day after Paxlovid used showed the absorption of lesions. The examination of SARS-COVS viral nucleic acid turned negative at fifth day of admission. LESSONS: As a result, we would consider that Paxlovid is a suitable oral drug for elderly patients with SARS-COV2 even Omicron variant, it's benefit to improve patient's symptom and signs and can prevents COVID-19 with the high-risk factors from severe disease, although it didn't shorten the time for viral nucleic acid to turn negative.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Xerostomia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , SARS-CoV-2 , Tosse/etiologia , RNA Viral , Febre/etiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 869, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiology of febrile illness in Uganda is shifting due to increased HIV treatment access, emerging viruses, and increased surveillance. We investigated the aetiology and outcomes of acute febrile illness in adults presenting to hospital using a standardized testing algorithm of available assays in at Arua and Mubende tertiary care hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: We recruited adults with a ≥ 38.0 °C temperature or history of fever within 48 h of presentation from August 2019 to August 2020. Medical history, demographics, and vital signs were recorded. Testing performed included a complete blood count, renal and liver function, malaria smears, blood culture, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). When HIV positive, testing included cryptococcal antigen, CD4 count, and urine lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay for tuberculosis. Participants were followed during hospitalization and at a 1-month visit. A Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to evaluate for baseline clinical features and risk of death. RESULTS: Of 132 participants, the median age was 33.5 years (IQR 24 to 46) and 58.3% (n = 77) were female. Overall, 73 (55.3%) of 132 had a positive microbiologic result. Among those living with HIV, 31 (68.9%) of 45 had at least one positive assay; 16 (35.6%) had malaria, 14 (31.1%) tuberculosis, and 4 (8.9%) cryptococcal antigenemia. The majority (65.9%) were HIV-negative; 42 (48.3%) of 87 had at least one diagnostic assay positive; 24 (27.6%) had positive malaria smears and 1 was Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra positive. Overall, 16 (12.1%) of 132 died; 9 (56.3%) of 16 were HIV-negative, 6 died after discharge. High respiratory rate (≥ 22 breaths per minute) (hazard ratio [HR] 8.05; 95% CI 1.81 to 35.69) and low (i.e., < 92%) oxygen saturation (HR 4.33; 95% CI 1.38 to 13.61) were identified to be associated with increased risk of death. CONCLUSION: In those with hospitalized fever, malaria and tuberculosis were common causes of febrile illness, but most deaths were non-malarial, and most HIV-negative participants did not have a positive diagnostic result. Those with respiratory failure had a high risk of death.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hospitalização , Febre/etiologia , Febre/complicações
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 860, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postnatal care (PNC) is an important tool for reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, what predicts receipt and maintenance in PNC, particularly events during pregnancy and the peripartum period, is not well understood. We hypothesized that fever or hypothermia during delivery would engender greater health consciousness among those attending antenatal care, leading to greater PNC engagement after hospital discharge and our objective was to evaluate this relationship. METHODS: Women were prospectively enrolled immediately postpartum at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). We collected postpartum vital signs and surveyed women by telephone about PNC receipt, fever, and infection at two and six weeks postpartum. Our outcome of interest was receipt of PNC post-discharge, defined as whether a participant visited a health facility and/or was hospitalized in the postpartum period. Our explanatory variables were whether a participant was ever febrile (> 38.0˚C) or hypothermic (< 36.0˚C) during delivery stay and whether a participant attended at least 4 antenatal care (ANC) visits. We used logistic regressions to estimate the association between ANC and fever/hypothermia with PNC, including an interaction term between ANC and fever/hypothermia to determine whether there was a modifying relationship between variables on PNC. Regression models were adjusted for age, marital status, parity, HIV serostatus, Mbarara residency, and whether the participant was referred to MRRH, RESULTS: Of the 1,541 women, 86 (5.6%) reported visiting a health facility and/or hospitalization and 186 (12.0%) had an abnormal temperature recorded during delivery stay. Of those who reported at least one visit, 59/86 (68.6%) delivered by cesarean, 37/86 (43.0%) reported post-discharge fever, and 44/86 (51.2%) reported post-discharge infection. Neither ANC attendance, abnormal temperature after delivery, nor their interaction term, were significantly associated with post-discharge PNC. The included covariates were not significantly associated with the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: While the overall proportion of women reporting post-discharge PNC was low, those who reported visiting a health facility and/or hospitalization had high proportions of post-discharge fever, post-discharge infection, and cesarean delivery, which suggests that these visits may have been related to problem-focused care. No significant associations between ANC and PNC were observed in this cohort. Further research assessing ANC quality and PNC visit focus is needed to ensure ANC and PNC are optimized to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda , Assistência ao Convalescente , Temperatura , Alta do Paciente , Paridade , Febre
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366093

RESUMO

Increased temperature in humans is the symptom of many infectious diseases and it is thus an important diagnostic tool. Infrared temperature measurement methods have been developed and applied over long periods due to their advantage of non-contact and fast measurements. This study deals with a statistical evaluation of the possibilities and limitations of infrared/thermographic human temperature measurement. A short review of the use of infrared temperature measurement in medical applications is provided. Experiments and statistics-based evaluation to confirm the expected accuracy and limits of thermography-based human temperature measurement are introduced. The results presented in this study show that the standard deviation of the thermographic measurement of the eyes maximum temperature was 0.4-0.9 °C and the mean values differences from the armpit measurement were up to 0.5 °C, based on the used IR camera, even though near ideal measurement conditions and permanent blackbody correction were used. It was also shown that a certain number of outliers must be assumed in such measurements. Extended analyses including simulations of true negative/false positive, sensitivity/specificity and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves are presented. The statistical evaluation as well as the extended analyses show that maximum eyes temperature is more relevant than a forehead temperature examination.


Assuntos
Raios Infravermelhos , Termografia , Humanos , Termografia/métodos , Temperatura , Temperatura Corporal , Febre/diagnóstico
14.
Malar J ; 21(1): 326, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic carriage of malaria parasites is common in high transmission intensity areas and confounds clinical case definitions for research studies. This is important for investigations that aim to identify immune correlates of protection from clinical malaria. The proportion of fevers attributable to malaria parasites is widely used to define different thresholds of parasite density associated with febrile episodes. The varying intensity of malaria transmission was investigated to check whether it had a significant impact on the parasite density thresholds. The same dataset was used to explore an alternative statistical approach, using the probability of developing fevers as a choice over threshold cut-offs. The former has been reported to increase predictive power. METHODS: Data from children monitored longitudinally between 2005 and 2017 from Junju and Chonyi in Kilifi, Kenya were used. Performance comparison of Bayesian-latent class and logistic power models in estimating malaria attributable fractions and probabilities of having fever given a parasite density with changing malaria transmission intensity was done using Junju cohort. Zero-inflated beta regressions were used to assess the impact of using probabilities to evaluate anti-merozoite antibodies as correlates of protection, compared with multilevel binary regression using data from Chonyi and Junju. RESULTS: Malaria transmission intensity declined from over 49% to 5% between 2006 and 2017, respectively. During this period, malaria attributable fraction varied between 27-59% using logistic regression compared to 10-36% with the Bayesian latent class approach. Both models estimated similar patterns of fevers attributable to malaria with changing transmission intensities. The Bayesian latent class model performed well in estimating the probabilities of having fever, while the latter was efficient in determining the parasite density threshold. However, compared to the logistic power model, the Bayesian algorithm yielded lower estimates for both attributable fractions and probabilities of fever. In modelling the association of merozoite antibodies and clinical malaria, both approaches resulted in comparable estimates, but the utilization of probabilities had a better statistical fit. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria attributable fractions, varied with an overall decline in the malaria transmission intensity in this setting but did not significantly impact the outcomes of analyses aimed at identifying immune correlates of protection. These data confirm the statistical advantage of using probabilities over binary data.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Malária , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Teorema de Bayes , Malária/complicações , Quênia/epidemiologia , Merozoítos , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia
15.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 293, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever is the most common reason for children's visits to medical centers. Its management is an essential duty of a pediatric nurse. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of body wash with Marshmallow plant on children's fever. METHODS: This parallel clinical trial was performed on 92 children aged 6 months to 10 years with a tympanic temperature above 38.3 °C. Participants were randomly assigned to groups. Simultaneously with receiving acetaminophen, body wash was performed in the control group with lukewarm water and in the intervention group with white Marshmallow extract. The children's temperature; from the beginning of the study was checked and recorded every 15 min in the first hour and in the 4th and 6th hours. The time duration to resolve fever, the frequency of afebrile children at different times of the study, and the value of temperature reduction were primary outcomes. Heart rate, the need to administer the next dose of acetaminophen, and the time of fever recurrence were recorded as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: The mean time duration to resolve fever in the intervention group was shorter than in the control group (B = 8.181, 95% CI 3.778-12.584, p < 0.001). The frequency of the children without fever was higher in the intervention group during different times of the study (p < 0.001). The mean value of temperature reduction in the intervention group was higher than the control group (B = -0.27 °C, 95% CI: -0.347 to -0.193, P < 0.001), although, after adjusting the effect of confounding variables it was not significant (P = 0.127). The mean of adjusted heart rate change (p = 0.771), the time of fever recurrence (P = 0.397), and the frequency of children requiring the next dose of acetaminophen (p = 0.397) did not show a significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: Body wash with Marshmallow extract reduced children's fever in a shorter period of time and to some extent a greater extent than the control group without side effects. Therefore, it can be used as an effective and safe complementary method to help reduce fever. However, more studies are necessary for this field. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration in Iranian Clinical Trials (RCTs) on 31.08.2020 with registration code: IRCT20200809048345N1.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Ibuprofeno , Criança , Humanos , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Temperatura , Água , Irã (Geográfico) , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/induzido quimicamente
16.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 979, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative fever (POF) is a common problem after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The goal of this research is to analyze the characteristics and risk factors of fever following TJA. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 2482 patients who had primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgery at our institution between January 2020 and December 2020. Those patients were divided into TKA group and THA group. The patients' axillary temperatures were measured. POF was defined as a body temperature greater than 38 °C. Then patients in the TKA and THA groups were respectively divided into afebrile group and febrile group based on their body temperatures. Temperature changing characteristics of the patients in the febrile group were analyzed and recorded. According to the number of patients in the febrile group, we randomly selected a corresponding number of patients from the afebrile group at a ratio of 1:2 to establish a control group. Gender, hypertension, diabetes, anesthesia, surgical time, and some laboratory data were analyzed between the febrile group and the afebrile group. RESULTS: Three percent of TKA patients (N = 45) had febrile, and in the febrile group of TKA group, 38% (N = 17) had fever and maximum body temperature on postoperative day 2(POD2). Six percent of THA patients (N = 46) had fever, and in the febrile group of THA group, 65% (N = 30) of the patients had fever and maximum body temperature on POD1. In TKA group, compared with afebrile group, febrile group has higher C-reactive protein (mg/L) (CRP) after surgery. In THA group, compared with the afebrile group, the patients in the febrile group had larger fall in hemoglobin (g/L), and higher C-reactive protein (mg/L) (CRP) after surgery, so there were statistically significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The POF rate of TKA is 3%, and the first fever and maximum body temperature most commonly appear on the POD2. THA has a 6% POF rate, and the first fever and the maximum body temperature most commonly appear on the POD1. In both groups, high C-reactive protein is a risk factor for postoperative fever. In addition, the fall in hemoglobin is also related to postoperative fever in the THA group.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteína C-Reativa , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Hemoglobinas
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(44): e31357, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343040

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a rare genetic disease characterized by a deficiency of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow and peripheral blood disorders. After a BALF ACER examination, the patient was found to have a rareMycobacterium abscess infection. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of SCN withMycobacterium abscess infection caused by ELANE gene mutation. Conventional antiinfection and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) did not ameliorate patient's symptoms. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC) most of the time < 0.50 × 109/L. DIAGNOSES: According to Gene sequencing and other tests, the patient was diagnosed with SCN caused by ELANE gene mutation, severe pneumonia, Mycobacteriosis abscess, nutritional iron deficiency anemia, multiple abscesses of the skin, hypergammaglobuloemia, and thrush. INTERVENTIONS: Anti-infection agents, abscess incision and drainage, blood transfusion, G-CSF were treated. OUTCOMES: The fever subsided, the cough disappeared, the anemia improved, and the ANC improved (0.69 × 109/L). Currently, the patient has been followed up in the outpatient clinic for 20months, during which time fever, bone pain, gingivitis and thrush occasionally appeared. The ANC fluctuated between 0.20 and 1.27 × 109/L, suggesting the need for a timely hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). LESSONS: ELANE gene-related SCN is rare in children, and the possibility of this disease should be considered in children with recurrent severe bacterial infections and a significant reduction in neutrophils in the peripheral blood shortly after birth. In addition to strengthening nursing care and actively preventing and controlling infection, other rare bacterial infections should be considered in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Elastase de Leucócito , Criança , Humanos , Elastase de Leucócito/genética , Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19166, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357441

RESUMO

We assessed the diagnosis, management and outcomes of acute febrile illness in a cohort of febrile children aged under 5 years presenting at one urban and two rural health centres and one tertiary hospital between 11 August 2019 and 01 November 2019. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 104 (30.8%) of 338 children at health centres and 128 (65.0%) of 197 at the hospital (p < 0.001). Malaria was detected in 33 (24.3%) of 136 children at the urban health centre, and in 55 (55.6%) of 99 and 7 (7.4%) of 95 children at the rural health centres compared to 11 (11.6%) of 95 at the hospital. Antibacterials were prescribed to 20 (11.5%) of 174 children without guidelines-specified indications (overprescribing) at health centres and in 7 (33.3%) of 21 children at the hospital (p = 0.013). Antimalarials were overprescribed to 13 (7.0%) of 185 children with negative malaria microscopy at the hospital. The fever resolved by day 7 in 326 (99.7%) of 327 children at health centres compared to 177 (93.2%) of 190 at the hospital (p < 0.001). These results suggest that additional guidance to health workers is needed to optimise the use of antimicrobials across all levels of health facilities.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde
20.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 432, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has changed the pattern of some diseases in the world, especially in pediatrics. Despite data suggesting that the pediatric population is less affected by coronavirus disease-19 infection, new concerns have been raised owing to reported cases with hyperinflammatory conditions such as Kawasaki disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report herein the case of a pediatric patient diagnosed and treated for classic Kawasaki disease in the setting of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 infection. She was an 8-year-old, previously healthy, and fully immunized Iranian girl who initially presented to the pediatric emergency department with 5 days of intermittent fever, followed by abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She was admitted for fever and abdominal pain to the surgery service of Akbar Hospital with suspected appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS: This case report may serve as a useful reference to other clinicians caring for pediatric patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Standard therapeutic interventions for Kawasaki disease must be performed to prevent critical coronary aneurysm-related complications in the coronavirus disease 2019 era.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aneurisma Coronário , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Irã (Geográfico) , Aneurisma Coronário/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Coronário/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
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