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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22583, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019474

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an extremely rare condition in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, with only a few reported cases. Compared to patients with typical clinical symptoms, it is difficult to make a definitive diagnosis when HSP presents as an initial manifestation in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Herein, a case of pulmonary tuberculosis that showed HSP at first was reported, and the related literatures were reviewed. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 24-year-old man presented with palpable purpura on the extremities, accompanied by abdominal pain, bloody stools, and knee pain. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis based on the results of interferon gamma release assays, purified protein derivative test, and computed tomography. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with vitamin C and chlorpheniramine for 2 weeks, and the above-mentioned symptoms were relieved. However, 3 weeks later, the purpura recurred with high-grade fever and chest pain during the inspiratory phase. The patient was then treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs, and the purpura as well as the high fever disappeared. OUTCOMES: The patient recovered well and remained free of symptoms during the follow-up examination. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with HSP as an initial manifestation is not common. Therefore, it is difficult to clinically diagnose and treat this disease. When an adult patient shows HSP, it is important to consider the possibility of tuberculosis to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed treatment.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/etiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Assistência ao Convalescente , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Clorfeniramina/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Masculino , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculina , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22641, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019489

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rotavirus is routinely diagnosed by the detection of antigens or the viral genome. However, these tests have limitations, in that they do not detect all rotavirus strains. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 27-month-old girl who was hospitalized for 4 days with severe gastroenteritis, including high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, mild dehydration, and periumbilical pain. Notably, the patient previously received the Rotarix vaccine. DIAGNOSES: The laboratory tests were negative for rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and norovirus as well as common diarrhea-causing bacteria. Human-bovine recombinant rotavirus was detected by MinION sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: To investigate the cause agents from the unexplained severe gastroenteritis infant, the stool sample was prepared by random amplification for Nanopore MinION sequencing. OUTCOMES: Treatment through the administration of ORS solution and galtase powder with probiotics was successful after the diagnosis of unusual rotavirus infection. LESSONS: This case report is the first detection of an unusual human-bovine recombinant rotavirus in an idiopathic gastroenteritis using Nanopore MinION sequencing.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Rotavirus/genética , Dor Abdominal , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/patologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vômito/etiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22536, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019461

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) is an underdiagnosed syndrome that describes a collection of symptoms following diverse cerebral insults, such as traumatic brain injury, hydrocephalus, hemorrhagic stroke, or brain anoxia. It is manifested by systemic high blood pressure, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis, intermittent agitation, and certain forms of dystonia. PATIENT CONCERNS: A semi-comatose 46-year-old man was transferred from the regional rehabilitation hospital with various complaints involving fluctuating vital signs, including uncontrolled hyperthermia, hypertension, tachycardia, and tachypnea, and dystonia in all extremities. The patient underwent brain surgery for astrocytoma in 1996. The patient also had a history of first ischemic stroke on the basal ganglia in 2008 and a second one in the same area in 2017. DIAGNOSIS: The laboratory, electrocardiography, and radiologic findings were normal. Brain imaging indicated an old infarction on the basal ganglia with hydrocephalus. Tractography using diffusion tensor imaging showed discontinuity of multiple tracts, and electrophysiologic tests, such as evoked potentials, displayed an absent response. Based on the dysautonomic symptoms and brain evaluations, the physiatrist diagnosed the patient with PAID. INTERVENTIONS: Bromocriptine, propranolol, and clonazepam were administered sequentially, but autonomic instability persisted. Then, intravenous opioid was administered, and fluctuations in body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate, as well as decerebrate-type dystonia were improved. However, simultaneously, drug-induced severe hypotension developed (systolic blood pressure, 57 mm Hg). Subsequently, a transdermal opioid (fentanyl) patch for PAID was applied once every 3 days. OUTCOMES: Ultimately, all vital signs and dystonia were managed without further complications, and the patient was discharged. LESSONS: A patient diagnosed with PAID following multiple cerebral insults was observed, whose condition was controlled by application of opioid patch rather than by intravenous or oral routes. A transdermal opioid patch, such as fentanyl patch, can thus be effective in the treatment of patients with PAID following multiple cerebral insults.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/tratamento farmacológico , Distonia/diagnóstico , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Distonia/etiologia , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome , Taquicardia/diagnóstico , Taquicardia/etiologia , Taquipneia/diagnóstico , Taquipneia/etiologia , Adesivo Transdérmico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952811

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported as the possible cause of acute myocarditis. Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart disease mostly caused by viral infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infection is often not suspected as a cause of myocarditis in immune-competent adults. We report the case of a 37-year-old male admitted with fever, cough and dyspnea. Chest CT showed typical ground-glass changes indicative of viral pneumonia. He was tested negative for COVID-19 but had biological markers that made us still suspect it. He had elevated troponin I level (up to 111.5 ng/mL) and diffuse myocardial dyskinesia along with a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). He was diagnosed with CMV myocarditis with cardiac insufficiency and totally recovered without antiviral therapy. During the COVID-19 pandemic patients may develop myocarditis, still every myocarditis is not a COVID infection. Myocarditis linked to CMV infection may be rare, but life-threatening.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dispneia/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocardite/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 58-64, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2019 Novel coronavirus disease puts a serious burden on the health system. Therefore, the detection of particularly serious patients at an early stage is extremely important in terms of controlling the outbreak and improving the prognosis. We investigated the role of inflammatory markers studied in patients suspected of COVID-19 at an emergency department in predicting PCR and CT results. METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out with 133 patients who were admitted between 13 March and 1st April 2020 with suspicion of COVID-19. The patients were divided into four groups according to CT and RT-PCR results and evaluated. RESULTS: Considering all patients, no specific findings were found in the hematological and biochemical values of patients in the laboratory analyses. Although all of the results remained within the reference range, there was a significant difference in white blood cell, neutrophil, platelet, and lymphocyte values when the groups were compared [p = 0.000; p = 0.004; p = 0.022; p = 0.023]. CONCLUSION: Laboratory is not specific enough in the pre-diagnosis. In addition, this result does not alter with PCR or CT positivity. However, minimal changes observed in laboratory results may be partially guiding in patients in whom both PCR and CT are positive.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 901-903, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975066

RESUMO

In this report, we describe the case of a SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) in an infant with mild fever and diarrhea in the absence of respiratory distress. A 45-day-old male infant with COVID-19 was transferred to our pediatric department. He had mild fever and diarrhea at admission. Positive-to-negative nasal swab conversion occurred on the 21st day from the onset of symptoms. However, stool swab positivity persisted during the 6-week admission period and for 7 weeks during follow-up at an outpatient clinic after discharge. Negative conversion in a stool specimen occurred on the 142nd day from the onset of symptoms. This case highlights the potential of fecal virus shedding as an important feature of viral transmission in infants and young children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Fezes/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Betacoronavirus , Diarreia/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias
7.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 253-258, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876213

RESUMO

In order to describe manifestations from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), sociodemographic variables such as, previous medical history, clinical and radiological manifestations, treatments and evolution of patients were evaluated. This took place from March 6th to 25th, 2020, in the "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" National Hospital in Lima. Seventeen patients were registered: 76% were male, with an average age of 53.5 years (range 25-94); 23.5% had returned from abroad; 41.2% were referred from other health facilities; 41.2% were admitted to mechanical ventilation; 29.4% (5 patients) died. The risk factors detected were: advanced age, arterial hypertension and obesity. The main symptoms detected were: cough, fever and dyspnea. Frequent laboratory findings were: elevated C-reactive protein and lymphopenia. The predominant radiological presentation was bilateral interstitial lung infiltrate. A first experience in the management of patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 in Peru is reported.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peru , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925974, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease, and acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS) plays an important role in the process of disease aggravation. The detailed clinical course and risk factors of ARDS have not been well described. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively investigated the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of adult confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Beijing Ditan Hospital from Jan 20 to Feb 29, 2020 and compared the differences between ARDS cases and non-ARDS cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were employed to explore the risk factors associated with ARDS. RESULTS Of the 130 adult patients enrolled in this study, the median age was 46.5 (34-62) years and 76 (58.5%) were male. ARDS developed in 26 (20.0%) and 1 (0.8%) death occurred. Fever occurred in 114 patients, with a median highest temperature of 38.5 (38-39)°C and median fever duration of 8 (3-11) days. The median time from illness onset to ARDS was 10 (6-13) days, the median time to chest CT improvement was 17 (14-21) days, and median time to negative nucleic acid test result was 27 (17-33) days. Multivariate regression analysis showed increasing odds of ARDS associated with age older than 65 years (OR=4.75, 95% CL1.26-17.89, P=0.021), lymphocyte counts [0.5-1×109/L (OR=8.80, 95% CL 2.22-34.99, P=0.002); <0.5×109/L(OR=36.23, 95% CL 4.63-2083.48, P=0.001)], and temperature peak ≥39.1°C (OR=5.35, 95% CL 1.38-20.76, P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS ARDS tended to occur in the second week of the disease course. Potential risk factors for ARDS were older age (>65 years), lymphopenia (≤1.0×109/L), and temperature peak (≥39.1°C). These findings could help clinicians to predict which patients will have a poor prognosis at an early stage.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , China , Cidades/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Linfopenia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22299, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition characterized by a hyperinflammatory state and persistent macrophage activation, resulting in reactive phagocytosis of the hematopoietic elements. In children, it is usually a hereditary disorder, while in adults it is usually acquired secondary to viral infections, collagenoses, or tumors. Although accounting for 10% of hematologic malignancies, HLH is rarely associated with multiple myeloma (MM) and other plasmacytic dyscrasias. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old Brazilian man seeked medical care with a 3-month history of intermittent fever, weight loss, night sweats, and progressive anemic symptoms. DIAGNOSIS: Total blood count showed severe bicytopenia (normocytic-normochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia), biochemical exams showed elevation of creatinine, as well as monoclonal peak in serum protein electrophoresis, high IgA dosage, and serum immunofixation with IgA kappa paraprotein. Bone marrow biopsy showed 30% of monoclonal and phenotypically anomalous plasmocytes, confirming the diagnosis of MM. Diagnosis of HLH was established by the presence of clinical and laboratory criteria: fever, splenomegaly, cytopenias, hypofibrinogenemia, hyperferritinemia, elevation of triglycerides, and several figures of erythrophagocytosis in bone marrow aspirate. INTERVENTIONS: The patient experienced pulse therapy with methylprednisolone for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, followed by initial therapy for multiple myeloma with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. OUTCOMES: Once the diagnosis of MM and secondary hemophagocytic syndrome was established, the patient had a rapid clinical deterioration despite the established therapeutic measures, evolving with cardiovascular failure, acute liver failure, acute disseminated intravascular coagulation, worsening renal dysfunction requiring dialysis support, respiratory dysfunction, and lowering of consciousness, characterizing rapid multiple organ dysfunction, ultimately leading to the death of the patient. INNOVATION: Here, we aimed to describe the sixth reported case of HLH associated with MM, according to cases cataloged in the PubMed database, and the first case evaluated by 18-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18-FDG-PETCT). CONCLUSION: Our case report seeks to provide support for a better clinical and laboratory characterization of this rare paraneoplastic entity associated with MM, and aims to call the attention of hematologists and intensivists to this condition that falls within the scope of the differential diagnosis of rapid onset multiple organ failure in patients with plasmacytic neoplasms.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/etiologia , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea/patologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Evolução Fatal , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/sangue , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/complicações , Paraproteinemias/sangue , Plasmócitos/patologia , Esplenomegalia/diagnóstico , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Perda de Peso
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The identification of life-threatening infection in febrile children presenting to the emergency department (ED) remains difficult. The quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) was only derived for adult populations, implying an urgent need for pediatric scores. We developed and validated a novel, adapted qSOFA score (Liverpool quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [LqSOFA]) and compared its performance with qSOFA, Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS), and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) high-risk criteria in predicting critical care (CC) admission in febrile children presenting to the ED. METHODS: The LqSOFA (range, 0-4) incorporates age-adjusted heart rate, respiratory rate, capillary refill, and consciousness level on the Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive scale. The primary outcome was CC admission within 48 hours of ED presentation, and the secondary outcome was sepsis-related mortality. LqSOFA, qSOFA, PEWS, and NICE high-risk criteria scores were calculated, and performance characteristics, including area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, were calculated for each score. RESULTS: In the initial (n = 1121) cohort, 47 CC admissions (4.2%) occurred, and in the validation (n = 12 241) cohort, 135 CC admissions (1.1%) occurred, and there were 5 sepsis-related deaths. In the validation cohort, LqSOFA predicted CC admission with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.86), versus qSOFA (0.66; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.71), PEWS (0.93; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.95), and NICE high-risk criteria (0.81; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.85). For predicting CC admission, the LqSOFA outperformed the qSOFA, with a net reclassification index of 10.4% (95% CI, 1.0% to 19.9%). CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, we demonstrate improved performance of the LqSOFA over qSOFA in identifying febrile children at risk for CC admission and sepsis-related mortality. Further validation is required in other settings.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre/etiologia , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Masculino , Curva ROC , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/mortalidade
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2022310, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965502

RESUMO

Importance: Identifying independent risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can support prognostication, resource utilization, and treatment. Objective: To identify excess risk and risk factors associated with hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study included 88 747 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction between Feburary 28 and May 14, 2020, and followed up through June 22, 2020, in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) national health care system, including 10 131 patients (11.4%) who tested positive. Exposures: Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, symptoms, and laboratory test results. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and death were estimated in time-to-event analyses using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The 10 131 veterans with SARS-CoV-2 were predominantly male (9221 [91.0%]), with diverse race/ethnicity (5022 [49.6%] White, 4215 [41.6%] Black, and 944 [9.3%] Hispanic) and a mean (SD) age of 63.6 (16.2) years. Compared with patients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, those who tested positive had higher rates of 30-day hospitalization (30.4% vs 29.3%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.13), mechanical ventilation (6.7% vs 1.7%; aHR, 4.15; 95% CI, 3.74-4.61), and death (10.8% vs 2.4%; aHR, 4.44; 95% CI, 4.07-4.83). Among patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, characteristics significantly associated with mortality included older age (eg, ≥80 years vs <50 years: aHR, 60.80; 95% CI, 29.67-124.61), high regional COVID-19 disease burden (eg, ≥700 vs <130 deaths per 1 million residents: aHR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45), higher Charlson comorbidity index score (eg, ≥5 vs 0: aHR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42), fever (aHR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.32-1.72), dyspnea (aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.53-2.07), and abnormalities in the certain blood tests, which exhibited dose-response associations with mortality, including aspartate aminotransferase (>89 U/L vs ≤25 U/L: aHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.35-2.57), creatinine (>3.80 mg/dL vs 0.98 mg/dL: aHR, 3.79; 95% CI, 2.62-5.48), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (>12.70 vs ≤2.71: aHR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.12-3.91). With the exception of geographic region, the same covariates were independently associated with mechanical ventilation along with Black race (aHR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.85), male sex (aHR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.30-3.32), diabetes (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.67), and hypertension (aHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03-1.64). Notable characteristics that were not significantly associated with mortality in adjusted analyses included obesity (body mass index ≥35 vs 18.5-24.9: aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77-1.21), Black race (aHR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.88-1.21), Hispanic ethnicity (aHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79-1.35), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aHR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88-1.19), hypertension (aHR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.12), and smoking (eg, current vs never: aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.67-1.13). Most deaths in this cohort occurred in patients with age of 50 years or older (63.4%), male sex (12.3%), and Charlson Comorbidity Index score of at least 1 (11.1%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this national cohort of VA patients, most SARS-CoV-2 deaths were associated with older age, male sex, and comorbidity burden. Many factors previously reported to be associated with mortality in smaller studies were not confirmed, such as obesity, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and smoking.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Respiração Artificial , Veteranos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
13.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926915, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Recent studies demonstrated evidence of coagulation dysfunction in hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. Effective anticoagulation therapy may play a dominant role in the management of severe COVID-19 cases. CASE REPORT A 73-year-old man with a 6-day history of fever up to 38.5°C, dyspnea, cough, and fatigue was diagnosed with COVID-19. He had a past medical history significant for hypertension and coronary artery bypass grafting. Two days after hospital admission, the patient developed acute respiratory failure, requiring intubation, mechanical ventilation, and transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). He received treatment including antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, vasopressors, prone positioning, and anticoagulation with enoxaparin at a prophylactic dose. After a 15-day ICU stay, the patient was hemodynamically stable but still hypoxemic; a transthoracic echocardiogram at that time, followed by a transesophageal echocardiogram for better evaluation, revealed the presence of a right atrium thrombus without signs of acute right ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function. Since the patient was hemodynamically stable, we decided to treat him with conventional anticoagulation under close monitoring for signs of hemodynamic deterioration; thus, the prophylactic dose of enoxaparin was replaced by therapeutic dosing, which was a key component of the patient's successful outcome. Over the next few days he showed significant clinical improvement. The follow-up transesophageal echocardiogram 3 weeks after effective therapeutic anticoagulation revealed no signs of right heart thrombus. CONCLUSIONS The presented COVID-19 case, one of the first reported cases with evidence of right heart thrombus by transesophageal echocardiography, highlights the central role of diagnostic imaging strategies and the importance of adequate anticoagulation therapy in the management of severe COVID-19 cases in the ICU.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Trombose/terapia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Seguimentos , Grécia , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(10): 844-849, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992438

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV infected patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in 5 non-HIV patients in the Fourth Medical Center of the General Hospital of the PLA from September 1, 2017 to September 1, 2018. Next-generation sequencing of BALF were compared with the traditional laboratory microbiological test, and the advantages of the next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in non-HIV infected patients were analyzed. Results: There were 3 males and 2 females, with a mean age (48±6) years. Three patients had membranous nephropathy, a patient had tuberculous meningitis, and a patient had esophageal cancer after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. All patients had glucocorticoid medication history before. The clinical manifestations were fever, cough and dyspnea. The chest CT mainly showed bilateral lung ground glass shadows. All the results of 1, 3-ß-D-glucan test were more than 1 000 ng/L. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in the 5 cases, and Pneumocystis cysts were found in 1 BALF by Gomori's methenamine silver nitrate staining, and the DNAs of Pneumocystis and human herpesvirus were detected in 5 BALFs by next-generation sequencing. All patients were treated with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (orally, 1.44 g, q8 h) for 23 to 72 days (median 33 days), and with ganciclovir(Ⅳ, 250 mg q12 h) for 6 to 22 days (median 15 days). The chest CT manifestations and symptoms were improved after treatment, without death. Conclusions: The next-generation sequencing of BALF is more specific and sensitive in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumoniae in non-HIV patients. It is faster, more comprehensive and more accurate than the traditional laboratory test, and could be widely used as a PCP diagnosis technique.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Tosse/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Trimetoprima/uso terapêutico
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878835

RESUMO

On 31 December 2019, the first case of COVID-19, was reported in Wuhan. A public health emergency of international concern was declared on 30 January 2020 and the first case in Scotland, on 2 March. The effect of COVID-19 appears to be less in the paediatric population and there are fewer cases reported in the literature in comparison to the adult population. Here, we report a case of a previously well 5-week-old infant who presented with fever and increased sleepiness. There was no known contact with any unwell individuals. COVID-19 was identified through a septic screen work up. The infant's course was uneventful and she has made a full recovery. This case highlights the need to have a low index of suspicion in the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the need to be vigilant in use of personal protective equipment, even in paediatric patients with subtle symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Euro Surveill ; 25(36)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914745

RESUMO

In August 2020, during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, five locally acquired cases of dengue virus type 1 were detected in a family cluster in Vicenza Province, North-East Italy where Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are endemic. The primary case was an importation from West Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first outbreak of autochthonous dengue reported in Italy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, screening of febrile travelers from endemic countries is crucial in areas where competent vectors are present.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/diagnóstico , Viagem , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Indonésia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200494, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876320

RESUMO

Diagnosing cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with only non-respiratory symptoms has been challenging. We reported the diagnosis of a child who tested positive for COVID-19 with abdominal pain/diarrhea and tracked his family cluster. One member of the family tested positive for COVID-19 on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay and three other family members had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Análise por Conglomerados , Busca de Comunicante , Diarreia/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Faringite/etiologia
19.
Eur J Radiol ; 131: 109236, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has become pandemic. Pediatric population has been less studied than adult population and prompt diagnosis is challenging due to asymptomatic or mild episodes. Radiology is an important complement to clinical and epidemiological features. OBJECTIVE: To establish the most common CXR patterns in children with COVID-19, evaluate interobserver correlation and to discuss the role of imaging techniques in the management of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients between 0 and 16 years of age with confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection and CXR were selected. Two paediatric radiologists independently evaluated the images and assessed the type of abnormality, distribution and evolution when available. RESULTS: Median age was 79.8 months (ranging from 2 weeks to 16 years of age). Fever was the most common symptom (43.5 %). 90 % of CXR showed abnormalities. Peribronchial cuffing was the most common finding (86.3 %) followed by GGOs (50 %). In both cases central distribution was more common than peripheral. Consolidations accounted for 18.1 %. Normal CXR, pleural effusion, and altered cardiomediastinal contour were the least common. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of CXR showed abnormalities in children with COVID-19. However, findings are nonspecific. Interobserver correlation was good in describing consolidations, normal x-rays and GGOs. Imaging techniques have a role in the management of children with known or suspected COVID-19, especially in those with moderate or severe symptoms or with underlying risk factors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Raios X
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927304, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This case series describes 5 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 in Ecuador who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) prior to their COVID-19 illness. CASE REPORT Case #1 reports a 29-year-old woman who had been treated with 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day for 1 year and presented with flu-like symptoms, chest pain, fever, odynophagia, asthenia, dry cough, and chills. Case #2 was a 34-year-old woman whose treatment for SLE included 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2017. She arrived at the clinic with a dry cough, asthenia, and myalgias. Case #3 was a 24-year-old woman who had been using 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine per day since 2010. She presented with asthenia, myalgias, headaches, hypogeusia, and anosmia. Case #4 was a 39-year-old woman taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine every day for SLE who presented with dyspnea, chest pain, odynophagia, hypogeusia, anosmia, diarrhea, and fever. Case #5 was a 46-year-old woman who had been taking 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine since 2019. She came to our hospital complaining of chest pain, fever, and dyspnea. In all 5 patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed with a nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test using the Cepheid/GeneXpert system. CONCLUSIONS All 5 of our patients with SLE who were taking hydroxychloroquine presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms of COVID-19. This case series provides support for a lack of prevention of COVID-19 by hydroxychloroquine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Equador , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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