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1.
Ambio ; 52(1): 1-14, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849312

RESUMO

The link between nature and human wellbeing is well established. However, few studies go beyond considering the visual and auditory underpinnings of this relationship, even though engaging with nature is a multisensory experience. While research linking smell to wellbeing exists, it focuses predominantly on smells as a source of nuisance/offence. Smells clearly have a prominent influence, but a significant knowledge gap remains in the nexus of nature, smell, and wellbeing. Here, we examine how smells experienced in woodlands contribute to wellbeing across four seasons. We show that smells are associated with multiple wellbeing domains, both positively and negatively. They are linked to memories, and specific ecological characteristics and processes over space/time. By making the link between the spatiotemporal variability in biodiversity and wellbeing explicit, we unearth a new line of enquiry. Overall, the multisensory experience must be considered by researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and planners looking to improve wellbeing through nature.


Assuntos
Florestas , Felicidade , Olfato , Humanos , Biodiversidade
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(46): e2211123119, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343268

RESUMO

How much happiness could be gained if the world's wealth were distributed more equally? Despite decades of research investigating the relationship between money and happiness, no experimental work has quantified this effect for people across the global economic spectrum. We estimated the total gain in happiness generated when a pair of high-net-worth donors redistributed US$2 million of their wealth in $10,000 cash transfers to 200 people. Our preregistered analyses offer causal evidence that cash transfers substantially increase happiness among economically diverse individuals around the world. Recipients in lower-income countries exhibited happiness gains three times larger than those in higher-income countries. Still, the cash provided detectable benefits for people with household incomes up to $123,000.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Renda , Humanos , Tempo
3.
Soc Sci Res ; 108: 102771, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334927

RESUMO

We study how the family structural arrangements individuals inhabit, the cultural meanings that accompany these structures, and individuals' experiences of identity verification within these structures are related to their general happiness. We use data (N = 1304) from the 2014 General Social Survey Identity Module to study the normative and non-normative family arrangements in which individuals reside, their experience of verification of the parent/non-parent identity, and their happiness. We find that parent/non-parent identity verification is positively associated with happiness for normative family arrangements but not non-normative family arrangements. We discuss how social structural arrangements and a culture that supports them may assist the identity verifying outcome of happiness, while structural arrangements and a culture that is not as supportive of certain family forms may undermine the identity verifying outcome of happiness. The findings provide insights into how social structure and culture at the macro level coalesce with the identity verification process at the micro level in affecting the emotional tenor of people's lives.


Assuntos
Família , Felicidade , Humanos , Família/psicologia , Pais
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19884, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400810

RESUMO

Bodily sensations are one of the major building blocks of emotional experience. However, people differ in their ability to recognise and name their emotions, especially those in response to complex phenomena such as climate change or the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we investigated whether the bodily sensation maps (BSMs) approach can be employed to study emotions related to phenomena that are likely to evoke various, and perhaps even conflicting, emotions in people. Using a unique topographical self-report method-the previously established emBODY tool, 548 participants marked where in the body they feel sensations (activations and deactivations) when they experience distinct emotions (e.g. happiness) and when they think about different phenomena, namely climate change, COVID-19 pandemic, war, nature, friends, and summer holidays. We revealed maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and phenomena. Importantly, each phenomenon was related to a statistically unique BSM, suggesting that participants were able to differentiate between feelings associated with distinct phenomena. Yet, we also found that BSMs of phenomena showed some similarity with maps of emotions. Together, these findings indicate that the emBODY tool might be useful in uncovering the range of emotions individuals experience towards complex phenomena.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Emoções/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Felicidade
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(18): 6821-6826, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research was conducted to determine the relationship between social appearance anxiety and happiness in overweight young girls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a correlational descriptive study and the study sample included 343 overweight young female students from a university in eastern Turkey. A Personal Information Form, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form (OHQ-SF), and the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics (percentage, mean, standard deviation), independent-samples t-test, analysis of variance, and correlation and regression analyses were used in data analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 21.55 ± 3.03 years. About a third of the participants (30.6%) was composed by year 3 university students, 60.6% had an income level equal to their expenditure level, and 50.7% was residing in the city center. The OHQ-SF mean total score of the participants was 17.03 ± 5.86, and the SAAS mean total score was 43.36 ± 17.07. There was a moderate negative correlation between the mean scores of the OHQ-SF and the SAAS (r: -.547, p<0.001). Social appearance anxiety explained 30% of happiness in young girls participating in the study (ß: -.547, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Happiness in young girls was effective on social appearance anxiety. Health professionals may also evaluate the level of happiness in the care and counseling services they provide to young girls during extraordinary circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Felicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychol Sci ; 33(11): 1828-1841, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206164

RESUMO

Can people remember their past happiness? We analyzed data from four longitudinal surveys from the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and Germany spanning from the 1970s until the present, in which more than 60,000 adults were asked questions about their current and past life satisfaction. We uncovered systematic biases in recalled happiness: On average, people tended to overstate the improvement in their well-being over time and to understate their past happiness. But this aggregate figure hides a deep asymmetry: Whereas happy people recall the evolution of their life to be better than it was, unhappy ones tend to exaggerate their life's negative evolution. It thus seems that feeling happy today implies feeling better than yesterday. This recall structure has implications for motivated memory and learning and could explain why happy people are more optimistic, perceive risks to be lower, and are more open to new experiences.


Assuntos
Emoções , Felicidade , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Rememoração Mental , Reino Unido , Alemanha
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 230: 103752, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191481

RESUMO

In four experiments, a change detection task using emotional (i.e., angry and happy) faces as stimuli was implemented to investigate the effects of evaluative congruency on working-memory performance and to replicate the angry-face benefit (i.e., better performance for angry compared to happy and neutral faces) found in former studies. Although results of the single experiments were heterogeneous, an overall analysis revealed better performance in trials with evaluatively congruent compared to evaluatively incongruent displays and an angry-face benefit. The congruency effect is in line with recent assumptions that evaluative-priming effects might arise from a mutual facilitation of simultaneously active evaluatively congruent concepts. Research on the angry-face benefit is enriched by the finding that the benefit was also found in control experiments using inverted faces. This result suggests that the effect is based on perceptual features of angry faces.


Assuntos
Emoções , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Felicidade , Ira , Cognição , Expressão Facial
8.
BMJ ; 379: o2600, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307118
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17709, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271230

RESUMO

On encountering a stranger, we spontaneously attribute to them character traits (e.g., trustworthiness, intelligence) based on their facial appearance. Participants can base impressions on structural face cues-the stable aspects of facial appearance that support identity recognition-or expression cues, such as the presence of a smile. It has been reported that 6- to 8-month-old infants attend to faces that adults judge to be trustworthy in preference to faces judged untrustworthy. These results are striking because the face stimuli employed were ostensibly emotion neutral. Consequently, these preferential looking effects have been taken as evidence for innate sensitivity to structural face cues to trustworthiness. However, scrutiny of the emotion rating procedure used with adults suggests that the face stimuli employed may have been judged emotion neutral only when interleaved with more obvious examples of facial affect. This means that the faces may vary in emotional expression when compared to each other. Here, we report new evidence obtained from adult raters that the stimuli used in these studies confound trustworthiness and untrustworthiness with the presence of happiness and anger, respectively. These findings suggest that the preferential looking effects described in infants are compatible with a preference for positive facial affect and may not reflect early sensitivity to structural face cues to trustworthiness.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Confiança , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Confiança/psicologia , Expressão Facial , Emoções , Felicidade
10.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 235, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates Healthy Future Study (UAEHFS) is one of the first large prospective cohort studies and one of the few studies in the region which examines causes and risk factors for chronic diseases among the nationals of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aim of this study is to investigate the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) as a screening instrument for depression among the UAEHFS pilot participants. METHODS: The UAEHFS pilot data were analyzed to examine the relationship between the PHQ-8 and possible confounding factors, such as self-reported happiness, and self-reported sleep duration (hours) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and gender. RESULTS: Out of 517 participants who met the inclusion criteria, 487 (94.2%) participants filled out the questionnaire and were included in the statistical analysis using 100 multiple imputations. 231 (44.7%) were included in the primary statistical analysis after omitting the missing values. Participants' median age was 32.0 years (Interquartile Range: 24.0, 39.0). In total, 22 (9.5%) of the participant reported depression. Females have shown significantly higher odds of reporting depression than males with an odds ratio = 3.2 (95% CI:1.17, 8.88), and there were approximately 5-fold higher odds of reporting depression for unhappy than for happy individuals. For one interquartile-range increase in age and BMI, the odds ratio of reporting depression was 0.34 (95% CI: 0.1, 1.0) and 1.8 (95% CI: 0.97, 3.32) respectively. CONCLUSION: Females are more likely to report depression compared to males. Increasing age may decrease the risk of reporting depression. Unhappy individuals have approximately 5-fold higher odds of reporting depression compared to happy individuals. A higher BMI was associated with a higher risk of reporting depression. In a sensitivity analysis, individuals who reported less than 6 h of sleep per 24 h were more likely to report depression than those who reported 7 h of sleep.


Assuntos
Depressão , Felicidade , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Sono
11.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 233-239, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36282606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired insight into illness is a common feature of schizophrenia. Improved insight is associated with better treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. At the same time, improving insight has been suggested to increase depressive symptoms and diminish quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between impaired insight and degree of subjective happiness, perceived level of success, and life satisfaction in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. METHODS: A total of 108 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were included. Data for this study were obtained from our group's previous investigation that examined the relationship between impaired insight and visuospatial attention. Insight into illness was measured by the VAGUS scale, which assesses general illness awareness, accurate symptom attribution, awareness of the need for treatment, and awareness of the negative consequences attributable to the illness. RESULTS: Our results revealed no association among the VAGUS average and subscale scores and degree of subjective happiness, perceived level of success, and life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that insight into illness is not related to subjective happiness, life satisfaction, or perceived level of success in patients with schizophrenia, which is in contrast to previous reports that demonstrate an association between insight into illness and depression.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Felicidade , Qualidade de Vida , Satisfação Pessoal
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294106

RESUMO

Through a 2 × 2 experimental vignette design, we tested if partner perceived attractiveness in interaction with appearance-related comments from one's partner might affect women and men's body dissatisfaction, body shame, acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and perceived relationship quality. Participants were 154 women and 157 men living in Italy (mean age = 30.97; all of them were in a couple relationship), who read a vignette describing the purchase of a swimsuit, through which partner attractiveness (poor versus high) and partner commentary (negative versus positive) were manipulated. Some ANCOVAs were performed on women and men separately. For men, partner commentary affected body dissatisfaction with low body fat. Moreover, the main effect of partner attractiveness was found in their consideration of undergoing cosmetic procedures. Among women, a significant partner attractiveness X partner commentary interaction effect emerged on acceptance of cosmetic surgery for social reasons. As regards relationship quality, for women, there was a main effect of partner attractiveness on relational communication, while a marginally significant interaction effect between partner attractiveness and partner commentary emerged for men's self-disclosure. Our findings suggest that partner attractiveness is generally beneficial, but when combined with negative feedback concerning the appearance, it might lose its advantages. These findings should be considered for planning interventions aimed at both preventing body dissatisfaction and acceptance of cosmetic surgical procedures for not medical reasons and promoting relationship satisfaction among women and men.


Assuntos
Homens , Cirurgia Plástica , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Satisfação Pessoal , Felicidade , Pesar , Parceiros Sexuais
13.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25 Suppl 5: e25992, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36225154

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The population of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) includes people who are on the masculine spectrum but were assigned female at birth (AFAB), that is trans MSM. This study aims to identify current circumstances regarding sexual happiness and safety among German trans MSM. To date, there is no health information about trans MSM in Germany, limiting the ability of MSM sexual health programmes to meet their needs. METHODS: Data were used from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS-2017), where people identifying as men and/or trans men were recruited through dating apps for MSM, community websites and social media to participate in an online survey. We analysed parameters on sexual happiness and satisfaction with sexual safety among Germany-based trans MSM and compared those to outcomes of MSM assigned male at birth (cis MSM) living in Germany using descriptive methods and logistic regression models adjusting for age. RESULTS: In total, 23,001 participants from Germany were included, of which 122 (0.5%) indicated to be AFAB (i.e. trans MSM). Trans MSM were markedly younger than cis participants (median age: 28.5 vs. 39 years). Trans MSM more often reported being unhappy with their current sex life (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.67), had higher odds of disagreeing with the statements "the sex I have is always as safe as I want" ([aOR] = 1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.67) and "I find it easy to say no to sex that I don't want" ([aOR] = 1.80, 95% CI 1.18-2.77). Trans MSM were more likely to not be living comfortably financially ([aOR] = 2.43, 95% CI 1.60-3.67) and to be living with severe anxiety and/or depression ([aOR] = 3.90, 95% CI 2.22-6.83). Trans MSM were less likely to have ever tested for HIV ([aOR] = 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Sexual happiness, control of sexual boundaries, satisfaction with sexual safety, financial security, mental wellbeing and HIV testing were all lower in German trans MSM compared with cis MSM. Tailored sexual health interventions, contextualized with regard to needs and vulnerabilities, could address this inequality.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Felicidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 458-468, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208817

RESUMO

El principal objetivo de este estudio longitudinal con dos medi-ciones, una antes del período de confinamiento M1 (del 2 al 8 de marzo), y otra durante el confinamiento M2 (del 20 al 26 de abril), realizadas a los mismos participantes, es conocer la evolución de los aspectos hedónicos y eudaimónicos del bienestar yel efecto que sobre ellos ha supuesto el confinamiento obligatorio debido a la pandemia por COVID-19 en España. El estudio se realizó online, los participantes completaron los dominios de la medida de bienestar “The PERMAProfiler” en ambas mediciones (M1y M2) y la medida de optimismo disposicional “Life Orientation Test-Revised” (LOT-R) en la primera medición (M1). Los resultados muestran una relación significativa entre todos los dominios de bienestar y con la puntuación PERMA Global Bienestar, similares en ambas mediciones (M1 y M2). La comparación de las puntuaciones medias de los dominios de bienestar entre ambas mediciones muestra diferencias significativas en Emociones Positivas, Compromiso, Significado y en la puntuación de PERMA Global Bienestar; la puntuación es más elevada en la primera medición (M1) que en la segunda medición (M2). En el dominio Emociones Negativas, la puntuación es más alta en el período de confinamiento (M2). El optimismo disposicional ejerce un efecto de moderación durante elconfinamiento en el dominio de Logros: cuánto más optimista es la persona más aumenta su puntuación en este dominio. El género también ejerce un efecto de moderación durante el confinamiento en el dominio de Felicidad: en los hombres aumenta la puntuaciónde Felicidad durante el período de confinamiento y en las mujeres disminuye, comparados ambos con sus niveles previos de no confinamiento.(AU)


The main objective of this longitudinal study, with two measurements, one before the lockdown (M1: March 28), and the other during the lockdown (M2: April 2026), using the same participants, is to determine the evolution of the hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being and the effect of compulsory confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. The study was conducted online, participants completed the domains of the PERMA-Profiler well-being measureat both measurement times (M1 and M2) and the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-sR) measure of dispositional optimism at the first measurement (M1). The re-sults show significant relationships between all the well-being domains and the Overall Well-being (PERMA) score, similar at both measurements (M1 and M2). The comparison of the well-being domains score between the two measurements shows significant differences in Positive Emotion, Engagement, Meaning, and the Overall Well-being score; the score is higher at the first measurement (M1) than at the second measurement (M2). For the Negative Emotion domain, the score is higher during the lockdown (M2). Dispositional optimism has a moderation effect during the lockdown on the Accomplishment domain: the more optimistic the person is, the more their Accomplishment score increases. Gender also has a moderation effect during the lockdown on the Happiness domain: in men, the Happiness score increases during the lockdown and, in women, it decreases, when comparing both genders with their previous non confinement levels.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Otimismo , Saúde de Gênero , Filosofia , Iniquidade de Gênero , Seguridade Social , Isolamento Social , Vírus da SARS , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Espanha , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento , Felicidade , Emoções
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231357

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to understand the impact of perceived stress on the subjective happiness of Chinese healthcare workers (HCWs) and to further explore the chain-mediating role of family companionship and mental health. Background: In the face of tense doctor-patient relationships; a heavy workload; long working hours; seemingly endless shifts; potential professional title promotions; work performance assessments; and the difficult balance between family, work, and other aspects of life, HCWs are often under great pressure, which can endanger mental health and reduce subjective happiness. However, the role of healthcare workers' active participation in family companionship in mental health and subjective happiness is not clear. Method: We used a mixed research design to collect data in two locations (Hospital A and Hospital B) in Wuhan, China. A self-distributed questionnaire was assigned to HCWs through the Research Electronic Data Capture survey. A total of 368 valid surveys were obtained. Results: Hospital A's perceived stress level and mental health problems were more severe, while Hospital B had a higher subjective happiness score and more time to spend with their families. Subjective happiness was affected by children, education, occupation, health status, commuting time, and the scores of perceived stress and depression. The scores of perceived stress and mental health were significantly negatively associated with subjective happiness and family companionship, and there was a significant positive correlation between subjective happiness and family companionship. The results also showed that family companionship and mental health acted as serial mediators between perceived stress and subjective happiness. However, family companionship did not play a mediating role between perceived stress and subjective happiness. Most HCWs had work-family conflicts, and a high amount of work pressure and feelings of powerlessness and not having sufficient time were common when they accompanied their families. Conclusions: HCWs had a high level of perceived stress and psychological distress, and their subjective happiness score was lower than that of the general population. Many HCWs experienced negative emotions when taking care of their families. Only a small number of people had enough time to spend time with their families and perform more prominently in busier hospitals. More importantly, perceived stress can indirectly have an impact on subjective happiness through a chain-mediating effect of family companionship and mental health, and family companionship may not always promote subjective happiness unless mental health is maintained. Therefore, in the future, we can consider carrying out interventions based on family companionship and mental health among HCWs to promote the healthy and harmonious development of individuals, families, and hospitals.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Saúde Mental , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estresse Psicológico
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232031

RESUMO

Participating in physical exercise to improve fitness, as well as experience the social and economic functions of sport, can help individuals improve their subjective well-being. The ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model was used to empirically study the impact of the frequency and intensity of physical exercise on Chinese residents' subjective well-being and its mechanisms using data from the 2018 China General Social Survey (CGSS). The findings revealed that participating in physical exercise significantly increased Chinese residents' subjective well-being; the impact of physical exercise on Chinese residents' subjective well-being varied with age, marriage, political status, and so on, and participation in physical exercise improved in rural individuals, male individuals, and individuals from the eastern regions. Higher intensity physical exercise increases the likelihood of subjective well-being; urban individuals, female individuals, and individuals in the central and eastern regions have a higher probability of improving subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , População Rural , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino
17.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275915, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215311

RESUMO

Cultural context shapes the way that emotions are expressed and socially interpreted. Building on previous research looking at cultural differences in judgements of facial expressions, we examined how listeners recognize speech-embedded emotional expressions and make inferences about a speaker's feelings in relation to their vocal display. Canadian and Chinese participants categorized vocal expressions of emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness) expressed at different intensity levels in three languages (English, Mandarin, Hindi). In two additional tasks, participants rated the intensity of each emotional expression and the intensity of the speaker's feelings from the same stimuli. Each group was more accurate at recognizing emotions produced in their native language (in-group advantage). However, Canadian and Chinese participants both judged the speaker's feelings to be equivalent or more intense than their actual display (especially for highly aroused, negative emotions), suggesting that similar inference rules were applied to vocal expressions by the two cultures in this task. Our results provide new insights on how people categorize and interpret speech-embedded vocal expressions versus facial expressions and what cultural factors are at play.


Assuntos
Idioma , Voz , Canadá , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Humanos
18.
BMJ ; 379: o2338, 2022 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223911

Assuntos
Felicidade , Humanos
19.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111786, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192937

RESUMO

Recently developed to characterize consumer engagement during sensory and consumer testing, the Engagement Questionnaire (EQ) can quantify differences in participant engagement; however, the limits of the scale to detect disengagement has not been established. We conducted a known-group experimental design to verify the EQ's ability to differentiate between an engaged and disengaged participant. Participants were randomly assigned to a more engaging (positive condition) and a less engaging sensory task (negative condition). In the positive condition, participants (N = 31) completed 20 tetrad tests; however, stimuli varied in type and difficulty. For the negative condition, participants (N = 28) completed 20 tetrads of the same sucrose concentration to promote a state of helplessness and encourage disengagement with the task. Facial expressions were collected through video recordings, using automatic facial emotion recognition software (FaceReader, Noldus Technology). Accounting for sex differences across the conditions, the EQ successfully discriminated between the positive and negative conditions. When in the positive condition, participants were more actively involved in the task (F1,59 = 23.99, p < 0.001), and experienced higher levels of purposeful intent (F1,59 = 11.10, p = 0.002) and affective value (F1,59 = 26.03, p < 0.001). Participants were more emotive in general, and experienced increased happiness (F1,42 = 22.24, p < 0.001), anger (F1,42 = 12.10, p = 0.001) and disgust (F1,42 = 4.33, p = 0.04) as well as lower levels of a neutral expression (F1,42 = 24.88, p < 0.001) in the positive condition. Now validated via known-groups analysis, the EQ can confidently differentiate a greater range of engagement. Such an instrument allows for a deeper understanding of participant engagement and its potential effect on data quality.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Ira , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Sacarose
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17144, 2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229474

RESUMO

Emotional prosody results from the dynamic variation of language's acoustic non-verbal aspects that allow people to convey and recognize emotions. The goal of this paper is to understand how this recognition develops from childhood to adolescence. We also aim to investigate how the ability to perceive multiple emotions in the voice matures over time. We tested 133 children and adolescents, aged between 6 and 17 years old, exposed to 4 kinds of linguistically meaningless emotional (anger, fear, happiness, and sadness) and neutral stimuli. Participants were asked to judge the type and intensity of perceived emotion on continuous scales, without a forced choice task. As predicted, a general linear mixed model analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between age and emotion. The ability to recognize emotions significantly increased with age for both emotional and neutral vocalizations. Girls recognized anger better than boys, who instead confused fear with neutral prosody more than girls. Across all ages, only marginally significant differences were found between anger, happiness, and neutral compared to sadness, which was more difficult to recognize. Finally, as age increased, participants were significantly more likely to attribute multiple emotions to emotional prosody, showing that the representation of emotional content becomes increasingly complex. The ability to identify basic emotions in prosody from linguistically meaningless stimuli develops from childhood to adolescence. Interestingly, this maturation was not only evidenced in the accuracy of emotion detection, but also in a complexification of emotion attribution in prosody.


Assuntos
Emoções , Voz , Adolescente , Ira , Criança , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico
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