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2.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 320-329, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192069

RESUMO

In accordance with the goal of the positive psychology approach, this study was designed to build an understanding of the relationships among optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life and happiness by proposing a multiple mediation model. A total of 386 undergraduates (64% female and 36% male) between 18-22 years participated in the study. The participants were recruited from a small university in Turkey. The Life Orientation Test, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, University Life Scale, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form were utilized as measures. The results showed that optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life, and happiness positively correlated. The findings from the mediational analyses also indicated that the serial multiple mediation of cognitive flexibility and adjustment to university life in the hypothetical model was statistically significant and explained approximately 50% of the variance in happiness


De acuerdo con el objetivo del enfoque de psicología positiva, este estudio fue diseñado para construir una comprensión de las relaciones entre optimismo, flexibilidad cognitiva, ajuste a la vida universitaria y felicidad mediante la propuesta de un modelo de mediación múltiple. Un total de 386 estudiantes universitarios (64% mujeres y 36% hombres) entre 18-22 años participaron en el estudio. Los participantes fueron reclutados de una pequeña universidad en Turquía. El Test de Orientación de Vida, el Inventario de Flexibilidad Cognitiva, la Escala de Vida Universitaria y el Formulario Corto del Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford fueron utilizados como medidas. Los resultados mostraron que el optimismo, la flexibilidad cognitiva, el ajuste a la vida universitaria y la felicidad se correlacionan positivamente. Los resultados de los análisis mediacionales también indicaron que la mediación serial múltiple de la flexibilidad cognitiva y el ajuste a la vida universitaria en el modelo hipotetizado fue estadísticamente significativa y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza en la felicidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Otimismo , Felicidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Universidades , Cognição , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238635, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956356

RESUMO

Women can play a pivotal role in the progress and sustainability of the world if they are empowered through education and employment opportunities in Science, technology, innovation and through changing the social stereotypes that restrain them in certain workplaces. In the literature, few recently published studies exist that document the challenges faced by female scientists in their workplaces. The purpose of this study was to understand the challenges and coping strategies faced by female scientists around the world today, in order to contribute to their improved performance. A multi-centre electronic cross-sectional survey across 55 countries was conducted to profile female scientists and to identify the challenges that they experience throughout their career as well as the coping mechanisms that they use to overcome the barriers. A total of 263 female scientists from different countries across the world participated in our study and most participants were from the South East Asian Region. Most female scientists in our study belong to the middle and junior level career category and earning around 1250 USD per month. Most of the scientists reported availability of maternity leave at their workplace but less than a third reported presence of a creche at work. Workplace sexual harassment was reported by 24% of the study population. Work related stress (71.5%) and work life imbalance (46%) are also major challenges faced by female scientists. Self-confidence, dedication and hard work are the most commonly adopted coping strategy. Flexible work timings, woman-friendly management policies, fair appraisal and mentorship appear to reduce the work-related stress and improve work-life balance among female scientists. In conclusion, female scientists face numerous challenges, which can greatly affect both their individual and career growth. Intrinsic (personal) and extrinsic (institutional) factors are important for improving female scientists' wellbeing and productivity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Local de Trabalho
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781590

RESUMO

We explored possible paths from physical and mental health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, optimism, and social support to happiness in older adults, considering hedonic balance and life satisfaction as mediators. A total of 154 Spanish male and female (50%) older adults (65-96 years old, M = 77.44, SD = 8.03; 64% noninstitutionalized elderly) voluntarily participated in this correlational, cross-sectional study. The participants completed self-reports on their perceived health status, self-efficacy, social support, optimism, and global subjective well-being (SWB) as well as its dimensions. Path analysis was used to examine direct and indirect relationships. The final model had an excellent fit with the data (χ2(10) = 11.837, p = 0.296, χ2/df = 1.184; SRMR = 0.050, CFI = 0.994, RMSEA = 0.035), revealing the unique causal effects of all the included predictors on happiness. With the exception of self-efficacy, the psychosocial resources predicted older adults' current happiness, and this relationship was fully mediated by hedonic balance and life satisfaction, which were found to be putative intermediary factors for SWB. Self-efficacy in turn predicted the remaining psychosocial resources. Our findings extend the existing evidence on the influences of health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, optimism, and social support on SWB. Furthermore, they support the proposal of hedonic balance and life satisfaction as dimensions of SWB, thus supporting the tripartite hierarchical model of happiness. These results may inform future interventions seeking to improve happiness in late adulthood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Felicidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(9): 581-587, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833511

RESUMO

The past 10 years have seen the development and maturation of several digital technologies that can have a critical role to enhancement of happiness and psychological well-being. In particular, the past decade has seen the emergence of a new paradigm: "Positive Technology," the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience. In this article we discussed the potential of Positive Technology to augment and enhance the existing strategies for generating psychological well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular different positive technologies-m-Health and smartphone apps, stand-alone and social virtual reality, video games, exergames, and social technologies-have the potential of enhancing different critical features of our personal experience-affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness-that are challenged by the pandemic and its social and economic effects. In conclusion, although the focus of tackling the direct impact of COVID-19 is important, positive technologies can be extremely useful to reduce the psychological burden of the pandemic and to help individuals in flourishing even during difficult and complex times.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Mental , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Felicidade , Humanos , Mídias Sociais , Tecnologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Realidade Virtual
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(34): 43299-43311, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737779

RESUMO

Previous papers that study the relationship between air pollution and happiness have not paid much attention to subjective air pollution. This paper attempts to explore the influence of subjective air pollution on happiness, the heterogeneity of the effects, and people's subjective willingness for improving air quality. We match the data of Chinese General Social Survey with local air quality and mainly based on the method of regression discontinuity. Our study shows that the public's subjective air pollution perception has significant negative effects on their happiness. The negative effects on happiness of unhealthy people and middle-aged/old people are greater than that of healthy people and young people. Moreover, residents who are relatively vulnerable to the harm of air pollution appear to be more willing to pay for the improvement of air quality. These results indicate that in order to improve air quality more rationally and effectively, not only should the government concentrate on the improvement of objective air quality but also pay attention to the public's subjective feelings, as well as taking the subjective needs of local residents into consideration in the process of air pollution control.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Felicidade , Adolescente , Idoso , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Emoções , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Harefuah ; 159(8): 537-540, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852149

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plastic surgery history denotes two forefathers: Sushruta Samhita, who dates back to the 6th century BC with the Sanskrit surgical handbook, composed mainly by him, and Sir Harold Delf Gillies who is considered the father of modern plastic surgery due to his pioneer work during World War I.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Cirurgia Plástica/história , Felicidade , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698473

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship among leisure physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, physical fitness, and happiness in healthy elderly adults aged over 65 years old in Taiwan. Data were recruited from the National Physical Fitness Survey in Taiwan, which was proposed in the Project on the Establishment of Physical Fitness Testing Stations by the Sports Administration of the Ministry of Education. Participants were recruited from fitness testing stations set up in 22 counties and cities from October 2015 to May 2016. A total of 20,111 healthy older adults aged 65-102 years were recruited as research participants. The fitness testing procedure was described to all participants, who were provided with a standardized structured questionnaire. Participants' data included sex, city or county of residence, living status (living together with others or living alone), education level, and income. Physical fitness testing was conducted in accordance with The Fitness Guide for Older Adults published by the Sports Administration of the Ministry of Education. The testing involved cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, and body composition. The t-test was used to evaluate the differences between continuous and grade variables under the two classification variables of sex, city or county of residence, and living status. We used the MARS (multivariate adaptive regression splines) model to analyze the effects of physical fitness variables and leisure physical activity variables on happiness. Among healthy elderly adults, sex, age, living status, body mass index, and leisure physical activity habits proved to be related to happiness. Aerobic endurance (2-min step test), muscular strength and endurance (30-s arm curl and 30-s chair stand tests), flexibility (back stretch and chair sit-and-reach tests), and balance ability (8-foot up-and-go tests and one-leg stance with eyes open tests) were found to be related to happiness. The results of this study indicate that increased physical activity and intensity, as well as physical fitness performance, are associated with improved happiness.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Felicidade , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Taiwan
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674347

RESUMO

Eating Disorders (ED) and obesity are a pandemic in developed and developing societies. In 2018, Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption reported data on obesity (15%) and ED (12%). Spain thus ranks fifth among European countries in childhood obesity, with the highest incidence in the 6-12-year-age group. Many studies point to media as one of the contributing elements to this growth. In this sense, it should be noted that Spanish children are exposed to an average of 9000 television commercials per year and the vast majority of these are for food and beverage products of little or no nutritional value. Educommunication becomes essential here, since media have the capacity to educate, prevent and influence the behaviour as part of their social marketing strategies and within the happiness management philosophy. The aim of this paper is to analyse food and beverage advertising on mobile devices aimed at children. The methodology used includes a content analysis, a survey, and focus groups. The results show that many of the food products are bought or ordered as a direct result of advertising. The main conclusions point to the need to regulate the messages transmitted in order to guide the social function of media so that public health and happiness can be improved.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Bebidas , Felicidade , Marketing Social , Criança , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Marketing , Espanha , Televisão
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635457

RESUMO

Physical activity has benefits on physical and psychological health. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the relationships between physical activity and life satisfaction and happiness in young, middle-aged, and older adults while controlling for demographic characteristics, and (2) the relationships between age and life satisfaction and happiness for different physical activity levels. A total of 2345 healthy adults were recruited. Demographic characteristic, physical activity, life satisfaction, and happiness were collected. Participants were divided into young, middle-aged, and older adult groups based on age, and physical activity was categorized as high, moderate, and low. After controlling for demographic characteristics, participants with high and moderate activity levels had significantly higher life satisfaction and happiness than those with a low activity level across the total population and the three age groups. Age squared was a significant predictor of a positive curvilinear between age and life satisfaction and happiness. Physical activity was significantly related to life satisfaction and happiness in young, middle-aged, and older adults. In addition, life satisfaction and happiness increased with increasing age. The results support the promotion of physical activity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Felicidade , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649690

RESUMO

The potential risk of internet use on adolescents' self-harm is a major concern. Vulnerable adolescents who are susceptible to bullying are also susceptible to the negative influence of the internet. In this study, the pathway associations were investigated between the risk factors of deliberate self-harm, experience of being bullied, internet use, and protective factors of maternal monitoring on perceived happiness of 12- and 13-year-old adolescents in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study dataset (n = 1,457). The Chinese Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to measure the adolescents' self-perceived levels of happiness, in two dimensions of social adaptation status and psychological well-being. Our results show that 354 (24.3%) of the 12-year-olds reported having been bullied, and 289 (19.8%) of the 13-year-olds reported this. Seventy-nine (5.4%) of 13-year-olds reported deliberate self-harm in the past year. Results of a structural equation model showed that those who had been bullied at age 12 years were at greater risk of deliberate self-harm at age 13 years. A negative association was found between duration of internet use and perceived level of happiness. Adolescents who spent >5 h online during days off school were at higher risk of deliberate self-harm, and perceived a lower level of happiness. Therefore, spending >5 h online during days off school could be used as an indicator in future preventive action programs to screen out those at a high risk of excessive internet use, deliberate self-harm, and psychological well-being and social adjustment issues.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Felicidade , Internet , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Adolescente , Bullying , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Mídias Sociais , Taiwan
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716944

RESUMO

Subjective happiness is often regarded as a major life goal. Although Japan is an economically powerful country, the level of subjective well-being reported among Japanese adolescents is lower than in other countries. We aimed to investigate the lifestyle factors related to unhappiness in Japanese adolescents. We collected data through the 2017-2018 Lifestyle Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative cross-sectional study enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. We assessed the prevalence of subjective unhappiness in junior and senior high school students according to school life factors and daily lifestyle habits. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between these factors and unhappiness. A total of 64,329 students were included in the sample (mean age 15.7 years, 53.9% boys). The average prevalence of unhappiness was 10.2%. The logistic regression analyses indicated that unhappiness was strongly associated with being male and with engaging in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as not having breakfast, poor sleep quality, and some problematic Internet usage. Although the prevalence of unhappiness was significantly higher among current smokers and alcohol drinkers, these behaviors were not associated with unhappiness in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Unhappiness among Japanese adolescents appears to be strongly related to how they spend their daily life. We therefore consider it desirable for school officials to educate students on the importance of happiness and lifestyle factors conducive to happiness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Felicidade , Estilo de Vida , Tristeza/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desjejum/fisiologia , Desjejum/psicologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Japão , Masculino , Tristeza/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current cross-sectional study examines a model that was designed to advance understanding of the interplay between compassion towards teachers expressed by teaching colleagues, subjective happiness, proactive strategies and kindergarten teachers' levels of work engagement, and perceived working environment fit. METHODS: The research was conducted with a sample of 319 full-time in-service kindergarten teachers at Italian public preschools-a context in which a few previous studies have been carried out. Self-report questionnaires were administered: The Subjective Happiness Scale, the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Proactive Strategy Scale, and the Teacher-working environment fit scale. Data were analyzed by using the structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. RESULTS: Results show that compassion and subjective happiness have a direct positive total effect on work engagement, whereas the effects of compassion and subjective happiness on experienced working environment fit suggest that the association among constructs is mediated by the role of proactive strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, we strongly advocate that educational policy makers and head teachers' pay close attention to the areas of personal and collective resources and work-related well-being, with a view to effectively address the promotion of early childhood teachers' work engagement and working environment fit.


Assuntos
Empatia , Felicidade , Engajamento no Trabalho , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Professores Escolares
14.
Nurs Womens Health ; 24(5): 387-388, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621801

RESUMO

A nursing faculty member describes how the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted nursing education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Felicidade , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517109

RESUMO

Nurses are key professionals in healthcare sectors, whose job attitude is closely associated with patient health outcomes and safety. Job crafting describes how workers shape their tasks to find a sense of meaning and value in their work. This study aimed to examine the associations of happiness at the individual level and nursing work environments at the organizational level with job crafting among hospital nurses in Korea. This cross-sectional study analyzed survey data from 220 nurses working in four Korean hospitals. Multiple linear regression modeling was used to examine associations among the study variables. Nurses who were satisfied with their lives were significantly more likely to exhibit higher levels of job crafting (B = 0.07, p < 0.001). Nursing work environments had no significant association with nurses' job crafting. In comparison with nurses working in general units, operating room nurses were significantly less likely to craft their job (B = -0.35, p = 0.001). Organizational support should be established to improve nurses' happiness and job crafting. Hospitals should provide various opportunities for education and training to strengthen job crafting.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 92(2)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597102

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the coronavirus that causes an infectious disease, called COVID-19, first detected in patients with pneumonia in Wuhan (People's Republic of China) on December 2019. Italy was the first European country to state the outbreak of the infection and its Council of Ministers declared the state of health emergency on 31.01.2020, then the World Health Organization ruled a global pandemic on 11.03.2020. The nasopharyngeal swab is based on the detection of virus RNA and is the only reliable one for declaring COVID-19 infection. The most common symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients before hospitalization may be fever, chills, cough, dyspnea, asthenia, myalgia and/or arthralgia. This symptomatology can be often complicated in a dramatically increasing manner such as to require hospitalization starting from the third-fourth week. COVID-19 outbreak has dramatically affected the quality of life by changing inter-personal relationships, community life and obviously sexual health. The purpose of this work, based on available evidence, is to provide recommendations to help the population to face their sexual life in this critical period.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Medo , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Qualidade de Vida , Quarentena , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas
17.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(8): 1674-1686, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578000

RESUMO

With China's fast-growing economy, family dinners are often overlooked. However, family dinner, as an important routine family activity, provides an opportunity for interaction between adolescents and their parents, which promotes adolescents' happiness. Guided by the positive youth development perspective, the character strength theory of happiness and the family investment model, the current study simultaneously investigated the mediating role of adolescents' internal assets and the moderating role of parental educational level in the influence of family dinner on adolescents' happiness in Chinese families. A three-wave longitudinal study spanning approximately three years was conducted among 817 Chinese seventh graders (52.4% male; Mage = 12.62 years). The frequency of family dinner at the first year was significantly positively correlated with adolescents' happiness in the first and third years. The cross-sectional and longitudinal results showed that adolescents' internal assets mediated the relationship between family dinner frequency and happiness. Specifically, family dinner with higher-educated parents was a stronger predictor of internal assets than family dinner with lower-educated parents after one year. These findings from the Chinese cultural context complement the research in this field and inform practical endeavors to promote adolescents' happiness worldwide based on the strengths of different cultures.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Pais , Adolescente , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516345

RESUMO

We use a unique, large survey on health conditions conducted in Israel (10,331 respondents, 52.8% females, mean age 49.8) to explore whether clinical determined depression and/or anxiety has different associations in compare to non-clinical determined terms such as mental health. We find that absolute income is significantly associated with a decrease in negative mental health but have no significant association with depression and/or anxiety prevalence, whereas relative income is significantly associated with a decrease in depression and/or anxiety prevalence but have no significant association with negative mental health. The two specifications differed also with respect to several important risk factors, including personal attributes such as being of African origin, of a non-Jewish Arab minority or divorced. However, they were similar with general characteristics, such as participation in sport and smoking activities, whether a person has children, age and gender. Our results put forth sever questions about the wide use of non-clinical mental health, happiness and wellbeing as a sole proxy for a person's true wellbeing or utility.


Assuntos
Depressão/economia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Renda , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Criança , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 162, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the positive psychology intervention 'Happiness Route' compared to an active control condition in a vulnerable population with an accumulation of health and psychosocial problems. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, single-blind, actively-controlled, parallel group study in seven municipalities in the Netherlands. To be eligible, participants had to experience loneliness, health problems and low socio-economic status. Each group received several home visits by a counsellor (two in the control condition, two to six in the experimental condition). In the Happiness Route, a happiness-based approach was used, whereas the control condition used a traditional problem-based approach. The primary outcome was well-being, measured with the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). RESULTS: Fifty-eight participants were randomized to the Happiness Route, 50 to the control condition. Participants were severely lonely, had on average three health problems and less than 5% had paid work. The total MHC-SF score, emotional and social well-being, depression and loneliness improved significantly over the nine-month period in both conditions (p < .05), but there were no significant changes between the conditions across time. Languishing decreased significantly from 33% at baseline to 16% at follow-up among the Happiness Route participants but did not change significantly in the control condition. No significant improvement over time was found in psychological well-being, resilience, purpose in life, health-related quality of life and social participation. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed that expected saved costs per QALY lost was €219,948 for the Happiness Route, relative to the control condition. The probability was 83% that the Happiness Route was cost saving and 54% that the Happiness Route was cost-effective at a willingness to accept a threshold of €100,000. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health status of both groups improved considerably. However, we could not demonstrate that the Happiness Route yielded better health outcomes compared to the control condition. Nevertheless, the results of the cost-effectiveness analysis suggested that the Happiness Route is an acceptable intervention from a health-economic point of view. Our results should be viewed in light of the fact that we could not include the planned number of participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3377. Registered 2 Apr 2012.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Solidão/psicologia , Psicologia Positiva/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Psicologia Positiva/economia , Método Simples-Cego , Classe Social
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