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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 335-343, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232726

RESUMO

El presente estudio investigó si la satisfacción con la vida se predice a partir de la felicidad subjetiva, afectos positivos y negativos, alteración psicológica y emociones de gratitud y si la emoción de gratitud está mediando la relación con la felicidad subjetiva, los afectos y la satisfacción con la vida. Se hicieron correlación de Pearson, pruebas de regresión lineal múltiple y modelos de mediación en una muestra de 1537 adultos españoles, 73.6% mujeres y 26.4% hombres, edad 18-88 años (M = 42.56 años; DT = 16.29). Se halló que las emociones de gratitud median la relación entre felicidad subjetiva y satisfacción con la vida y entre los afectos positivos y la satisfacción con la vida. Los afectos positivos son los que más se relacionan con la satisfacción con la vida, seguidos por la felicidad subjetiva y las emociones de gratitud. Los hombres están más satisfechos con la vida cuando sienten menos afecto negativo. Además, las emociones de gratitud median la relación entre felicidad subjetiva y satisfacción con la vida y entre los afectos positivos y la satisfacción con la vida. La diferencia principal radica en que las emociones de gratitud son más fuertes en las mujeres que en los hombres.(AU)


This study aims to examine the predictability of satisfaction with life on the basis of subjective happiness, positive and negative affect, psy-chological disturbance and emotion of gratitude. It also seeks to assess whether the emotion of gratitude is a mediating variable withsubjective happiness, affect, and satisfaction with life. Statistical analyses of Pearson'scorrelation, multiple linear regression tests, and mediation models were conducted on asample of 1537 Spanish adults, 73.6% were females, 26.4% males, age between 18-88 yearsold (M = 42.56; SD = 16.29). The emo-tions of gratitude were found to mediate therelationship between subjec-tive happiness and satisfaction with life and between positiveaffect and satisfaction with life. Of the variables studied, positive affect is the most related tosatisfaction with life, followed by subjective happiness and emo-tions of gratitude. Maleparticipants are more satisfied with life when they feel the less negative affect. Regardingmediation models, emotions of grat-itude mediate the relationship between subjectivehappiness and satisfac-tion with life and between positive affect and satisfaction with life. Themaindifferenceis thatemotions of gratitudearestronger infemalesthan in males.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Felicidade , Emoções , Sintomas Afetivos , Espanha
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1338494, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756890

RESUMO

The Social Survey of Andalusia is an instrument for monitoring the Andalusian reality developed by the regional government of Andalusia, whose dataset is open access to the citizens. The 2022 edition included questions related to happiness, social relations as well as socio-demographic factors. Based on this dataset, the present study aimed to analyse the relationship between socio-demographic factors and people's experiences of happiness. It also set out to explore which factors might be indispensable for experiencing moments of happiness as measured in the survey. A sample of 4,968 cases was gotten, conducting a descriptive analysis, a logit regression in complex samples, and a Necessary Conditions Analysis. The results found two very different social profiles in terms of the experience of happiness, determined by age, sex, educational level and economic status. However, neither factor proved to be a necessary condition for happiness. Both conclusions should be taken into consideration in any socio-community intervention.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Espanha , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores Sexuais , Demografia , Fatores Etários , Fatores Sociodemográficos
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 587, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental education is one of the disciplines where students are most significantly affected psychologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between spiritual health, resilience and happiness levels of dental students at a state university in Turkey. METHODS: This cross- sectional study included 212 students from the 3rd, 4th and 5th grades of the faculty of dentistry. A questionnaire consisting of 4 sections was used in the study. The sections of the questionnaire include students' general and academic information, Turkish adaptations of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, The Brief Resilience Scale, and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS 25 package program. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess the normal distribution of the data. The Mann-Whitney U test was preferred for comparisons between two categorical variables and one numerical variable. The Kruskal-Wallis H test was employed for comparisons involving two categorical variables and one numerical variable. The presence of a relationship between two numerical variables was examined using the Spearman test. RESULTS: In terms of resilience and happiness scores, males had higher scores than females. It was determined that third graders scored higher than fifth graders in harmony with nature scores, and third graders scored higher than fourth graders in deregulation scores. There was a positive correlation between happiness, spiritual well-being and resilience; a negative correlation between happiness and anomie. There was no significant relationship between age and happiness scores. As a result of multiple linear regression to determine the factors affecting happiness; increases in spiritual well-being and resilience will lead to an increase in happiness levels. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that increased levels of spiritual well-being and resilience among a group of dental students would lead to increased levels of happiness. However, further research is needed to understand the relationship between mental health, resilience and happiness levels during dental education.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Resiliência Psicológica , Espiritualidade , Estudantes de Odontologia , Humanos , Turquia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem , Adulto
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1361998, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706543

RESUMO

Introduction: The exploration of the relationship between parental and child happiness, particularly in the context of shared childcare responsibilities, has not been examined in Korean families. Methods: Using a two-wave longitudinal design and data from 1,403 families from the Panel Study on Korean Children, this study employed the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the dynamics of childcare sharing between mothers and fathers in South Korea. Results: Mothers' childcare sharing was found to have no significant impact on their own and their partner's happiness, reflecting traditional gender norms that undervalue mothers' contributions. In contrast, fathers' childcare sharing had a positive impact on their own and their spouse's happiness, suggesting a growing recognition of fathers' involvement. Furthermore, fathers' active participation in childcare was found to promote their children's happiness through their own happiness. Discussion: This study reflects the complexity of evolving family roles and the covert persistence of traditional gender roles in modern Korean parenting. It suggests the importance of work and family policies that support changes in family dynamics by providing a more nuanced understanding of how changing family roles and responsibilities can enhance overall family well-being.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Felicidade , Humanos , República da Coreia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Cuidado da Criança/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia
6.
Nurs Manage ; 55(5): 28-37, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690862
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11571, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773125

RESUMO

This study delves into expressing primary emotions anger, happiness, sadness, and fear through drawings. Moving beyond the well-researched color-emotion link, it explores under-examined aspects like spatial concepts and drawing styles. Employing Python and OpenCV for objective analysis, we make a breakthrough by converting subjective perceptions into measurable data through 728 digital images from 182 university students. For the prominent color chosen for each emotion, the majority of participants chose red for anger (73.11%), yellow for happiness (17.8%), blue for sadness (51.1%), and black for fear (40.7%). Happiness led with the highest saturation (68.52%) and brightness (75.44%) percentages, while fear recorded the lowest in both categories (47.33% saturation, 48.78% brightness). Fear, however, topped in color fill percentage (35.49%), with happiness at the lowest (25.14%). Tangible imagery prevailed (71.43-83.52%), with abstract styles peaking in fear representations (28.57%). Facial expressions were a common element (41.76-49.45%). The study achieved an 81.3% predictive accuracy for anger, higher than the 71.3% overall average. Future research can build on these results by improving technological methods to quantify more aspects of drawing content. Investigating a more comprehensive array of emotions and examining factors influencing emotional drawing styles will further our understanding of visual-emotional communication.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Emoções/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Felicidade , Ira/fisiologia , Adulto , Medo/psicologia , Tristeza
8.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241254745, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747358

RESUMO

In the contemporary global context, seafarers persist as the uncelebrated heroes of international trade, despite their substantial contributions. The current estimate places the number of STCW- certified officers at 857 540, reflecting a notable increase of 10.8% since 2015. Nevertheless, there is a growing recognition of the imperative to accord specific attention to seafarers' mental and physical well-being. During their tenures aboard ships, seafarers confront various challenges, including psychological well-being, work-life imbalance, dissatisfaction, diminished performance, and a sense of mistrust toward the organizational framework. The primary objective of this research is to scrutinize the nexus between work-life balance and work effectiveness, exploring the mediating roles of psychological well-being, organizational happiness, and organizational trust. A questionnaire-based survey is meticulously crafted to achieve this, employing a dataset comprising 420 seafarers engaged in diverse vessel types in Turkey, operating under both Turkish and international flags. Methodologically, structural equation modeling and correlation analyses are executed to assess the formulated research hypotheses rigorously. The empirical findings of this research reveal noteworthy mediating roles: psychological well-being exhibits a complete mediation effect, organizational happiness demonstrates a full mediation effect, and organizational trust manifests a partial mediation effect. These outcomes underscore the nuanced interplay between work-life balance and work effectiveness in the seafaring context. The implications of these findings extend significantly to the maritime sector and industry, accentuating the imperative for targeted interventions to enhance the well-being and performance of seafaring professionals.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Satisfação no Emprego , Navios , Confiança , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Turquia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 44(5): 197-207, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study was to examine potential disparities in positive mental health (PMH) among adults in Canada by sexual orientation and gender modality. METHODS: Using 2019 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Annual Component data (N = 57 034), we compared mean life satisfaction and the prevalence of high self-rated mental health (SRMH), happiness and community belonging between heterosexual and sexual minority adults, and between cisgender and gender minority adults. We used 2019 CCHS Rapid Response on PMH data (N = 11 486) to compare the prevalence of high psychological well-being between heterosexual and sexual minority adults. Linear and logistic regression analyses examined the between-group differences in mean life satisfaction and the other PMH outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Sexual minority (vs. heterosexual) adults reported lower mean life satisfaction (B = -0.7, 95% CI: -0.8, -0.5) and were less likely to report high SRMH (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.5), happiness (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.5), community belonging (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 0.7) and psychological well-being (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.6). Differences were not always significant for specific sexual minority groups in sexstratified analyses. Gender minority adults reported lower mean life satisfaction and were less likely to report high SRMH and happiness than cisgender adults. CONCLUSION: Future research could investigate how these PMH disparities arise, risk and protective factors in these populations, how other sociodemographic factors interact with sexual orientation and gender identity to influence PMH and changes in disparities over time.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Adulto , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Felicidade , Adulto Jovem , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Idoso
10.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299115, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598421

RESUMO

Negative emotion evoked in listeners of music can produce intense pleasure, but we do not fully understand why. The present study addressed the question by asking participants (n = 50) to self-select a piece of sadness-evoking music that was loved. The key part of the study asked participants to imagine that the felt sadness could be removed. Overall participants reported performing the task successfully. They also indicated that the removal of the sadness reduced their liking of the music, and 82% of participants reported that the evoked sadness also adds to the enjoyment of the music. The study provided evidence for a "Direct effect hypothesis", which draws on the multicomponent model of emotion, where a component of the negative emotion is experienced as positive during music (and other aesthetic) experiences. Earlier evidence of a mediator, such as 'being moved', as the source of enjoyment was reinterpreted in light of the new findings. Instead, the present study applied a semantic overlap explanation, arguing that sadness primes emotions that share meaning with sadness, such as being-moved. The priming occurs if the overlap in meaning is sufficient. The degree of semantic overlap was defined empirically. The present study therefore suggests that mediator-based explanations need to be treated with caution both as a finding of the study, and because of analytic limitations in earlier research that are discussed in the paper.


Assuntos
Música , Prazer , Humanos , Tristeza , Música/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Felicidade
11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(5): e26673, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590248

RESUMO

The amygdala is important for human fear processing. However, recent research has failed to reveal specificity, with evidence that the amygdala also responds to other emotions. A more nuanced understanding of the amygdala's role in emotion processing, particularly relating to fear, is needed given the importance of effective emotional functioning for everyday function and mental health. We studied 86 healthy participants (44 females), aged 18-49 (mean 26.12 ± 6.6) years, who underwent multiband functional magnetic resonance imaging. We specifically examined the reactivity of four amygdala subregions (using regions of interest analysis) and related brain connectivity networks (using generalized psycho-physiological interaction) to fear, angry, and happy facial stimuli using an emotional face-matching task. All amygdala subregions responded to all stimuli (p-FDR < .05), with this reactivity strongly driven by the superficial and centromedial amygdala (p-FDR < .001). Yet amygdala subregions selectively showed strong functional connectivity with other occipitotemporal and inferior frontal brain regions with particular sensitivity to fear recognition and strongly driven by the basolateral amygdala (p-FDR < .05). These findings suggest that amygdala specialization to fear may not be reflected in its local activity but in its connectivity with other brain regions within a specific face-processing network.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Felicidade , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Expressão Facial
12.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 46(2): 66-72, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580300

RESUMO

In articles on the methodology of studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval training, we noted that, occasionally, exercise conditions described as involving "high" intensity exhibited heart rates that were only as high as, or even lower than, heart rates recorded during comparator conditions described as being of "moderate" intensity. Drs. Vollaard, Metcalfe, Kinghorn, Jung, and Little suggest instead that exercise intensity in high-intensity interval-training studies can be defined in terms of percentages of peak workload. Although we maintain that defining exercise intensity in terms of percentages of maximal heart rate is a suboptimal way to quantify the degree of homeostatic perturbations in response to exercise, we are unconvinced that definitions of intensity relying solely on workload are appropriate for studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to exercise. The reason is that affect is theorized to have evolved to relay information about homeostatic perturbations to consciousness.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Felicidade , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301905, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630659

RESUMO

This paper evaluates the direct and indirect impacts (and their interactions) of individual and social ethics from (primary, secondary, tertiary) education and religion (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism) on health and happiness in alternative religious contexts (majority and minority religions) and for alternative education policies (gross enrolment and per-student expenditure). It also specifies the time lag for the short-run indirect impact (and its size) of happiness on health and the long-run equilibria of both happiness and health. The statistical results show that there is no religious or secular ethics with beneficial impacts on both happiness and health at both the individual and social levels. Next, education policies have similar impacts on both happiness and health in all religious contexts, while most religious ethics have larger beneficial impacts on health and happiness if coupled with social and individual education policies, respectively. Combined statistical and analytical results show that the largest short-run indirect impact of happiness on health occurs after 4 years, where 1 out of 10 points of happiness produces approximately 3 additional years of healthy life expectancy at birth. Next, the long-run equilibria of both happiness and health are globally stable and are achieved after 8 years through oscillation dynamics.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Religião , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Cristianismo , Hinduísmo , Islamismo , Budismo
14.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 203, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In today's business environment, where sustainability has emerged as a strategic axis of business practices, the study of the link between human resources management and environmental management becomes increasingly necessary. In this sense, the present research focuses on analyzing the impact of Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) on the Sustainable Performance (SP) of Spanish wineries, as well as the mediating effect of Employee Wellbeing (EW) and Work Engagement (WE) on this linkage. In addition, age, size and membership in a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) are introduced as control variables to increase the precision of the cause-effect relationships examined. METHODS: The study proposes a conceptual model based on previous studies, which is tested using structural equations (PLS-SEM) with data collected from 196 Spanish wineries between September 2022 and January 2023. RESULTS: The findings of the research reveal the existence of a positive and significant relationship between the GHRM development and the SP of Spanish wineries, as well as the partial mediation of EW and WE in this association. CONCLUSIONS: The uniqueness and significance of this study can be attributed to several crucial factors. First, it enhances the understanding and knowledge regarding the advantages associated with GHRM development. Second, no prior research has conducted a comprehensive study on GHRM as a catalyst for SP within the context of Spanish wineries. Third, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous study has analyzed the mediating role of EW and WE as mediators in the relationship between GHRM and SP of wineries.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Vinho , Humanos , Existencialismo , Recursos Humanos
15.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613108

RESUMO

The last several years have witnessed a remarkable growth in research directed at nutrition and behavior, with increased interest in the field of nutritional criminology. It is becoming clear that dietary patterns and specific nutrients play an important role in cognition and behavior, including those related to aggression, violence, and antisocial activity. Included in this expanding knowledge base is the recognition that folate, through multiple pathways, including enzymatic reactions and gut microbiome ecology, plays a critical role in central nervous system functioning. These mechanistic advances allow for a retrospective analysis of a topic that remains unexplained-the sudden and unpredicted drop in homicide and other violent crime rates in the United States and other nations in the 1990s. Here, we revisit this marked reduction in homicide rates through the lens of the coincident public health campaign (and subsequent mandatory fortification) to increase folic acid intake. Based on objectively measured blood folate levels through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, there is little doubt that tissue folate witnessed a dramatic rise at the national level from 1988 through 2000. Drawing from accumulated and emerging research on the neurobehavioral aspects of folate, it is our contention that this relatively sudden and massive increase in tissue folate levels may have contributed to reductions in violent crime in the United States.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Homicídio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Fólico , Promoção da Saúde
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301843, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593163

RESUMO

Leisure plays a key role in the happiness of youth. Studies have shown that various factors of leisure, such as the type, the time, the cost, and the space, have an influence on the adolescents' happiness. However, little is known about which of these factors is a major factor in youth's happiness. The purpose of this study is to explore the leisure factors that determine happiness in adolescents by examining the relationship between happiness and various leisure factors. The study used the method of machine learning to analyze national statistical data, National Leisure Activity Survey. The data used in this study were from the National Leisure Activity Survey 2019, which is a national statistic produced by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism in the Republic of Korea. The analysis found that leisure perceptions, academic and leisure balance, and public leisure space have a very important impact on the adolescents' well-being. The findings of this research may contribute to a better understanding of leisure and happiness in adolescents, and will also help adolescents make better use of their leisure time, leading to better leisure lives, and ultimately contribute to raising their level of happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Esportes , Humanos , Adolescente , Atividades de Lazer , República da Coreia
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301206, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598459

RESUMO

The Easterlin paradox questions the link between economic growth and national well-being, emphasizing the necessity to explore the impact of economic elasticity, income inequality, and their temporal and spatial heterogeneity on subjective happiness. Despite the importance of these factors, few studies have examined them together, thus ongoing debates about the impact of economics on well-being persist. To fill this gap, our analysis utilizes 11 years of panel data from 31 provinces in China, integrating macroeconomic indicators and social media content to reassess the Easterlin paradox. We use GDP per capita and the Gini coefficient as proxies for economic growth and income inequality, respectively, to study their effects on the subjective well-being expressed by citizens on social media in mainland China. Our approach combines machine learning and fixed effects models to evaluate these relationships. Key findings include: (1) In temporal relationships, a 46.70% increase in GDP per capita implies a 0.38 increase in subjective well-being, while a 0.09 increase in the Gini coefficient means a 1.47 decrease in subjective well-being. (2) In spatial relationships, for every 46.70% increase in GDP per capita, subjective well-being rises by 0.51; however, this relationship is buffered by unfair distribution, and GDP per capita no longer significantly affects subjective well-being when the Gini index exceeds 0.609. This study makes a synthetic contribution to the debate on the Easterlin paradox, indicating that economic growth can enhance well-being if income inequality is kept below a certain level. Although these results are theoretically enlightening for the relationship between economics and national well-being globally, this study's sample comes from mainland China. Due to differences in cultural, economic, and political factors, further research is suggested to explore these dynamics globally.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Renda , Desenvolvimento Econômico
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301896, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598520

RESUMO

This study investigates whether humans recognize different emotions conveyed only by the kinematics of a single moving geometrical shape and how this competence unfolds during development, from childhood to adulthood. To this aim, animations in which a shape moved according to happy, fearful, or neutral cartoons were shown, in a forced-choice paradigm, to 7- and 10-year-old children and adults. Accuracy and response times were recorded, and the movement of the mouse while the participants selected a response was tracked. Results showed that 10-year-old children and adults recognize happiness and fear when conveyed solely by different kinematics, with an advantage for fearful stimuli. Fearful stimuli were also accurately identified at 7-year-olds, together with neutral stimuli, while, at this age, the accuracy for happiness was not significantly different than chance. Overall, results demonstrates that emotions can be identified by a single point motion alone during both childhood and adulthood. Moreover, motion contributes in various measures to the comprehension of emotions, with fear recognized earlier in development and more readily even later on, when all emotions are accurately labeled.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo , Felicidade
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299511, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626247

RESUMO

Delay discounting is a phenomenon strongly associated with impulsivity. However, in order for a measured discounting rate in an experiment to meaningfully generalize to choices made elsewhere in life, participants must provide thoughtful, engaged answers during the assessment. Classic discounting tasks may not optimize intrinsic motivation or enjoyment, and a participant who is disengaged from the task is likely to behave in a way that provides a biased estimate of their discounting function. We assessed degree of delay discounting in a task intended to vary level of participant motivation. This was accomplished by introducing varying levels of gamification, the application of game design principles to a non-game context. Experiment 1 compared three versions of the delay discounting task with differing degrees of gamification and compared performance and task enjoyment across those variations, while Experiment 2 used two conditions (one gamified, one not). Participants found more gamified versions of the task more enjoyable than the other conditions, without producing substantial between-group differences in most cases. Thus, more polished task gameplay can provide a more enjoyable experience for participants without undermining delay discounting effects commonly reported in the literature. We also found that in all experimental conditions, higher levels of interest in or enjoyment of the task tended to be associated with more rapid discounting. This may suggest that low task motivation may result in less impulsive choice and suggests that participants who find delay discounting experiments sufficiently boring may bias assessments of value across delays.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Humanos , Gamificação , Comportamento Impulsivo , Motivação , Felicidade , Recompensa , Comportamento de Escolha
20.
Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery ; 12(2): 98-108, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650955

RESUMO

Background: Having a parent with cancer is one of the risk factors for adolescents, which makes them face many psychological problems. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of Happiness Educational Program of Fordyce on the sense of coherence and psychological well-being of adolescents who have a parent with cancer. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 92 adolescents whose diagnosed parents have referred to the oncology ward of Shahid Rajaei Hospital in Yasuj, from June to September 2021, were selected through the convenience sampling method; however, they were randomly assigned to one of the two groups of the intervention or control. The number of sessions in the intervention group was 6, each consisting of 60 minutes and performed one day a week for 6 weeks. In addition to the demographic information form, the Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Questionnaire-13 and the Ryff's scale of Psychological Well-being-18 were used before and immediately after the intervention. Data were analyzed through SPSS software, version 21, using statistical tests of Chi-square, t-test, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon. Results: After the intervention, statistically significant differences were observed in the median scores of the sense of coherence (P<0.001) and psychological well-being (P<0.001) between the two groups of intervention and control. Conclusion: Although the Happiness Educational Program of Fordyce could improve the sense of coherence and psychological well-being of adolescents who have a parent with cancer, more investigations are recommended to be conducted.Trial Registration Number: IRCT20210331050795N1.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Neoplasias , Senso de Coerência , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Neoplasias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pais/psicologia , Pais/educação , Irã (Geográfico) , Adaptação Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Bem-Estar Psicológico
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