Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 96.488
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113802, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638039

RESUMO

The ability to detect human fecal pollution in water is of great importance when assessing the associated health risks. Many microbial source tracking (MST) markers have been proposed to determine the origin of fecal pollution, but their application remains challenging. A range of factors, not yet sufficiently analyzed, may affect MST markers in the environment, such as dilution and inactivation processes. In this work, a statistical framework based on Monte Carlo simulations and non-linear regression was used to develop a classification procedure for use in MST studies. The predictive model tested uses only two parameters: somatic coliphages (SOMCPH), as an index of general fecal pollution, and human host-specific bacteriophages that infect Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain GA17 (GA17PH). Taking into account bacteriophage dilution and differential inactivation, the threshold concentration of SOMCPH was calculated to be around 500 PFU/100 mL for a limit of detection of 10 PFU/100 mL. However, this threshold can be lowered by increasing the analyzed volume sample, which in turn lowers the limit of detection. The resulting model is sufficiently accurate for application in practical cases involving MST and could be easily used with markers other than those tested here.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , Colífagos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Humanos , Água , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131065, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560336

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are a good source of flavanones. The present study aimed to assess the effect of food matrix elements [dietary fibres (DFs)] on the flavanone profile of grapefruit peel (GFP) and on the gut microbiota during in vitro digestion and simulated colonic fermentation. The contents of low-molecular-weight metabolites (dihydrocaffeic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid) were increased by pectin, konjac and chitosan in medium- and high-viscosity matrices. Compared with the GFP group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium leptum were significantly increased in medium-viscosity food matrices (konjac and chitosan) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the acetic and propionic acid contents were significantly elevated in the GFP + DF groups after 12 h of fermentation (p < 0.05). GFP flavanones were retained by DF, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potency composite (APC) index decreased during in vitro digestion. These findings indicate that medium-viscosity DFs (konjac and chitosan) could act as key food matrix elements for the retention of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi , Flavanonas , Microbiota , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Fezes/química , Fermentação
3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131030, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144808

RESUMO

In current times of global change, several sources of stress such as contaminants and high temperatures may act synergistically. The extent to which organisms persist in stressful conditions will depend on the fitness consequences of multiple simultaneously acting stressors and the genetic basis of compensatory genetic responses. Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug used in livestock that is excreted in dung of treated cattle, causing severe negative consequences on non-target fauna. We evaluated the effect of a combination of heat stress and exposure to ivermectin in the yellow dung fly, Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae). In a first experiment we investigated the effects of high rearing temperature on susceptibility to ivermectin, and in a second experiment we assayed flies from a latitudinal gradient to assess potential effects of local thermal adaptation on ivermectin sensitivity. The combination of heat and ivermectin synergistically reduced offspring survival, revealing severe effects of the two stressors when combined. However, latitudinal populations did not systematically vary in how ivermectin affected offspring survival, body size, development time, cold and heat tolerance. We also found very low narrow-sense heritability of ivermectin sensitivity, suggesting evolutionary constraints for responses to the combination of these stressors beyond immediate maternal or plastic effects. If the revealed patterns hold also for other invertebrates, the combination of increasing climate warming and ivermectin stress may thus have severe consequences for biodiversity. More generally, our study underlines the need for quantitative genetic analyses in understanding wildlife responses to interacting stressors that act synergistically and threat biodiversity.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ivermectina , Animais , Antiparasitários , Bovinos , Fezes , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ivermectina/toxicidade
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149919, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525719

RESUMO

Differences between air and ground temperatures are expected to narrow with the advance of the season in temperate regions (aka seasonal restriction in the availability of thermal microhabitats), which may activate behavioral and physiological responses of ectotherm species adapted to temperate climates. However, according to cost-benefit models of ectotherm thermoregulation, we hypothesize that these responses may also carry some costs. We quantified seasonal shifts in thermoregulatory precision, concentration of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, and load of ectoparasites in a Mediterranean lizard, Psammodromus algirus. We also tested whether the proximity to a road, a putative source of chronic stress, can facilitate the glucocorticoid-mediated response of lizards to heat stress. As expected, differences between body and environmental temperatures narrowed during the reproductive season and lizards responded by increasing their thermoregulatory precision and the secretion of glucocorticoids, as indicated by metabolites in feces. Interestingly, lizards tended to have higher glucocorticoid concentration when captured far from the road. This might reflect either a putative impairment of the glucocorticoid-mediated response of the lizards to heat stress close to the road or the plastic capability of P. algirus to acclimate to sources of moderate chronic stress. In the latter direction, the increase of both glucocorticoid metabolites and thermoregulatory precision supported that this Mediterranean species responds to environmental thermal restrictions with adaptive behavioral and physiological mechanisms. However, this was also associated with an increase in its susceptibility to ectoparasites, which represents an added cost to the current cost-benefit models of ectotherm thermoregulation.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Fezes , Glucocorticoides , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
5.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102478, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626806

RESUMO

Madura cattle, which are native to Indonesia and mainly kept on Madura Island, East Java, are expected to contribute to improving the regional meat self-sufficiency. Eimeria spp. are the most pathogenic protozoans among gastrointestinal parasites in livestock but no molecular surveys of Eimeria spp. in Madura cattle have been conducted to date. In this study, a total of 183 fecal samples were collected from Madura cattle and 60 (32.8%) were positive for parasites of protozoans and nematodes by the sugar floatation method. Among the samples with parasites, Eimeria spp. oocysts were detected in 50 samples (27.3%) with an average OPG value of 1686.1. Eimeria spp. were successfully identified to the species level in 26 samples with Eimeria bovis being the most prevalent, followed by E. zuernii and E. aubrunensis. A total of 21 samples showed mixed infection of more than two species of Eimeria. E. bovis and E. zuernii have been recognized as having high virulency and, thus, these parasites are potential sources of severe coccidiosis and the cause of infections in other cattle. Although additional studies are warranted, these results can be helpful for improving the management and productivity of Madura cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(38): 6415-6429, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720531

RESUMO

Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are the most widely colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnostic biomarker available. Many population screening programmes are based on this biomarker, with the goal of reducing CRC mortality. Moreover, in recent years, a large amount of evidence has been produced on the use of FIT to detect CRC in patients with abdominal symptoms in primary healthcare as well as in surveillance after adenoma resection. The aim of this review is to highlight the available evidence on these two topics. We will summarize the evidence on diagnostic yield in symptomatic patients with CRC and significant colonic lesion and the different options to use this (thresholds, brands, number of determinations, prediction models and combinations). We will include recommendations on FIT strategies in primary healthcare proposed by regulatory bodies and scientific societies and their potential effects on healthcare resources and CRC prognosis. Finally, we will show information regarding FIT-based surveillance as an alternative to endoscopic surveillance after high-risk polyp resection. To conclude, due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, FIT-based strategies have become extremely relevant since they enable a reduction of colonoscopy demand and access to the healthcare system by selecting individuals with the highest risk of CRC.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Colorretais , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fezes/química , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 1008-1014, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of the course of treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics on intestinal flora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: A total of 29 VLBW infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Children's Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University from June to December 2020 were enrolled as subjects for this prospective study. According to the course of treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, they were divided into two groups: ≤7 days (n=9) and >7 days (n=20). Fecal samples were collected on days 14 and 28 of hospitalization, and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the flora and SCFAs in fecal samples. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in Chao index of the intestinal flora in the ≤7 days group and the >7 days group from week 2 to week 4 (P<0.05). In the ≤7 days group, there were significant increases in the proportions of Firmicutes and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and a significant reduction in the proportion of Proteobacteria from week 2 to week 4 (P<0.05). At week 4, compared with the ≤7 days group, the >7 days group had significant reductions in the proportions of Firmicutes and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and a significant increase in the proportion of Proteobacteria (P<0.05), as well as significant reductions in the content of isobutyric acid and valeric acid (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The course of treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics can affect the abundance, colonization, and evolution of intestinal flora and the content of their metabolites SCFAs in VLBW infants. The indication and treatment course for broad-spectrum antibiotics should be strictly controlled in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Antibacterianos , Criança , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 1027-1032, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis from 2017 to 2019. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of children with acute gastroenteritis who were admitted to Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2017 to December 2019. A total of 1 458 stool samples were collected from the children, and viral RNA was extracted. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for gene amplification, sequencing, and genotype identification of the VP1 region of capsid protein in norovirus. RESULTS: Among the 1 458 stool samples, 158 (10.8%) were positive for norovirus. There was no significant difference in the positive detection rate of norovirus between different years (P>0.05). Boys had a norovirus detection rate of 12.2% (105/860), which was significantly higher than that in girls (8.9%, 53/598) (P=0.043). The children aged 12 to <18 months had the highest norovirus detection rate (16.9%, 51/301). August, September, and October were the epidemic peak season. A total of 23 norovirus-positive samples were also positive for rotavirus. The norovirus detected were mainly GII type (97.5%, 154/158), and only 4 cases were GI type (2.5%, 4/158). The sequencing of the VP1 region of capsid protein in the positive samples showed that GII.4 (69.6%, 110/158) was the dominant genotype, among which 99 (62.7%, 99/158) were GII.4 Sydney 2012, followed by GII.3 (15.2%, 24/158), GII.2 (10.1%, 16/158), GII.6 (1.9%, 3/158), and GII.17 (0.6%, 1/158). GI.3 (1.3%, 2/158), GI.2 (0.6%, 1/158), and GI.5 (0.6%, 1/158) were rarely detected. CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the major epidemic strain in the children with norovirus gastroenteritis from 2017 to 2019. Although norovirus infection can exist throughout the year, August to October is the peak period. During this period, norovirus surveillance and key population protection are strengthened to help prevent and control norovirus diarrhea.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Criança , Fezes , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3524-3530, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739803

RESUMO

A highly sensitive novel amperometric genosensor has been developed for rapid detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) DNA in fecal swabs of naturally infected dogs. The genosensor is based on a single stranded 5°-thiolated (SH) DNA probe complementary to VP1/VP2 gene of canine parvo vaccine strain, immobilized covalently on a polycrystalline gold (Au) electrode. The genosensor has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The ssDNA-SH/Au electrode was hybridized with single stranded target DNA (ss T-DNA) in the sample. This hybridization was detected by reduction in current, generated by interaction of methylene blue (MB) with free guanine of ssDNA. The current response of genosensor was determined by CV, DPV and EIS. The sensor detected single stranded genomic DNA (ss g-DNA) isolated from vaccine strain of CPV in the range, 1.0-12.0 ng/µl at 25 °C for 10 min. Subsequently, the genobiosensor was applied for detection of CPV viral DNA in fecal swabs of naturally infected dogs. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.0 ng/µl of fecal viral DNA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on development and application of amperometric biosensor for rapid, sensitive, specific point of care detection of viral DNA of CPV in feces.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Parvovirus Canino , Animais , DNA Viral , Cães , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Fezes , Ouro , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Parvovirus Canino/genética
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1125, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis spp. are considered pathogenic or commensal organisms, although the majority of researchers suggest that these are neglected pathogens. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis spp. in pre- and perimenopausal women, with respect to socio-demographic (age and place of residence), and epidemiological factors, as well as drinking tap water, contact with domestic animals, traveling abroad, health status, and presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Additionally, the objective was to compare hematological and biochemical parameters of Blastocystis spp. infected and uninfected women. METHODS: The study included 425 women aged 45-60. Their stool samples were examined microscopically and analyzed by a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR). RESULTS: Blastocystis spp. were detected in 6.1% of pre- and perimenopausal women. Molecular analysis of the stool samples identified seven Blastocystis subtypes (ST1-ST4, ST6, ST7, and ST9). Blastocystis subtypes 2 and 3 were the most prevalent. The presence of Blastocystis spp. was not significantly related to socio-demographic and epidemiological factors. There were also no significant associations between Blastocystis spp. and blood parameters, or gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study complements the limited available data on the prevalence of Blastocystis spp. in pre- and perimenopausal women. It is also the first report showing the presence of Blastocystis subtype 9 in Poland.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Animais , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Perimenopausa , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726590

RESUMO

Six strains of Gram-stain-negative, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods were isolated from human faeces. Based on phylogenetic characteristics, the six isolates were included in the family Ruminococcaceae, and divided into three groups. The six isolates showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values lower than 96.2 % to the closely related species, Oscillibacter ruminantium GH1T, Oscillibacter valericigenes Sjm18-20T and Dysosmobacter welbiomis J115T. Coherently with the 16S rRNA gene sequence results, the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values clearly indicated that strains MM35T, MM50T and MM59T belong to different species from the closely related three species. Based on phenotypic features and phylogenetic positions, three novel species, Vescimonas coprocola gen. nov., sp. nov., Vescimonas fastidiosa gen. nov., sp. nov. and Pusillimonas faecalis gen. nov., sp. nov. are proposed. The type strain of V. coprocola is strain MM50T (=JCM 34012T=DSM 111893T). The type strain of V. fastidiosa is strain MM35T (=JCM 34016T=DSM 111899T). The type strain of P. faecalis is strain MM59T (=JCM 34011T=DSM 111669T). The DNA G+C contents estimated according to the whole genomes of strains MM35T, MM50T and MM59T were 56.4, 58.2 and 55.2 mol%, respectively.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Clostridiales , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(5): 677-684, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728028

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the differences of gut microbiota between patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis.Methods From December 2018 to June 2019,20 fresh stool samples were collected respectively from the patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis treated at the Department of Vascular Surgery,Peking Union Medical College Hospital.The 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was employed to compare the composition,abundance,and α and ß diversities of gut microbiota between the two disease groups,and further determine the significantly differential genera.Results The two groups had great similarities in the composition of gut microbiota.There was no statistical difference in α diversity.Although ß diversity did not have statistically significant difference,certain microbial taxa showed differences between the two groups.The LEfSe demonstrated that the abdominal aortic aneurysm group had higher relative abundance of Leuconostocaceae,Ruminococcaceae,Weissella,and Faecalibacterium while lower relative abundance of Firmicuteria,Selenomonadales,and Veillonellaceae.Conclusion The structure of gut microbiota has differences between patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis,and sample size should be enlarged to validate the results.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aterosclerose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fezes , Humanos
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 348, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal tea residue (HTR) is generally considered to be the waste of herbal tea beverage production while it still retains rich nutrients and active substances. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermentation technology on improving the quality of HTRs, and focus on the fermented HTR-induced alleviation of summer heat stress in fattening cattle. RESULTS: In this study, the waste HTR was fermented and then fed to a total of 45 fattening cattle that were divided into 3 groups (fermented HTR replaced 0, 15, 30% of the forage component of the diet), and the feeding experiment was lasted for 40 days. The physiological indexes, growth performance and fecal microbiota of fattening cattle were evaluated and results showed that fermented HTR could effectively reduce the respiratory rate and rectal temperature of fattening cattle under heat stress, increase the daily feed intake and daily gain, and improve the antioxidant content and blood immune index. In addition, we studied the fecal microbiota composition of 6 fattening cattle in control and 30% HTR substitution groups and found fermented HTR significantly changed the composition of fecal microbiota and increased microbial diversity, and correlation analysis suggested that the bacteria were closely related to fecal SCFA levels of fattening cattle under heat stress. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, fermented HTR replaced 30% of the forage component of the diet that can change the intestine microorganisms, maintain health and alleviate the heat stress of fattening cattle.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Dieta/veterinária , Indústria Alimentícia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resíduos Industriais , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/terapia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e301, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783217

RESUMO

We used serial rectal swabs to investigate the amount and duration of virus secretion through the gastrointestinal tract and assessed the association between fecal shedding and gastrointestinal symptoms and to clarify the clinical usefulness testing rectal swabs. We enrolled ten adult patients hospitalized with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory and stool specimens were collected by physicians. The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was confirmed using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. All ten patients had respiratory symptoms, six had diarrhea, and seven were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on rectal swabs. The viral loads in the respiratory specimens was higher than those in the rectal specimens, and no rectal specimens were positive after the respiratory specimens became negative. There was no association between gastrointestinal symptoms, pneumonia, severity, and rectal viral load. Rectal swabs may play a role in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with suspected COVID-19, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Reto/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/transmissão , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788211

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, yellow-pigmented, aerobic, pleomorphic rod-shaped bacterium, designated ZY171143T, was isolated from faeces of a cow with diarrhoea in Wenshan, Yunnan Province, south-west China and its taxonomic position was studied. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain ZY171143T belonged to the family Weeksellaceae and was most closely related to the only species of the genus Faecalibacter, Faecalibacter macacae CCTCC AB 2016016T with a sequence similarity of 97.8 %. The genomic OrthoANI and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between the strain and F. macacae CCTCC AB 2016016T were 86.2 and 30.5 %, respectively. The genomic G+C content was 31.1 mol%. The predominant fatty acids (>5 %) were C15 : 0 iso, C17 : 0 iso 3OH, C16 : 0, C16 : 1 ω5c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or 16 : 1 ω6c). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, triacylglycerol and sulfonolipid. The sole respiratory quinone was MK-6. These chemotaxonomic characterizations also revealed that strain ZY171143T was a member of the genus Faecalibacter. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, strain ZY171143T represents a novel species within the genus Faecalibacter, for which the name Faecalibacter bovis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZY171143T (=CGMCC 1.13663T=KCTC 62642T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Bovinos , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2
16.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(Supplement_3): S16-S21, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791395

RESUMO

Although the pathogenesis of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is complex and incompletely understood, it is believed that the elaboration of C. difficile toxins is necessary for disease. There are a variety of tests available for the detection of both the C. difficile organism and its toxins; however, each has limitations and the best application of these tests to the diagnosis of CDI in children remains uncertain. Nucleic acid amplification tests are unable to reliably discriminate between CDI and C. difficile colonization, while commercially available enzyme immunoassays for toxin detection lack sensitivity. An understanding of preanalytic factors, relevant patient features, and test performance characteristics is essential to the accurate diagnosis of CDI in children. Specific diagnostic stewardship strategies can also increase the likelihood that positive tests reflect disease rather than colonization. Ultimately, CDI remains a clinical diagnosis and clinical judgment is essential when interpreting test results, regardless of the methods used.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Proteínas de Bactérias , Criança , Clostridioides , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Fezes , Humanos
17.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(5): 535-539, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791856

RESUMO

Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal protozoan parasite. Most individuals with B. hominis infections have no apparent clinical symptoms; however, a few patients, notably those with co-infections or impaired immune system function may present abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and even death. This paper reviews the co-infections of B. hominis and other pathogens and comorbidity of B. hominis infections and other diseases, so as to provide insights into the management of B. hominis infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis hominis , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Humanos
18.
Parasite ; 28: 74, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723788

RESUMO

Echinococcus multilocularis eggs are deposited on the ground with the faeces of the carnivore definitive hosts. A reliable assessment of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis eggs in environments used by humans is crucial for the prevention of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). This study was conducted in 192 rural and 71 urban vegetable gardens in AE endemic areas of north-eastern France. Its objective was to explore the relationship between the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis estimated from the collection and molecular analysis of two types of samples: faeces and soil. A total of 1024 carnivore faeces and 463 soil samples were collected and analysed by real-time PCR. No fox droppings and no positive soil samples were collected from the urban gardens. Positive soil samples, positive carnivore faeces, or both, were found in 42%, 24% and 6% of the sampled rural gardens, respectively. No significant association was found between the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples collected from 50 gardens during a single sampling session and the extent and frequency of deposits of fox and cat faeces collected during repeated sampling sessions conducted in the previous months. In 19/50 gardens, E. multilocularis was detected in the soil while no positive faeces had been collected in the previous 12 months. Conversely, in 8/50 gardens, no soil samples were positive although positive faeces had been collected in the previous months. Collecting and analysing faeces provide information on soil contamination at a given time, while analysing soil samples provides an overview of long-term contamination.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis , Fezes/parasitologia , Solo , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Raposas , Jardins , Solo/parasitologia , Verduras
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13190-13199, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723485

RESUMO

The metabolic fate of a newly developed herbicide, epyrifenacil, (ethyl[(3-{2-chloro-4-fluoro-5-[3-methyl-2,6-dioxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl]phenoxy}pyridin-2-yl)oxy]acetate, S-3100), in rats was determined using 14C-labeled epyrifenacil. When it was administered orally to rats at 1 mg/kg, around 73-74% of the dose was absorbed, metabolized, and mainly excreted into feces within 48 h. The elimination of radioactivity in plasma and tissues was rapid, suggesting that exposure of epyrifenacil and metabolites is small. Metabolite analysis revealed that epyrifenacil was rapidly ester-cleaved to M1 and then mainly excreted into bile or further metabolized. No parent was detected in plasma, tissues, and urine. Remarkably, M1 was mainly distributed in the liver (at a concentration of 70-112 times higher than in plasma at a low dose). Furthermore, a significant sex-related difference was observed in urinary excretion of M1. Considering the above observations with those in the literature, the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) likely plays a role on the active transport of M1 in the liver and kidney.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Herbicidas , Administração Oral , Animais , Bile , Fezes , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 545, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779918

RESUMO

For the past several decades, selective anthelmintic therapy (SAT) has been recommended in temperate climate countries for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in horses. However, the feasibility of this approach in tropical climates remains unknown, given the very different parasite transmission patterns and a larger representation of working equids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-economic feasibility of SAT in horses kept under tropical conditions of Camagüey, Cuba. Fecal egg counts were determined from 794 adult horses and used for evaluating three different putative treatment thresholds; > 500 strongylid eggs per gram of feces (EPG); > 1000 EPG; and treatments yielding > 80% of the total herd egg output. These scenarios were evaluated under three treatment frequencies (every 2, 6, and 12 months). The bio-economic feasibility of these nine possible selective anthelmintic therapy scenarios was evaluated taking into account the cost of parasitological tests, and the mean cost of anthelmintic treatment in Camagüey. The majority (96.7%) of the samples tested were positive for strongyle eggs, with a mean of 1549 EPG. The percentage of horses exceeding the cut-off points at the nine scenarios varied between 40.1 and 93.8%. All owners surveyed used extra-label anthelmintic product in their horses on a routine basis. The economic analysis demonstrated that selective therapy generally was much more costly than deworming the entire herd without determining egg counts. However, we consider that the deworming every 6 months of the horses that expel 80% of the eggs in the herd allows a reduction of the treatment intensity without increasing costs, and it can be considered as a viable selective deworming scheme under similar conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fezes , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Óvulo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/tratamento farmacológico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...