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1.
Parasites Hosts Dis ; 62(2): 238-242, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835264

RESUMO

Strongyloidiasis is a chronic infection caused by the intestinal nematode parasite Strongyloides stercoralis and is characterized by a diverse spectrum of nonspecific clinical manifestations. This report describe a case of disseminated strongyloidiasis with urination difficulty, generalized weakness, and chronic alcoholism diagnosed through the presence of worms in the urinary sediment. A 53-year-old man was hospitalized for severe abdominal distension and urinary difficulties that started 7-10 days prior. The patient also presented with generalized weakness that had persisted for 3 years, passed loose stools without diarrhea, and complained of dyspnea. In the emergency room, approximately 7 L of urine was collected, in which several free-living female adult and rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis, identified through their morphological characteristics and size measurements, were detected via microscopic examination. Rhabditiform larvae of S. stercoralis were also found in the patient's stool. During hospitalization, the patient received treatment for strongyloidiasis, chronic alcoholism, peripheral neurosis, neurogenic bladder, and megaloblastic anemia, and was subsequently discharged with improved generalized conditions. Overall, this report presents a rare case of disseminated strongyloidiasis in which worms were detected in the urinary sediment of a patient with urination difficulties and generalized weakness combined with chronic alcoholism, neurogenic bladder, and megaloblastic anemia.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Strongyloides stercoralis , Estrongiloidíase , Humanos , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/urina , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Animais , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Alcoolismo/complicações , Fezes/parasitologia , Urina/parasitologia , Feminino
2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830802

RESUMO

AIMS: The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing annually, leading to substantial medical and health burdens. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential effectiveness of intestinal probiotics as a treatment strategy for NAFLD. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify a probiotic for the treatment of NAFLD. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, blood and fecal samples were collected from 41 healthy volunteers and 44 patients diagnosed with NAFLD. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequencing data and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed a significant reduction in the abundance of Coprococcus in NAFLD patients. Subsequent animal experiments demonstrated that Coprococcus was able to effectively reverse liver lipid accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first in vivo evidence that Coprococcus is a beneficial bacterium capable of preventing NAFLD and has the same probiotic effect in mice as Lactobacillus GG (LGG), a positive control. Therefore, Coprococcus has the potential to serve as a probiotic for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD in humans.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Probióticos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Adulto , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Animais de Doenças
3.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2359500, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825783

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has been implicated as a driver of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently we described, mucosal biofilms, signifying alterations in microbiota composition and bile acid (BA) metabolism in IBS and ulcerative colitis (UC). Luminal oxygen concentration is a key factor in the gastrointestinal (GI) ecosystem and might be increased in IBS and UC. Here we analyzed the role of archaea as a marker for hypoxia in mucosal biofilms and GI homeostasis. The effects of archaea on microbiome composition and metabolites were analyzed via amplicon sequencing and untargeted metabolomics in 154 stool samples of IBS-, UC-patients and controls. Mucosal biofilms were collected in a subset of patients and examined for their bacterial, fungal and archaeal composition. Absence of archaea, specifically Methanobrevibacter, correlated with disrupted GI homeostasis including decreased microbial diversity, overgrowth of facultative anaerobes and conjugated secondary BA. IBS-D/-M was associated with absence of archaea. Presence of Methanobrevibacter correlated with Oscillospiraceae and epithelial short chain fatty acid metabolism and decreased levels of Ruminococcus gnavus. Absence of fecal Methanobrevibacter may indicate a less hypoxic GI environment, reduced fatty acid oxidation, overgrowth of facultative anaerobes and disrupted BA deconjugation. Archaea and Ruminococcus gnavus could distinguish distinct subtypes of mucosal biofilms. Further research on the connection between archaea, mucosal biofilms and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth should be performed.


Assuntos
Archaea , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Masculino , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Methanobrevibacter/metabolismo , Methanobrevibacter/genética , Methanobrevibacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Methanobrevibacter/isolamento & purificação , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo , Idoso , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303029, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829841

RESUMO

Horse owners and veterinarians report that from the age of 15, their horses can lose body condition and be more susceptible to diseases. Large intestinal microbiome changes may be involved. Indeed, microbiota is crucial for maintaining the condition and health of herbivores by converting fibres into nutrients. This study aimed to compare the faecal microbiome in horses aged from 6 to 30 years old (yo), living in the same environment and consuming the same diet, in order to assess whether the parameters changed linearly with age and whether there was a pivotal age category. Fifty horses were selected from the same environment and distributed across four age categories: 6-10 (n = 12), 11-15 (n = 11), 16-20 (n = 13), and 21-30 (n = 14) yo. All horses had no digestive problems, had teeth suitable for consuming their feed, and were up to date with their vaccination and deworming programmes. After three weeks of constant diet (ad libitum hay and 860 g of concentrate per day), one faecal sample per horse was collected on the same day. The bacterial communities' richness and intra-sample diversity were negatively correlated with age. There was a new distribution of non-beneficial and beneficial taxa, particularly in the 21-30 yo category. Although the faecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids remained stable, the acetate proportion was negatively correlated with age while it was the opposite for the proportions of butyrate, valerate, and iso-valerate. Additionally, the faecal pH was negatively correlated with age. Differences were more pronounced when comparing the 6-10 yo and 21-30 yo categories. The values of the parameters studied became more dispersed from the 16-20 yo category onwards, which appeared as a transitional moment, as it did not differ significantly from the younger and older categories for most of these parameters. Our data suggest that the microbiome changes with age. By highlighting the pivotal age of 16-20, this gives the opportunity to intervene before individuals reach extremes that could lead to pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cavalos/microbiologia , Animais , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Feminino
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4567, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830848

RESUMO

Improved biomarkers are needed for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Here we identify a diagnostic lipidomic signature for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease by analyzing blood samples from a discovery cohort of incident treatment-naïve pediatric patients and validating findings in an independent inception cohort. The lipidomic signature comprising of only lactosyl ceramide (d18:1/16:0) and phosphatidylcholine (18:0p/22:6) improves the diagnostic prediction compared with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Adding high-sensitivity C-reactive protein to the signature does not improve its performance. In patients providing a stool sample, the diagnostic performance of the lipidomic signature and fecal calprotectin, a marker of gastrointestinal inflammation, does not substantially differ. Upon investigation in a third pediatric cohort, the findings of increased lactosyl ceramide (d18:1/16:0) and decreased phosphatidylcholine (18:0p/22:6) absolute concentrations are confirmed. Translation of the lipidomic signature into a scalable diagnostic blood test for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease has the potential to support clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Lipidômica , Humanos , Criança , Lipidômica/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Adolescente , Fezes/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Estudos de Coortes
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4704, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830845

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome encompasses amongst other conditions like obesity and type-2 diabetes and is associated with gut microbiome (GM) dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been explored to treat metabolic syndrome by restoring the GM; however, concerns on accidentally transferring pathogenic microbes remain. As a safer alternative, fecal virome transplantation (FVT, sterile-filtrated feces) has the advantage over FMT in that mainly bacteriophages are transferred. FVT from lean male donors have shown promise in alleviating the metabolic effects of high-fat diet in a preclinical mouse study. However, FVT still carries the risk of eukaryotic viral infections. To address this, recently developed methods are applied for removing or inactivating eukaryotic viruses in the viral component of FVT. Modified FVTs are compared with unmodified FVT and saline in a diet-induced obesity model on male C57BL/6 N mice. Contrasted with obese control, mice administered a modified FVT (nearly depleted for eukaryotic viruses) exhibits enhanced blood glucose clearance but not weight loss. The unmodified FVT improves liver pathology and reduces the proportions of immune cells in the adipose tissue with a non-uniform response. GM analysis suggests that bacteriophage-mediated GM modulation influences outcomes. Optimizing these approaches could lead to the development of safe bacteriophage-based therapies targeting metabolic syndrome through GM restoration.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome Metabólica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade , Viroma , Animais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Camundongos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/terapia , Fezes/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo
7.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 192, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected persons demonstrate notable disturbances in their intestinal microbiota; however, the impact of intestinal microbiota on HIV susceptibility in men who have sex with men (MSM), as well as the effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on their gut microbiota, remains under active study. Thus, our research focuses on clarifying the distinctions in intestinal microbiota composition among uninfected MSM and non-MSM healthy controls, investigating the alterations in early-stage intestinal microbial communities following HIV infection, and assessing how ART affects the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: This study enrolled four participant groups: uninfected MSM, Recent HIV-1 infection (RHI) MSM, MSM on ART, and non-MSM healthy controls, with 30 individuals in each group. We utilized 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) amplicon sequencing to analyze fecal microbiota and employed Luminex multiplex assays to measure plasma markers for microbial translocation (LBP, sCD14) and the inflammatory marker CRP. FINDINGS: Comparing uninfected MSM to non-MSM healthy controls, no substantial variances were observed in α and ß diversity. Uninfected MSM had higher average relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella, and Alloprevotella, while Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and Faecalibacterium had lower average relative abundances. MSM on ART had lower intestinal microbiota diversity than RHI MSM and uninfected MSM. In MSM on ART, Megasphaera and Fusobacterium increased, while Faecalibacterium and Roseburia decreased at genus level. Additionally, treatment with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) led to significant alterations in intestinal microbiota diversity and composition compared to RHI MSM. The random forest model showed that HIV infection biomarkers effectively distinguished between newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM and HIV-negative MSM, with an ROC AUC of 76.24% (95% CI: 61.17-91.31%). CONCLUSIONS: MSM showed early intestinal microbiota imbalances after new HIV infection. MSM on ART experienced worsened dysbiosis, indicating a combined effect of HIV and ART. NNRTI-based treatment notably changed intestinal microbiota, suggesting a potential direct impact of NNRTI drugs on intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Masculino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Adulto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , HIV-1/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia
8.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(6): 547-549, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858205

RESUMO

Hymenolepis diminuta is a common parasite of rats and mice, but is very rare in humans with cases reported from various parts of the world. Here, we reported a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection involving both the respiratory and digestive tracts in a 49-year-old male patient whose initial imaging and symptoms were strikingly similar to pneumonia. Since no disease-causing pathogens were found during routine examinations, we considered respiratory infection by specific pathogens before metagenomic next-generation sequencing of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid confirmed the diagnosis of Hymenolepis diminuta. After confirming the diagnosis, we retested the patient's stool repeatedly and found Hymenolepis diminuta eggs finally. To help doctors better understand this condition and avoid misdiagnosis, this article provided a summary of the clinical characteristics, diagnostic techniques, and therapeutic options for infection by Hymenolepis diminuta.


Assuntos
Himenolepíase , Hymenolepis diminuta , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Himenolepíase/diagnóstico , Himenolepíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia
9.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 201, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of acquisition of multidrug resistant organisms due to higher rates of predisposing factors. The gut microbiome is the main reservoir of the collection of antimicrobial resistance determinants known as the gut resistome. In PLWH, changes in gut microbiome have been linked to immune activation and HIV-1 associated complications. Specifically, gut dysbiosis defined by low microbial gene richness has been linked to low Nadir CD4 + T-cell counts. Additionally, sexual preference has been shown to strongly influence gut microbiome composition in PLWH resulting in different Prevotella or Bacteroides enriched enterotypes, in MSM (men-who-have-sex-with-men) or no-MSM, respectively. To date, little is known about gut resistome composition in PLWH due to the scarcity of studies using shotgun metagenomics. The present study aimed to detect associations between different microbiome features linked to HIV-1 infection and gut resistome composition. RESULTS: Using shotgun metagenomics we characterized the gut resistome composition of 129 HIV-1 infected subjects showing different HIV clinical profiles and 27 HIV-1 negative controls from a cross-sectional observational study conducted in Barcelona, Spain. Most no-MSM showed a Bacteroides-enriched enterotype and low microbial gene richness microbiomes. We did not identify differences in resistome diversity and composition according to HIV-1 infection or immune status. However, gut resistome was more diverse in MSM group, Prevotella-enriched enterotype and gut micorbiomes with high microbial gene richness compared to no-MSM group, Bacteroides-enriched enterotype and gut microbiomes with low microbial gene richness. Additionally, gut resistome beta-diversity was different according to the defined groups and we identified a set of differentially abundant antimicrobial resistance determinants based on the established categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a significant correlation between gut resistome composition and various host variables commonly associated with gut microbiome, including microbiome enterotype, microbial gene richness, and sexual preference. These host variables have been previously linked to immune activation and lower Nadir CD4 + T-Cell counts, which are prognostic factors of HIV-related comorbidities. This study provides new insights into the relationship between antibiotic resistance and clinical characteristics of PLWH.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Metagenômica , Prevotella/genética , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Sexual , Espanha
10.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304599, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829840

RESUMO

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an emerging pathogen of high concern given its resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Broiler chicken, which is the number one consumed meat in the United States and worldwide, can be a reservoir of ESBL E. coli. Backyard poultry ownership is on the rise in the United States, yet there is little research investigating prevalence of ESBL E. coli in this setting. This study aims to identify the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles (phenotypically and genotypically) of ESBL E. coli in some backyard and commercial broiler farms in the U.S. For this study ten backyard and ten commercial farms were visited at three time-points across flock production. Fecal (n = 10), litter/compost (n = 5), soil (n = 5), and swabs of feeders and waterers (n = 6) were collected at each visit and processed for E. coli. Assessment of ESBL phenotype was determined through using disk diffusion with 3rd generation cephalosporins, cefotaxime and ceftazidime, and that with clavulanic acid. Broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing were used to investigate both phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles, respectively. ESBL E. coli was more prevalent in backyard farms with 12.95% of samples testing positive whereas 0.77% of commercial farm samples were positive. All isolates contained a blaCTX-M gene, the dominant variant being blaCTX-M-1, and its presence was entirely due to plasmids. Our study confirms concerns of growing resistance to fourth generation cephalosporin, cefepime, as roughly half (51.4%) of all isolates were found to be susceptible dose-dependent and few were resistant. Resistance to non-beta lactams, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, was also detected in our samples. Our study identifies prevalence of blaCTX-M type ESBL E. coli in U.S. backyard broiler farms, emphasizing the need for interventions for food and production safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Plasmídeos , beta-Lactamases , Animais , beta-Lactamases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Prevalência , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fezes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fazendas
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 367, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850297

RESUMO

Recent microbiome research has incorporated a higher number of samples through more participants in a study, longitudinal studies, and metanalysis between studies. Physical limitations in a sequencing machine can result in samples spread across sequencing runs. Here we present the results of sequencing nearly 1000 16S rRNA gene sequences in fecal (stabilized and swab) and oral (swab) samples from multiple human microbiome studies and positive controls that were conducted with identical standard operating procedures. Sequencing was performed in the same center across 18 different runs. The simplified mock community showed limitations in accuracy, while precision (e.g., technical variation) was robust for the mock community and actual human positive control samples. Technical variation was the lowest for stabilized fecal samples, followed by fecal swab samples, and then oral swab samples. The order of technical variation stability was inverse of DNA concentrations (e.g., highest in stabilized fecal samples), highlighting the importance of DNA concentration in reproducibility and urging caution when analyzing low biomass samples. Coefficients of variation at the genus level also followed the same trend for lower variation with higher DNA concentrations. Technical variation across both sample types and the two human sampling locations was significantly less than the observed biological variation. Overall, this research providing comparisons between technical and biological variation, highlights the importance of using positive controls, and provides semi-quantified data to better understand variation introduced by sequencing runs. KEY POINTS: • Mock community and positive control accuracy were lower than precision. • Samples with lower DNA concentration had increased technical variation across sequencing runs. • Biological variation was significantly higher than technical variation due to sequencing runs.


Assuntos
DNA Bacteriano , Fezes , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Boca/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(20): 2709-2725, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constipation, a highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder, induces a significant burden on the quality of patients' life and is associated with substantial healthcare expenditures. Therefore, identifying efficient therapeutic modalities for constipation is of paramount importance. Oxidative stress is a pivotal contributor to colonic dysmotility and is the underlying pathology responsible for constipation symptoms. Consequently, we postulate that hydrogen therapy, an emerging and promising intervention, can serve as a safe and efficacious treatment for constipation. AIM: To determine whether hydrogen-rich water (HRW) alleviates constipation and its potential mechanism. METHODS: Constipation models were established by orally loperamide to Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats freely consumed HRW, and were recorded their 24 h total stool weight, fecal water content, and charcoal propulsion rate. Fecal samples were subjected to 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Serum non-targeted metabolomic analysis, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels were determined. Colonic tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff, reactive oxygen species (ROS) immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry for cell growth factor receptor kit (c-kit), PGP 9.5, sirtuin1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were conducted to determine the expression level of SIRT1, Nrf2 and HO-1. A rescue experiment was conducted by intraperitoneally injecting the SIRT1 inhibitor, EX527, into constipated rats. NCM460 cells were induced with H2O2 and treated with the metabolites to evaluate ROS and SIRT1 expression. RESULTS: HRW alleviated constipation symptoms by improving the total amount of stool over 24 h, fecal water content, charcoal propulsion rate, thickness of the intestinal mucus layer, c-kit expression, and the number of intestinal neurons. HRW modulated intestinal microbiota imbalance and abnormalities in serum metabolism. HRW could also reduce intestinal oxidative stress through the SIRT1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. This regulatory effect on oxidative stress was confirmed via an intraperitoneal injection of a SIRT1 inhibitor to constipated rats. The serum metabolites, ß-leucine (ß-Leu) and traumatic acid, were also found to attenuate H2O2-induced oxidative stress in NCM460 cells by up-regulating SIRT1. CONCLUSION: HRW attenuates constipation-associated intestinal oxidative stress via SIRT1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, modulating gut microbiota and serum metabolites. ß-Leu and traumatic acid are potential metabolites that upregulate SIRT1 expression and reduce oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Colo , Constipação Intestinal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidrogênio , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1 , Animais , Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Masculino , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Humanos , Água/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Fezes/química
13.
PeerJ ; 12: e17498, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827305

RESUMO

Background: The method currently available to diagnose shigellosis is insensitive and has many limitations. Thus, this study was designed to identify specific antigenic protein(s) among the cell surface associated proteins (SAPs) of Shigella that would be valuable in the development of an alternative diagnostic assay for shigellosis, particularly one that could be run using a stool sample rather than serum. Methods: The SAPs of clinical isolates of S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, Shigella flexneri, and S. sonnei were extracted from an overnight culture grown at 37 °C using acidified-glycine extraction methods. Protein profiles were observed by SDS-PAGE. To determine if antibodies specific to certain Shigella SAPs were present in both sera and stool suspensions, Western blot analysis was used to detect the presence of IgA, IgG, and IgM. Results: Immunoblot analysis revealed that sera from patients infected with S. flexneri recognized 31 proteins. These SAP antigens are recognized by the host humoral response during Shigella infection. Specific antibodies against these antigens were also observed in intestinal secretions of shigellosis patients. Of these 31 S. flexneri proteins, the 35 kDa protein specifically reacted against IgA present in patients' stool suspensions. Further study illustrated the immunoreactivity of this protein in S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. This is the first report that demonstrates the presence of immunoreactive Shigella SAPs in stool suspensions. The SAPSs could be very useful in developing a simple and rapid serodiagnostic assay for shigellosis directly from stool specimens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Disenteria Bacilar , Fezes , Shigella flexneri , Humanos , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Disenteria Bacilar/diagnóstico , Disenteria Bacilar/imunologia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Shigella flexneri/imunologia , Shigella flexneri/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/análise
14.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 835-841, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822463

RESUMO

Schistosoma mansoni worms cause a waterborne parasitic disease called schistosomiasis. It commonly affects individuals in lack of sanitation structure. In Brazil, Pará state has Belém as one of the worst sanitation-ranking places in 2023, where schistosomiasis transmission was already documented. This study reports the occurrence of schistosomiasis in residents of Ilha das Onças, an island next to Belém. Stool samples were obtained from participants over 2 years old, all residents from Furo do Rio Grande, one of the rivers on the island. The Kato-Katz technique was performed for parasite investigation in the stool samples. Each participant responded to a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire. The residences were georeferenced for map designing. Three out of 263 participants were S. mansoni positive, all men, ages ranging from 19 to 41 years old, with low parasitic load. Malacological surveys were carried out, but no Biomphalaria snails were found. Risk factors for schistosomiasis establishment are present on the island, and the lack of sanitation makes it a potential risk area. Malacological surveys are highly encouraged as preventive measures, as well as health surveillance for riverside populations, generating data that will help health authorities in the management and planning of preventive control actions.


Assuntos
Rios , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose mansoni , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Adulto , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Masculino , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Adulto Jovem , Rios/parasitologia , Feminino , Fezes/parasitologia , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança
15.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 923-938, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822470

RESUMO

The World Health Organization classifies leptospirosis as a significant public health concern, predominantly affecting impoverished and unsanitary regions. By using the Pensacola Bay System as a case study, this study examines the underappreciated susceptibility of developed subtropical coastal ecosystems such as the Pensacola Bay System to neglected zoonotic pathogens such as Leptospira. We analyzed 132 water samples collected over 12 months from 44 distinct locations with high levels of Escherichia coli (>410 most probable number/100 mL). Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations were assessed using IDEXX Colilert-18 and Enterolert-18, and an analysis of water physiochemical characteristics and rainfall intensity was conducted. The LipL32 gene was used as a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicator to identify the distribution of Leptospira interrogans. The results revealed 12 instances of the presence of L. interrogans at sites with high FIB over various land cover and aquatic ecosystem types. Independent of specific rainfall events, a seasonal relationship between precipitation and elevated rates of fecal bacteria and leptospirosis was found. These findings highlight qPCR's utility in identifying pathogens in aquatic environments and the widespread conditions where it can be found in natural and developed areas.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Baías/microbiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 339: 122284, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823935

RESUMO

Interactions between human gut microbiota and dietary fibres (DF) are influenced by the complexity and diversity of both individual microbiota and sources of DF. Based on 480 in vitro fermentations, a full factorial experiment was performed with six faecal inocula representing two enterotypes and three DF sources with nanometer, micrometer, and millimeter length-scales (apple pectin, apple cell walls and apple particles) at two concentrations. Increasing DF size reduced substrate disappearance and fermentation rates but not biomass growth. Concentrated DF enhanced butyrate production and lactate cross-feeding. Enterotype differentiated final microbial compositions but not biomass or fermentation metabolite profiles. Individual donor microbiota differences did not influence DF type or concentration effects but were manifested in the promotion of different functional microbes within each population with the capacity to degrade the DF substrates. Overall, consistent effects (independent of donor microbiota variation) of DF type and concentration on kinetics of substrate degradation, microbial biomass production, gas kinetics and metabolite profiles were found, which can form the basis for informed design of DF for desired rates/sites and consequences of gut fermentation. These results add further evidence to the concept that, despite variations between individuals, the human gut microbiota represents a community with conserved emergent properties.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Fezes , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pectinas , Pectinas/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Fezes/microbiologia , Malus/metabolismo , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Biomassa
17.
Parasitol Res ; 123(6): 231, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829429

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. are protozoa commonly found in domestic and wild animals. Limited information is available on Cryptosporidium in deer worldwide. In this study, 201 fecal samples were collected from Alpine musk deer on three farms in Gansu Province, China. Detection and subtyping of Cryptosporidium were performed by PCR and sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA and gp60 genes. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in Alpine musk deer was 3.9% (8/201), with infection rates of 1.0% (1/100), 2.8% (1/36), and 9.2% (6/65) in three different farms. All positive samples for Cryptosporidium were from adult deer. Two Cryptosporidium species were identified, including C. parvum (n = 2) and C. xiaoi (n = 6). The C. parvum isolates were subtyped as IIdA15G1, while the C. xiaoi isolates were subtyped as XXIIIa (n = 2) and XXIIIg (n = 4). The IIdA15G1 subtype of C. parvum was found for the first time in deer. These results provide important insights into the identity and human infectious potential of Cryptosporidium in farmed Alpine musk deer.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Cervos , Fezes , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Genótipo , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(6)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849305

RESUMO

AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder, encompassing diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Here, we utilized 16S rDNA gene sequencing to identify potential microbial drivers of IBS-D. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 30 healthy relatives and 27 patients with IBS-D were recruited. Clinical data and fecal samples were collected from patients and controls. 16S rDNA gene sequencing was performed to obtain fecal bacterial data. Differences in community composition were evaluated utilizing analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare differences in taxa and functional pathways. Finally, the key gut microbiota was identified using the random forest algorithm. Gut microbiota diversity, estimated through the Observe, Chao1, and abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) indices, was significantly lower in the IBS-D patients than in the healthy relatives. ANOSIM analysis further confirmed significant differences in the composition of the gut microbiota between IBS-D patients and healthy relatives, with an R value of 0.106 and a P-value of 0.005. Notably, the IBS-D patients exhibited a significant enrichment of specific bacterial genera, including Fusicatenibacter, Streptococcus, and Klebsiella, which may possess potential pathogenic properties. In particular, the bacterial genus Klebsiella demonstrated a positive correlation with irritable bowel syndrome severity scoring system scores. Conversely, healthy subjects showed enrichment of bacterial genera such as Alistipes, Akkermansia, and Dialister, which may be beneficial bacteria in IBS-D. Utilizing the random forest model, we developed a discriminative model for IBS-D based on differential bacterial genera. This model exhibited impressive performance, with an area under the curve value of 0.90. Additionally, our analysis did not reveal any gender-specific differences in the microbiota community composition among IBS-D patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer preliminary insights into the potential relationship between intestinal microbiota and IBS-D. The identification model for IBS-D, grounded in gut microbiota, holds promising prospects for improving early diagnosis of IBS-D.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Diarreia , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Humanos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Adulto , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Trop Biomed ; 41(1): 1-13, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852128

RESUMO

Understanding the normal physiology of the body is the key to study the changes that occur due to any infection. It is known that enteric infections play a considerable role in affecting normal body status. Thus, this study was designed for investigating the enteric infections in Arabian camels in Al-Muthanna Province. In this investigation, 588 fecal and blood serum samples (for diarrheic camels only) were collected from the camels in different areas of Al-Muthanna Province, Iraq from both sexes of different ages during the period from October 2020 up to the end of August 2021. The samples were examined using routine microscopic examination techniques, hematological techniques, and ELISA for parasitic and viral identification. Eimeria rajasthani, Isospora orlovi were recorded for the first time in Iraqi camels with clinical signs of diarrhea, dehydration, and emaciation. The study recorded four types of protozoa: Eimeria spp., Isospora, Cryptosporidium and Balantidium coli. The recorded types of Eimeria were E. dromedarii, E. cameli, and E. rajasthani. There was a significant effect of age on infection rates with Eimeria spp. as the highest Eimeria ratio was in ages of less than two years animals. The infection rates were also affected with months which reached the highest ratios of Eimeria in October while the lowest ratio of Eimeria was recorded in July. BVDV infection rate was found in camels that suffered from diarrhea. There is no significant effect of sex on the onset of the viral disease in camels. For hematological parameters, there were significant differences in RBCs, WBCs, Hb, and PCV values in protozoal and BVDV infections. In conclusion, different kinds of protozoal and viral infections were recorded. Some of the recorded infections were associated with acute clinical signs and have zoonotic importance.


Assuntos
Camelus , Coccidiose , Diarreia , Eimeria , Fezes , Animais , Camelus/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Balantidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Isosporíase/epidemiologia , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12903, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839848

RESUMO

Free Fecal Liquid (FFL), also termed Fecal Water Syndrome (FWS), is an ailment in horses characterized by variable solid and liquid (water) phases at defecation. The liquid phase can be excreted before, during, or after the solid defecation phase. While the underlying causes of FFL are unknown, hindgut dysbiosis is suggested to be associated with FFL. Three European studies investigated dysbiosis in horses with FFL using 16S rRNA sequencing and reported results that conflicted between each other. In the present study, we also used 16S rRNA sequencing to study the fecal microbial composition in 14 Canadian horses with FFL, and 11 healthy stable mate controls. We found no significant difference in fecal microbial composition between FFL and healthy horses, which further supports that dysbiosis is not associated with FFL.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Fezes , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Cavalos , Animais , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Masculino , Canadá , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética
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