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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725289

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on neurobehavior and gut microbiota of arsenic-exposed offspring rats. Methods: In April 2021, Thirty-six SPF SD rats aged 8 weeks were seleted, rats were ranked by weight and divided into four groups according to randomized block design, namely control group, arsenic exposure group (As group) , arsenic+normal saline group (As+NaCl group) and As+FMT group, 6 females and 3 males in each group. Fecal microbiota fluid were provided by feces of rats in control group. Rats drank tap water containing 75 mg/L sodium arsenite for one week and then were caged together. The arsenic exposure was terminated until the pups were born. Female rats with vaginal plug were treated with fecal microbiota fluid via gavage during neurodevelopmental teratogenic window period. The volume of gavage was 1 ml/100 g with once every two days, for a total of three times. Weight alterations of offspring rats were recorded every week after weaning, and when offspring rats grew up for 6 weeks, Morris test and open field experiment was used to observe learning and memory abilities, as well as neurobehavioral performance of autonomous exploration and tension, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing technology was used to detect microbiota diversities in fecal samples of rats in As group and As+FMT group. Results: Compared with the control group, the ratio of swimming distance and staying time in the target quadrant and the times of crossing the platform of rats in As group decreased significantly, and the motor distance, times entering central zone and the number of grid crossing of rats decreased significantly (P<0.05) . Compared with As group, the ratio of swimming distance in target quadrant, the motor distance in central zone and times entering central zone of rats in As+FMT group were evidently increased (P<0.05) . The analysis of fecal microbiota diversities showed that, at the phyla level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in feces of rats in As+FMT group was higher than that in As group (68.34% vs 60.55%) , while the relative abundance of Firmicutes was lower than that in As group (28.02% vs 33.48%) . At the genus level, the relative abundance of Prevotella in As+FMT group was significantly higher than that in As group, becoming the dominant genus (42.08% vs 21.78%) . Additionally, compared with As group, a total of 22 genus were increased with 21 decreased genus in As+FMT group (P<0.05) . LEfSe analysis showed that dominant genuses in As+FMT group were Prevotella and UCG_005, and their relative abundance was significantly higher than that of As group (P<0.05) . Conclusion: FMT may alleviate the impaired learning and memory ability and anxiety like behavior of the offspring rats exposed to arsenic, and improve the disrupted gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Feminino , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fezes
2.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(3): 91, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725751

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated AGMB00274T was isolated from swine faeces. An 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that strain AGMB00274T belonged to the genus Parabacteroides, with the highest similarity to Parabacteroides johnsonii (P. johnsonii) DSM 18315T (sequence similarity of 94.9%). The genome size of strain AGMB00274T was 4,308,683 bp, with a DNA G+C content of 42.5 mol%. The biochemical analysis of strain AGMB00274T showed that it was positive for gelatin hydrolysis and α-fucosidase, but negative for the acid production from D-glucose, D-mannitol, D-maltose, salicin, glycerol, D-cellobiose, D-mannose, D-melezitose, D-sorbitol, D-trehalose, and negative for α-arabinosidase, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and pyroglutamic acid arylamidase. The dominant cellular fatty acids (> 10%) of the isolate were anteiso-C15: 0 (23.2%), iso-C15: 0 (16.6%), C18: 1 ω9c (16.4%), summed feature 11 (iso-C17: 0 3-OH and/or C18: 2 DMA) (12.5%), and C16: 0 (11.3%). The major respiratory quinones of strain AGMB00274T were MK-9 (55.4%) and MK-10 (44.6%). The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. Based on phylogenetic, genetic, physiological, and chemotaxonomic analyses, as a novel species of the genus Parabacteroides, strain AGMB00274T was proposed with the name Parabacteroides faecalis sp. nov. The type strain used was AGMB00274T (= KCTC 25286T = GDMCC 1.2742T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Fosfolipídeos , Animais , Suínos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , Vitamina K 2/química
3.
J Vet Sci ; 24(1): e8, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36726275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasites in livestock cause huge economic setbacks. Moreover, these parasites can threaten human health when also present in companion animals. OBJECTIVES: The study examined the prevalence and burden of intestinal parasites among roaming/migrating animals (goats, sheep, cattle, and dogs) to provide insights into the risk of potential human parasitic infections. METHODS: A total of 1,741 fecal samples from goats (n = 920), sheep (n = 335), cattle (n = 230) and dogs (n = 256) were obtained randomly across 18 local government areas in Edo State, Nigeria. The parasite samples were recovered and identified under a microscope. Molecular tools were used to identify Toxocara spp. RESULTS: Eighteen different parasites were isolated. Among the different groups of parasites observed, nematodes occurred the most, followed by protozoans. Among nematodes, Haemonchus was most prevalent in goats (28.04%) and sheep (29.85%), while Strongyloides (10.86%) and Bunostomum (8.69%) were relatively high in cattle. Strongyloides (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), and Toxocara (3.12%) were the predominant parasites in dogs. For protozoan parasites, Eimeria was most common in all 4 animal hosts. Several goats (2.39%) and sheep (2.38%) tested positive for Fasciola spp. Molecular analysis confirmed Toxocara canis in dogs for the first time in Nigeria. CONCLUSIONS: The major parasites recovered from these roaming/migrating animals have zoonotic potentials that can threaten human health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Cão , Doenças das Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Cães , Prevalência , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Cabras , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
4.
PeerJ ; 11: e14511, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620745

RESUMO

Background: Integrative studies of animals and associated microbial assemblages (i.e., the holobiont) are rapidly changing our perspectives on organismal ecology and evolution. Insular vertebrates provide ideal natural systems to understand patterns of host-gut microbiota coevolution, the resilience and plasticity these microbial communities over temporal and spatial scales, and ultimately their role in the host ecological adaptation. Methods: Here we used the endemic Balearic wall lizard Podarcis lilfordi to dissect the drivers of the microbial diversity within and across host allopatric populations/islets. By focusing on three extensively studied populations/islets of Mallorca (Spain) and fecal sampling from individually identified lizards along two years (both in spring and autumn), we sorted out the effect of islet, sex, life stage, year and season on the microbiota composition. We further related microbiota diversity to host genetics, trophic ecology and expected annual metabolic changes. Results: All the three populations showed a remarkable conservation of the major microbial taxonomic profile, while carrying their unique microbial signature at finer level of taxonomic resolution (Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs)). Microbiota distances across populations were compatible with both host genetics (based on microsatellites) and trophic niche distances (based on stable isotopes and fecal content). Within populations, a large proportion of ASVs (30-50%) were recurrently found along the four sampling dates. The microbial diversity was strongly marked by seasonality, with no sex effect and a marginal life stage and annual effect. The microbiota showed seasonal fluctuations along the two sampled years, primarily due to changes in the relative abundances of fermentative bacteria (mostly families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae), without any major compositional turnover. Conclusions: These results support a large resilience of the major compositional aspects of the P. lilfordi gut microbiota over the short-term evolutionary divergence of their host allopatric populations (<10,000 years), but also indicate an undergoing process of parallel diversification of the both host and associated gut microbes. Predictable seasonal dynamics in microbiota diversity suggests a role of microbiota plasticity in the lizards' metabolic adaptation to their resource-constrained insular environments. Overall, our study supports the need for longitudinal and integrative studies of host and associated microbes in natural systems.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lagartos , Microbiota , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estações do Ano , Fezes , Lagartos/microbiologia
5.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 3, 2023 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a severe public health problem associated with a disordered gut microbiome. However, the functional alterations of microbiota and their cross talk with metabolism pathways based on disease severity remain unclear. RESULTS: We performed metagenomics and untargeted metabolomics in a cohort of 68 patients with CKD of differing severities and 20 healthy controls to characterize the complex interplay between the gut microbiome and fecal and serum metabolites during CKD progression. We identified 26 microbial species that significantly changed in patients with CKD; 18 species changed as the disease progressed, and eight species changed only in a specific CKD group. These distinct changes in gut microbiota were accompanied by functional alterations in arginine and proline, arachidonic acid, and glutathione metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis pathways during CKD progression. Further metabolomic analyses revealed that the distributions of toxic and pro-oxidant metabolites from these four essential metabolic pathways varied in the feces and serum as CKD progressed. Furthermore, we observed a complex co-occurrence between CKD severity-related bacteria and the characterized metabolites from the four essential metabolic pathways. Notably, Ruminococcus bromii, fecal hydroquinone, and serum creatinine were identified as the main contributors to the integrated network, indicating their key roles in CKD progression. Moreover, a noninvasive model including R. bromii and fecal hydroquinone, L-cystine, and 12-keto-tetrahydro-LTB4 levels classified the CKD severity (area under the curve [AUC]: > 0.9) and had better performance than the serum creatinine level for mild CKD (AUC: 0.972 vs. 0.896). CONCLUSIONS: Perturbed CKD severity-related gut microbiota may contribute to unbalanced toxic and pro-oxidant metabolism in the gut and host, accelerating CKD progression, which may be an early diagnostic and therapeutic target for CKD. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Hidroquinonas , Creatinina , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Metaboloma , Fezes/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia
6.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 5, 2023 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that is thought to involve alterations in the gut microbiome, but robust microbial signatures have been challenging to identify. As prior studies have primarily focused on composition, we hypothesized that multi-omics assessment of microbial function incorporating both metatranscriptomics and metabolomics would further delineate microbial profiles of IBS and its subtypes. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of 495 subjects, including 318 IBS patients and 177 healthy controls, for analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (n = 486), metatranscriptomics (n = 327), and untargeted metabolomics (n = 368). Differentially abundant microbes, predicted genes, transcripts, and metabolites in IBS were identified by multivariate models incorporating age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, diet, and HAD-Anxiety. Inter-omic functional relationships were assessed by transcript/gene ratios and microbial metabolic modeling. Differential features were used to construct random forests classifiers. RESULTS: IBS was associated with global alterations in microbiome composition by 16S rRNA sequencing and metatranscriptomics, and in microbiome function by predicted metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, diet, and anxiety, IBS was associated with differential abundance of bacterial taxa such as Bacteroides dorei; metabolites including increased tyramine and decreased gentisate and hydrocinnamate; and transcripts related to fructooligosaccharide and polyol utilization. IBS further showed transcriptional upregulation of enzymes involved in fructose and glucan metabolism as well as the succinate pathway of carbohydrate fermentation. A multi-omics classifier for IBS had significantly higher accuracy (AUC 0.82) than classifiers using individual datasets. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) demonstrated shifts in the metatranscriptome and metabolome including increased bile acids, polyamines, succinate pathway intermediates (malate, fumarate), and transcripts involved in fructose, mannose, and polyol metabolism compared to constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C). A classifier incorporating metabolites and gene-normalized transcripts differentiated IBS-D from IBS-C with high accuracy (AUC 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: IBS is characterized by a multi-omics microbial signature indicating increased capacity to utilize fermentable carbohydrates-consistent with the clinical benefit of diets restricting this energy source-that also includes multiple previously unrecognized metabolites and metabolic pathways. These findings support the need for integrative assessment of microbial function to investigate the microbiome in IBS and identify novel microbiome-related therapeutic targets. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fezes , Hábitos
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 16, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common bacterial infections and is widespread globally. It causes a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, though a great proportion of infections are asymptomatic. A total of 143 fresh stool samples were collected from apparently healthy farm and pet animals (43 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 50 sheep, 50 dogs, and 50 cats), in addition to 768 human stool samples. The samples were examined using stool antigen and rapid antibody tests, and further confirmation of glmM "human antigen-positive samples and animal milk samples" was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The prevalence rates of H. pylori infection in animals were 22.2% and 16% in antibody and stool antigen tests, respectively. The detection rates were 28%, 24%, 12%, 10%, and 4.7% in cats, dogs, buffaloes, sheep, and cattle, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in human stool samples was 74.8%, and a statistically significant association was observed between prevalence and several factors, such as sex, age, and locality. PCR was performed to detect the glmM gene of H. pylori, and this gene was found in 21 of 27 human antigen-positive samples and 5 of 13 animal milk samples. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori was detected in both human and animal samples. Furthermore, glmM was found in milk and human samples. Our findings suggest that pet and farm animals could transmit H. pylori infection to humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Doenças dos Ovinos , Humanos , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Cães , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Búfalos/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20222204, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651047

RESUMO

Helminth transmission and morbidity are dependent on the number of mature parasites within a host; however, observing adult worms is impossible for many natural infections. An outstanding challenge is therefore relating routine diagnostics, such as faecal egg counts, to the underlying worm burden. This relationship is complicated by density-dependent fecundity (egg output per worm reduces due to crowding at high burdens) and the skewed distribution of parasites (majority of helminths aggregated in a small fraction of hosts). We address these questions for the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, which infects approximately 10 million people across Southeast Asia, by analysing five epidemiological surveys (n = 641) where adult flukes were recovered. Using a mechanistic model, we show that parasite fecundity varies between populations, with surveys from Thailand and Laos demonstrating distinct patterns of egg output and density-dependence. As the probability of observing faecal eggs increases with the number of mature parasites within a host, we quantify diagnostic sensitivity as a function of the worm burden and find that greater than 50% of cases are misdiagnosed as false negative in communities close to elimination. Finally, we demonstrate that the relationship between observed prevalence from routine diagnostics and true prevalence is nonlinear and strongly influenced by parasite aggregation.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Fertilidade , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Fezes/parasitologia
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 314: 109867, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621042

RESUMO

The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the primary diagnostic tool used for detecting anthelmintic resistance at the farm level. It is therefore extremely important that the experimental design of a FECRT and the susceptibility classification of the result use standardised and statistically rigorous methods. Several different approaches for improving the analysis of FECRT data have been proposed, but little work has been published on how to address the issue of prospective sample size calculations. Here, we provide a complete and detailed overview of the quantitative issues relevant to a FECRT starting from basic statistical principles. We then present a new approach for determining sample size requirements for the FECRT that is built on a solid statistical framework, and provide a rigorous anthelminthic drug efficacy classification system for use with FECRT in livestock. Our approach uses two separate statistical tests, a one-sided inferiority test for resistance and a one-sided non-inferiority test for susceptibility, and determines a classification of resistant, susceptible or inconclusive based on the combined result. Since this approach is based on two independent one-sided tests, we recommend that a 90 % CI be used in place of the historically used 95 % CI. This maintains the desired Type I error rate of 5 %, and simultaneously reduces the required sample size. We demonstrate the use of this framework to provide sample size calculations that are rooted in the well-understood concept of statistical power. Tailoring to specific host/parasite systems is possible using typical values for expected pre-treatment and post-treatment variability in egg counts as well as within-animal correlation in egg counts. We provide estimates for these parameters for ruminants, horses and swine based on a re-examination of datasets that were available to us from a combination of published data and other sources. An illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the use of the framework, and parameter estimates are presented to estimate the required sample size for a hypothetical FECRT using ivermectin in cattle. The sample size calculation method and classification framework presented here underpin the sample size recommendations provided in the upcoming FECRT WAAVP guidelines for detection of anthelmintic resistance in ruminants, horses, and swine, and have also been made freely available as open-source software via our website (https://www.fecrt.com).


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Óvulo , Animais , Bovinos , Cavalos , Suínos , Tamanho da Amostra , Estudos Prospectivos , Fezes/parasitologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Ruminantes , Resistência a Medicamentos
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 213, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604516

RESUMO

Sleep restriction alters gut microbiota composition and intestinal barrier function in rodents, but whether similar effects occur in humans is unclear. This study aimed to determine the effects of severe, short-term sleep restriction on gut microbiota composition and intestinal permeability in healthy adults. Fecal microbiota composition, measured by 16S rRNA sequencing, and intestinal permeability were measured in 19 healthy men (mean ± SD; BMI 24.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2, 20 ± 2 years) undergoing three consecutive nights of adequate sleep (AS; 7-9 h sleep/night) and restricted sleep (SR; 2 h sleep/night) in random order with controlled diet and physical activity. α-diversity measured by amplicon sequencing variant (ASV) richness was 21% lower during SR compared to AS (P = 0.03), but α-diversity measured by Shannon and Simpson indexes did not differ between conditions. Relative abundance of a single ASV within the family Ruminococcaceae was the only differentially abundant taxon (q = 0.20). No between-condition differences in intestinal permeability or ß-diversity were observed. Findings indicated that severe, short-term sleep restriction reduced richness of the gut microbiota but otherwise minimally impacted community composition and did not affect intestinal permeability in healthy young men.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Intestinos , Sono , Fezes , Permeabilidade
11.
Genome Med ; 15(1): 1, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the brain and spinal cord resulting in physical and cognitive impairment in young adults. It is hypothesized that a disrupted bacterial and viral gut microbiota is a part of the pathogenesis mediating disease impact through an altered gut microbiota-brain axis. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis and to associate it with disease variables, as the etiology of the disease remains only partially known. METHODS: Here, in a case-control setting involving 148 Danish cases with multiple sclerosis and 148 matched healthy control subjects, we performed shotgun sequencing of fecal microbial DNA and associated bacterial and viral microbiota findings with plasma cytokines, blood cell gene expression profiles, and disease activity. RESULTS: We found 61 bacterial species that were differentially abundant when comparing all multiple sclerosis cases with healthy controls, among which 31 species were enriched in cases. A cluster of inflammation markers composed of blood leukocytes, CRP, and blood cell gene expression of IL17A and IL6 was positively associated with a cluster of multiple sclerosis-related species. Bacterial species that were more abundant in cases with disease-active treatment-naïve multiple sclerosis were positively linked to a group of plasma cytokines including IL-22, IL-17A, IFN-ß, IL-33, and TNF-α. The bacterial species richness of treatment-naïve multiple sclerosis cases was associated with number of relapses over a follow-up period of 2 years. However, in non-disease-active cases, we identified two bacterial species, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, whose absolute abundance was enriched. These bacteria are known to produce anti-inflammatory metabolites including butyrate and urolithin. In addition, cases with multiple sclerosis had a higher viral species diversity and a higher abundance of Caudovirales bacteriophages. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable aberrations are present in the gut microbiota of patients with multiple sclerosis that are directly associated with blood biomarkers of inflammation, and in treatment-naïve cases bacterial richness is positively associated with disease activity. Yet, the finding of two symbiotic bacterial species in non-disease-active cases that produce favorable immune-modulating compounds provides a rationale for testing these bacteria as adjunct therapeutics in future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Inflamação , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias , Citocinas
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(1): e0010984, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant success of deworming programs in reducing morbidity due to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections globally, efforts to achieve elimination of STH as a public health problem or to potentially interrupt transmission will require improving and intensifying surveillance. However, non-participation in surveillance threatens the ability of programs to adequately monitor program status and limited research has been conducted to investigate drivers of non-participation in stool-based surveillance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This mixed-methods exploratory sequential study took place in Comé, Benin in association with the DeWorm3 Project. Six focus group discussions were conducted with individuals invited to participate in annual DeWorm3 stool surveillance. Thematic analysis was used to identify facilitators and barriers to participation and inform the quantitative analysis. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was built using baseline DeWorm3 survey data to identify factors associated with non-participation. Qualitative and quantitative findings were merged for interpretation. Among the 7,039 individuals invited to participate in baseline stool surveillance, the refusal rate was 8.1%. Qualitative themes included: community members weighing community-level benefits against individual-level risks, circulating rumors about misuse of stool samples, interpersonal communication with field agents, and cultural norms around handling adult feces. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that adults were significantly less likely to provide a stool sample than school-aged children (OR:0.69, 95%CI: 0.55-0.88), a finding that converged with the qualitative results. Individuals from areas in the highest quartile of population density were more likely to refuse to participate (OR:1.71, 95%CI:1.16-2.52). Several variables linked to community-affinity aligned with qualitative results; residing mainly in the community (OR:0.36, 95%CI:0.20-0.66) and having lived in the community for more than 10 years (OR:0.82, 95%CI:0.54-1.25) decreased likelihood of refusal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Optimizing STH surveillance will require that programs reimagine STH surveillance activities to address community concerns and ensure that no subpopulations are inadvertently excluded from surveillance data.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Solo , Benin/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Fezes
13.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278675, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV may increase SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and COVID-19 severity generally, but data are limited about its impact on postpartum women and their infants. As such, we characterized SARS-CoV-2 infection among mother-infant pairs in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a nested study of 62 HIV-uninfected and 64 healthy women living with HIV, as well as their HIV-exposed uninfected (N = 61) and HIV-unexposed (N = 64) infants, participating in a prospective cohort. SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed on plasma collected between May 1, 2020-February 1, 2022 to determine the incidence, risk factors, and symptoms of infection. SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR and sequencing was also performed on available stool samples from seropositive participants. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was found in 66% of the 126 mothers and in 44% of the 125 infants. There was no significant association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and maternal HIV (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 0.810, 95% CI: 0.517-1.27) or infant HIV exposure (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.859-2.53). Maternal SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a two-fold increased risk of infant infection (HR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.08-4.94). Few participants (13% mothers, 33% infants) had symptoms; no participant experienced severe COVID-19 or death. Seroreversion occurred in about half of mothers and infants. SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained from stool were related to contemporaneously circulating variants. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that postpartum Kenyan women and their infants were at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and that antibody responses waned over an average of 8-10 months. However, most cases were asymptomatic and healthy women living with HIV did not have a substantially increased risk of infection or severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Quênia/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fezes/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
14.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677649

RESUMO

Even though some methods for the detection of colorectal cancer have been used clinically, most of the techniques used do not consider the in situ detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) biomarkers, which would favor in vivo real-time monitoring of the carcinogenesis process and consequent studies of the disease. In order to give a scientific and computational framework ideal for the evaluation of diagnosis techniques based on the early detection of biomarker molecules modeled as spherical particles from the computational point of view, a computational representation of the rectum, stool and biomarker particles was developed. As consequence of the transport of stool, there was a displacement of CRC biomarker particles that entered the system as a result of the cellular apoptosis processes in polyps with a length lower than 1 cm, reaching a maximum velocity of 3.47×10-3 m/s. The biomarkers studied showed trajectories distant to regions of the polyp of origin in 1 min of simulation. The research results show that the biomarker particles for CRC respond to the variations in the movements of the stool with trajectories and speeds that depend on the location of the injury, which will allow locating the regions with the highest possibilities of catching particles through in situ measurement instruments in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Reto , Fezes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer
15.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678236

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are important metabolites of the gut microbiota. The aim is to analyze the influence of perinatal factors, which can affect the gut microbiota, on the concentrations of fecal SCFAs over the first two years of life. Gas chromatography was used to analyze SCFA in a total of 456 fecal samples from 86 children. Total SCFA concentrations increased until 12 months and stabilized after that. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy was associated with an increase in acetic acid, propionic acid and total SCFA in meconium and a decrease in the same SCFAs at 6 months. Butyric acid was increased after Caesarean delivery until 1 month. In formula-fed children, propionic acid (at 1 month) and butyric acid and total SCFA (at 12 months) were increased. Acetic and linear butyric acids and total SCFAs were also increased at 12 months in children born vaginally that were also formula-fed. Higher butyric acid was observed in children of mothers with normal pre-pregnancy weight and adequate weight gain during pregnancy. Butyric acid was also elevated in 6-month-old infants with a higher body weight (≥85th percentile). Acetic acid concentrations were significantly higher in 2-year-old females vs. males. We conclude that perinatal factors are linked to changes in fecal SCFAs and further long-term epidemiological studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Propionatos , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Propionatos/análise , Ácido Butírico/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química
16.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680277

RESUMO

The One Health framework recognizes that human, animal, and environmental health are linked and highly interdependent. Fecal contamination of water, soil, foodstuff, and air may impact many aspects of One Health, and culture, PCR-based, and sequencing methods are utilized in the detection of fecal contamination to determine source, load, and risk to inform targeted mitigation strategies. Viruses, particularly, have been considered as fecal contamination indicators given the narrow host range many exhibit and their association with other biological contaminants. Culture- and molecular-based methods are considered the gold-standards for virus detection and for determining specific sources of fecal contamination via viral indicators. However, viral metagenomics is also being considered as a tool for tracking sources of fecal contamination. In the present review, studies tracking potential sources of fecal contamination in freshwaters, marine waters, foodstuff, soil, and air using viral metagenomics are discussed to highlight the potential of viral metagenomics for optimizing fecal source tracking. Limitations of the use of viral metagenomics to track fecal contamination sources, including sample processing, nucleic acid recovery, sequencing depth, and bioinformatics are also discussed. Finally, the present review discusses the potential of viral metagenomics as part of the toolbox of methods in a One Health approach.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Poluição da Água , Animais , Humanos , Poluição da Água/análise , Metagenômica , Água Doce , Solo , Fezes
17.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 48, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681671

RESUMO

There is evidence linking hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) to gut microbiota dysbiosis, and this relationship was corroborated in a large HFMD patient population in our previous study. Here, we present a bacterial 16S rRNA gene dataset from faecal samples of 713 individuals (254 HFMD patients, 459 healthy controls) aged 2 to 7 years residing in Heyuan and Jiangmen counties, Guangdong Province, southern China. Microbiome analysis indicated a significant increase in genus Prevotella, Cetobacterium, and Megamonas was observed in patients with HFMD, whereas a large increase in genus Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Faecalibacterium were seen in the control group. We also share the bioinformatic analytical pipeline for this analysis, from data preprocessing to data filtering and amplicon sequence variant (ASV) table generation. We expect that the dataset will be reprocessed, evaluated and fully analysed with various analysis methods to further elucidate the role of the gut microbiota in HFMD development.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes de RNAr , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/genética , Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(3): 1531-1546, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622938

RESUMO

Levan is a microbial fructan widely explored in various fields owing to its excellent physical and biochemical properties. However, little is known about its digestion and fermentation characteristics in vitro. This study evaluated the potential prebiotic properties of levan obtained by enzymatic synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the primary structures of levan remained stable after saliva-gastrointestinal digestion. The microtopography, molecular weight, and functional group of levan were seriously damaged during fecal fermentation. Moreover, the total short-chain fatty acid levels increased significantly, especially for propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeric acid. The 16S rDNA sequencing showed that levan mainly increased the abundance of Firmicutes; in genus levels, certain beneficial bacteria such as Megasphaera and Megamonas genera were remarkably promoted, and the proliferation of harmful genera was inhibited (such as Cedecea and Klebsiella). Overall, this study provided new insights into the potential probiotic mechanism of levan.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fermentação , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Frutanos , Ácido Butírico
19.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 29, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces all-cause and CRC-related mortality. New research demonstrates that the faecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb) may indicate the presence of other serious diseases not related to CRC. We investigated the association between f-Hb, measured by a faecal immunochemical test (FIT), and both all-cause mortality and cause of death in a population-wide cohort of screening participants. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2018, 1,262,165 participants submitted a FIT for the Danish CRC screening programme. We followed these participants, using the Danish CRC Screening Database and several other national registers on health and population, until December 31, 2018. We stratified participants by f-Hb and compared them using a Cox proportional hazards regression on all-cause mortality and cause of death reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). We adjusted for several covariates, including comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, demography and prescription medication. RESULTS: We observed 21,847 deaths in the study period. Our multivariate analyses indicated an association relationship between increasing f-Hb and the risk of dying in the study period. This risk increased steadily from aHR 1.38 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.44) in those with a f-Hb of 7.1-11.9 µg Hb/g faeces to 2.20 (95% CI: 2.10, 2.30) in those with a f-Hb ≥60.0 µg Hb/g faeces, when compared to those with a f-Hb ≤7.0 µg Hb/g faeces. The pattern remained when excluding CRC from the analysis. Similar patterns were observed between incrementally increasing f-Hb and the risk of dying from respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancers other than CRC. Furthermore, we observed an increased risk of dying from CRC with increasing f-Hb. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that f-Hb may indicate an elevated risk of having chronic conditions if causes for the bleeding have not been identified. The mechanisms still need to be established, but f-Hb may be a potential biomarker for several non-CRC diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Causas de Morte , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Fezes/química , Hemoglobinas/análise , Sangue Oculto , Colonoscopia , Programas de Rastreamento
20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(2): 94-98, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NVs) are recognized as the leading cause of sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide, in all age groups. Although there is increasing knowledge that NVs are responsible for many acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in Argentina, studies to estimate prevalence in sporadic cases are scarce. METHODS: A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted with children under 5 years with acute gastroenteritis attending the outpatient department at the "Ricardo Gutiérrez" Children's Hospital (RGCH) in Buenos Aires City between June 2017 and June 2021. Sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiologic data were recorded. Stool samples were tested and genotyped for norovirus. Association between norovirus detection and demographic and clinical variables was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 350 children with acute diarrhea were included, of which stool samples were collected for 332 (94.9%). Norovirus was detected in 81 cases (24.4%). Vomiting and moderate/severe diarrhea were more frequent in norovirus-positive than norovirus-negative children. However, the presence of watery diarrhea and a history of rotavirus vaccination were significantly associated with norovirus etiology. GII and GII.4 were the most frequently detected genogroup and genotype, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: NVs were detected with high frequency, mostly in children between 6 months and 2 years old, reinforcing the hypothesis of a newly updated scenario of norovirus predominance over rotavirus. Watery diarrhea, complete vaccination against rotavirus and vomiting are 3 key parameters that should raise suspicion of possible norovirus gastroenteritis. Continuous and active norovirus surveillance in this age group is important because children represent a priority group for norovirus vaccine design and development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Norovirus/genética , Argentina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Prevalência , Hospitais Pediátricos , Filogenia
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