Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 90.717
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142266, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182211

RESUMO

Urbanization and population growth have created considerable sanitation challenges in cities and communities in many parts of Europe and the world. As such, it is imperative to identify the most environmentally-harmful microbiological and chemical sources of pollution, these being wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which release wastewater of low quality. In the present manuscript, an extensive study was performed of the sanitary conditions of river water and treated wastewater from seventeen WWTPs of various sizes along the Pilica River catchment in central Poland, with the aim of identifying "hot spots" in terms of most serious sources of sanitary hazards. The bacteriological risk for the river, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as coliforms, E.coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (CRA) were assessed using classical microbiological methods, and the physicochemical parameters were also tested. The WWTPs, particularly the small ones (<2000 people equivalent, PE) demonstrated significant variation regarding the physicochemical parameters. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. bacteria growing at 42 °C were found in the effluent wastewaters of all tested municipal WWTPs, and in most of the Pilica River water samples, presenting a potential hazard to public health. A positive correlation was identified between E. coli and CRA abundance in treated wastewater; however, no such relationship was found in river water. It was found that seven small treatment plants discharged wastewater with very different microbiological parameters. Moreover, three small treatment plants serving only 0.56% of the population in the studied area continuously released extremely high microbiological contamination, constituting as much as 54-82% of fecal indicator bacteria loads in the area studied. Our findings show that this type of comprehensive analysis may enable assessment of the use of the entire catchment area, thus identifying the most serious threats to surface water quality and guiding the actions needed to improve the worst operating WWTPs.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter , Águas Residuárias , Carbapenêmicos , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Europa (Continente) , Fezes/química , Humanos , Polônia , Rios , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água , Microbiologia da Água
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141475, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890804

RESUMO

Enteric pathogens can be present in drinking water catchments due to several point and non-point sources of faecal contamination. Pathogen and contaminant signatures will decay due to environmental stresses, such as temperature, Ultra Violet (UV) radiation, salinity, and predation. In this study, we determined the decay of the culturable faecal indicator bacterium (FIB) Escherichia coli (E. coli), two sewage-associated marker genes (Bacteroides HF183 and crAssphage CPQ_056), and enteric pathogens (Campylobacter spp., human adenovirus 40/41, and Cryptosporidium parvum) in two freshwater laboratory microcosms using culture-based, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and vital dye (determine the fraction of viable Cryptosporidium oocysts) assays. Freshwater samples from the Lake Wappa and Lake Wivenhoe (Australia) were seeded with untreated sewage and C. parvum oocysts, and their declining concentrations were measured over a 28-day period. Moreover, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was also undertaken to determine the change/shift in sewage-associated bacterial communities using SourceTracker. Overall, culturable E. coli and the HF183 marker gene decayed significantly (p < 0.05) faster than did the qPCR measured enteric pathogens suggesting that the absence of culturable FIB or qPCR HF183 in water samples may not indicate the absence of pathogens. The decay of crAssphage was similar to that of HAdV 40/41 and other pathogens tested, suggesting crAssphage may be a better surrogate for enteric viruses in sub-tropical catchment waters. The decay rates were greater at 25 °C compared to 15 °C, suggesting that FIB and pathogens persist longer in the winter season compared to summer. Overall decay rates of the tested microorganisms in this microcosm study suggest that sub-tropical conditions, especially temperature, have a negative impact on the persistence of tested microorganisms. Sewage-associated bacterial communities also showed similar patterns. Based on the results, which showed differences in simulated summer and winter temperatures for pathogen decay, corresponding management options and treatment need to be adjusted accordingly to minimize human health risks effectively.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Austrália , Bactérias/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Esgotos , Microbiologia da Água
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141871, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891997

RESUMO

Arsenic is a global pollutant that can accumulate in rice and has been confirmed to disturb the gut microbiome. By contrast, the influence on the gut mycobiome is seldom concerned because fungi comprise a numerically small proportion of the whole gut microcommunity. To expand the detection of the mycobiome in different gut sections of mammals and investigate the influence of food arsenic on the gut mycobiome in the digestive tract, we treated mice with feeds containing different compositions of arsenic species (7.3% sodium arsenate, 72.7% sodium arsenite, 1.0% sodium monomethylarsonate, and 19.0% sodium dimethylarsinate) in rice at a total arsenic dose of 30 mg/kg. After 60 days of exposure, the feces of four different sites, the ileum, cecum, colon, and excreted feces, were collected and analyzed by internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing. Among the samples, the major fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota; the top 10 fungal genera were Aspergillus, Verticillium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Ophiocordyceps, Trametes, Mucor, and Nigrospora. In control mice, along the murine digestive tract, the mycobial richness and composition were significantly changed; Aspergillus and Penicillium possessed the higher ability to be stabilized in the murine gut, and larger proportions of positive correlations were observed among the major fungi. After arsenic exposure, the fungal composition was more disturbed in the intestinal tract than in feces. Along the digestive tract, arsenic can trigger larger mycobial variations, and the sensitivities of major fungi to arsenic were changed. Thus, the murine intestinal spatial mycobiota are more perturbed than excreted fecal mycobiota after food arsenic exposure. Feces are insufficient to be selected as a representative of the gut mycobiota in arsenic exposure studies.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Micobioma , Animais , Fezes , Fungos , Intestinos , Camundongos , Trametes
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141881, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896734

RESUMO

The development of novel, non-sewered sanitation systems like the Nano Membrane Toilet requires thorough investigation of processes that may seem well-understood. For example, unlike the settling of primary sludge, the separation of solids from liquids in a small-volume container at the scale of a household toilet has not been studied before. In two sets of experiments, the settling of real faeces and toilet paper in settling columns and the settling of synthetic faeces in a conical tank are investigated to understand the factors affecting the liquid quality for downstream treatment processes. Toilet paper is found to be a major inhibitor to settling of solids. While a lower overflow point results in better phase separation through displacement of liquid, a higher overflow point and frequent removal of solids may be more advantageous for the liquid quality.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Fezes , Esgotos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141796, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898801

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the impact of phenanthrene (Phe) on fish health by addressing the alteration of fecal characteristics, in lieu of collecting biomarkers that often involves injurious or even fatal sampling of organisms. The marine fish red sea bream, Pagrus major, was exposed to Phe at a concentration of 18 µg/L for 16 days followed by depuration for 13 days. We collected feces from Phe-exposed or control (Phe-free) fish and then analyzed the fecal metabolite profile (metabolome), carbon utilization of microbiota (phenome), and bacterial 16s rRNA gene sequence (microbiome). Along with the increase in physiological stress markers (SOD and EROD) in serum and liver, we noted the possible role of intestine as a Phe reservoir. Furthermore, abnormal fecal appearance (green coloration) and remarkable changes in fecal characteristics were observed. These changes include alterations of cholesterol and putrescine metabolism and the enhanced utilization of putrescine as a carbon source. Phe also altered the microbial community, with an increase in Phe-degrading bacteria such as Pseudomonas. Interestingly, these enteric impairments were ameliorated by depuration. Taken together, our findings suggest that these alterations in feces were associated with adaptive responses to environmentally relevant Phe exposure scenarios, and that stool samples are potential candidates for exposure assessment in fish.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Fenantrenos , Dourada , Animais , Fezes , Metaboloma , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141751, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911161

RESUMO

The human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is now a global pandemic. Social distancing, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment dominate the current fight against COVID-19. In developing countries, the need for clean water provision, sanitation and hygiene has only received limited attention. The current perspective examines the latest evidence on the occurrence, persistence and faecal-oral transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent causing COVID-19. Evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 proliferate in the human gastrointestinal system, and is shed via faeces. SARS-CoV-2 can survive and remain viable for up to 6 to 9 days on surfaces. Recent wastewater-based epidemiological studies from several countries also detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw wastewaters. Shell disorder analysis shows that SARS-CoV-2 has a rigid outer shell conferring resilience, and a low shell disorder conferring moderate potential for faecal-oral transmission. Taken together, these findings point to potential faecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which may partly explain its rapid transmission. Three potential mechanisms may account for SARS-CoV-2 faecal-oral transmission: (1) untreated contaminated drinking water, (2) raw and poorly cooked marine and aquatic foods from contaminated sources, (3) raw wastewater-based vegetatble production systems (e.g., salads) and aquaculture, and (4) vector-mediated transmission from faecal sources to foods, particularly those from open markets and street vending. SARS-CoV-2 faecal-oral transmission could be particularly high in developing countries due to several risk factors, including; (1) poor drinking water, wastewater and sanitation infrastructure, (2) poor hygiene and food handling practices, (3) unhygienic and rudimentary funeral practices, including home burials close to drinking water sources, and (4) poor social security and health care systems with low capacity to cope with disease outbreaks. Hence, clean drinking water provision, proper sanitation, food safety and hygiene could be critical in the current fight against COVID-19. Future research directions on COVID-19 faecal-oral transmission are highlighted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Fezes , Humanos , Higiene , Saneamento , Água
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142079, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911176

RESUMO

A high incidence of harmful algal bloom in eutrophic surface waters causes many environmental problems. Thermophilic aerobic composting enables effective treatment and disposal of algal sludge that remains after the dewatering of algae slurries, and provides a value-added organic fertiliser. Previous studies have either only dealt with the composting of a single waste component or were conducted at a lab-/pilot-scale; however, this work is a comprehensive assessment of full-scale mechanized thermophilic aerobic co-composting of algal sludge and other typical biomass-based wastes, including chicken faeces and rice straw, in a water-rich rural area in the Tai lake basin, China. With the optimised feedstock material mass ratio (6.0:1.8:1.0 for straw:algae:faeces; initial C/N ratio of 20; and initial moisture of 60 wt%), the co-composting process effectively achieved the reduction, harmlessness, and reuse of waste. The moisture content (28.36 wt% of wet weight), organic matter content (57.91 wt% of dried weight), total nutrient content (6.59 wt% for TN + TP + TK of dried weight), and heavy metal contents as well as the pH of the final product fully met the Chinese National Agricultural Organic Fertiliser Standard requirements. The reduction rates of microcystin and toxic volatile fatty acid contents were higher than 99.5%, and the seed germination index of the product was 114.5%. A notable economic benefit with a gross profit margin of 167-434% of the process was highlighted. Investigation of the associated mechanisms, including statistical analysis, spectral characterisation, micro-morphological observation, and microbial community analysis, revealed that a decreased particle sizes with a looser structure and an efficient humification effect, resulting from the work of several identified dominant microbial species, contributed to the high product quality. The current study provided a demonstration of the promising full-scale co-composting technology for comprehensive management of the environment in water-rich rural areas and the construction of a sustainable watershed.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Cianobactérias , Animais , China , Fezes , Gado , Esgotos , Solo
8.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 498-501, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Elaphurus davidianus released to Poyang Lake areas and evaluate the impact of the project of "E. davidianus released to wild environments for natural reproduction and growth" "(E. davidianus return home project") on the transmission of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake areas. METHODS: During the period from April 2018 to December 2019, the population distribution, inhabiting activity and natural reproduction of E. davidianus released to Poyang Lake areas were investigated by means of GPS and artificial observations. The S. japonicum infection was identified in animal feces in E. davidianus inhabitats using a hatching test, and snail distribution was surveyed in E. davidianus inhabiting grass islands using a systematic sampling method. RESULTS: A total of 51 E. davidianus were released to the Poyang Lake areas in 2018, which subsequently produced 5 E. davidianus habitats in Yinlong Lake, Longkou, Nanchi Lake, Lianzi Lake and Zhu Lake. E. davidianus was found to predominantly inhibit in grass islands, farmlands and forest lands in hilly regions around the Poyang Lake areas. The natural reproduction rate of E. davidianus was 25% in the habitats in 2019, and the mean density of snails was 0.009 to 0.039 snails/0.1 m2 in E. davidianus inhabitats; however, no S. japonicum infection was identified in snails. In addition, the mean densities of wild E. davidianus and bovine feces were 4.6 samples/hm2 and 2.1 samples/hm2, Conclusions The E. davidianus released to Poyang Lake areas may get infections with S. japonicum, and cause schistosomiasis transmission through fecal contamination in grass islands. The impact on and the prevalence of S. japonicum infection was 4.35% and 13.16% (P = 0.236), respectively; however, the intensities of S. japonicum infections were "+++" and "+", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The E. davidianus released to Poyang Lake areas may get infections with S. japonicum, and cause schistosomiasis transmission through fecal contamination in grass islands. The impact on local schistosomiasis transmission and the response strategy requires to be investigated following the release of E. davidianus to lake regions, to ensure the achievement of the goal of schistosomiasis elimination and the successful implementation of the "E. davidianus return home project" in Poyang Lake areas.


Assuntos
Lagos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Esquistossomose Japônica , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Pradaria , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica/transmissão
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 502-505, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current prevalence of human intestinal protozoal infections in Tibet Autonomous Region, so as to provide the scientific basis for the development of the future control strategy. METHODS: The study sites were sampled using a stratified cluster random sampling method in different ecological zones and different geographical locations of Tibet Autonomous Region in 2015. Fecal samples were collected from the permanent residents at ages of 3 years and older for the detection of intestinal protozoa cysts and trophozoites. The region-, gender-, age-, occupation- and education level-specific prevalence of human intestinal protozoal infections was estimated and compared. RESULTS: A total of 70 study sites were sampled from 23 counties (districts) in 3 ecological zones of Tibet Autonomous Region in 2015. Among 17 939 subjects surveyed, there were 1 117 residents infected with intestinal protozoa, with a prevalence of 6.23%. There were 9 species of intestinal protozoa identified, and Entamoeba coli (3.59%), Giardia lamblia (0.74%) and Blastocystis hominis (0.72%) were found to have a high in- fection rate. The prevalence of human intestinal protozoal infections was 7.20%, 6.39% and 4.48% in the southern, eastern and northern Tibetan ecological zones, respectively. Among the 23 counties (districts), the highest human prevalence was seen in Baingoin (13.56%) and Amdo counties (12.77%), and there were significant differences in the prevalence of human intestinal pro- tozoal infections among the three ecological zones (χ2 = 33.909, P < 0.01) and 23 counties (districts) (χ2 = 580.511, P < 0.01). There was no gender-specific prevalence of human intestinal protozoal infections (men, 6.08%; women, 6.35%; χ2 = 0.542, P > 0.05); however, there was age-specific human prevalence (χ2 = 44.377, P < 0.01), and a higher prevalence was seen in residents at ages of 60-69 years (8.51%) and 50-59 years (7.67%). In addition, there were occupation- (χ2 = 37.568, P < 0.01) and education level-specific prevalence rates of human intestinal protozoal infections (χ2 = 14.659, P < 0.01), and a higher prevalence was seen in farmers (7.17%) and herdsmen (5.28%), and in residents with a primary school education (6.62% and illiterate resi- dents (6.33%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of human intestinal protozoal infections remains high in Tibet Autonomous Region. The health education pertaining to intestinal parasitic disease control requires to be intensified among farmers and herds- men in rural areas.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Infecções por Protozoários , Idoso , Blastocystis hominis , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Entamoeba , Fezes , Feminino , Giardia lamblia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tibet/epidemiologia
10.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eRW5909, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206816

RESUMO

The new coronavirus disease pandemic is defining 2020, with almost 17.5 million infected individuals and 700 thousand deaths up to beginning of August. It is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and the transmission is through the respiratory tract. Those infected may be asymptomatic, present typical symptoms (fever, dry cough and dyspnea), gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain) and viral RNA in stools. The objective of this work was to review the literature related to the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, and to check the possibility of fecal-oral transmission. We searched PubMed® database on COVID-19 and gastrointestinal tract and selected articles using the PRISMA method. We eliminated articles based on titles and abstracts, small number of patients and the mechanism of infection, leaving 14 studies. Comorbidities and laboratory alterations (elevation of hepatic aminotransferases and bilirubin) were related to worsening of the disease. The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms ranged from 6.8% to 61.3%, including diarrhea (8.14% to 33.7%), nausea/vomiting (1.53% to 26.4%), anorexia (12.1% to 40.0%) and abdominal pain (0% to 14.5%). The presence of viral RNA in stools was rarely tested, but positive in 0% to 48.1%. The gastrointestinal tract is affected by COVID-19, causing specific symptoms, laboratory alterations and viral presence in the feces. However, the results of prevalence and possibility of fecal-oral transmission were varied, requiring further studies for more assertive conclusions. It is important that healthcare professionals draw attention to this fact, since these changes can help make diagnosis and initiate early treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Fezes/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 803, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths are more prevalent in tropics and sub-tropics including Ethiopia. Despite their high prevalence, direct saline microscopy with its low sensitivity has been used as a diagnostic method in almost all health facilities in Ethiopia. Alternative diagnostic methods which have higher sensitivity are not yet implemented. Therefore, this study aimed to compare and evaluate the performance of diagnostic methods for soil transmitted helminths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among 520 school children was conducted from October to December, 2019 in Amhara National Regional State. The study participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Stool samples were processed via formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz, spontaneous tube sedimentation and agar plate culture techniques. Data was entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were calculated against the combined result. Strength of agreement of the diagnostic methods was determined by Kappa value. RESULTS: The Overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminths was 40.8% using combination of methods. The prevalence 24.4, 22.5, and 32.4%, respectively was recorded by using formol ether concentration, Kato-Katz and spontaneous tube sedimentation. The highest prevalence of hookworm (29.2%) was detected by the agar plate culture. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of formol ether concentration were 57.9 and 78.4%, for Kato-Katz thick smear 55.2 and 76.4%, for spontaneous tube sedimentation were 79.2 and 87.5% to soil transmitted helminths detection, respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of agar plate culture to hookworm detection were 86.4 and 93.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous tube sedimentation shows higher sensitivity in the detection of soil transmitted helminth infections. Agar plate culture method also indicated better performance for hookworm detection than other methods. Therefore, the employment of spontaneous tube sedimentation technique for routine laboratory and agar plate culture for research purposes will significantly aid in accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Infecções por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Infecções por Uncinaria/transmissão , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Formaldeído , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia/métodos , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4982, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020474

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity but also found in non-obese individuals. Gut microbiome profiles of 171 Asians with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 31 non-NAFLD controls are analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing; an independent Western cohort is used for external validation. Subjects are classified into three subgroups according to histological spectra of NAFLD or fibrosis severity. Significant alterations in microbiome diversity are observed according to fibrosis severity in non-obese, but not obese, subjects. Ruminococcaceae and Veillonellaceae are the main microbiota associated with fibrosis severity in non-obese subjects. Furthermore, stool bile acids and propionate are elevated, especially in non-obese subjects with significant fibrosis. Fibrosis-related Ruminococcaceae and Veillonellaceae species undergo metagenome sequencing, and four representative species are administered in three mouse NAFLD models to evaluate their effects on liver damage. This study provides the evidence for the role of the microbiome in the liver fibrosis pathogenesis, especially in non-obese subjects.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Fibrose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Propionatos/análise , Propionatos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017438

RESUMO

About 50% of individuals infected with the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) suffer from intestinal infection as well as respiratory infection. They shed virus in their stool. Municipal sewage systems carry the virus and its genetic remnants. These viral traces can be detected in the sewage entering a wastewater treatment plant (WTP). Such virus signals indicate community infections but not locations of the infection within the community. In this paper, we frame and formulate the problem in a way that leads to algorithmic procedures homing in on locations and/or neighborhoods within the community that are most likely to have infections. Our data source is wastewater sampled and real-time tested from selected manholes. Our algorithms dynamically and adaptively develop a sequence of manholes to sample and test. The algorithms are often finished after 5 to 10 manhole samples, meaning that-in the field-the procedure can be carried out within one day. The goal is to provide timely information that will support faster more productive human testing for viral infection and thus reduce community disease spread. Leveraging the tree graph structure of the sewage system, we develop two algorithms, the first designed for a community that is certified at a given time to have zero infections and the second for a community known to have many infections. For the first, we assume that wastewater at the WTP has just revealed traces of SARS-CoV-2, indicating existence of a "Patient Zero" in the community. This first algorithm identifies the city block in which the infected person resides. For the second, we home in on a most infected neighborhood of the community, where a neighborhood is usually several city blocks. We present extensive computational results, some applied to a small New England city.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fezes/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Características de Residência , Esgotos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Massachusetts , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1104-1110, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115197

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of rotavirus-, norovirus-, adenovirus-and astrovirus-associ ated acute gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old in Beijing from Octorber, 2015 to March, 2017. Methods: In the intestinal clinic of 6 hospitals in 6 districts of Beijing, information and stool samples of the first 30 patients with acute gastroenteritis who are under the age of 5 years are collected monthly.Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus are identified by PCR.Descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the epidemiological characteristics of diarrhea caused by rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus in Beijing. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the Vesikari clinical severity score of of acute gastroenteritis caused by each virus. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to analysis the associated factors of clinical features. Results: Of the 2 052 samples, 709 (34.6%) were non-mixed infections: the positive rate of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus were 20.0%, 7.5%, 4.2% and 2.9%, respectively. A total of 135 cases (6.6%) were mixed infection. The mean and standard deviation of Vesikari clinical severity score was 8.0±3.1 for rotavirus associated acute gastroenteritis, which was significantly higher than norovirus (6.4±2.4, P<0.001), adenovirus (6.2±2.1, P<0.001) and astrovirus (6.1±2.0, P<0.001). The comparison of clinical features showed that compared with astrovirus, the children under 5 years old infected with rotavirus were more likely to have a diarrhea ≥5 days (OR=3.334), have vomiting ≥3 times within one day (OR=8.788), have vomiting≥1 day (OR=3.963), have a Vesikari clinical severity score ≥11 severe cases (OR=13.194). Norovirus infected cases were prone to have vomiting≥3 times in 1 day (OR=5.710).Adenovirus infected cases were prone to have a diarrhea≥5 days (OR=2.616). When using rotavirus as a reference, children under 5 years of age were less likely to develop fever≥38.4 ℃ after infection with norovirus (OR=0.397) or adenovirus (OR=0.280). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the characteristics of acute gastroenteritis caused by different viruses are different. The clinical symptoms caused by rotavirus are more serious. Children under 24 months of age are at high risk of rotavirus infection. Effective preventive measures such as vaccination should be taken as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(10): 1115-1120, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115198

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the detection of group A rotavirus (RVA) in domestic sewage and its molecular epidemiological characteristics, and further explore the feasibility and necessity of RVA environmental surveillance. Methods: From 2016 to 2018, we collected domestic sewage samples monthly in Jinan city, and concentrated them via anion membrane adsorption-elution method. Then RNA extraction and RVA VP7 and VP4 coding region RT-PCR amplification were performed. After purification, TA cloning and sequencing, homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis were conducted on the obtained sequences. Results: RVA G gene was detected in 31 of the 36 sewage samples (86.1% detection rate); RVA P genotype was detected in 33 samples (91.7% detection rate). A total of 536 RVA sequences were obtained, of which 225 G-type sequences belonged to 6 genotypes, and the G9 accounted for 92.4% (208/225); 311 P-type sequences were obtained, which belonged to 4 genotypes. The dominant P[8] accounted for 50.1% (156/311), followed by P[4] with 41.8% (130/311). Phylogenetic analysis shows that there were multiple transmission chains circulating in the dominant genotypes G9 and P[8]. Conclusion: The genotype, homology, and phylogenetic characteristics of sequences obtained from domestic sewage in Jinan area were described, which further confirmeing that RVA environmental surveillance is not feasible but also necessary.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Antígenos Virais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Esgotos
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5030, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024097

RESUMO

Abundant links between the gut microbiota and human health indicate that modification of bacterial function could be a powerful therapeutic strategy. The inaccessibility of the gut and inter-connections between gut bacteria and the host make it difficult to precisely target bacterial functions without disrupting the microbiota and/or host physiology. Herein we describe a multidisciplinary approach to modulate the expression of a specific bacterial gene within the gut by oral administration. We demonstrate that an engineered temperate phage λ expressing a programmable dCas9 represses a targeted E. coli gene in the mammalian gut. To facilitate phage administration while minimizing disruption to host processes, we develop an aqueous-based encapsulation formulation with a microbiota-based release mechanism and show that it facilitates oral delivery of phage in vivo. Finally we combine these technologies and show that bacterial gene expression in the mammalian gut can be precisely modified in situ with a single oral dose.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Administração Oral , Animais , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
17.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(5): 817-821, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123896

RESUMO

In the period of regular epidemic prevention and control of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in our country, work resumption has been fully advanced. But there are still new sporadic local cases and imported cases across the country. In this situation, whether kindergartens reopening will increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread still remains uncertain. We reviewed two pediatric patients with moderate COVID-19, collected the epidemiologic information and monitored the cycle threshold value of rectal specimen and the viral loads, and discussed the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients and the virulence of feces in children with moderate COVID-19, in order to analyze the risk of kindergartens reopening.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fezes/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Instituições Acadêmicas , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
18.
Water Res ; 186: 116140, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096438

RESUMO

Predicting water quality and the human health risks associated with sewage-derived microbes requires understanding the fate and transport of these contaminants. Sewage-derived pathogen risks are typically assessed and monitored by measuring concentrations of fecal indicating bacteria (FIB), like Enterococcus sp. Previous research demonstrated that a high fraction of FIB is particle-associated, which can alter FIB dynamics within secondary water bodies. In this study, we experimentally quantified the effect of particle association on dark, temperature- and light-dependent growth and sinking rates of enterococci. Particle association significantly increased dark growth rates, light-dependent growth rates (i.e. decreased mortality), and sinking rates, relative to free-living enterococci. Simulations using a novel, 1-dimensional model parameterized by these rates indicate greater persistence (T90) for particle-associated enterococci in water bodies across a wide range of diffuse attenuation coefficients of light (Kd) and turbulent diffusivity (D) values. In addition, persistence of both fractions increased in simulated turbid and turbulent waters, compared to clear and/or quiescent conditions. Simulated persistence of both fractions also increased when enterococci discharges occurred later in a diel cycle (towards sunset, as opposed to sunrise), especially for the free-living population, because later discharges under our model conditions allowed both fractions to mix deeper before inactivation via sunlight. Model sensitivity testing revealed that T90 variability was greatest when dark growth rates were altered, suggesting that future empirical studies should focus on quantifying these rates for free-living and particle-associated sewage-derived microbes. Despite greater sensitivity of T90 to variability in dark growth rates, omitting light-dependent growth rates from simulations dramatically influenced T90 values. Our results demonstrate that particle association can increase enterococci persistence in receiving waters and highlight the importance of incorporating particle association in future water quality models.


Assuntos
Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Humanos , Esgotos , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água
19.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 27-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016358

RESUMO

The United States, particularly the southern portion, has recently suffered drastic population expansion of wild pigs causing destruction of prime farmland. An associated concern, which has been understudied, is the potential transfer of nutrients and pathogens to surface water. This study aimed to identify the abiotic and biotic impacts of captive wild pigs on water quality, including nutrients, fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance. Overall, the study demonstrated that wild pigs harbored Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens, which were found in water runoff collected directly beneath the hog paddock, often 2 log10 greater than above-paddock levels. However, the impacts to downstream water quality were limited, perhaps because of a relatively large riparian buffer between the paddock and surface water. A higher rate of ammonium concentration changes over time was detected in the runoff water below the paddock; additionally, microbial releases detected in runoff were also time dependent, possibly associated with increasing pig numbers. Antibiotic resistance was generally not associated with the wild pigs. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in upstream as well as downstream surface water, suggesting that nonpoint sources of microbial contamination were present. Interestingly, intI1 levels were greater in below-paddock runoff by nearly 2 log10 . Overall, it appears that wild pigs potentially pose a threat to water quality but only if they have direct access to the water. Pathogen, fecal indicator bacteria, and some nutrient release were significantly associated with wild pigs, but riparian buffers limited water quality impairment.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Suínos , Estados Unidos
20.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1225-1235, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016458

RESUMO

Naturally occurring gaseous by-products of ruminant production-carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O)-can negatively affect the environment. Along with enteric fermentation, manure on pasture is among the most significant contributors to non-CO2 emissions. Condensed tannins, a group of naturally occurring phenolic compounds, can alter the route of nutrient excretion and interact with microbes, suggesting they are a plausible feed additive for reducing excreta gas emissions. We evaluated how quebracho (Schinopsis balansae) tannin extract fed at 0, 15, 30, and 45 g kg-1 of dry matter (DM) within a roughage-based diet affected fecal gas emissions at multiple locations (College Station and Stephenville, TX) during two periods corresponding to winter and spring. During both periods, CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O fluxes were determined using the vented-static chamber methodology over 39 d, and cumulative emissions were calculated. A random coefficients model with animal nested within dietary treatment and period as the random factor was analyzed by location due to the presence of collinearity with soil parameters within periods. Daily CO2 flux was influenced by soil moisture and temperature (r = .34; P < .01), whereas CH4 and N2 O were associated with soil moisture. Cumulative gas production confirmed a dietary effect for CO2 and gross CO2 equivalent at the College Station site (P ≤ .001), demonstrating a linear reduction as quebracho inclusion increased. Variance partitioning indicated that dietary treatment and seasonal period likely influenced animal digestive and metabolic parameters. Within specific environments, quebracho supplementation may assist in reducing fecal gas emissions.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Animais , Fezes , Gases , Metano , Extratos Vegetais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA