Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32.878
Filtrar
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1178: 129-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493226

RESUMO

Gut microbiota composition and functionality can influence the pathophysiology of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia, according to a large number of animal studies. The translation of this concept to humans is still uncertain, due to the relatively low number of clinical studies focused on fecal microbiota and large number of environmental factors that influence the microbiota composition. However, the fecal microbiota composition of older patients with dementia is deeply different from that of healthy active controls, conditioning a different metabolic profile. The possible use of fecal microbiota-related parameters and microbiota-derived metabolites as biomarkers of cognitive performance and dementia is critically reviewed in this paper, focusing on the most promising areas of research for the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota/fisiologia
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 889-894, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484249

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the seasonality and etiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in adults from Shanghai. Methods: Adult patients with diarrhea who had visited the enteric disease clinics in 22 hospitals that carrying on the Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance sentinel programs in Shanghai during 2014-2017, were surveyed. Stool specimens were collected according to the different intervals of sampling and detected for 12 bacteria and 5 viruses. Concentration ratio and circular distribution method were used for data analysis. Results: From 2014 to 2017, a total of 9 573 stool specimens were collected from the targeted diarrhea patients ≥18 years old (n=96 067), through the Shanghai Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance program. The positive rate of detection was 46.44%. Seasonal peaks of infectious diarrhea were both seen in summer (bacteria peak, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, etc.) and in winter (virus peak, Norovirus, etc.). Both bacterial and viral infections presented seasonal concentration (Raleigh's test P<0.001) but more obvious with bacterial infection. Viral infection accounted for 60.19% of the cause of infectious diarrhea. The top five predominant pathogens appeared as Norovirus, Rotavirus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella spp.. Conclusions: Among the adult outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, obvious seasonality was seen, with peaks in both summer and winter. Viral infection with Norovirus in particular, appeared as the predominant source of infection. Active, continuous and comprehensive diarrhea-related surveillance programs would be able to monitor the changing dynamic of pathogen spectrum, and lead to the adoption of targeted preventive measures.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Disenteria/etiologia , Fezes , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 900-903, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484251

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacter spp. in Shanghai from 2013 to 2016. Methods: Stool samples collected from diarrhea outpatients were cultured for Campylobacter spp., using the membrane filter method in 23 hospitals under the sentinel programs, from 2013 to 2016. All the strains were identified by biochemical tests and PCR. Broth microdilution method was used to investigate the antibiotic resistance of 179 Campylobacter spp. strains that including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, telycin, klinthromycin and flurbenicol. Results: A total of 179 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 10 444 stool samples (1.7%). Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli appeared as the predominant ones (94.4% and 5.6%). The incidence rate was higher in children than that in adults, with peaks of infections mainly from April to June and October to December. Campylobacter jejuni strains seemed highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (96.4%), tetracycline (83.4%) and nalidixic acid (81.7%). The resistant rates appeared higher on Campylobacter coli strains that isolated from patients. Some strains were resistant to multi-drugs. Conclusions: Campylobacter spp. seemed one of the important pathogens that isolated from outpatients with diarrhea, in Shanghai. Both age and season related characteristics of Campylobacter spp. were seen. Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients was highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Campylobacter/classificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Vigilância da População
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 988-991, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484266

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the etiologic and epidemiologic features of an infectious diarrhea outbreak in a boarding school in Fuyang city, Anhui province. Methods: Traceability hypothesis of this study was tested according to the epidemiological characteristics of the cases. Feces, anal swabs, water samples and food residues related to the patients and chefs were collected for pathogen isolation and detection. Biochemical identification, virulence gene detection, drug susceptibility test, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing were performed. Results: The incidence rate (3.41%) of different dormitory buildings within the water supply area by shallow wells was higher than that (0.98%) of the deep wells, with statistical significance (χ(2)=17.215, P<0.001). Sixteen strains belonged to the Shigella Sonneri family were isolated from the patient's samples, and all carrying the ipaH gene. Seven strains belonged to sen and ial genes. Set1 gene that did not appear in all the 16 strains were highly resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, compound xinnomine, cefazoline, cefotaxime, gentamicin, naphthidinic acid and streptomycin, including 9 strains to doxycycline. The pulse field pattern of the 16 strains of Shigella sonneri appeared the same, with the ST type as ST152. Conclusion: When combined data from the etiological and epidemiological investigation, it was confirmed that Shigella sonneri was the pathogen of this outbreak, and water from the shallow wells might be responsible for the source of infection.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Disenteria Bacilar/diagnóstico , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Shigella sonnei/efeitos dos fármacos , Shigella sonnei/isolamento & purificação
5.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e49, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531627

RESUMO

This manuscript reports a case of intestinal toxemia botulism in an adult with recently diagnosed metastatic colon cancer in whom botulism symptoms began 23 days after hospital admission. Representing the rarest form of botulism presentation in clinical practice, this infectious disease may have developed due to a cluster of predisposing factors that favored Clostridium botulinum colonization and the endogenous production of neurotoxins, among which are previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and colon changes related to the development of the neoplasia. This case highlights the importance of considering intestinal toxemia botulism in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, since immediate treatment with botulinum antitoxin may improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Botulismo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Toxemia/diagnóstico , Botulismo/complicações , Evolução Fatal , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Toxemia/complicações
7.
BMJ ; 366: l4609, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431428

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium) is a major cause of healthcare associated diarrhea, and is increasingly present in the community. Historically, C difficile infection was considered easy to diagnose and treat. Over the past two decades, however, diagnostic techniques have changed in line with a greater understanding of the physiopathology of C difficile infection and the use of new therapeutic molecules. The evolution of diagnosis showed there was an important under- and misdiagnosis of C difficile infection, emphasizing the importance of algorithms recommended by European and North American infectious diseases societies to obtain a reliable diagnosis. Previously, metronidazole was considered the reference drug to treat C difficile infection, but more recently vancomycin and other newer drugs are shown to have higher cure rates. Recurrence of infection represents a key parameter in the evaluation of new drugs, and the challenge is to target the right population with the adapted therapeutic molecule. In multiple recurrences, fecal microbiota transplantation is recommended. New approaches, including antibodies, vaccines, and new molecules are already available or in the pipeline, but more data are needed to support the inclusion of these in practice guidelines. This review aims to provide a baseline for clinicians to understand and stratify their choice in the diagnosis and treatment of C difficile infection based on the most recent data available.


Assuntos
Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/diagnóstico , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/terapia , Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Bacterianas , Biomarcadores/análise , Clostridium difficile/imunologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/epidemiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Recidiva
8.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 68(2): 59-64, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398977

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite an increasing trend in Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and high C. difficile colonization rate especially among younger children, infants remain quite resistant to the disease. The goals of this study were to distinguish whether there exists a difference in CDI between children with or without diarrhoea, ascertain the prevalence of CDI, and assess CDI severity in children under 3 years with diarrhoea in our institution. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted from May 2015 to June 2016. Children 3 years of age or younger were enrolled and into two groups. Every faecal sample was tested using a diagnostic two-step screening algorithm including an immunochromatographic test and polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study enrolled 147 children with diarrhoea and 75 control patients. The prevalence of CDI in children with diarrhoea was 2% (3/147), the prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in the diarrhoeal group compared to the control group was 11.6 % (17/147) vs. 10.6% (8/75) (p.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium difficile , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 134, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432266

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic pathogens and may induce severe diarrheagenic diseases in humans and other animals. Non-O157 STEC have been emerging as important pathogens causing outbreaks worldwide. Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has become a global public health problem, which involves different ecological spheres, including animals. This study aimed to characterize the resistance to antimicrobials, plasmids and virulence, as well as the serotypes and phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolated from sheep in Brazil. A total of 57 isolates were obtained and showed different antimicrobial resistance profiles. Nineteen isolates presented acquired antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (blaCTX-M-Gp9, qnrB, qnrS, oqxB, oqxA, tetA, tetB, tetC, sul1 and sul2) and plasmid families (F, FIA, FIB, I1, K, HI1 and ColE-like). The stx1, stx2 and ehxA virulence genes were detected by PCR, being 50 isolates (87.7%) classified as STEC. A great diversity of serotypes was detected, being O176:HNM the most predominant. Phylogenetic group E was the most prevalent, followed by B1, A and B2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the world of blaCTX-M-Gp9 (O75, O114, O100, O128ac and O176 serogroups), qnrB and oqxB genes in non-O157 STEC in healthy sheep. The results obtained in the present study call attention to the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant non-O157 STEC harboring acquired ARGs worldwide and indicate a zoonotic risk due to the profile of virulence, resistance and serotype found.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Ovinos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(68): 10158-10161, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389420

RESUMO

We developed a chemical method to covalently functionalize cellulose nanofibers and cellulose paper with mannoside ligands displaying a strong affinity for the FimH adhesin from pathogenic E. coli strains. Mannose-grafted cellulose proved efficient to selectively bind FimH lectin and discriminate pathogenic E. coli strains from non-pathogenic ones. These modified papers are valuable tools for diagnosing infections promoted by E. coli, such as cystitis or inflammatory bowel diseases, and the concept may be applicable to other life-threatening pathogens.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Escherichia coli K12/isolamento & purificação , Mananas/química , Nanofibras/química , Adesinas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/instrumentação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Celulose/metabolismo , Escherichia coli K12/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mananas/metabolismo , Papel , Ligação Proteica
11.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 584-591, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365980

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on inflammation and microbiota of acute colitis in mice. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups randomly. Each group had 10 mice and was given 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) drinking water for 5 days other than the blank control group. Except for model control group, other two groups were administrated with probiotics and synbiotics, respectively. Probiotics was composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis, while synbiotics was composed of the aforementioned probiotics, inulin and galactooligosaccharide. Feces of different periods and mucosa samples were collected to analyze the differences of enteric flora by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: (1) Pathological scores in probiotics group and synbiotics group were 5.40±2.79 and 7.25±2.87, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the model control group with scores 27.00±7.94. Model control group, probiotics group and synbiotics group showed lower flora diversity, increased Bacteroides and decreased Faecalibacterium than blank control group. The mucosal microbiota was different from fecal flora in abundance and species for each group, and Mucispirillum was more common in mucosa. Conclusions: Probiotics and synbiotics alleviate the inflammation of acute colitis in mice. Imbalance of beneficial genera to harmful genera is the characteristic of acute colitis. Supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics contributes to regulating the balance of intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/microbiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3041-3048, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395120

RESUMO

A novel irregularly shaped and slightly curved rod bacterial strain, GLDI4/2T, showing activity of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase was isolated from a faecal sample of an adult gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes as well as multilocus sequences (representing fusA, gyrB and xfp genes) and the core genome revealed that GLDI4/2T exhibited phylogenetic relatedness to Alloscardovia omnicolens DSM 21503T and to Alloscardovia macacae DSM 24762T. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the phylogenetic results showing the highest gene sequence identity with strain A. omnicolens DSM 21503T (96.0 %). Activities of α- and ß-gluco(galacto)sidases were detected in strain GLDI4/2T, which is characteristic for almost all members of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. Compared to other Alloscardovia species its DNA G+C content (43.8 mol%) was very low. Phylogenetic studies and the evaluation of phenotypic characteristics, including the results of biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, confirmed the novel species status for strain GLDI4/2T, for which the name Alloscardoviatheropitheci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GLDI4/2T (=DSM 106019T=JCM 32430T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Theropithecus/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Aldeído Liases , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Itália , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 678, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a risk factor for bacterial translocation resulting in subsequent endogenous infections. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of CRE strains colonization in stool samples of outpatient in a tertiary pediatric hospital of Shanghai, China. METHODS: In a retrospective study, fecal samples were consecutively obtained from patients in 2016 and screening test for CRE was conducted by using home-made MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the broth microdilution method and ß-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and DNA sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for the genetic relationships of the isolates. RESULTS: A total of 880 fecal samples were included for this screening test and 32 CRE strains were identified in 32 non-duplicate fecal samples from 32 children (1.3 ± 1.5 years), with a carriage rate of 3.6%. These strains mainly distributed in Klebsiella pnuemoniae (37.5%) and Escherichia coli (37.5%). All CRE strains showed high resistance to most of the routinely used antibiotics (> 90%) except for polymyxin B and tigecycline. The blaNDM gene was the major carbapenemase gene harbored by gastrointestinal CRE strains, followed by blaKPC-2, blaIMP-26, and blaIMP-4. Other ß-Lactamase genes including blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM-1, and blaDHA-1 were also detected. MLST analysis revealed that various sequence types (STs) were detected in these strains, with ST11 and ST37 being more prevalent in K.pneumoniae and ST101 in E.coli. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the prevalence of CRE fecal carriage in children from outpatient and urgent implementation of infection control measure should be conducted to limit the spread of CRE strains.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , beta-Lactamases/genética
14.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(2): 141-145, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers around the world. One of the factors involved in the development of colorectal cancer is the changes in the normal flora of the intestine. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the mean copy number of Enterococcus faecalis in people with polyps and people with colorectal cancer has been evaluated in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS: In this study, 25 patients with colorectal cancer and 28 patients with intestinal polyps were selected and stool specimens were taken. In addition, 24 healthy individuals were selected as control group. Extraction of bacterial DNA from the stool sample were performed. The molecular methods of PCR for confirmation of standard strain and absolute Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR) method were used to evaluate the number of Enterococcus faecalis in the studied groups. RESULTS: The results of this study indicate that the mean copy number of Enterococcus faecalis in patients with colorectal cancer was 11.2x109 per gram of stool, and in patients with polyps was 9.4x108 per gram of stool. In healthy people, this number was 9x108 per gram of stool. There was a significant difference between the implicit copy numbers in the three groups. (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Enterococcus faecalis in faecal flora of people with colorectal cancer was significantly higher than those with polyps and healthy people. This could potentially signify the ability of this bacterium to induce colorectal cancer. More studies are needed to prove this theory.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
15.
Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek ; 25(1): 12-15, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is one of the main pathogens causing nosocomial infections today. It colonizes the intestines of patients receiving antibiotic therapy, causing unpleasant or even life-threatening conditions (diarrhea, toxic megacolon). Rapid and correct detection of strain toxigenicity is essential for treatment and isolation of patients. Simplexa C. difficile Direct Kit is a real-time PCR kit detecting the tcdB gene of C. difficile. The kit does not require DNA isolation; stool eluates are directly used for the reaction. The study aimed to verify the analytical properties of the kit by its comparison with culture and in-house multiplex PCR methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 164 stool samples were prospectively tested using two immunoenzymatic kits (C. diff Quik Chek Complete and LIAISON C. difficile GDH, Toxins AandB). In 39 samples, the results were discrepant or unclear (GDH+TOX-). These samples were tested using in-house multiplex PCR and the Simplexa kit. RESULTS: The Simplexa kit had 94.7% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 95.2% negative predictive value. These parameters were calculated from the numbers of true-/false-positive and true-/false-negative results. True results were determined based on the consensus of culture and in-house multiplex PCR results. Another outcome of the study was comparison of the Quik Chek and LIAISON kits. CONCLUSION: The analytical properties of the Simplexa kit were tested on 39 samples. These samples were selected for their unclear (GDH+TOX-) or discrepant results yielded by immunoenzymatic methods. Compared with culture and subsequent in-house PCR detection of the tcdB gene, the Simplexa kit showed properties declared by the manufacturer. An important advantage of the kit was the absence inhibitions when stool eluates were directly used for PCR reactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Toxinas Bacterianas , Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium difficile , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Clostridium difficile/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 268, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated changes over time in the epidemiology of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli within a single equine referral hospital in the UK. Faecal samples were collected from hospitalised horses in 2008 and 2017, processed using selective media and standard susceptibility laboratory methods. A novel real-time PCR with high resolution melt analysis was used to distinguish blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15 within CTX-M-1 group. RESULTS: In 2008, 457 faecal samples from 103 horses were collected, with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 131 samples (28.7, 95% CI 24.6-33.1). In 2017, 314 faecal samples were collected from 74 horses with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 157 samples (50.0, 95% CI 44.5-55.5). There were 135 and 187 non-duplicate ESBL-producing isolates from 2008 and 2017, respectively. In 2008, 12.6% of isolates belonged to CTX-M-1 group, all carrying blaCTX-M-1, whilst in 2017, 94.1% of isolates were CTX-M-1 group positive and of these 39.2 and 60.8% of isolates carried blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of doxycycline, gentamicin and 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance increased significantly from 2008 to 2017 while a decreased prevalence of phenotypic resistance to potentiated sulphonamides was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time PCR proved a reliable and high throughput method to distinguish between blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Furthermore, its use in this study demonstrated the emergence of faecal carriage of CTX-M-15 in hospitalised horses, with an increase in prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli as well as increased antimicrobial resistance to frequently used antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Cavalos , Hospitais Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
17.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109886, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307667

RESUMO

The diagnosis of the early stages of paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a cumbersome task. In this study, an experimental Map-infection model of calves was used to improve the knowledge of early antibody response and to evaluate different in-house ELISAs in the detection of subclinical paratuberculosis. Calves were challenged with Map strain IS900-RFLPA (n = 3) or Map strain IS900-RFLPC (n = 2) (Argentinean isolated strains) or mock infected (n = 3), and their specific humoral response was evaluated. The diagnostic ELISA (IgG against Map protoplasmic antigen; PPA) could not detect the infection throughout the experimental period (180 days post-infection; dpi), whereas the IgG2/PPA-ELISA was able to identify infected calves at least once during the experiment. In addition, the use of crude Map extract detected most of the infections from 60 dpi onwards. Antibodies were also characterized by immunoblot: IgG2-reactivity to antigens of molecular weight lower than 50 kDa was detected in all infected calves. The experimental Map-infection model of calves used allows the study of the early humoral immune response in paratuberculosis. The evaluation of IgG2 specific to antigens lighter than 50 kDa emerges as an interesting alternative in calves naturally infected with paratuberculosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(2): 173-183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257790

RESUMO

In this research, Salmonella species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as Salmonella strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antiserum showed a cross-reactive titer range of 1:8 to 1:64. On the basis of the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) shown by the antiserum of the HB1 antigen, it was selected as the best candidate for a cross-reactive live Salmonella oral antigen. Moreover, the HB1 antigen was used a live oral antigen (1 × 1010 CFU/ml) in a safety test in rabbits and proved to be avirulent. During the animal trial, three different oral doses of the HB1 live oral antigen were evaluated in four different rabbits' groups (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The dose number 2 of 0.5 ml (two drops orally and repeated after one week) gave the best GMT measured by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) as compared to the other two doses, while R4 group was kept as control. Results of the challenge protection test also validated the efficacy of the double dose of the HB1 live vaccine, which gave the highest survival percentage. Results of this study lay the foundation for a potential cross-reactive live oral Salmonella vaccine that has proved to be immunogenic in rabbits.In this research, Salmonella species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as Salmonella strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antiserum showed a cross-reactive titer range of 1:8 to 1:64. On the basis of the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) shown by the antiserum of the HB1 antigen, it was selected as the best candidate for a cross-reactive live Salmonella oral antigen. Moreover, the HB1 antigen was used a live oral antigen (1 × 1010 CFU/ml) in a safety test in rabbits and proved to be avirulent. During the animal trial, three different oral doses of the HB1 live oral antigen were evaluated in four different rabbits' groups (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The dose number 2 of 0.5 ml (two drops orally and repeated after one week) gave the best GMT measured by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) as compared to the other two doses, while R4 group was kept as control. Results of the challenge protection test also validated the efficacy of the double dose of the HB1 live vaccine, which gave the highest survival percentage. Results of this study lay the foundation for a potential cross-reactive live oral Salmonella vaccine that has proved to be immunogenic in rabbits.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Abelhas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Coelhos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/classificação
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(62): 9080-9083, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287110

RESUMO

New strategies are required for the discovery of unknown bioactive molecules produced by gut microbiota in the human host. Herein, we utilize a chemoselective probe immobilized to magnetic beads for analysis of carbonyls in human fecal samples. We identified 112 metabolites due to femtomole analysis and an increased mass spectrometric sensitivity by up to six orders of magnitude.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/análise , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Cetonas/análise , Sondas Moleculares/análise , Sondas Moleculares/química , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cetonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(9): 2948-2953, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282852

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-violet-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain H11R3T, was isolated from the feces of Oriental stork, Ciconia boyciana, collected from Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that H11R3T formed a monophyletic clade with Iodobacter fluviatilisDSM 3764T, Iodobacter arcticusDSM 100243T, and Iodobacter limnosediminisDSM 103822T, with sequence similarities of 98.8, 98.6 and 98.4 %, respectively. H11R3T grew optimally at 15 °C, pH 8, with 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8), and polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, four unidentified phospholipids, and two unidentified aminophospholipids. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 and C16 : 0, and the DNA G+C content of the genome is 48.0 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value between strains H11R3T and I. fluviatilis NCTC 11159T (=DSM 3764T) is 83.7 %. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain H11R3T represents a novel species of the genus Iodobacter for which the name Iodobacterciconiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H11R3T (=KCTC 62666T=JCM 33283T).


Assuntos
Betaproteobacteria/classificação , Aves/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Betaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA