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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444949

RESUMO

The prevalence of gastritis in humans is constantly growing and a prediction of an increase in this health problem is observed in many countries. For this reason, effective dietary therapies are sought that can alleviate the course of this disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemically pure oat beta-glucan preparations with different molar masses, low or high, used for 30 days in patients with histologically diagnosed chronic gastritis. The study enrolled 48 people of both genders of different ages recruited from 129 patients with a gastritis diagnosis. Before and after the therapy, hematological, biochemical, immunological and redox balance parameters were determined in the blood and the number of lactic acid bacteria and SCFA concentrations in the feces. Our results demonstrated a beneficial effect of oat beta-glucans with high molar mass in chronic gastritis in humans, resulting in reduced mucosal damage and healthy changes in SCFA fecal concentration and peripheral blood serum glutathione metabolism and antioxidant defense parameters. This fraction of a highly purified oat beta-glucan is safe for humans. Its action is effective after 30 days of use, which sheds new light on the nutritional treatment of chronic gastritis.


Assuntos
Avena , Gastrite/dietoterapia , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastrite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445403

RESUMO

Natural smectites have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of diarrhea. The present study evaluated the prophylactic effect of a diosmectite (FI5pp) on the clinical course, colon damage, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and the composition of the gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. Diosmectite was administered daily to Balb/c mice from day 1 to 7 by oral gavage, followed by induction of acute DSS-colitis from day 8 to 14 ("Control", n = 6; "DSS", n = 10; "FI5pp + DSS", n = 11). Mice were sacrificed on day 21. Clinical symptoms (body weight, stool consistency and occult blood) were checked daily after colitis induction. Colon tissue was collected for histological damage scoring and quantification of tight junction protein expression. Stool samples were collected for microbiome analysis. Our study revealed prophylactic diosmectite treatment attenuated the severity of DSS colitis, which was apparent by significantly reduced weight loss (p = 0.022 vs. DSS), disease activity index (p = 0.0025 vs. DSS) and histological damage score (p = 0.023 vs. DSS). No significant effects were obtained for the expression of TJ proteins (claudin-2 and claudin-3) after diosmectite treatment. Characterization of the microbial composition by 16S amplicon NGS showed that diosmectite treatment modified the DSS-associated dysbiosis. Thus, diosmectites are promising candidates for therapeutic approaches to target intestinal inflammation and to identify possible underlying mechanisms of diosmectites in further studies.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicatos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Silicatos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4907, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389726

RESUMO

The intestinal mucosa constitutes an environment of closely regulated immune cells. Dendritic cells (DC) interact with the gut microbiome and antigens and are important in maintaining gut homeostasis. Here, we investigate DC transcriptome, phenotype and function in five anatomical locations of the gut lamina propria (LP) which constitute different antigenic environments. We show that DC from distinct gut LP compartments induce distinct T cell differentiation and cytokine secretion. We also find that PD-L1+ DC in the duodenal LP and XCR1+ DC in the colonic LP comprise distinct tolerogenic DC subsets that are crucial for gut homeostasis. Mice lacking PD-L1+ and XCR1+ DC have a proinflammatory gut milieu associated with an increase in Th1/Th17 cells and a decrease in Treg cells and have exacerbated disease in the models of 5-FU-induced mucositis and DSS-induced colitis. Our findings identify PD-L1+ and XCR1+ DC as region-specific physiologic regulators of intestinal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Colite/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Quimiocinas/genética , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431769

RESUMO

Two rod-shaped and Gram-stain-positive bacteria (strains C64T and C62) were isolated in 2020 from faeces of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from Poyang Lake, PR China. Their optimal growth conditions were at 37 °C, pH 7.0 and with 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The two isolates showed a highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bowdeniella nasicola DSM 19116T (92.1 %). Phylogenetic/phylogenomic analyses indicated that strains C64T and C62 clustered independently in the vicinity of the genera Varibaculum, Winkia and Mobiluncus within the family Actinomycetaceae, but could not be classified clearly as members of any of these known genera. The average amino acid identity values between our isolates and available genomes of members of the family Actinomycetaceae were around the genus threshold value (45-65 %). The major cellular fatty acids of the strains were C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and cardiolipin. The amino acid composition of peptidoglycan contained alanine, glutamic acid and glycine. The major respiratory menaquinones were MK-8(H4) and MK-9(H4). The whole cell sugars included galactose, arabinose and glucose. On the basis of the results of the 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison, whole-genome phylogenomic analysis, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, we propose that strains C64T and C62 represent a novel species belonging to a novel genus within the family Actinomycetaceae, for which the name Nanchangia anserum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Nanchangia anserum C64T (=CGMCC 1.18410T=GDMCC 1.1969T=KCTC 49511T=KACC 22143T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetaceae/classificação , Gansos , Filogenia , Actinomycetaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Gansos/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
5.
Science ; 373(6556): 813-818, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385401

RESUMO

A Western-style, high-fat diet promotes cardiovascular disease, in part because it is rich in choline, which is converted to trimethylamine (TMA) by the gut microbiota. However, whether diet-induced changes in intestinal physiology can alter the metabolic capacity of the microbiota remains unknown. Using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, we show that chronic exposure to a high-fat diet escalates Escherichia coli choline catabolism by altering intestinal epithelial physiology. A high-fat diet impaired the bioenergetics of mitochondria in the colonic epithelium to increase the luminal bioavailability of oxygen and nitrate, thereby intensifying respiration-dependent choline catabolism of E. coli In turn, E. coli choline catabolism increased levels of circulating trimethlamine N-oxide, which is a potentially harmful metabolite generated by gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Colo/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Hipóxia Celular , Colina/administração & dosagem , Colina/metabolismo , Colo/citologia , Metabolismo Energético , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilaminas/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Obesidade , Consumo de Oxigênio
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(8)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397349

RESUMO

Introduction. Lactococcus petauri LZys1 (L. petauri LZys1) is a type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which was initially isolated from healthy human gut.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. It was previously anticipated that L. petauri LZys1 has potential characteristics of probiotic properties. The genetic structure and the regulation functions of L. petauri LZys1 need to be better revealed.Aim. The aim of this study was to detect the probiotic properties L. petauri LZys1 and to reveal the genome information related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles.Methodology. Multiple in vitro experiments were carried out to evaluate its lactic acid-producing ability, resistance to pathogenic bacterial strains, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation ability, and so on. Additionally, complete genome sequencing, gene annotation, and probiotic associated gene analysis were performed.Results. The complete genome of L. petauri LZys1 comprised of 1 985 765 bp, with a DNA G+C content of 38.07 %, containing 50 tRNA, seven rRNA, and four sRNA. A total of 1931 genes were classified into six functional categories by Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The neighbour-joining phylogeny tree based on the whole genome of L. petauri LZys1 and other probiotics demonstrated that L. petauri LZys1 has a significant similarity to Lactococcus garvieae. The functional genes were detected to expound the molecular mechanism and biochemical processes of its potential probiotic properties, such as atpB gene.Conclusion. All the results described in this study, together with relevant information previously reported, made L. prtauri LZys1 a very interesting potential strain to be considered as a prominent candidate for probiotic use.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Lactococcus , Probióticos , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Sequência de Bases , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Lactococcus/citologia , Lactococcus/genética , Lactococcus/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus/fisiologia , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mariposas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4798, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376656

RESUMO

We describe the anaerobic conversion of inositol stereoisomers to propionate and acetate by the abundant intestinal genus Anaerostipes. A inositol pathway was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance using [13C]-inositols, mass spectrometry and proteogenomic analyses in A. rhamnosivorans, identifying 3-oxoacid CoA transferase as a key enzyme involved in both 3-oxopropionyl-CoA and propionate formation. This pathway also allowed conversion of phytate-derived inositol into propionate as shown with [13C]-phytate in fecal samples amended with A. rhamnosivorans. Metabolic and (meta)genomic analyses explained the adaptation of Anaerostipes spp. to inositol-containing substrates and identified a propionate-production gene cluster to be inversely associated with metabolic biomarkers in (pre)diabetes cohorts. Co-administration of myo-inositol with live A. rhamnosivorans in western-diet fed mice reduced fasting-glucose levels comparing to heat-killed A. rhamnosivorans after 6-weeks treatment. Altogether, these data suggest a potential beneficial role for intestinal Anaerostipes spp. in promoting host health.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Inositol/metabolismo , Intestinos/química , Propionatos/metabolismo , Animais , Clostridiales/classificação , Clostridiales/fisiologia , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382925

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative strain, WQ 117T, isolated from the faeces of Rhinopithecus bieti collected at Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey National Park, Yunnan province, PR China, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate represented a member of the genus Faecalibacter, sharing 97.64 % sequence similarity with the type strain Faecalibacter macacae YIM 102668T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of WQ117T was 30.5 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The major cellular fatty acids was iso-C15 : 0. The whole genome average nucleotide identity (gANI) values and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between WQ 117T and YIM 102668T were 79.66 % and 22.20 %, respectively. Growth occurred at 0-50 °C (optimally at 28-35 °C), pH 7.0-9.0 (optimally at pH 8.0) and with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally without NaCl). On the basis of the taxonomic evidence, a novel species, Faecalibacter rhinopitheci sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is WQ 117T (=KCTC 82394T=CCTCC AA 2020027T).


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/classificação , Filogenia , Presbytini , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Presbytini/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388085

RESUMO

Two pairs of aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped strains (HY164T/HY044, HY168T/HY211) were isolated from bat faecal samples. Strains HY164T and HY044 were motile with a polar flagellum, and had 16S rRNA gene similarity of 95.1-98.6 % to Haloactinobacterium album YIM 93306T and Haloactinobacterium glacieicola T3246-1T; strains HY168T and HY211 were most similar to Ruania albidiflava DSM 18029T (96.6 %). Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene and whole genome sequences revealed affiliation of strains HY164T and HY168T to the family Ruaniaceae, representing novel lineages in the genera Haloactinobacterium and Ruania, respectively, which was also supported by the results for average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH). For all isolates, the principal cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. HY164T and HY168T had MK-8(H4) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, several unidentified phospholipids and glycolipids as common polar lipids while the latter strain additionally contained one unidentified aminophospholipid and one unidentified phosphoglycolipid. Besides sharing alanine, glutamic acid and lysine with HY164T, HY168T additionally contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars of HY164T were ribose and rhamnose, while HY168T only included the latter. The DNA G+C contents of HY164T and HY168T were 71.0 and 69.1 mol%, respectively. Combining the polyphasic taxonomic data, HY164T (=CGMCC 4.7606T=JCM 33464T) is classified as representing a novel species of the genus Haloactinobacterium with the proposed name Haloactinobacterium kanbiaonis sp. nov., and HY168T (=CGMCC 1.16970T=JCM 33465T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Ruania with the name Ruania zhangjianzhongii sp. nov.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Quirópteros , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Quirópteros/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
10.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405934

RESUMO

The methane-mitigating potency of cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) was evaluated by investigating gas production from batch cultures using feces from Thai native ruminants that had been incubated for different periods. Feces was obtained from four Thai native cattle and four swamp buffaloes reared under practical feeding conditions at the Kasetsart University farm, Thailand. Fecal slurry from the same farm was also included in the analysis. CNSL addition successfully suppressed the methane production potential of feces from both ruminants by shifting short chain fatty acid profiles towards propionate production. Methane mitigation continued for almost 150 days, although the degree of mitigation was more apparent from Day 0 to Day 30. Bacterial and archaeal community shifts with CNSL addition were observed in feces from both ruminants; specifically, Bacteroides increased, whereas Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae decreased in feces to which CNSL was added. Fecal slurry did not show marked changes in gas production with CNSL addition. The findings showed that the addition of CNSL to the feces of ruminants native to the Southeast Asian region can suppress methane emission. Because CNSL can be easily obtained as a byproduct of the local cashew industry in this region, its on-site application might be ideal.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Gases/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Microbiota , Propionatos/metabolismo , Tailândia
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371955

RESUMO

Despite the well-established role of quinoa protein as the source of antihypertensive peptides through in vitro enzymolysis, there is little evidence supporting the in vivo antihypertensive effect of intact quinoa protein. In this study, in vivo study on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was conducted by administering quinoa protein for five weeks. Gastrointestinal content identification indicated that many promising precursors of bioactive peptides were released from quinoa protein under gastrointestinal processing. Quinoa protein administration on SHRs resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure, a significant increase in alpha diversity, and microbial structure alternation towards that in non-hypertension rats. Furthermore, blood pressure was highly negatively correlated with the elevated abundance of genera in quinoa protein-treated SHRs, such as Turicibacter and Allobaculum. Interestingly, the fecal microbiota in quinoa protein-treated SHRs shared more features in the composition of genera with non-hypertension rats than that of the captopril-treated group. These results indicate that quinoa protein may serve as a potential candidate to lower blood pressure and ameliorate hypertension-related gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Chenopodium quinoa , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Peptídeos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
12.
J Microbiol ; 59(9): 861-870, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382146

RESUMO

Salmonella Typhimurium (ST313) has caused an epidemic of invasive disease in sub-Saharan Africa and has been recently identified in Brazil. As the virulence of this ST is poorly understood, the present study aimed to (i) perform the RNA-seq in vitro of S. Typhimurium STm30 (ST313) grown in Luria-Bertani medium at 37°C; (ii) compare it with the RNA-seq of the S. Typhimurium SL1344 (ST19) and S. Typhimurium STm11 (ST19) strains under the same growing conditions; and (iii) examine the colonization capacity and expression of virulence genes and cytokines in murine colon. The STm30 (ST313) strain exhibited stronger virulence and was associated with a more inflammatory profile than the strains SL1344 (ST19) and STm11 (ST19), as demonstrated by transcriptome and in vivo assay. The expression levels of the hilA, sopD2, pipB, and ssaS virulence genes, other Salmonella pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2 genes or effectors, and genes of the cytokines IL-1ß, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-12 were increased during ST313 infection in C57BL/6J mice. In conclusion, S. Typhimurium STm30 (ST313) isolated from human feces in Brazil express higher levels of pathogenesis-related genes at 37°C and has stronger colonization and invasion capacity in murine colon due to its high expression levels of virulence genes, when compared with the S. Typhimurium SL1344 (ST19) and STm11 (ST19) strains. STm30 (ST313) also induces stronger expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in this organ, suggesting that it causes more extensive tissue damage.


Assuntos
Colo/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Animais , Brasil , Colo/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Ilhas Genômicas , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Virulência
13.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21783, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403510

RESUMO

Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule with a variety of biological functions, which include its immunoregulatory action in mammals. Brucellosis is a worldwide endemic zoonotic disease caused by the Brucella, which not only causes huge economic losses for the livestock industry but also impacts human health. To target this problem, in current study, two marker-free transgenic sheep overexpressing melatonin synthetic enzyme ASMT (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase) gene were generated and these melatonin enrich transgenic sheep were challenged by Brucella infection. The results showed that the serum melatonin concentration was significantly higher in transgenic sheep than that of wild type (726.92 ± 70.6074 vs 263.10 ± 34.60 pg/mL, P < .05). Brucella challenge test showed that two thirds (4/6) of the wild-type sheep had brucellosis, while none of the transgenic sheep were infected. Whole-blood RNA-seq results showed that differential expression genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, phagosome, antigen processing, and presentation signaling pathways in overexpression sheep. The DEGs of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) families were verified by qPCR and it showed that TLR1, TLR2, TLR7, CD14, NAIP, and CXCL8 expression levels in overexpression sheep were significantly higher and NLRP1, NLRP3, and TNF expression levels were significantly lower than those of wild type. The rectal feces were subjected to 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing, and the microbial functional analysis showed that the transgenic sheep had significantly lower abundance of microbial genes related to infectious diseases compared to the wild type, indicating overexpression animals are likely more resistant to infectious diseases than wild type. Furthermore, exogenous melatonin treatment relieved brucellosis inflammation by upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and downregulating pro-inflammatory IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ. Our preliminary results provide an informative reference for the study of the relationship between melatonin and brucellosis.


Assuntos
Acetilserotonina O-Metiltransferasa/genética , Brucelose/genética , Brucelose/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Acetilserotonina O-Metiltransferasa/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Ovinos/imunologia
14.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403519

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and also responsible for serious threat to public health. Koumiss is a fermented mare's milk product, used as traditional drink. Here, we explored the effect of koumiss on gut microbiota and the host immune response against M bovis infection. Therefore, mice were treated with koumiss and fresh mare milk for 14 days before M bovis infection and continue for 5 weeks after infection. The results showed a clear change in the intestinal flora of mice treated with koumiss, and the lungs of mice treated with koumiss showed severe edema, inflammatory infiltration, and pulmonary nodules in M bovis-infected mice. Notably, we found that the content of short-chain fatty acids was significantly lower in the koumiss-treated group compared with the control group. However, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis-related proteins in the lungs of koumiss-treated mice were significantly decreased. Collectively, these findings suggest that koumiss treatment disturb the intestinal flora of, which is associated with disease severity and the possible mechanism that induces lungs pathology. Our current findings can be exploited further to establish the "gut-lung" axis which might be a novel strategy for the control of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Kumis/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Cavalos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371912

RESUMO

The human gut microbiota are the microorganisms (generally bacteria and archaea) that live in the digestive tracts of humans. Due to their numerous functions, the gut microbiota can be considered a virtual organ of the body, playing a pivotal role in health maintenance. Dietary habits contribute to gut microbiota composition, and evidence from observational and intervention studies suggest that vegan diets may promote health, potentially through affecting the diverse ecosystem of beneficial bacteria in the gut. A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed and Scopus to identify studies investigating the microbiota composition in vegans. Vegans are defined as people excluding food products that are derived from animals from their diet. Nine observational studies were identified. The main outcome of the systematic review was an increase in Bacteroidetes on the phylum level and a higher abundance of Prevotella on the genus level. In conclusion, the present systematic literature review highlighted some benefits of a vegan diet but also demonstrated the complexity of evaluating results from gut microbiota research. The available evidence only consisted of cross-sectional studies, therefore suggesting the need for well-designed randomised controlled trials. Furthermore, the quality assessment of the studies included in the review suggested a lack of standardised and validated methods for participant selection as well as for faecal sampling and faecal analysis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Vegana , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Adulto , Disbiose , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371922

RESUMO

The early life gut microbiota has been reported to be involved in neonatal weight gain and later infant growth. Therefore, this early microbiota may constitute a target for the promotion of healthy neonatal growth and development with potential consequences for later life. Unfortunately, we are still far from understanding the association between neonatal microbiota and weight gain and growth. In this context, we evaluated the relationship between early microbiota and weight in a cohort of full-term infants. The absolute levels of specific fecal microorganisms were determined in 88 vaginally delivered and 36 C-section-delivered full-term newborns at 1 month of age and their growth up to 12 months of age. We observed statistically significant associations between the levels of some early life gut microbes and infant weight gain during the first year of life. Classifying the infants into tertiles according to their Staphylococcus levels at 1 month of age allowed us to observe a significantly lower weight at 12 months of life in the C-section-delivered infants from the highest tertile. Univariate and multivariate models pointed out associations between the levels of some fecal microorganisms at 1 month of age and weight gain at 6 and 12 months. Interestingly, these associations were different in vaginally and C-section-delivered babies. A significant direct association between Staphylococcus and weight gain at 1 month of life was observed in vaginally delivered babies, whereas in C-section-delivered infants, lower Bacteroides levels at 1 month were associated with higher later weight gain (at 6 and 12 months). Our results indicate an association between the gut microbiota and weight gain in early life and highlight potential microbial predictors for later weight gain.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Nascimento a Termo , Ganho de Peso , Fatores Etários , Bactérias/genética , Cesárea , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Espanha
17.
Science ; 373(6554)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326207

RESUMO

Bacteriophage predation selects for diverse antiphage systems that frequently cluster on mobilizable defense islands in bacterial genomes. However, molecular insight into the reciprocal dynamics of phage-bacterial adaptations in nature is lacking, particularly in clinical contexts where there is need to inform phage therapy efforts and to understand how phages drive pathogen evolution. Using time-shift experiments, we uncovered fluctuations in Vibrio cholerae's resistance to phages in clinical samples. We mapped phage resistance determinants to SXT integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), which notoriously also confer antibiotic resistance. We found that SXT ICEs, which are widespread in γ-proteobacteria, invariably encode phage defense systems localized to a single hotspot of genetic exchange. We identified mechanisms that allow phage to counter SXT-mediated defense in clinical samples, and document the selection of a novel phage-encoded defense inhibitor. Phage infection stimulates high-frequency SXT ICE conjugation, leading to the concurrent dissemination of phage and antibiotic resistances.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Myoviridae/fisiologia , Vibrio cholerae/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio cholerae/virologia , Bacteriólise , Cólera/microbiologia , Conjugação Genética , Epigênese Genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Gammaproteobacteria/virologia , Genes Bacterianos , Genes Virais , Genoma Bacteriano , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Interações Microbianas , Myoviridae/genética , Myoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
18.
Science ; 373(6551): 181-186, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244407

RESUMO

Relatives have more similar gut microbiomes than nonrelatives, but the degree to which this similarity results from shared genotypes versus shared environments has been controversial. Here, we leveraged 16,234 gut microbiome profiles, collected over 14 years from 585 wild baboons, to reveal that host genetic effects on the gut microbiome are nearly universal. Controlling for diet, age, and socioecological variation, 97% of microbiome phenotypes were significantly heritable, including several reported as heritable in humans. Heritability was typically low (mean = 0.068) but was systematically greater in the dry season, with low diet diversity, and in older hosts. We show that longitudinal profiles and large sample sizes are crucial to quantifying microbiome heritability, and indicate scope for selection on microbiome characteristics as a host phenotype.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Papio/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papio/genética , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 905-914, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted the Probiotic Regimen for Outpatient Gastroenteritis Utility of Treatment (PROGUT) study, which identified no improvements in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) administered a probiotic. However, the aforementioned study did not evaluate immunomodulatory benefits. OBJECTIVES: The object of this study was to determine if stool secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations in children with AGE increase more among participants administered a Lactobacillus rhamnosus/helveticus probiotic compared with those administered placebo. METHODS: This a priori planned multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled ancillary study enrolled children presenting for emergency care who received a 5-d probiotic or placebo course. Participants submitted stool specimens on days 0, 5, and 28. The primary endpoint was the change in stool sIgA concentrations on day 5 compared with baseline. RESULTS: A total of 133 (n = 66 probiotic, 67 placebo) of 886 PROGUT participants (15.0%) provided all 3 specimens. Median stool sIgA concentrations did not differ between the probiotic and placebo groups at any of the study time points: day 0 median (IQR): 1999 (768, 4071) compared with 2198 (702, 5278) (P = 0.27, Cohen's d = 0.17); day 5: 2505 (1111, 5310) compared with 3207 (982, 7080) (P = 0.19, Cohen's d = 0.16); and day 28: 1377 (697, 2248) compared with 1779 (660, 3977) (P = 0.27, Cohen's d = 0.19), respectively. When comparing measured sIgA concentrations between days 0 and 5, we found no treatment allocation effects [ß: -0.24 (-0.65, 0.18); P = 0.26] or interaction between treatment and specimen collection day [ß: -0.003 (-0.09, 0.09); P = 0.95]. Although stool sIgA decreased between day 5 and day 28 within both groups (P < 0.001), there were no differences between the probiotic and placebo groups in the median changes in sIgA concentrations when comparing day 0 to day 5 median (IQR) [500 (-1135, 2362) compared with 362 (-1122, 4256); P = 0.77, Cohen's d = 0.075] and day 5 to day 28 [-1035 (-3130, 499) compared with -1260 (-4437, 843); P = 0.70, Cohen's d = 0.067], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found no effect of an L. rhamnosus/helveticus probiotic, relative to placebo, on stool IgA concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01853124.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora , Imunomodulação , Lactobacillus helveticus/imunologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/imunologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313583

RESUMO

In the present study, four bacterial strains, two (S-713T and 406) isolated from faecal samples of Tibetan antelopes and the other two (S-531T and 1598) from leaves of dandelion collected on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of PR China, were analysed using a polyphasic approach. All four isolates were aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, oxidase-negative, Gram-stain-positive and catalase-positive. According to four phylogenetic trees, strain pairs S-713T/406 and S-531T/1598 form two independent branches belonging to the genus Nocardioides, and are closest to Nocardioides lianchengensis, Nocardioides dokdonensis, Nocardioides salarius, Nocardioides marinisabuli, Nocardioides psychrotolerans and Nocardioides szechwanensis. Although sharing MK8-(H4) as their major isoprenoid quinone, strains S-713T and S-531T contained C18 : 1 ω9c (24.64 and 16.34 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (9.74 and 29.38 %), respectively, as their main fatty acids, with remarkable differences in their biochemical profiles but only slight ones in their optimal growth conditions. The chromosomes of strains S-713T and S-531T were 4 207 844 bp (G+C content, 73.0 mol%) and 4 809 817 bp (G+C content, 72.5 mol%), respectively. Collectively, the two strain pairs represent two separate novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the names Nocardioides dongkuii sp. nov. and Nocardioides lijunqiniae sp. nov. are proposed, with S-713T (=JCM 33698T=CGMCC 4.7660T) and S-531T (=JCM 33468T=CGMCC 4.7659T) as the respective type strains.


Assuntos
Antílopes/microbiologia , Nocardioides/classificação , Filogenia , Taraxacum/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Nocardioides/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tibet , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
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