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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4620, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934242

RESUMO

Metagenomic techniques have enabled genome sequencing of unknown viruses without isolation in cell culture, but information on the virus host is often lacking, preventing viral characterisation. High-throughput methods capable of identifying virus hosts based on genomic data alone would aid evaluation of their medical or biological relevance. Here, we address this by linking metagenomic discovery of three virus families in human stool samples with determination of probable hosts. Recombination between viruses provides evidence of a shared host, in which genetic exchange occurs. We utilise networks of viral recombination to delimit virus-host clusters, which are then anchored to specific hosts using (1) statistical association to a host organism in clinical samples, (2) endogenous viral elements in host genomes, and (3) evidence of host small RNA responses to these elements. This analysis suggests two CRESS virus families (Naryaviridae and Nenyaviridae) infect Entamoeba parasites, while a third (Vilyaviridae) infects Giardia duodenalis. The trio supplements five CRESS virus families already known to infect eukaryotes, extending the CRESS virus host range to protozoa. Phylogenetic analysis implies CRESS viruses infecting multicellular life have evolved independently on at least three occasions.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/virologia , Giardia/virologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008483, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, caused by the fish-borne trematode Clonorchis sinensis, is a neglected tropical disease and a public health issue in endemic countries. In Vietnam, an in-depth analysis of risk factors for the condition is missing up to now. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of C. sinensis infection and associated risk factors in rural communities in northern Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 4 communes in Yen Bai and Thanh Hoa provinces where clonorchiasis is known to be present and raw fish consumption is a common. Using a simple random sampling approach, stool was collected from 841 participants over 6 years old for coprological examination, and a questionnaire measured knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to clonorchiasis in 757 participants over 15 years old. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were run to identify risk factors for infection with C. sinensis. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection was 40.4%, with commune prevalences ranging between 26.5% and 53.3%. In the final model, males were significantly more likely to be infected with C. sinensis (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.31-3.05). Recent (i.e. last year) consumption of raw fish (OR 8.00, 95% CI 4.78-13.36), low education level (OR 5.57; 95% CI 2.37-13.07), lack of treatment (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.89), being between 19 to 39 years old (OR 6.46; 95% CI 1.25-33.37), and the presence of an unhygienic toilet (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.53-4.92) were significantly associated with C. sinensis infection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in rural communities in northern Vietnam. Thus, control measures including, mass drug administration for those communes should be applied to reduce the prevalence. Moreover, specific health education activities should be developed for risk groups in C. sinensis endemic areas.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorchis sinensis , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790679

RESUMO

The focus of gastro-intestinal parasite control in the sheep industry is increasingly on finding a balance between maintaining productivity of the flock whilst minimising selection for anthelmintic resistance to preserve anthelmintic efficacy for the future. Periparturient ewes represent the major source of gastro-intestinal parasites for growing lambs and are therefore a priority for parasite control. This study examines the impact on ewe faecal egg counts (FECs), lamb FECs, lamb daily live weight gains (DLWGs) and pasture larval counts of treating groups of ewes two weeks prior to lambing with either, a long-acting moxidectin treatment, short-acting doramectin or control. Six groups of twenty ewes were allocated to individual paddocks, two groups allocated to each treatment, and weekly faecal sampling was performed throughout from the ewes and from six weeks after the start of lambing in the lambs. Treatment group was found to have a significant effect on both ewe FEC (p<0.001) and lamb FEC (p = 0.001) with the group receiving the long-acting anthelmintic having the lowest ewe and lamb FECs. There was no significant effect on the DLWGs of the lambs. Pasture larval counts at the end of the study period were lowest in the long-acting wormer treatment group. The use of long-acting moxidectin may be helpful as part of a parasite control programme by reducing the worm burdens of ewes and their lambs, decreasing the number of anthelmintic treatments required in that year and by reducing pasture contamination for those sheep which will graze the pasture in the next year. However, like all anthelmintics, its use should be judicious to avoid selection for resistance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacocinética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Larva , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacocinética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3119-3123, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743725

RESUMO

Few reports of Cryptosporidium spp. in snakes in China have been published. To determine the infection rate and document the presence of Cryptosporidium in pet snakes using molecular methods, 273 fecal samples were collected from eight species of pet snakes from 13 pet households in Beijing, China, and were examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Cryptosporidium was detected from 17 of 273 (6.2%) samples, and nine out of 13 households tested positive for Cryptosporidium with a range of 3.3 to 33.3% among households showing significant difference (p < 0.01). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium for females and males was 6.5% (13/201) and 5.6% (4/72), respectively, showing no significant difference (p > 0.05). Six out of eight pet snake species tested positive for Cryptosporidium with a range of 4.2 to 9.1% among species, showing no significant difference (p > 0.05). Two Cryptosporidium species were identified: Cryptosporidium serpentis in 10 samples and Cryptosporidium varanii in seven samples. No zoonotic Cryptosporidium species occur in our study populations.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Serpentes/parasitologia , Animais , Pequim , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107938, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Praziquantel (PZQ) is the conventional antibilharzial agent. Nevertheless, no antibilharzial prophylactic agents or 100% curable therapy approved and no reported data about use of human CD34+ Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells (CD34+UCBSCs) or Wharton Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJMSCs) in prevention and/or complete eradication of acute S.mansoni granulomas in liver. We aimed to study possible prophylactic vs therapeutic role of human CD34+UCBSCs and WJMSCs in acute hepatic bilharzial granulomas in pre vs post-infected mice. METHODS: Seventy mice were divided into 7 groups (10 mice each): Normal, S.mansoni-infected, post-infected PZQ-treated, CD34+UCBSCs pre and post-infected, WJMSCs pre and post-infected. Serological, parasitological, histopathological evaluation using OCT4 & TGFB immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis assessment of TGFB-stained fibrogenesis in liver granulomas performed. RESULTS: Histopathologically, surprisingly and significantly, the prophylactic pre-infection stem cells (CD34+UCBSCs and WJMSCs) & similarly the post-infection CD34+UCBSCs treatment revealed eradication/reversal of the entire granulomas and no fibrosis. Moreover, post-infection PZQ treatment showed fewer and significantly smaller granulomas than post-infection WJMSCs treatment. Nevertheless, post-infection WJMSCs exhibited non-significant less TGFB-stained fibrogenesis. CONCLUSION: CD34+UCBSCs exerted the best prophylactic and therapeutic roles in prevention and complete cure of acute hepatic S.mansoni granulomas over WJMSCs and PZQ. In contrast, only pre-infection WJMSCs exhibited similar preventive (prophylactic) effect. On the contrary, post-infection WJMSCs were the worst (incompletely reversed granulomas). Post-infection Praziquantel was overall better therapeutically than WJMSCs in this regard. Accordingly, when it comes to WJMSCs application, WJMSCs are better used as a pre-infection prophylactic and preventive tool rather than a post-infection therapy. Further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD34/sangue , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose mansoni/terapia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/parasitologia , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Granuloma/prevenção & controle , Granuloma/terapia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/terapia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Coloração e Rotulagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107963, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781092

RESUMO

This study analyzed the large-subunit (60S) ribosomal protein L12 of Eimeria tenella (Et60s-RPL12). A full-length cDNA was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 and inoculated in rabbits to produce the polyclonal antibody. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to analyze the transcription levels of Et60s-RPL12 and translation levels in different developmental stages of E. tenella. The results showed that the mRNA transcription level of Et60s-RPL12 was highest in second-generation merozoites, whereas the translation level was highest in unsporulated oocysts. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that Et60s-RPL12 was localized to the anterior region and surface of sporozoites, except for the two refractile bodies. As the invasion of DF-1 cells progressed, fluorescence intensity was increased, and Et60s-RPL12 was localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). The secretion assay results using staurosporine indicated that this protein was secreted, but not from micronemes. The role of Et60s-RPL12 in invasion was evaluated in vitro. The results of the invasion assay showed that polyclonal antibody inhibited host cell invasion by the parasite, which reached about 12%. However, the rate of invasion was not correlated with the concentration of IgG.


Assuntos
Eimeria tenella/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Western Blotting , Ceco/parasitologia , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Biologia Computacional , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Eimeria tenella/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fezes/parasitologia , Fibroblastos , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Coelhos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Transcrição Genética
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107959, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795471

RESUMO

Helminths are parasitic worms that constitute a major public health problem. Conventional analytical techniques to evaluate helminth eggs in environmental samples rely on different steps, namely sedimentation, filtration, centrifugation, and flotation, to separate the eggs from a variety of particles and concentrate them in a pellet for direct observation under an optical microscope. To improve this process, a new approach was implemented in which various image processing algorithms were developed and implemented by a Helminth Egg Automatic Detector (HEAD). This allowed identification and quantification of pathogenic helminth eggs of global medical importance and it was found to be useful for relatively clean wastewater samples. After the initial version, two improvements were developed: first, a texture verification process that reduced the number of false positive results; and second, the establishment of the optimal thresholds (morphology and texture) for each helminth egg species. This second implementation, which was found to improve on the results of the former, was developed with the objective of using free software as a platform for the system. This does not require the purchase of a license, unlike the previous version that required a Mathworks® license to run. After an internal statistical verification of the system was carried out, trials in internationally recognized microbiology laboratories were performed with the aim of reinforcing software training and developing a web-based system able to receive images and perform the analysis throughout a web service. Once completed, these improvements represented a useful and cheap tool that could be used by environmental monitoring facilities and laboratories throughout the world; this tool is capable of identifying and quantifying different species of helminth eggs in otherwise difficult environmental samples: wastewater, soil, biosolids, excreta, and sludge, with a sensitivity and specificity for the TensorFlow (TF) model in the web service values of 96.82% and 97.96% respectively. Additionally, in the case of Ascaris, it may even differentiate between fertile and non-fertile eggs.


Assuntos
Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Animais , Anisotropia , Biossólidos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Distribuição Normal , Óvulo/classificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Esgotos/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107965, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818513

RESUMO

Saturated salt floatation method is widely used for coccidian oocyst purification. However, the repeated procedures and inefficient oocysts recovery rate are a continuous challenge. This study aimed to investigate the best suitable floatation solution, along with optimal centrifugation speed and time for Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) oocyst and sporocyst purification. Different floatation solutions i-e, saturated salt, Sheather's sugar and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at 20-60% concentrations were used to purify oocyst. It was found that about 96.99% oocysts (8609×g for 10 min) were recovered under these conditions without any effect on the viability of sporocysts. The recovery rate of oocysts using 50% NaClO (V/V) was significantly higher than 35% saturated salt flotation solution (P < 0.05). The optimal method for purification of oocysts based our experimentation was centrifugation at 8609×g for 3 min using 50% NaClO floatation solution, and the optimized centrifugation conditions for improved recovery of sporocysts (about 99.3%) were at 2152×g for 5 min. The present study provided a better method for the coccidian oocyst purification, which could be successfully adopted as a better alternative to existing techniques commonly used for investigations/research pertaining to coccidia.


Assuntos
Centrifugação/normas , Eimeria tenella/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Variância , Animais , Galinhas , Eimeria tenella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Oxidantes/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2775-2781, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737590

RESUMO

Triatoma platensis is occasionally found coexisting with Triatoma infestans in chicken coops in Argentina. Some authors have reported the presence of hybrid specimens of both species in chicken coops and other peridomestic habitats. Given the coexistence of T. infestans with T. platensis and the possibility of generating fertile hybrids, it is important to evaluate the vectorial competence of these hybrids. The objective of this study was to record the dynamics of feeding-defecation behavior in fifth-stage nymphs and adults of hybrids between both species and to compare it with T. platensis and T. infestans. Three experimental groups were formed separated by stage and sex: Hybrid group, T. infestans group, and T. platensis group. During feeding, the following variables were recorded for each group: (i) blood meal size, (ii) feeding time, (iii) number of defecations during feeding, and (iv) number of defecations at 10 and 30 min after feeding. The results indicate that adults and fifth-instar nymphs of hybrids have a feeding and defecation behavior similar to T. infestans: they achieve feeding in a short time and first defecation occurs during or just after feeding. Nevertheless, hybrid's ingestion of blood occurs at higher velocity and they require higher blood intake to provoke early defecations. Considering the blood ingestion velocity, the amount of blood ingested, and the short time required for the production of the first defecation, the results of this study suggest that hybrid can be a competent Trypanosoma cruzi vector.


Assuntos
Defecação/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Triatoma/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Galinhas/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have many negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies) that can also exacerbate poverty. These infections are generally highest among low-income populations, many of which are also undergoing market integration (MI; increased participation in a market-based economy). Yet the direct impact of MI-related social and environmental changes on STH infection patterns is poorly understood, making it unclear which lifestyle factors should be targeted to better control disease spread. This cross-sectional study examines if household infrastructure associated with greater MI is associated with lower STH burdens among Indigenous Ecuadorian Shuar. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were used to determine STH infection status and intensity (n = 620 participants; 308 females, 312 males, aged 6 months-86 years); Ascaris lumbricoides (ascarid) and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were the primary infection types detected. Structured interviews assessing lifestyle patterns (e.g., measures of household infrastructure) measured participant MI. Multilevel regression analyses and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models tested associations between MI measures and STH infection status or intensity, controlling for individual and community characteristics. RESULTS: Participants residing in more market-integrated households exhibited lower infection rates and intensities than those in less market integrated households. Parasite infection status and T. trichiura infection intensity were lower among participants living in houses with wood floors than those with dirt floors, while individuals using well or piped water from a spring exhibited lower A. lumbricoides infection intensities compared to those using river or stream water. Unexpectedly, latrine type was not significantly related to STH infection status or intensity. These results suggest that sources of exposure differ between the two helminth species. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents associations between household measures and STH infection among an Indigenous population undergoing rapid MI. These findings can help healthcare programs better target interventions and reduce STH exposure among at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2877-2883, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748040

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) causes verminous pneumonia in cats worldwide. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of A. abstrusus antibodies in 220 stray and free-roaming cats from insular (Mykonos, Crete, Skopelos) and continental (Thessaloniki, Attica) Greece. The results were compared with morphological and biomolecular identification of first-stage larvae (L1) in faeces. Positive cats were observed in all 5 areas: 13/97 (13.4%), 1/32 (3.1%), 7/26 (26.9%), 3/18 (16.7%) and 5/47 (10.6%) cats tested positive for A. abstrusus L1 by Baermann examination, and 33/97 (34.0%), 7/32 (21.9%), 6/26 (23.1%), 3/18 (16.7%) and 11/47 (23.4%) were seropositive, in Mykonos, Crete, Skopelos, Thessaloniki and Attica, respectively. Troglostrongylus brevior L1 were found in 12/97 (12.4%), 3/26 (11.5%) and 2/47 (4.3%) cats from Mykonos, Skopelos and Attica respectively. Six of the 220 cats (2.7%), i.e. 4/97 (4.1%) from Mykonos and 2/26 (7.7%) from Skopelos, shed L1 of both A. abstrusus and T. brevior. Sixty samples were ELISA-positive (27.3%, 95% CI: 21.5-33.7%), of which 21 (35%) tested copromicroscopically positive (19 monospecific infections and 2 mixed with Troglostrongylus brevior), and 5 were positive for T. brevior L1 only. Among seronegative cats (n = 140), L1 of A. abstrusus were additionally detected in 8 (5.7% out of 140) cats (i.e. 4 monospecific infections and 4 mixed with T. brevior), and in 6 (4.3% out of 140) cats, L1 of T. brevior as monospecific infection were detected. This study confirms the presence of lungworms in Greece and suggests that the number of cats infected with/exposed to metastrongylids is higher than detected by faecal examinations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Larva/classificação , Metastrongyloidea/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0007613, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to establish the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) intestinal infections, nutritional status, and anemia in school children aged 7 to 10 years old in the biogeographic provinces of Colombia in 2012-2013. STH prevalence in the country has not been described within the last 30 years and it is needed in order to establish policies its control in the country. METHODOLOGY: National Survey of STH in school-aged children with a multistage stratified probability sampling was conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of STH infection, as well as for each parasite, (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworms) were calculated for the country and for each of the nine biogeographic provinces. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples were collected from 6045 children in eight out of nine biogeographic provinces. The combined prevalence of STH in the country was 29.6%. T. trichiura was the most prevalent helminth (18.4%), followed by A. lumbricoides (11.3%), and hookworms (6.4%). For A. lumbricoides and hookworms, the highest prevalence values were found in the Amazonía province (58.0% and 35.7%, respectively). Regarding STH intensity, most cases showed moderate intensity (41.3%) for A. lumbricoides, and light intensity, for T. trichiura and hookworms. The national prevalence of anemia in school-aged children was 14.2%, lowest in the Nor-Andina province (3.5%), and highest in the Territorios Insulares oceánicos del Caribe province (45.1%). SIGNIFICANCE: Colombia has a moderate risk of STH infection in school-aged populations, with considerable variation in the prevalence values among the biogeographic provinces. Like any public health issue, this problem should be handled with a comprehensive approach that involves deworming programs and strategies for STH control according to the specific epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions and sanitation service coverage in each biogeographic province. The program should be further supported by intersectoral action to improve living conditions, particularly the excreta disposal, promoted at municipality levels.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008500, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730339

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem in tropical regions, affecting more than 250 million people. Sensitive diagnostic methods represent key tools for disease elimination, in particular in areas with low endemicity. Advances in the use of luminol-based chemiluminescent techniques have enabled greater sensitivity and speed in obtaining results in different diagnostic settings. In this study, we developed a luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) method to detect Schistosoma mansoni eggs in human fecal sediments processed by the Helmintex (HTX) method. After S. mansoni eggs were incubated with a solution of luminol-H2O2 the light emission was detected and measured by spectrophotometry at 431 nm for 5 min, using detection and counts of eggs by bright field optical microscopy as a reference. CL intensity was found to correlate with different sources and numbers of eggs. Furthermore, our results showed that the CL method can distinguish positive from negative samples with 100% sensitivity and 71% specificity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the use of CL for the diagnosis of helminths from fecal samples. The combination of the HTX method with CL represents an important advance in providing a reference method with the highest standards of sensitivity.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Luminol/química , Óvulo , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Animais , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Camundongos , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008448, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes mild to severe diarrhoeal disease in humans. To date, several commercial companies have developed rapid immunoassays for the detection of Cryptosporidium infection. However, the challenge is to identify an accurate, simple and rapid diagnostic tool for the estimation of cryptosporidiosis burden. This study aims at evaluating the accuracy of CerTest Crypto, a commercialized rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the detection of Cryptosporidium antigens in the stool of children presenting with diarrhoea. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four study sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar, and Tanzania), from May 2017 to April 2018. Stool samples were collected from children under 5 years with diarrhoea or a history of diarrhoea within the last 24 hours. All specimens were processed and analyzed using CerTest Crypto RDT against a composite diagnostic panel involving two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests (qPCR and RFLP-PCR,) as the gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 596 stool samples were collected. Evaluation of the RDT yielded a very low overall sensitivity of 49.6% (confidence interval (CI) 40.1-59.0), a specificity of 92.5% (CI 89.8-94.7), positive predictive value of 61.3% (CI 50.6-71.2), and negative predictive value of 88.5% (85.3-91.1) when compared to the composite reference standard of qPCR and RFLP-PCR for the detection of Cryptosporidium species. Moreover, the performance of this test varied across different sites. CONCLUSION: The weak performance of the studied RDT suggests the need to carefully evaluate available commercial RDTs before their use as standard tools in clinical trials and community survey of Cryptosporidium infections in pediatric cohorts.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667389

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a protist commonly found in stool samples of humans and animals. Biological and genetic factors of this organism remain controversial. The present study aimed to develop and implement the Blastocystis in vitro culture of Brazilian human isolates for routine use. The fecal isolates (n = 20) were maintained in our laboratory by several passages in Pavlova's medium. Cultures were monitored every 72 h by light microscopy. Genomic DNA was extracted to identify the subtypes (STs). In most isolates, the vacuolar form was prevalent. The amoeboid, granular and cystic forms were observed during in vitro cultivation. STs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 were identified. Our preliminary results show the generation time and forms present in the in vitro culture of Blastocystis subtypes isolated from Brazilian human isolates. Therefore, we emphasize the use of in vitro culture as a tool in future studies for the better understanding of the biological aspects of Blastocystis sp.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fezes/parasitologia , Microscopia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Blastocystis/citologia , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/diagnóstico , Brasil , Humanos , Prevalência
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 510, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and intestinal parasites are mostly affecting poor people. They are in a vicious since one is the risk factor for the other. However, the comprehensive report on the burden and co-incidence of intestinal parasites and tuberculosis in Ethiopia is scant. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to provide abridge conclusive evidence on the intestinal parasite-tuberculosis co-infection in Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 414 articles published in English were searched from both electronic databases (CINAHL, DOAJ, Embase, Emcare, Medline, ProQuest, and PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) and other sources. The qualities of the included studies were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools and the publication bias was measured using the funnel plot and Eggers regression test. Comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA) Version 3.3.07 and Review Manager software were used to estimate pooled prevalence and associations of intestinal parasites and tuberculosis infection. RESULTS: Eleven articles with a total of 3158 tuberculosis patients included in the analysis based on the eligibility criteria. The estimated pooled prevalence of intestinal parasites co-infection was 33% (95% CI: 23.3, 44.3) using the random-effects model. The most common intestinal parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 10.5% (95% CI: 6.0, 17.5), Hookworm 9.5% (95% CI: 6.10, 14.4), Giardia lamblia 5.7% (95% CI: 2.90, 10.9) and Strongyloides sterocoralis 5.6% (95% CI: 3.3, 9.5). The odds of intestinal parasites infection was higher among tuberculosis patients compared to tuberculosis free individuals (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.63). A significant difference was observed among TB patients for infection with intestinal helminths (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.80) but not for intestinal protozoans when compared with their counterparts. The odds of multiple parasitic infections was higher among tuberculosis patients (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.90, 3.55) compared to tuberculosis free individuals. However, intestinal parasites co-infection was not associated with HIV status among tuberculosis patients (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.32). CONCLUSION: One-third of tuberculosis patients are co-infected with one or more intestinal parasites, and they are more likely to be infected with intestinal helminths and multiple intestinal parasitic infections compared to TB free individuals. We recommend routine screening of tuberculosis patients for intestinal parasites. The effect of mass deworming on tuberculosis incidence would be important to be considered in future researches. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on PROSPERO with reference number ID: CRD42019135350 .


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea , Ascaris lumbricoides , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Giardia lamblia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e019019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609241

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to assess the copro-prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in owned Chilean breed horses (Equus caballus) residing in the province of Concepción, Chile. The study was carried out throughout October 2017. Samples were taken from all (100%) Chilean breed horse (124 specimens; 45 females and 79 males, aged between 7 months and 24 years old) from the Concepción province. A rectal stool sample was obtained from each animal. This was analyzed using the Army Medical School method (AMS III) technique to detect F. hepatica eggs. Information about the horse's age, sex, previous fasciolicide application, and an assessment of body condition was also obtained. Fisher tests were carried out to analyze the results. Ten horses (8.06%) were positive for the presence of F. hepatica eggs. No significant difference of copro-prevalence was found between age (young 8.47%, old 7.69%), sex (female 11.1%, male 6.33%), the previous application of fasciolicide (dewormed 10%, not dewormed 7.89%), or body condition (low condition 11.1%, high condition 0.7%) categories (Fisher tests: P>0.05 in all cases). The results of this study suggest that Chilean breed horses constitute part of the reservoir of F. hepatica for both ruminant populations and humans in the Concepción province.


Assuntos
Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase , Fezes , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Fasciola hepatica/fisiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2863-2875, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666190

RESUMO

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Taenia/genética , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ovinos/genética
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2733-2740, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617726

RESUMO

Amebiasis is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis, with symptoms of abdominal discomfort, indigestion, diarrhea, and even death. However, limited information about the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. in experimental nonhuman primates (NHPs) in southwestern China is available. The objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and species identity of Entamoeba to evaluate potential zoonotic risk factors for Entamoeba spp. infection in experimental NHPs. A total of 505 fecal samples were collected from NHPs (macaques) and analyzed by PCR analysis the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene of Entamoeba spp. Forty-seven specimens were positive for Entamoeba spp., and the prevalence of Entamoeba spp. was 9.31% (47/505). Significant differences in the prevalence rates among the three breeds (P = 0.002 < 0.01, df = 2, χ2 = 12.33) and feed types (P = 0.001 < 0.01, df = 1, χ2 = 10.12) were observed. Altogether, four Entamoeba species, including E. dispar (57.44%), E. chattoni (29.78%), E. histolytica (6.38%), and E. coli (6.38%), were identified by DNA sequence analysis. The results suggested a low prevalence but high diversity of Entamoeba species in experimental NHPs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the genetic characteristics of Entamoeba spp. in NHPs.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/genética , Entamebíase/veterinária , Macaca/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/transmissão , Fezes/parasitologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3053-3059, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638102

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) can be a severe threat to immunocompromised patients. This is particularly true for those undergoing chemotherapy and hemodialysis. The present research is aimed at identifying intestinal parasites that might be present in immunocompromised patients. In this cross-sectional study 1040 stool samples were collected from March to September 2017. Six hundred and forty-one stool samples from immunocompromised patients (279 samples from hemodialysis patients and 362 samples from chemotherapy patients) and 399 samples from the control group were collected in Guilan province, Iran. The samples were tested by direct, formalin-ether methods for protozoa and ova of intestinal parasites and Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods for coccidian parasites such as Cryptosporidium species. The overall parasitic infection rate was highest (15%) in hemodialysis patients and 11.3% in chemotherapy patients, whereas the lowest rate was observed (7.3%) in the control group. The infectivity rates were statistically significant (P = 0.008) when compared with the control group. The parasites found were Blastocystis hominis (8.9% of the cases), Entamoeba coli (1.6%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.8%), Endolimax nana (0.6%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.5%), and Taenia species (0.15%), whereas Giardia lamblia was detected only in the control group. There was not a correlation between prevalence of parasites with age or education levels of the infected individuals. Results of the present study suggest that periodic stool examinations in special parasitological laboratories should be included as part of routine and general medical care.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/parasitologia , Neoplasias/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/imunologia , Helmintos/classificação , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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