Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.822
Filtrar
1.
Trop Biomed ; 38(2): 94-101, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172696

RESUMO

The Corona pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) calls on the Saudi government to take action to control the infection. The government closed borders, prohibited travel, limited outdoor movements, and told primary and secondary care facilities to reduce all regular non-urgent health services. It is not known whether these measures have impacted the prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections. This study has therefore been carried out to investigate this issue. Dataset of 217 stool samples submitted to the King Faisal Medical Complex (KFMC) Microbiology Laboratory in Taif, Saudi Arabia for parasitological examination during the pandemic (January-June 2020) and 649 samples submitted during the corresponding months of the previous year (January-June 2019) were extracted and analyzed. Overall, 24.1% (209/866) of samples were parasitespositives; 26.6% (173/649) before and 16.5% (36/217) during the pandemic, with 79% reduction. There was a significant difference in gender-parasitism between the two periods where the majority of parasitism were for males (p<0.001). Infections were frequent in patients aged 5- 14 years both before (84/649; 12.9%) and during (12/217; 5.5%) the pandemic, with significant difference observed between the two cohorts (p<0.002). Moreover, the majority of infected patients were non-Saudi (67.9%; 142/209), with a significant difference in nationality reported, (p=0.024). Protozoa were identified in 21.8% (189) of all samples investigated, of which, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium species were identified in 6.1% (53), 5.4% (47), 5.0% (44), 2.8% (25), and 2.3% (20), respectively. Helminths were diagnosed in 2.3% (20/866) of samples. Eggs of hookworm, Ascaris, Taenia spp, and Hymenolepis nana were detected in 0.9% (8), 0.5% (5), 0.3% (3) and 0.4% (4), respectively. In parallel with our research hypothesis, a substantial decrease in the burden of intestinal parasitic infections was recorded with the lock-down measures taken during the Corona pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
2.
Trop Biomed ; 38(2): 94-101, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282842

RESUMO

The Corona pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) calls on the Saudi government to take action to control the infection. The government closed borders, prohibited travel, limited outdoor movements, and told primary and secondary care facilities to reduce all regular non-urgent health services. It is not known whether these measures have impacted the prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections. This study has therefore been carried out to investigate this issue. Dataset of 217 stool samples submitted to the King Faisal Medical Complex (KFMC) Microbiology Laboratory in Taif, Saudi Arabia for parasitological examination during the pandemic (January-June 2020) and 649 samples submitted during the corresponding months of the previous year (January-June 2019) were extracted and analyzed. Overall, 24.1% (209/866) of samples were parasitespositives; 26.6% (173/649) before and 16.5% (36/217) during the pandemic, with 79% reduction. There was a significant difference in gender-parasitism between the two periods where the majority of parasitism were for males (p<0.001). Infections were frequent in patients aged 5- 14 years both before (84/649; 12.9%) and during (12/217; 5.5%) the pandemic, with significant difference observed between the two cohorts (p<0.002). Moreover, the majority of infected patients were non-Saudi (67.9%; 142/209), with a significant difference in nationality reported, (p=0.024). Protozoa were identified in 21.8% (189) of all samples investigated, of which, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium species were identified in 6.1% (53), 5.4% (47), 5.0% (44), 2.8% (25), and 2.3% (20), respectively. Helminths were diagnosed in 2.3% (20/866) of samples. Eggs of hookworm, Ascaris, Taenia spp, and Hymenolepis nana were detected in 0.9% (8), 0.5% (5), 0.3% (3) and 0.4% (4), respectively. In parallel with our research hypothesis, a substantial decrease in the burden of intestinal parasitic infections was recorded with the lock-down measures taken during the Corona pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
3.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 121-127, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103289

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the status of intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients in Bushehr province, southwest Iran by conventional and molecular methods. Methods: A total of 201 stool samples were collected from kidney transplant recipients, AIDS patients and patients under chemotherapy. Samples were collected from healthy people as the control group. The specimens were tested using various conventional methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was performed on samples identified as positive for Coccidia by direct microscopic examination. Results: Approximately 32.45% were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite. The highest (46.8%) and lowest rates of infection (24%) were observed in AIDS and chemotherapy patients, respectively, while the infection rate of the control group was 16%. Isospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were observed in all patient groups, and Sarcocystis spp. sporocysts were detected in one of the transplant recipients. All identified coccidia were confirmed by PCR. There was a significant relationship between the rate of intestinal parasite infection and certain variables. Conclusion: Given the potential risk of certain intestinal parasites in people with immune deficiency, it is recommended that diagnosis of parasitic infections in such patients be based on specific parasitological methods. Thus, it is advisable that physicians refer them to a parasitology laboratory prior to drug administration.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/citologia , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 128-132, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103290

RESUMO

Objective: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) are considered as one of the most important public health problems that cause morbidity and mortality. For this reason, to determine their prevalence it is critical for prevention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Methods: In our study, a total of 4.957 patients registered to our hospital with gastrointestinal symptoms between January 2016 and December 2019 were retrospectively analysed. Their stool samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically. In the microscopy, native-lugol and formol ethyl acetate concentration methods were used. Crypto-Giardia-Entamoeba antigen test was applied. All cases were evaluated in terms of age, gender, year and season. Results: In our study group, 239 (4.8%) patients were detected as positive for intestinal parasites. Among these patients, 129 (54%) were male and 110 (46%) were female. No statistically significant difference was found between IPI and gender (p=0.228). Blastocystis hominis (76.2%) and Giardia intestinalis (12.1%) were the most common parasites. According to age groups, most intestinal parasites are found in 16-45 years old and least in 0-15-years-old (p=0.0001). A significant increase was found in positive intestinal parasite cases especially after 2018 (p=0.0001). Our study determined that intestinal parasites were observed most frequently in autumn (p=0.033). Conclusion: The prevalence of IPI in our country is low. However, due to the increasing trend of IPI since 2018, necessary measures must be implemented to prevent further increase in the number of cases. In addition, reasons behind the rising cases of intestinal parasites during the autumn months in which rainfall begins require further investigation.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chipre/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/citologia , Parasitos/imunologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 24: 100567, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024383

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis of neonatal dairy calves causes diarrhea, resulting in important economic losses. In Argentina, prevalence values of Cryptosporidium spp. and other enteropathogens such as group A rotavirus (RVA), bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, endotoxin STa+), have been independently studied in different regions. However, an integrative epidemiological investigation on large-scale farms has not been carried out. In this study, fecal samples (n = 908) were randomly collected from diarrheic and healthy calves from 42 dairy farms, and analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, BCoV, ETEC (STa+) and Salmonella spp. In all sampled dairy farms, dams had been vaccinated against rotavirus and gram-negative bacteria to protect calves against neonatal diarrhea. The proportion of calves shedding Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, and BCoV in animals younger than 20 days of age were 29.8%, 12.4% and 6.4%, and in calves aged between 21 and 90 days, 5.6%, 3.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. ETEC was absent in the younger, and occurred only sporadically in the older group (0.9%), whereas Salmonella spp. was absent in both. The observed sporadic finding or even absence of bacterial pathogens might be explained by the frequent use of parenteral antibiotics in 25.3% and 6.5% of the younger and the older group of calves, respectively, within 2 days prior to sampling and/or vaccination of dams against gram-negative bacteria. Diarrhea was observed in 28.8% (95% CI, 24.7-32.8%) of the younger calves and 11.7% (95% CI, 9.1-15.5%) of the older calves. Importantly, Cryptosporidium spp. (odds ratio (OR) = 5.7; 95% CI, 3.3-9.9; p < 0.0001) and RVA (OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1; p < 0.05) were both found to be risk factors for diarrhea in calves younger than 20 days old. Based on its high prevalence and OR, our results strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. is the principal causative factor for diarrhea in the group of neonatal calves, whereas RVA seems to play a secondary role in the etiology of diarrhea in the studied farms, with about three-times lower prevalence and a half as high OR. Furthermore, a coinfection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. and RVA of 3.7% was observed in the group of younger calves, which strengthens the assumption that these events are independent. In contrast, due to a low infection rate of enteropathogens in older calves, mixed infection (<< 1%) was virtually absent in this group.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 295: 109442, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020379

RESUMO

An automated equine fecal egg count test, known as the Parasight System, was modified for use with small ruminants. Modifications included the introduction of a short centrifugation step in a floatation medium, an adjustment in pre-test sample filtering, and training of an image analysis-based egg counting algorithm to recognize and enumerate trichostrongylid eggs. In preliminary assessments, the modified method produced trichostrongylid egg counts comparable to manual McMaster analyses of the same samples from both ovine and caprine sources. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the linear correlation between McMaster and automated counts from these samples was 0.958, and there were no significant differences when comparing counts using feces from either sheep or goats. More extensive comparison utilized ovine samples split into three groups based on trichostrongylid egg content: Low (201-500 EPG), Medium (501-1000 EPG) and High (1001 or greater EPG). Each group contained 5 samples, each of which was used to produce individual slurries that were counted 8 times each using both McMaster and the automated method. This, again, showed no difference in accuracy between the techniques, but revealed significantly higher precision, as assessed by coefficients of variation (CoV), for the automated method for determining egg counts in the Low and Medium groups. The CoV of the McMaster method was 2.2, 2.5 and 1.3 times greater than the automated in the Low, Medium and High groups, respectively. Overall, the automated egg counting system showed good linear agreement with trichostrongylid egg counts determined with the McMaster method, and demonstrated significantly better precision. This technology reduces operator error and the results presented here illustrate its utility for determination of small ruminant trichostrongylid fecal egg counts.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Trichostrongyloidea/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Automação Laboratorial , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Cavalos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/instrumentação , Ovinos/parasitologia
7.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105939, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932364

RESUMO

A total of 1340 fresh fecal samples from farm and pet animals in Central Anatolia and the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated using a PCR assay targeting the SSU rRNA of Blastocystis sp. An overall Blastocystis sp. prevalence of 19.4% (183/940) was found in farm animals, including cattle, sheep, water buffaloes, and chickens. Fecal samples of dogs, cats, and horses were negative. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. was found in sheep (38.2%) among the farm animals. The SSU rRNA sequence analysis revealed two animal-specific subtypes, including ST10 in cattle and sheep and ST14 in water buffaloes. The zoonotic subtype ST7 was identified in chickens. Our results indicated a high prevalence of animal-specific subtypes in livestock and zoonotic subtype ST7 in chickens, highlighting the potential risk of chickens for zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis in the research area. This study is the first large-scale evaluation of Blastocystis in animal hosts in Turkey, and contributes to the molecular epidemiology and genetics of Blastocystis. Our results should be considered by authorities as an indication of the zoonotic importance of Blastocystis sp. and the need for surveillance in public health intervention programs.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/genética , Animais , Mar Negro , Gatos , Bovinos , Galinhas/genética , Cães , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Ovinos , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 225: 108113, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992605

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis remains the leading protozoan induced cause of diarrhoea-associated mortality worldwide. Cryptosporidium hominis, the anthroponotically transmitted species within the Cryptosporidium genus, contributes significantly to the global burden of infection, accounting for the majority of clinical cases in many countries. This study applied high resolution melting analysis, a post-real-time PCR application, to the differentiation of six globally prevalent C. hominisgp60-subtypes. This novel method targeted three microsatellite, tandem repeat containing genetic markers, gp60, the genetic marker upon which current Cryptosporidium subtype nomenclature is based, MSB, and MSE, by which to differentiate between C. hominis isolates. This multi-locus approach successfully differentiated between all six C. hominisgp60-subtypes studied, some of which, such as IbA10G2, are known to exhibit global ubiquity. Thus, this method has the potential to be universally employed as a sensitive, cost effective and highly reproducible means to rapidly differentiate between C. hominisgp60-subtypes. Such a method would be of particular utility in epidemiological studies and outbreak scenarios, providing cost effective, clinically accessible alternative to DNA sequencing. The success of this preliminary study also supports further analysis of an expanded C. hominisgp60-subtype range and the potential expansion of the multi-locus panel in order to improve the discriminatory power of this approach.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/genética , Parasitologia/métodos , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105969, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029530

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis and G. lamblia) is a protozoan parasite that cause disease (giardiasis) in humans and other animals. The pathogen is classified into eight assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages, based on genetic divergence and host specificities. There are two zoonotic subtypes known as assemblages A and B, whilst assemblages from C to H are mainly found in domesticated animals, rodents and marine mammals. Here, we report for the first time the presence of assemblage E and sub-assemblage AIII in human isolates from the South Island in New Zealand. We identified a > 99% nucleotide similarity of assemblage E and sub-assemblage AIII with sequences of the gdh gene available in GenBank from individual human samples collected in Dunedin and Christchurch, respectively. We also performed a deep sequencing approach to assess intra-host assemblage variation. The sample from Dunedin showed evidence of mixed assemblage E and zoonotic sub-assemblage BIV. The report of two novel assemblages and mixed infections provides insights into the genetic diversity, epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Giardia duodenalis in New Zealand.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/fisiologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
11.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105946, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964242

RESUMO

The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium causes serious diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. The present review summarizes epidemiological and molecular studies as well as the clinical disease burden of natural Cryptosporidium infections in humans and animals from Iraq. Retrieved reports regarding cryptosporidiosis in Iraq indicated that the disease is highly prevalent in humans and animals, but the results extracted from these reports are confusing and mostly employed traditional methodologies for the detection of Cryptosporidium infective stage, the oocysts, in clinical samples. Many screened surveys represent point prevalence studies, which described diarrhea in infants and children due to cryptosporidiosis; however, other pathogens causing diarrhea were not excluded. High prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was recovered from many studies from different environmental matrices in different parts of Iraq including drinking tap water, which facilitates its transmission to humans and animals. Reports on molecular characterization of different Cryptosporidium species which exist in Iraq are few but both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum were detected in humans and the latter was more prevalent in isolates from cattle, sheep, goats and birds. A national study on adequate numbers of samples from different hosts and environmental matrices, and employing advanced diagnostic methodologies is required to precisely detect the epidemiological situation of cryptosporidiosis in Iraq. Furthermore, molecular genotyping studies are required to be conducted in Iraq to characterize the species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium infecting humans and animals especially during outbreaks. Therefore, Cryptosporidium parasite should be included in the routine diagnosis and surveillance system of infectious diseases in Iraq and should be regarded as an important public health problem of concern.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2291-2296, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969442

RESUMO

An isolated population of several hundred Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) inhabits the Gerês-Xurés Transboundary Biosphere Reserve (GXTBR) in north-western Iberian Peninsula, in partial sympatry with tens of thousands domestic goats (Capra hircus). This study aimed to assess the prevalence and shedding intensity of gastrointestinal parasites from sympatric herds of domestic goat and Iberian ibex in autumn 2018. A total of 93 pooled faecal samples were collected from GXTBR (39 from domestic goats and 54 from Iberian ibex) and the host species was identified using molecular techniques, whenever defecation was not visualised in the field. Parasitological analysis was achieved by joint Willis flotation/sedimentation, McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC techniques. Seventy-two samples (25 domestic goats and 47 Iberian ibex) were retained for analysis after discarding the least fresh and those with uncertain specific identification. Generalized linear mixed models compared prevalence and shedding intensity between caprine species. Domestic goats showed a non-significant tendency to be more parasitized than Iberian ibex, as assessed by overall prevalence (100.0%, CI95 86.7-100.0 vs. 74.5%, CI95 69.5-84.8), and shedding intensity. This study reveals a similar community of gastrointestinal parasites in an abundant livestock species and an isolated population of wild caprine, living in partial sympatry. It is the first study on the health status of this endangered Iberian ibex population, in close contact with livestock, highlighting the need for further sanitary surveillance.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Gado , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Simpatria
13.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(2): 345-356, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822155

RESUMO

Parasite infection is one of the most important factors in wildlife conservation. However, fecal parasite profiles of threatened Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are only sporadically reported, and the effect of parasitic diseases on the survival of the locally endangered Formosan black bear (Ursus thibetanus formosanus) in Taiwan remains undetermined. The study objective was to investigate the gastrointestinal parasite profiles of Formosan black bears in Yushan National Park, the only known high-density habitat for the species in Taiwan. Bear fecal samples were collected in the acorn season (from October to February) from January 2008 to October 2012. To avoid bias created by repeat sampling, the parasite profiles of fecal samples collected in 2010 from 46 individually identified bears (which were identified by genetic analysis) were also examined. Parasites were isolated by various methods and identified by morphologic characteristics. A total of 220 samples were analyzed and the results were compared between seasons, sexes, and individuals. The overall frequency of parasite infection was 77.3%, and it varied by species, with Baylisascaris transfuga infection being the most frequent. We suggest that one factor underlying the high frequency and high intensity of infection that we observed is the fact that the bears seasonally congregated at high density in a small area. To our knowledge, this is the first thorough study of gastrointestinal parasites in Asiatic black bears. The long-term nature of the investigation and the relatively stable frequency and intensity of infection suggest that parasitic diseases could serve as bioindicators of ecosystem health.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Ursidae/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 555: 168-174, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819747

RESUMO

When animals are infected with helminthic parasites, resistant hosts mount type II helper T (Th2) immune responses to expel worms. Recent studies have clearly shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines contribute to the induction of Th2 immune responses. Here we demonstrate the role of endogenous thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) for protection against Strongyloides venezuelensis (S. venezuelensis) infection, utilizing TSLP receptor-deficient Crlf2-/- mice. The number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) and worm burden were significantly higher in Crlf2-/- mice than in wild type (WT) mice. S. venezuelensis infection induced Tslp mRNA expression in the skin, lung, and intestine and also facilitated the accumulation of mast cells in the intestine in a TSLP-dependent manner. Furthermore, CD4+ T cells from S. venezuelensis-infected Crlf2-/- mice showed diminished capacity to produce Th2 cytokines in the early stage of infection. Finally, CD4+ cell-depleted Crlf2-/- mice still showed higher EPG counts and worm burden than CD4+ cell-depleted WT mice, indicating that TSLP contributes to protecting mice against S. venezuelensis infection in both CD4+ T cell-dependent and -independent manners.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/parasitologia , Citocinas/fisiologia , Estrongiloidíase/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia
15.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 349-357, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906231

RESUMO

Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis, continues to be a major public health concern in the Lake Victoria basin in western Kenya, with Biomphalaria sudanica (a shoreline inhabiting snail) and Biomphalaria choanomphala (a deep-water snail) playing roles in transmission. A recent study showed that B. sudanica was abundantly present near all study villages on the lakeshore, but B. choanomphala was significantly more abundant near villages known to be persistent transmission hotspots. The present study investigated the relative compatibility of B. sudanica and B. choanomphala with S. mansoni. A reciprocal cross-infection experiment used young adult F1 generation B. sudanica and B. choanomphala that were exposed to either 1, 5, or 10 sympatric or allopatric human-derived S. mansoni miracidia. Three weeks post-exposure (PE) and weekly thereafter, the snails were counted and screened for schistosome cercariae, and at 7 wk PE, total cercariae shed during a 2 hr period by each infected snail was determined. Pre-patent periods for S. mansoni in both B. sudanica and B. choanomphala were similar, and most snails in all exposure combinations started shedding cercariae 5 wk PE. Prevalences were significantly higher in B. choanomphala (12.2-80.9%) than in B. sudanica (5.2-18.6%) at each dose, regardless of whether miracidia were of an allopatric or a sympatric source (P < 0.0001). Overall, the odds of a snail becoming infected with 5 or 10 miracidia were significantly higher than the odds of being infected with 1 miracidium, (P < 0.0001), and fewer cercariae were produced by snails exposed to single as compared to 5 or 10 miracidia. On average, B. choanomphala produced more cercariae ( = 458, SD = 414) than B. sudanica ( = 238, SD = 208) (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that B. choanomphala is more compatible with S. mansoni than B. sudanica. Though B. choanomphala can be found in shallow shoreline waters, it is, for the most part, a deeper-water taxon. Because dredging is a relatively inefficient means of sampling, B. choanomphala is likely underestimated with respect to its population size, the number of S. mansoni-positive snails, and its role in maintaining transmission.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria/fisiologia , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Schistosoma mansoni/fisiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/transmissão , Animais , Biomphalaria/classificação , Biomphalaria/imunologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia
16.
Acta Trop ; 219: 105920, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861973

RESUMO

The synthesis of thiophenic compounds, previously identified in Tagetes patula, revealed that 4-(5'-(hydroxymethyl)-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)but-3-yn-1-ol), or simply Thio1, has a pronounced in vitro anthelmintic effect against Haemonchus contortus, showing 100% efficacy in the egg hatch and larval development tests presenting EC50 = 0.1731 mg.mL-1 and EC50 = 0.3243 mg.mL-1, respectively. So, this compound was selected to preparation of a nanostructured formulation to be orally administered to Santa Inês sheep. In general, from the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), it was observed that the product kept the parasitic load in the digestive tract of the hosts stable, with eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) counts having a mean value < 3,000 (EPGmean = 2167.1, efficacy = 36,45%), thus protecting the animals from health risks caused by a massive nematode infestation. To better understand the mode of action of this thiophene derivative, in silico molecular modeling studies were carried out with the glutamate-activated chloride channel (GluCl), a well-known molecular target of anthelmintic compounds. Based on the affinity score (GlideScore = -5.7 kcal.mol-1) and the proposed binding mode, Thio1 could be classified as a potential GluCl ligand, justifying the promising results observed in the anthelmintic assays.


Assuntos
Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Tiofenos/química , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/química , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Asteraceae/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2031-2035, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884491

RESUMO

Intestinal protozoa Eimeria and Entamoeba can infect many animal species including alpacas. However, data on the prevalence and pathogenicity of species of the two genera Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in China is scarce. The current study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in two cities (Taiyuan and Xinzhou) in Shanxi Province, northern China, using PCR-based approaches. Eimeria spp. were only found in Taiyuan city, and the overall prevalence was 1.64%. All samples collected from male alpacas were PCR-negative for Eimeria. Four Eimeria-positive samples were tested positive as Eimeria lamae. The molecular prevalence of Entamoeba in alpacas was 18.03% (66/366), including 16.39% (50/305) in alpacas from Taiyuan city and 26.23% (16/61) from Xinzhou city, respectively. The Entamoeba prevalence in male alpacas (25.00%) was significantly higher than that in female alpacas (15.69%). Entamoeba bovis was the predominant species, and no Entamoeba histolytica infection was detected. Nine unique SSU rRNA gene sequences of Entamoeba were obtained which formed a new cluster. The results showed that sex and location might be the risk factors associated with prevalence of Eimeria spp., and sex might be the risk factor associated with prevalence of Entamoeba spp.. This is the first report of Entamoeba in alpacas worldwide. These findings expand our understanding of the prevalence and genetic diversity of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Entamebíase/complicações , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
18.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2219-2231, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904983

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is an intestinal protist parasite commonly found in the feces of humans and animals worldwide. Blastocystis exhibits extensive genetic diversity and has been identified in humans and a variety of animals including other mammals and birds. Blastocystis subtypes do not exhibit strict host specificity which raises the possibility of zoonotic transmission through either direct contact or fecal contamination of food or water. However, reports detailing the subtypes and prevalence of Blastocystis in avian species are limited. Therefore, this study investigated the presence of Blastocystis in chickens by molecular characterization of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Fecal samples from 130 chickens were collected from local markets in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To detect and identify subtypes of Blastocystis, a next-generation amplicon sequencing protocol was used. Forty-four of the 130 (33.8%) chickens examined were positive for Blastocystis. Blastocystis subtypes ST6 (23/130; 17.7%), ST7 (43/130; 33.1%), ST10 (1/130; 0.8%), ST14 (5/130; 3.8%), ST25 (1/130; 0.8%), and a novel subtype (ST29) (2/130; 1.5%) were observed. A nanopore sequencing strategy was used to obtain the near full-length SSU rRNA gene nucleotide sequence and validate novel subtype ST29. Mixed infections containing multiple subtypes were common and identified in 63.6% of Blastocystis-positive chickens. All positive samples contained one or both potentially zoonotic subtypes ST6 and ST7. The prevalence of Blastocystis in chickens was high, and molecular characterization mostly identified subtypes previously found in humans. Thus, chickens may be a source of human infection and environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/genética , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Brasil , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA de Protozoário , Zoonoses/parasitologia
19.
Vet J ; 271: 105649, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840489

RESUMO

The nematode, Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that lives in the pulmonary arteries of canids and has an obligate gastropod intermediate host. It can cause various clinical signs. with the two most common clinical scenarios consisting of acute respiratory distress and haemorrhagic diathesis, either separately or together. Younger dogs (< 2 years) are overrepresented, and dogs often show pulmonary granulomata (radiographically and pathologically). Thoracic ultrasonography offers a safe, rapid, commonly available, non-invasive means of assessing the lungs. We prospectively examined the utility of thoracic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of angiostrongylosis in 26 client-owned dogs <2 years old, presenting with respiratory distress. We identified small hypoechoic subpleural nodules in 15/26 dogs; 14 of these were subsequently confirmed to have angiostrongylosis by faecal Baermann concentration test, A. vasorum antigen testing or both. The remaining 11 dogs without subpleural nodules had negative faecal analysis and A. vasorum antigen testing and diagnosed with other respiratory diseases. This resulted in a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 92% for the detection of angiostrongylosis by thoracic ultrasonography in young dogs presenting with respiratory distress. Our results suggest that thoracic ultrasonography might offer a safe, rapid, relatively accurate diagnostic test for diagnosis of angiostrongylosis in young adult dogs with respiratory distress living in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Itália , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/parasitologia , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/parasitologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico por imagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...