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1.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 237-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599539

RESUMO

Rabbits are commonly reared by households and farmers in Nigeria as a source of meat, but there is no information available on Cryptosporidium genotypes occurring in rabbits in Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected from 107 rabbits and examined by modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. An infection rate of 3.7% (4/107) was obtained and all microscopy-positive samples were genotyped and subtyped to determine the circulating Cryptosporidium species using sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, respectively. All the four microscopy-positive samples were identified as C. parvum by 18S rRNA gene. However, analysis of the gp60 gene revealed the presence of C. parvum subtype IIc, which is commonly found in humans in two isolates. These findings indicate natural infection of rabbits with C. parvum and underscore the need to investigate the probable role of animal hosts in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection. This is the first report on genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium infecting rabbits in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Coelhos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética
2.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 245-250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599540

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasite infection of the digestive tract in sheep and goats from the West Pomerania region following anti-parasite treatment. Feces were freely collected from sheep and goats kept on organic farms and subjected to analysis by the Willis-Schlaf and McMaster's flotation methods. The mean extensity of infection by gastrointestinal parasites in both sheep and goats was found to be 100%. Both sheep and goats displayed the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes, Eimeria protozoa and Moniezia spp. tapeworms. The intensity of infection of sheep and goats by these parasites was arranged as follows: gastrointestinal nematodes > Eimeria protozoa > Moniezia tapeworms. Our findings confirm that a problem exists regarding the occurrence of parasites of the digestive tract among sheep and goats kept under organic conditions. Therefore, correct implementation of prophylactic programmes should be emphasised to ensure the control or elimination of parasites in animals, particularly those kept on pasture.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Doenças das Cabras , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Cabras , Agricultura Orgânica/estatística & dados numéricos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Polônia , Prevalência , Ovinos
3.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 217-223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578845

RESUMO

The majority of the population in Yemen lives in rural areas and suffers from parasitic infections. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses and schistosome infections among the students enrolled in the primary schools in Hajjah governorate ­ north of Yemen, along with an assessment of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of microscopy-confirmed cases of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. For this purpose, 780 samples (320 stool and 460 urine) were examined microscopically. The present study revealed an overall infection rate of 75.3% (241/320) with intestinal parasites and Schistosoma mansoni. The detected parasite species included Entamoeba histolytica (27.8%), Hymenolepis nana (12.2%), Giardia lamblia (9.7%), Entamoeba coli (9.4%), S. mansoni (9.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.9%), Trichuris trichiura (3.1%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.8%) and Ancylostoma duodenale (2.2%). Schistosoma haematobium was prevalent among 1.7% (8/460) of the investigated students. On the other hand, PZQ yielded a cure rate of 75.7% of Schistosoma-infected students when administered at 40 mg/kg body weight. However, a 100% cure rate was achieved when administered at 60 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the findings of the present study highlight the importance of monitoring PZQ efficacy through large-scale studies in different settings endemic for schistosomosis in the country.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Estudantes , Resultado do Tratamento , Urina/parasitologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia
4.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(3): 379-384, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631607

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a PCR method for Entamoeba histolytica( E.histolytica) detection in fecal specimens, and to compare the performance of PCR to that of microscopy and ELISA. Methods: Two pairs of self-designed primers and 2 pairs of primers from references based on small subunit ribosome RNA (SSU rRNA) fragment of E. histolytica standard strain were synthetized. DNA from E. histolytica reference strain were amilified by the conventional PCR using the 4 pairs of primers. 221 stool samples from diarrhea patients were collected and detected for E. histolytica by three methods: Entamoeba trophozoites and cysts detection by microscopy, E. histolytica-specific antigen detection using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit ( E. HISTOLYTICA II), amplification of SSU rRNA fragment of E. histolytica by PCR method. Positive rate of three methods were compared by chi-square test, and Kappa test was applied to determine the concordance among the three methods. Results: Specific fragments of E. histolytica were amplified by the PCR method we developed in this study. Positive rates of PCR, microscopy and ELISA were 2.26%, 0.90% and 9.50%, respectively. The positive rates of the three methods were significantly different ( χ 2 =23.34, P<0.01). The Kappa value of PCR and microscopy was 0.216, and that of PCR and ELISA method was -0.134, both of which showed a weak consistency. PCR results showed best consistency with clinical diagnosis. Conclusion: The PCR method we established in this study has a better performance in accuracy than microscopy and ELISA have in laboratory diagnosis of E. histolytica infection.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Microscopia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 522-527, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483036

RESUMO

The anthelmintic resistance stimulated the search for strategies for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes, including the use of free essential oils or its nanoemulsion. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (CcEO) and C. citratus essential oil nanoemulsion (CcEOn). Pysicochemical analyses were performed. The in vitro effect was determined using the egg hatch test (EHT) on Haemonchus contortus and in vivo effect was evaluated in sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The animals were treated with CcEO (500 mg/kg) or CcEOn (450 mg/kg) for the fecal egg count (FEC) and the determination of worm burden. The main component of CcEO was citral. The CcEO content in the nanoemulsion was 20% (v/v), and the mean particle size was 248 nm. In EHT, CcEO and CcEOn (1.25 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98.4 and 97.1%, respectively. Three animals treated with CcEO died whereas in the group treated with CcEOn one animal died. The FEC and total worm burden of the treated groups did not differ from the negative control (p>0.05). The CcEOn showed efficacy only on H. contortus (p<0.05). In conclusion, nanoencapsulation reduced toxicity and increased efficacy on H. contortus.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Cymbopogon/química , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 251-257, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To build a schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system in Sichuan Province, so as to provide technical support for facilitating the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in the province. METHODS: The surveillance sites for schistosomiasis transmission risk were assigned in 63 endemic counties (districts) of 11 cities (prefectures) in Sichuan Province. During the period from 2015 through 2018, wild feces contamination, the sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections (fever patients, livestock and wild animals), water infectivity in key settings, snail distribution in key settings, and snail breeding risk (snail importation and spread, floating debris carrying snails and snail breeding in ecological wetlands) were monitored in the surveillance sites. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2018, a total of 1 636 wild faces were detected in Sichuan Province, and 3 faces were positive for S. japonicum, with a 0.18% positive rate; among 3 995 livestock and 59 wild mice monitored, no S. japonicum infection was detected. A total of 49 414 fever patients were monitored in 2018, and 493 were seropositive for S. japonicum infection; then, 445 seropositives were subjected to stool examinations, and no egg-positives were found. From 2010 to 2018, a total of 93 sentinel sites were assigned, and 3 994 sentinel mice were placed for monitoring the water infectivity, with one S. japonicum-infected mouse detected. Between 2015 and 2018, a total of 4 156 key settings were investigated covering an area of 1 998.46 hm2, and 668 settings were detected with snails (16.07%), covering an area of 193.26 hm2; 497 suspected settings with a likelihood of snail importation with plant introduction were monitored from 2017 to 2018, and 65 settings with snails were found with 2 673 snails captured; 593 sites were assigned to collect the floating debris from 2017 to 2018, and 9 191.39 kg floating debris were collected with 186 snails captured; 4 wetlands were monitored for the risk of schistosomiasis transmission from 2013 to 2015, and snail breeding was found in 2 wetlands. No S. japonicum infection was identified in snails captured from all surveillance sites. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and effective schistosomiasis transmission risk surveillance system has been successfully established in Sichuan Province. There is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission risk in local areas of Sichuan Province. Therefore, the integrated schistosomiasis control measures with emphasis on the control of the source of S. japonicum infections should be further intensified, and snail monitoring and control and monitoring and control of schistosomiasis in wetlands should be also intensified.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População , Esquistossomose Japônica , Esquistossomose , Animais , Cruzamento , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Gado , Camundongos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 275-279, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of infectious source control at various stages of transmission control of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the further monitoring and management of infectious sources of schistosomiasis. METHODS: Wenbi Village, a plateau subtype region and Qiandian Village, a mountain subtype region in Eryuan County were selected as the study areas. The species, schistosome infection and transmission capability of infectious sources were investigated in Wenbi and Qiandian villages in 2011 and 2018 and were compared. RESULTS: Schistosome infections were detected in human, bovine, horse, dog and mouse in Qiandian Village in 2011, with positive rates of 1.19%, 0.91%, 1.25%, 3.13% and 0.95%, respectively, and human, bovine and dog were found to have schistosome infections, with positive rates of 0.76%, 1.66% and 9.30%, respectively. However, no infections were identified in human, bovine, horse, pig, dog, sheep or mouse in these two villages in 2018. A total of 731 wild feces were collected in both villages in 2011. In Qiandian Village, horse, bovine and dog feces accounted for 34.40%, 29.80% and 20.20% of all fecal samples, and dog and horse feces were found to have schistosome infections (11.94% and 6.90% positive rates, respectively). In Wenbi Village, dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 44.59%, 39.83% and 14.29% of all fecal samples, and dog, human and bovine feces were found to have schistosome infections (16.95%, 9.52% and 2.33% positive rates, respectively). In 2018, a total of 204 wild feces were collected in both villages, and no schistosome infections were identified. Sheep, dog and bovine feces accounted for 36.27%, 33.33% and 27.45% of all fecal samples in Qiandian Village, and dog, bovine and human feces accounted for 72.55%, 11.76% and 10.78% of all fecal samples in Wenbi Village. CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable achievement has been obtained in the control of infectious sources of schistosomiasis in Eryuan County, and the role of human and bovine as the major infectious sources of schistosomiasis has been effectively controlled. In the future, the integrated strategy with emphasis on the control of infectious sources should be intensified, and the management of reservoir hosts including dog and mouse should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos , Humanos , Camundongos , Prevalência , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Ovinos , Caramujos , Suínos
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489072

RESUMO

Introduction: Soil-transmitted helminth infections (STHs) and schistosomiasis have serious consequences for the health, education and nutrition of children in developing countries. As Loum is known as a highly endemic commune for these infections, several deworming campaigns have been carried out in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine any changes that have occurred since then in the characteristics of these infections among schoolchildren in this site. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2016 on 289 schoolchildren. Stool and urine samples were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections. Results: The highest prevalence was noted for Schistosoma haematobium (34.2%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%), S. mansoni (4.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.9%) in decreasing order. A prevalence of less than 2% was noted for each of the other two helminths. The highest mean intensity was found for S. haematobium (39.6 eggs/10 ml of urine), followed by A. lumbricoides (24.2 eggs per gram of faeces: epg), Strongyloides stercoralis (16.6 epg) and Schistosoma mansoni (12.3 epg). The prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly higher in boys and that of S. haematobium in children aged 10 years or older, while the differences between other values of prevalence or between egg burdens were not significant. Conclusion: Compared with values reported in 2003, the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiases and STH infections in Loum has sharply decreased in 2016. Confirmation of this decrease in the years to come allowed to space deworming campaigns among schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 337-338, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential risk of schistosomiasis transmission so as to provide the evidence for formulating the control strategy. METHODS: Two villages were selected as the investigated sites in Chuxiong City and the risk of schistosomiasis transmission was evaluated by reviewing the data of schistosomiasis epidemic situation and prevention and control work, and carrying out the field survey for Oncomelania hupensis snail status, wild faeces, and schistosome infection of the population from 2015 to 2017. RESULTS: There was 1.49 hm2 area of snail habitats, with an average density of 0.54 snails/0.1 m2. The occurrence rate of frames with snails was 5.41%. No schistosome-infected snails were found. The positive rate of schistosomiasis serological tests of the residents was 3.36%, but the stool examination positive cases were not found. A total of 58 wild faeces samples were collected but no schistosome infested cases were found. The risk levels of schistosomiasis transmission in both villages were Grade III. CONCLUSIONS: Although Chuxiong City has been in a low risk state of schistosomiasis transmission, the density of snails is still high, and there is a risk of infection source importation. In the future, the infection source control and snail control should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Esquistossomose , Caramujos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384349

RESUMO

Introduction: A cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of April to October 2015, to determine the effects of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) on nutritional status of school age children in Owerri and Orlu geographical zones, in Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: Faecal samples were examined using Kato Katz method and formol-ether concentration techniques, while blood samples were examined using cyamethahaemoglobin method. Anthropometric indices were used as indicators of nutritional status, children whose Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age and Weight-for-Height were <-2 standard deviation (SD) were classified as stunted, wasted, and underweight respectively. Results: Total prevalence rate of 16.6% was recorded in the study areas with Ascaris lumbricoides (4.0%), Trichuris trichiura (0.6%), Hookworm (1.0%) Taenia sp (0.3%), Entaomeba histolytica (5.3%), Entamoeba coli (2.7%) and Giardia lambia (2.7) Majority (73.4%) of the children had light intensity. Anthropometric study results showed that 79(31.3%) of the children were malnourished. The prevalence of stunting, under-weight and wasting were higher in uninfected (86.1%, 90.0% and 10%) respectively than in infected children (13.9%, 10.0% and 0.0%) respectively, although not significant at p = 0.857, 0.587 and 0.368 respectively. Prevalence of anaemia was 17.4%, anaemia was insignificantly (p = 0.09) higher in infected (21.1%) than in uninfected (16.5%) children. Children that had co-infection recorded higher prevalence (2.2%) of severe anaemia. There was an association (p = 0.002) between anaemia and intensity of helminth infection. Malnutrition was insignificantly (p = 0.319) higher in children with heavy (100.0%) and moderate (75.0%) intensity of helminth infection than children that had light intensity (41.7%) of helminth infection. Conclusion: When compared with previous study, there were decline in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among school age children. Low intensity parasitemia with intestinal parasites had no significant effect on the malnutrition and haemoglobin profile of the children in the study areas. Therefore, improved sanitation and more deworming efforts should be intensified to ensure further decline in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Anemia/parasitologia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/parasitologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/parasitologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/parasitologia
11.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(3): 308-318, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414632

RESUMO

Blastocystis spp. is one of the most common protozoa in Turkey and throughout the world; laboratory diagnosis, genetic diversity and clinical features are among the most controversial topics related to the parasite. The aims of the present study were to investigate the subtype distribution of Blastocystis spp. Isolates from Aydin, Turkey, to evaluate the efficiency of some diagnostic methods and to evaluate the relationship between Blastocystis spp. infection with demographic factors and clinical findings. According to the direct microscopy results, 100 stool samples with and without Blastocystis spp. were selected by simple random sampling method. All were directly subjected to DNA isolation and cultured in Jones medium. DNA isolation was also carried out in Blastocystis spp. positive cultures with a different kit. Genomic DNA samples were analysed by PCR targeting the Blastocystis spp. small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene and subtypes (ST) were determined according to the sequence analyses. Moreover, the samples with undetected ST were further studied with sequence tagged site-PCR (STS-PCR). In addition, the patients with and without Blastocystis spp. were compared in terms of demographic characteristics (gender, age, residence) and clinical findings (itching, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, constipation and weight loss)., Among 100 stool positive samples diagnosed with direct microscopic examination 81 (81%) and 86 (86%) were found as positive with culture and PCR, retrospectively. Additionally, among 100 Blastocystis spp. negative stool samples five (5%) and seven (7%) samples were found positive with the same methods, respectively. The results of the analysis of Blastocystis spp. with SSU rRNA gene sequencing and STS-PCR methods revealed the subtype distribution of 95 Blastocystis spp. isolates as follows: ST3 (n= 50, 52.6%), ST2 (n= 21, 22.1%), ST1 (n= 17, 17.9%), ST7 (n= 4, 4.2%), ST2 + ST3 (n= 2, 2.1%) and ST1 + ST3 (n= 1, 1.1%). In addition, a complete accordance was observed in subtype distribution between direct DNA isolation from stools and 35 randomly selected isolates from the culture. In our study, the comparison of 107 Blastocystis spp. positive (by any of the methods) cases and 93 negative cases showed that there was no correlation in terms of demographic characteristics and clinical findings. Similarly, there was no significant relationship between symptoms and subtypes. In conclusion, it is recommended that in addition to direct microscopic examination, the use of additional methods such as culture and PCR will be useful in routine laboratory diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. The distribution of Blastocystis subtype in Aydin is mainly in accordance with the global findings. Lack of a relationship between Blastocystis spp. Infection and symptoms in our study was supported the idea that Blastocystis spp. infection is mostly asymptomatic in humans and it may be a member of healthy microbiota.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Variação Genética , Parasitologia/métodos , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/diagnóstico , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Parasitologia/normas , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 13-16, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395199

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) is a worldwide occurring lungworm causing verminous pneumonia in cats. To date the Baermann method is the most used procedure to diagnose A. abstrusus infection by isolating first stage larvae from faeces, though its sensitivity and specificity can be impaired by several factors. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against A. abstrusus has been recently developed as a diagnostic alternative. The present study evaluated the seroprevalence for A. abstrusus infection in cats from two endemic areas of Italy. Overall, 250 sera were sampled and tested for the presence of antibodies against A. abstrusus. Based on the results obtained from 20 cats proven to be infected by A. abstrusus using Baermann technique and molecular methods, and from 20 negative cats (Subset A), a cut off value of 0.347 optical density (OD) was determined, leading to a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100%. Two-hundred and ten cats (142 and 68 from Abruzzo and Umbria regions, respectively) were included in Subset B (i.e. 202 negative by Baermann examination and 8 positive for Troglostrongylus brevior). Antibodies against A. abstrusus were detected in forty-five (21.4%, 95% CI: 16.1-27.6%) samples. This study confirms the occurrence of A. abstrusus in endemic areas of Italy and indicates that one-fifth of randomly selected cats have or had a lungworm infection with production of antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por Strongylida/sangue , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 17-22, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395200

RESUMO

In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on digesta passage rate, rumen fermentation and lamb performance. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ±â€¯1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: Infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and Uninfected (U, n = 9). The I lambs received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week for three weeks). Daily feed intake was assessed using the I lambs as a reference for their respective pairs on the U group (pair-fed). Weight, body condition score and faeces (stool) samples were obtained every 15 days for 75 days. In both treatments, faecal egg count (FEC), digesta passage rate, rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa count and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were evaluated. The lambs presented moderate infection (FEC = 620). The retention time of the digesta in the rumen-reticulum segment was lower (P < 0.05) in I lambs. The I lambs presented no inappetence, however, lower concentrations of total SCFA and butyrate, while higher acetate concentration were observed in these lambs (P < 0.05). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection decreased the retention time (solid and liquid content) of the digesta in the rumen-reticulum, as well as negatively affected lamb growth.


Assuntos
Digestão , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/veterinária , Animais , Apetite , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/patologia , Trichostrongylus
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 53-57, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395205

RESUMO

The detection and quantification of nematode eggs using fecal egg count techniques have an irreplaceable role in equine parasitic control. The reliability, particularly precision and accuracy, of individual techniques have been described only for strongylid infections. The aim of this study was to compare three fecal egg count techniques used for the detection of the two most common equine nematode infections: strongylid and ascarid. The Simple McMaster, Concentration McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC techniques were tested on spiked fecal samples with various levels of egg concentration (50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 3000 eggs per gram) and naturally infected mixed strongylid-ascarid samples with 30 replicates. The Simple McMaster, Concentration McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC techniques had precision coefficients of variation of 44.33, 35.64 and 18.25% for the strongylid infection and 62.95, 35.71 and 18.95% for the ascarid infection, and percent accuracies (mean count/number of eggs spiked) of 97.53, 88.39 and 74.18% for the strongylid infection and 65.53, 83.18 and 90.28% for the ascarid infection, respectively. Accuracy depended greatly on the type of nematode, but precision did not. The Mini-FLOTAC technique was more precise than the Simple and Concentration McMaster techniques regardless of nematode type. Simple McMaster was the most accurate technique for detecting strongylid eggs, and Mini-FLOTAC was the most accurate technique for detecting ascarid eggs. Our results indicated that none of the current techniques were universally and sufficiently reliable for the simultaneous quantification of both of these common equine nematodes.


Assuntos
Ascaridíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/diagnóstico , Infecções Equinas por Strongyloidea/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaridíase/diagnóstico , Ascaridíase/parasitologia , Cavalos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 17-23, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442888

RESUMO

The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus may cause severe diarrhea in cats all over the world. In order to evaluate the methodology in coprological molecular diagnosis of feline tritrichomonosis, we compared previously published ("old") and newly developed ("novel") loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) (targeted to the T. foetus ß-tubulin and the elf1α 1 gene, respectively) as well as an old conventional and an old and novel real-time PCR (all targeted to overlapping regions of T. foetus rDNA) assays regarding their diagnostic sensitivities and specificities. Here, the novel real-time PCR yielded the best methodical performance in that a sensitivity with a detection limit of <0.1 trophozoites (corresponding to ca.<0.13 trophozoites per mg feces) and a maximal specificity for diagnosis of Tritrichomonas spp. was achieved. The other test systems exhibited either an approximately 10-times lower sensitivity (<1 trophozoite corresponding to ca.<1.3 trophozoites per mg feces) (conventional PCR and both LAMP assays) or a lower specificity (old real-time PCR). Conversely, the diagnostic performance assessed with clinical fecal samples from cats demonstrated identical sensitivities (8 of 20 samples tested were positive) for the novel PCR and both LAMP assays. Diagnostic sensitivities were significantly higher than those found for the old real-time (5 positive samples) and conventional PCR (6 positive samples), respectively. Accordingly, our data suggested the novel PCR and both LAMP assays to be well suited molecular tools for direct (i.e. without including an in vitro cultivation step) coprological diagnosis of tritrichomonosis in cats. Interestingly, relative high (novel LAMP, 7 positive samples) to at least moderate (old LAMP, 6 positive samples and 1 sample with equivocal score) diagnostic sensitivities were also achieved by testing clinical samples upon simple visual inspection of colorimetric changes during the LAMP amplification reactions. Accordingly, both LAMP assays may serve as practical molecular tools to perform epidemiological studies on feline (and bovine as well as porcine) tritrichomonosis under simple laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Tritrichomonas foetus , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 32-35, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442890

RESUMO

This study looked to assess the stability of Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes in calves between the final day of treatment with the antiprotozoal halofuginone lactate and seven days post-treatment. Paired faecal samples were collected on the final day of treatment and seven days later from 54 calves across seven farms in South-west England. The presence of Cryptosporidium species was detected using polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18 s rDNA. The presence and genotype of C. parvum was determined by PCR and amplicon sequencing targeting the gp60 locus. On farms where C. parvum was detected at both sampling times there was a distinct genotype shift. Detection of gp60 genotype IIaA15G2R1 decreased from 40% to 7% while IIaA17G1R1 increased from 0% to 41%, supplemented by IIaA16G3R1 in one sample. A shift in C. parvum genotypes present in calves within a one week sampling timeframe has not been described prior to this study, indicating that the timeframe is likely suitable for observing variation in C. parvum populations and interactions with antiprotozoal control strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Inglaterra , Fezes/parasitologia , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Genótipo , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 443-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390438

RESUMO

Diseases related to the alimentary system are the main cause of death in horses. This retrospective study aimed to describe the pathological findings of fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis caused by cyathostominae, Eimeria leuckarti, Balantidium coli, and Strongyloides westeri in horses. The records of parasite-induced intestinal lesions in horses necropsied in Southern Brazil between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed. Ten horses had fatal parasitic enteritis and/or typhlocolitis, and the main causes were: cyathostominae typhlocolitis (6/10), E. leuckarti enteritis (1/10), S. westeri enteritis (1/10), B. coli colitis related to cyathostominae (1/10), and infection by multiple agents (1/10). Cyathostominae typhlocolitis showed marked mucosal thickening, with multifocal elevated nodules containing tangled filiform parasites. Microscopic examination revealed that the mucosa and submucosa had encysted parasitic structures surrounded by eosinophilic and granulomatous inflammation. E. leuckarti enteritis was microscopically characterized by macrogamonts, microgamonts, and oocysts inside the host cells. S. westeri enteritis showed microscopic atrophy of the villi with numerous mucosal encysted parasitic structures. B. coli typhlocolitis showed severe diffuse mucosal reddening, with microscopic superficial mucosal necrosis associated with multiple protozoan trophozoites. Fatal parasite-induced enteritis and typhlocolitis are important causes of death in horses in Southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Balantidium/isolamento & purificação , Colite/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Enterite/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Tiflite/parasitologia , Animais , Colite/mortalidade , Enterite/mortalidade , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Cavalos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Tiflite/mortalidade
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 489-492, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411313

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite with a wide range of hosts, including humans. However, only a few Cryptosporidium species have been described in birds (C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. galli and C. avium). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of eared doves (Zenaida auriculata), followed by molecular characterization of the parasite. A total of 196 animals of both sexes were trap-captured; the animals were culled and the intestinal contents were collected for DNA extraction. After extraction, a nested-PCR (nPCR), which amplifies a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp., was performed. The amplicons obtained were purified and sequenced. PCR analysis revealed that 30 animals (15.3%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. There was no significant sex-dependent enrichment of Cryptosporidium occurrence (p > 0.05). Only 15 out of the 30 positive samples were successfully sequenced and their species determined, of which, 13 (86.7%) and 2 (13.3%) were C. meleagridis and C. galli, respectively. Herein, we present for the first time a molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium from feces of eared doves (Z. auriculata) and propose that these birds are a potential source of C. meleagridis infection in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
19.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107735, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381870

RESUMO

Two experiments were performed to determine whether oral administration of copper oxide capsules controlled helminthic infections in Lacaune sheep without acute collateral effects on animal health. In experiment 1, 48 multiparous lactating sheep (60.1 ±â€¯8.5 kg) were stratified according to initial number of eggs (Haemonchus contortus) per gram of feces (EPG) and were assigned randomly to 1 of two treatments (24 sheep/treatment): no oral administration (control) or oral administration of two copper capsules (treated; approximately 58 mg copper/kg body weight). Blood and fecal samples were collected on days 0, 15 and 45. Animals treated with copper capsules showed lower of EPG, eosinophils, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in whole blood, and lower butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in serum. Treated sheep had higher erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit, and lymphocyte numbers. In experiment 2, 12 male lambs negative for helminths and coccidia were assigned randomly to one of two treatments (six lambs/treatment): control or treated (one copper capsule; approximately 58 mg copper/kg body weight); the experiment was designed to determine whether the results of experiment 1 were due to treatment or parasitism. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, 10 and 15 and fecal samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 15. Treated animals showed greater concentrations of lymphocytes; however, treatment had no effect on other hemogram variables, AChE and BChE activities, or levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, creatinine, urea, albumin, total protein, and reactive oxygen species. These data suggest that copper capsules in dairy sheep efficiently controlled H. contortus infections. Treatment was not harmful to lambs during the first 15 days, i.e. there were no signs of acute toxicity.


Assuntos
Cobre/administração & dosagem , Hemoncose/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Lactação , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Cápsulas , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Indústria de Laticínios , Resíduos de Drogas , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase Animal/sangue , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Contagem de Linfócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Leite/química , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Paridade , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107734, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394093

RESUMO

Parasitism by Haemonchus contortus is one of the main limiting factors in small ruminant production around the globe. Although several studies suggest the use of integrated management practices, these parasites have been controlled essentially with synthetic anthelmintic drugs. The resistance mechanism against the imidazothiazole derivative levamisole in Haemonchus contortus has not been fully described. Recently, resistance was associated with a 63bp deletion in the Hco-acr-8b gene that encodes a subunit for a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. This study aimed to standardize a real time PCR (qPCR) protocol for levamisole resistance diagnosis in H. contortus populations based on this polymorphism and use it to characterize 23 field H. contortus populations obtained from different localities of Ceará State, Northeast Brazil. In addition, two populations of H. contortus were used as a standard of susceptibility and resistance, Inbred Strain Edinburgh (ISE) and Kokstad, respectively. Larval development tests (LDT) were performed on five field isolates and both EC50 and EC95 were estimated. LDT EC95 values provided a wider interval between susceptible and resistant populations than EC50 values (EC95 = 1.96-57.93 µM; EC50 = 0.05-0.39 µM), and were found to be more appropriate for differentiating them. Real time PCR results showed resistance allele frequencies ranged from 20.9 to 76.7%. Our results suggest that levamisole resistance may be present in field populations but it is not as widespread as benzimidazole resistance. This methodology may be useful to monitor levamisole resistance in field populations of H. contortus.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Levamisol/farmacologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Frequência do Gene/genética , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Junção Neuromuscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Receptores Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Nicotínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tetramizol/farmacologia
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