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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(4): 370-377, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and identify the risk factors of Giardia lamblia infections among patients with colorectal cancer in Henan Province. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed for questionnaire surveys among colorectal cancer patients in Henan Cancer Hospital during the period from March to July, 2021. Patients' stool samples were collected, and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of G. lamblia was amplified in stool samples using nested PCR assay to characterize the parasite genotype. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify the risk factors of G. lamblia infections among colorectal cancer patients. RESULTS: A total of 307 colorectal cancer patients were investigated, including 176 males (57.3%) and 131 females (42.7%). PCR assay detected 8.1% [95% confidential interval (CI): (0.056, 0.117)] prevalence of G. lamblia infections among the study subjects, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between men [9.1%, 95% CI: (0.057, 0.143)] and women [6.9%, 95% CI: (0.037, 0.125)] (χ2 = 0.495, P = 0.482). In addition, there was no age-specific prevalence of G. lamblia infections among the participants (χ2 = 1.534, P = 0.675). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified use of septic tanks [odds ratio (OR) = 3.336, 95% CI: (1.201, 9.267)], daily use of well water [OR = 3.042, 95% CI: (1.093, 8.465)] and raising livestock [OR = 3.740, 95% CI: (1.154, 12.121)] as risk factors of G. lamblia infections among colorectal cancer patients, and the prevalence of abdominal pain was significantly greater in colorectal cancer patients with G. lamblia infections than in those without infections (P = 0.017). Among the 25 patients with G. lamblia infections, assemblage A was characterized in 24 (96.0%) cases and assemblage B in one case (4.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of G. lamblia is high among colorectal cancer patients in Henan Province, and assemblage A is the dominant genotype of G. lamblia. Use of septic tanks, daily use of well water and raising livestock are risk factors of G. lamblia infections among patients with colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/complicações , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Água
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 310: 109791, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049292

RESUMO

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is an ever increasing problem for the sheep industry. Several studies worldwide have investigated reversing the trend of increasing AR and documented evidence for reversion toward susceptibility has been found. The hypothesis that resistance mutations compromise parasite fitness was drawn from this evidence. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were measurable differences in the fitness of Teladorsagia circumcincta isolates depending on their AR status. Four isolates were selected for the trial based on their known resistance status; D and M were multi-drug resistant, and T and W were susceptible to the benzimidazole, levamisole, and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic classes. A secondary aim was to develop a series of in vitro bioassays for assessing fitness characteristics of parasites. The in vitro assays included; the cold stress test measured the number of third stage larvae (L3) developing from eggs stored at 4 °C for different lengths of time. Larval aging measured the locomotory activity of L3 after storage at 30 °C for different lengths of time. The exsheathment assay measured the exsheathment percentage of L3. Larval Length used length as a proxy for fecundity. The egg hatch assay evaluated egg hatch rate in water at room temperature. All isolates exhibited a decrease in the number of L3 recovered after storage of eggs at 4 °C (p < 0.001). Storage of L3 at 30 °C significantly influenced the ability of L3 to migrate through a 20 µm sieve (p < 0.001), however, there were no differences between isolates (p > 0.05). Exsheathment rate was higher for isolate D in comparison to isolates M and W, and for isolate T compared to isolate W. Isolate W was significantly longer than all other isolates (p < 0.05), whilst isolate M was significantly longer than isolate D (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between isolates in egg hatch (p > 0.05). Overall, the results do not support differences in fitness associated with anthelmintic resistance status, even though differences were seen between the isolates for some assays. This suggests there is considerable variation in fitness parameters between isolates, making it difficult to determine whether resistance genotypes come with lower fitness.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Ostertagia/genética , Óvulo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 311, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasite contamination from infected dogs can place other dogs and humans at risk. A study was initiated to estimate the prevalence of canine intestinal parasitism by collecting fecal samples in cities across Western Europe. METHODS: Fresh fecal samples were collected from 2469 dogs visiting 164 parks in 33 cities across 12 countries. Each owner responded to a questionnaire focusing on their dog's signalment and recent anthelmintic treatment history. The collected samples were examined for hookworms, whipworms, ascarids and Giardia using a coproantigen diagnostic immunoassay and microscopy following centrifugal flotation. RESULTS: Nematodes or Giardia were detected in at least one sample from 100% of cities and in 93.3% of parks. Nematodes were detected in 57% of parks. Overall, 22.8% of dogs tested positive for an intestinal parasite, with Giardia being the most commonly identified parasites (17.3% of dogs, 83.5% of parks). For nematode infection, 7.6% of all dogs tested positive, with 9.9% of dogs aged < 1 year infected, 7.7% of those aged 1-3 years, 7.3% of those aged 4-6 years and 6.6% of those aged ≥ 7 years. Among the nematodes detected, ascarids were the most prevalent (3.6% of dogs, parks, 28.7% of parks), being most common in dogs aged < 1 year but also present in older dogs, including those aged ≥ 7 years. Hookworms and whipworms were detected in 3.2% and 2.3% of dogs of all ages, respectively, and in 37.2% and 17.7% of parks, respectively. A larger proportion of fecal samples tested positive with the coproantigen immunoassay than with centrifugal flotation. Positive test results for Giardia were sevenfold higher when both diagnostic tests were used than when centrifugal flotation alone was used, and there were 60% more positive test results for nematodes when both tests were used than when flotation alone was used. Overall, 77.2% of owners reported previous anthelmintic treatment, among whom at least 62.7% failed to follow recommended treatment frequency. Dogs receiving anthelmintic within the previous month had a lower percentage of nematode infection than those in which > 1 month had passed since the previous dose. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence estimates of intestinal parasite infections in dogs reported here highlight the need for owner education concerning guidelines for regular testing and treatment, even in older dogs. Failure to adhere to guidelines can result in ongoing transmission of these infections, including those with zoonotic potential. Combining coproantigen immunoassay with centrifugal flotation for diagnostic testing and regular anthelmintic treatment are important measures for ensuring optimal intestinal parasite control.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças do Cão , Giardíase , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Parasitos , Tricuríase , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Trichuris
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 312, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a common protistan parasite inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. While there are increasing reports characterizing the associations between Blastocystis and the gut microbiome in healthy individuals, only a few studies have investigated the relationships between Blastocystis and the gut microbiota in diarrheal patients. METHODS: The effects of a specific subtype (ST7) of Blastocystis on the composition of gut microbiota in diarrheal patients were investigated using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. RESULTS: Compared with diarrheal patients without Blastocystis, diarrheal patients infected with Blastocystis ST7 exhibited lower bacterial diversity. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial community structure between ST7-infected and Blastocystis-free patients. The proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia-Shigella were significantly enriched in ST7-infected patients. In contrast, the abundance of Bacteroides and Parabacteroides were more prevalent in Blastocystis-free patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed, for the first time, that infection with Blastocystis ST7 is associated with lower bacterial diversity and altered microbial structure in diarrheal patients. Our study on clinical diarrheal patients is also the first to reinforce the notion that ST7 is a pathogenic subtype of Blastocystis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Diarreia , Fezes/parasitologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010712, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and enteric parasite co-infection not only aggravates the clinical symptoms of parasites but also accelerates acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression. However, co-infection research on men who have sex with men (MSM), the predominant high-risk population of HIV/AIDS in China, is still limited. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology of enteric parasites, risk factors, and associations with clinical significance in an MSM HIV/AIDS population in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China. METHODS: We recruited 308 MSMs HIV/AIDS patients and 199 HIV-negative individuals in two designated AIDS hospitals in Heilongjiang between April 2016 and July 2017. Fresh stool samples were collected. DNA extraction, molecular identification, and genotyping of Cryptosporidium species, Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis hominis were performed. Fourteen diarrhea-related pathogens were examined to exclude the influence of other bacterial pathogens on diarrhea incidence. RESULTS: 31.5% of MSM HIV/AIDS participants were infected with at least one parasite species, a significantly higher proportion than that found in the HIV-negative individuals (2.5%). E. bieneusi presented the highest prevalence, followed by B. hominis, E. histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and C. cayetanensis. Warm seasons were the risk factor for parasitic infections in this population [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.47-4.57]. In addition, these individuals showed a higher proportion (35.8%) of present diarrhea (PD) compared with men who have sex with women (MSW) with HIV/AIDS (16.7%). The infection proportions of both Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica were significantly higher in the PD. E. bieneusi infection was more prevalent in the historic diarrhea (HD) group. CD4+ T cell counts in the MSM patients with the above three parasites were significantly lower. New species and genotypes were found, and MSM patients had a wider range of species or genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Enteric parasitic infection was prevalent in the MSM HIV/AIDS population, especially in patients with present diarrhea during warm seasons. E. histolytica and B. hominis should also be considered high-risk parasites for opportunistic infections in AIDS patients in addition to Cryptosporidium spp.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Coinfecção , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Infecções por HIV , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Animais , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 314, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The local distribution of helminths in dogs and cats and the evaluation of risk of contamination represent an important challenge for veterinarians due to their effects on animal health and their potential zoonotic risk. The overall goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the digestive and respiratory helminths infecting client-owned dogs and cats in France. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 414 pet dogs and 425 pet cats at 20 study sites during 2017-2018 and analysed by coproscopy. The samples included specimens collected from animals of both genders and various breeds and ages from a variety of living environments, and with different lifestyles and feeding regimes. Associations between parasitic infection and qualitative factors were explored. RESULTS: Overall, 125 (14.9%) samples (15.2% in dogs and 14.6% in cats) were positive for at least one of the species of helminths identified. Infection rates were highest for Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (8.5% and 11.3%, respectively), while Toxascaris leonina was found only in one cat (0.2%). The apparent prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala in dogs was 1.7% and 4.3%, respectively. No hookworms were found in cats. Whipworms (Trichuris vulpis) were identified in 2.7% of the dogs. Tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taeniidae) were rarely found (< 1% in dogs and < 3% in cats). The prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum Crenosoma vulpis, and Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats and Eucoleus spp. / Capillaria spp. in both dogs and cats was < 1%. Significantly higher fecal parasite emission rates were identified in young individuals, in animals with outdoor access, in animals living in the countryside and in intact animals (especially in cats). In addition, cats not fed exclusively with commercial diets and living with other animals (dogs and/or cats) were at higher risk for parasites. For dogs, hunting/herding and walking off-leash were found to be additional risk factors. Furthermore, pets with no reported history of deworming or dewormed > 1 year before the study were positive for parasites significantly more often than pets dewormed < 1 year before study participation. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of helminths (some of which are zoonotic), the risk factors and the reportedly low deworming frequencies identified in this study (20.5% animals having never been dewormed and only 26.4% dewormed ≥ 3 times/year) illustrate the need for improving pet owners' adherence to anthelmintic guidelines in France.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Metastrongyloidea , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e244158, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074417

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitism is the main cause of disease all over the world and described as a significant community health problem. The current study intended to find out the occurrence and identification of hazard factors linked with IPIs among 4-12 years aged shool-age children residing in Lower Dir district, Pakistan during 2019 - 2020. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a pre-arranged pre-tested survey. Anthropometric data and stool collection were done to obtain the findings. The direct wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods was used for stool examination. Data were investigated using the GraphPad Prism 5. A total of 400 children studied (mean age of 8.6±3.6 years) the total incidence rate for the intestinal parasitic disease was established to be 71.75%. Of the 400 children studied, the overall prevalence rate for intestinal parasitic infections was found to 71.75% Ascaris lumbricoides (33.1%), Trichuris trichiura (1.04%), E. vermicularis (1.39%), Hookworm (19.86%) were identified in children living in the study area. We concluded that there is a mass scale campaigns were required to generate alertness about health and sanitation in children and the need for the development of effective poverty control programs because deworming (killing of worm with drugs) alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Strongyloides
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e244747, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074420

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are a major cause of morbidity worldwide and have been described as an important public health problem. The present study aimed to determine the un usual parasitic infection and identification of risk factors among 4-12years old school age children residing in lower dir district, Pakistan from 2018- 2019. Of the 400 children studied in which the overall prevalence rate for intestinal parasitic infections was found to be 71.75%. Children infected with single parasite accounted for 67.94% and 32.05% were detected with poly-parasitism. Shistosoma japonicum (0.69%), Taxocara spp (0.69%) and cryptosporidium (0.69%), were identified in children living in studied areas. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programmes.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(9): 1870-1872, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997602

RESUMO

Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworms are recognized agents of human infection in the Asia-Pacific region. We investigated prevalence of zoonotic hookworm infections in dogs in Grenada in 2021; 40.8% were infected by hookworms, including Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Surveillance of this parasite in dogs and humans is needed in tropical/subtropical countries in the Americas.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma , Ancilostomíase , Ancylostomatoidea , Ancilostomíase/epidemiologia , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Ancilostomíase/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Granada/epidemiologia , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010728, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomes are blood dwelling parasites that affect more than 260 million people globally, and over 800 million people are at risk of infection in 74 countries. It causes acute and chronic debilitating diseases. The parasite is reported to alter the hematological and biochemical parameters in humans. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the hematological and biochemical changes in S. mansoni infected adult patients compared to apparently healthy controls. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Haik Primary Hospital from February to April 2021. One hundred and eighty study participants consisting of 90 S. mansoni infected patients and 90 apparently healthy controls were recruited using systematic random sampling method. Socio-demographic characteristics and other variables were collected using questionnaires. Stool sample was examined microscopically to detect S. mansoni infection using direct wet mount and Kato Katz technique. In apparently healthy controls, S. mansoni infection was rule out using direct wet mount and Kato Katz technique. Moreover, the intensity of S. mansoni infection was assessed using Kato Katz technique. Blood sample was collected from each study participant to determine the hematological and biochemical profiles. Data were entered in to Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 26.0 software. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro Wilk normality tests were done to assess the distribution of continuous variables. The Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis H test was done to compare the differences among nonnormally distributed variables between S. mansoni infected patients and healthy controls. P-values <0.05 at 95%CI were considered as statistically significant. RESULT: The mean age (SD) of S. mansoni infected patients and apparently healthy controls was 30.33 (±12.26) and 31.2 (±12.85) years old, respectively. The prevalence of anemia, and thrombocytopenia among S. mansoni infected patients were 23.3% and 26.7%, respectively. Erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly elevated among S. mansoni infected patients than apparently healthy controls. The median white blood cell count, red blood cell count, red blood cell indices, and platelet indices were significantly lower among S. mansoni infected patients compared to apparently healthy controls (P<0.05). On the other hand, the median eosinophil count was significantly elevated among S. mansoni infected patients compared to apparently healthy controls (P<0.05). This study also showed significantly elevated values of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and direct bilirubin and lower albumin, total cholesterol and triglycerides among S. mansoni infected patients compared to apparently healthy controls. Kruskal Wallis H test showed a significant difference in the median of most hematological and biochemical parameters between moderate and heavy intensity of infection with light intensity of infection and apparently healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed significantly altered hematological values and liver function tests among S. mansoni infected patients compared to apparently healthy controls. Therefore, screening of S. mansoni infected patients for various hematological and biochemical parameters and providing treatment to the underlying abnormalities is very crucial to avoid schistosomiasis associated morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose mansoni , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Prevalência , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e008722, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000609

RESUMO

This study evaluated the economic impact of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in Morada Nova lambs under different parasite chemical control conditions. For this, 246 lambs, in the rainy and dry season, were randomized into groups according to their anthelmintic treatment with levamisole: control (CT: no treatment); routine treatment (RT: treated every 42 days); and targeted selective treatment (TST: treated according to the average daily weight gain, DWG). From 63 days of age (D63) to D210, the lambs were weighed and monitored for GIN infection parameters. Spending on anthelmintics in the production system was 1.3% of the total economic result. The economic result per animal (R$ 5.00 = US$ 1.00) was higher in the RT group, amounting to US$ 6.60 in the rainy and US$ 5.69 in the dry season, due to higher DWG. Thus, RT presented economic results 14.4% and 10.9% higher than CT, and 7.2% and 1.9% higher than TST, in the rainy and dry season, respectively. However, fast development of resistance made RT unfeasible. Here, the economic impact of GIN infection on a national scale is discussed, demonstrating its importance and the impossibility of profitable and sustainable sheep production without adequate control.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Gastroenteropatias , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Aumento de Peso
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 34: 100767, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041802

RESUMO

The Cyprus mouflon (Ovis gmelini ophion) is a subspecies of wild sheep, endemic to Cyprus and strictly protected by national and international legislation. In the present study, 107 Cyprus mouflon faecal samples were collected from locations within the species geographical range and examined by standard parasitological methods, i.e. flotation, sedimentation and Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Parasites were found in 104 (97.39%) samples. First stage larvae of the lungworms Muellerius capillaris and Cystocaulus ocreatus were found in 93 (86.9%) and in 65 (60.7%) of the samples, respectively, strongylid eggs in 46 (43%), Eimeria spp. oocysts in 44 (41.1%) and Nematodirus spp. Trichuris spp. and Moniezia spp. eggs in 10 (9.3%), 7 (6.5%) and 1 (0.9%) sample, respectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey on the endoparasites of Cyprus mouflon. The possible role of the parasites found on the health status of the animals and the risk of endoparasite transmission from domestic ruminants to Cyprus mouflon are discussed.


Assuntos
Eimeria , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Chipre/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 34: 100758, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041811

RESUMO

A fecal pellet was recovered in an ancient salt mine in Chehrabad located in western Iran (36.55° N, 47.51° E). Based on prior publications showing the success of the salt mine's environment to preserve various life forms, it was decided to try and ascertain whether this faex contained any parasites of paleoparasitologic interest. The rehydration involved placing the pellet in an aqueous solution of 0.5% trisodium phosphate for a week, followed by the examination of aliquots of the entire rehydrated sample on a total of 153 microscope slides. The examination of the rehydrated material revealed the presence of two larval nematodes; there were no eggs or oocysts recovered. The larvae were photographed and measured, and the decision was made not to submit the two larvae to grinding and DNA extraction for molecular diagnostics due to their excellent state of preservation. The larvae were identified as first-stage larvae that appear to represent the genus Muellerius. Herein are reported the finding of two first-stage larvae of Muellerius nematodes (Metastrongyloidea, Protostrongylidae) from the rehydrated fecal pellet collected in a Chehrabad salt mine from the era of the Sasanian Empire.


Assuntos
Cabras , Metastrongyloidea , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Ovinos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272600, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006929

RESUMO

Much effort has been devoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) to eliminate soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections by 2030 using mass drug administration targeted at particular risk groups alongside the availability to access water, sanitation and hygiene services. The targets set by the WHO for the control of helminth infections are typically defined in terms of the prevalence of infection, whereas the standard formulation of STH transmission models typically describe dynamic changes in the mean-worm burden. We develop a prevalence-based deterministic model to investigate the transmission dynamics of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in humans, subject to continuous exposure to infection over time. We analytically determine local stability criteria for all equilibria and find bifurcation points. Our model predicts that STH infection will either be eliminated (if the initial prevalence value, y(0), is sufficiently small) or remain endemic (if y(0) is sufficiently large), with the two stable points of endemic infection and parasite eradication separated by a transmission breakpoint. Two special cases of the model are analysed: (1) the distribution of the STH parasites in the host population is highly aggregated following a negative binomial distribution, and (2) no density-dependent effects act on the parasite population. We find that disease extinction is always possible for Case (1), but it is not so for Case (2) if y(0) is sufficiently large. However, by introducing stochastic perturbation into the deterministic model, we discover that chance effects can lead to outcomes not predicted by the deterministic model alone, with outcomes highly dependent on the degree of worm clumping, k. Specifically, we show that if the reproduction number and clumping are sufficiently bounded, then stochasticity will cause the parasite to die out. It follows that control of soil-transmitted helminths will be more difficult if the worm distribution tends towards clumping.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Prevalência , Saneamento , Solo/parasitologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13935, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978014

RESUMO

Preventive chemotherapy (PC) that remains the main control strategy recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve the elimination of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections as a public health problem must be strengthened by identifying the remaining transmission hot-spots for the deployment of appropriate control measures. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and infections intensities of soil-transmitted helminths and perform micro scale mapping in order to identify transmission hot-spots for targeted control operations. Stool samples were collected from 1775 children in ten primary schools of eight sub-districts of Makenene in Cameroon. Kato Katz technique was used to process and examine stool samples to detect the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth species as well as the infection intensities was compared. Data visualizations in forms of maps were made using Quantum geographic information system (QGIS) software. The overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections was 4.8% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 3.8-5.9%: 3.0% (95% CI 2.2-3.9) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.4% (95% CI 0.9-2.0) for Trichuris trichiura and 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.4) for hookworms. The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth species differ significantly between schools and sub-districts. The intensity of infections was light (2.4%, 1.1% and 0.8%), moderate (0.4%, 0.1% and 0.1%) and heavy (0.2%, 0.2% and 0%) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm respectively. The mean intensity of infections was 7255 EPG for A. lumbricoides, 2900 EPG for T. trichiura and 298 EPG for hookworm. Between schools, significant difference was recorded in the means of infection intensities of T. Trichiura and hookworms but not for A. lumbricoides. This difference was also significant for T. Trichiura when comparison were between sex. No significant difference were recorded when the comparison were between age. Fine mapping revealed that children harbouring heavy infections were clustered in the same sub-districts; highlighting the presence of high endemicity sub-districts and hot-spots for the transmission of different soil-transmitted helminth species. This study showed a diversity in the prevalence and transmission of different soil-transmitted helminth species. It also hightlighted the need for micro scale mapping to enable the localisation of high endemicity sub-districts and transmission hot-spot sites where targeted control operations must be deployed to achieve STH elimination.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Infecções por Uncinaria , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Trichuris
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e009122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000610

RESUMO

The lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus has an important role in cattle health and productivity worldwide, since infections can lead to substantial economic losses. Despite its importance, few studies investigating the epidemiological aspects of infection by this parasite have been conducted. The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of lungworm infection in beef cattle herds reared in an area of livestock production in the northeastern region of Brazil. From September 2020 to August 2021, monthly fecal samples (n = 493) were collected from 46 beef cattle. Among all the animals assessed, lungworm larvae were detected in 8.7% (4/46). None of them presented any clinical sign suggestive of infection by lungworm parasites. Twenty larvae were retrieved, with the minimum number (n = 1) detected in October and December, and the maximum number (n = 13) in November. These presented a mean length of 363 µm (± 28.65 µm) and mean width of 19 µm (± 1.03 µm), and were morphologically similar to Dictyocaulus sp.. This study reports the occurrence of this parasite in this livestock production area. Lastly, local veterinarians need to be aware of inclusion of this parasite in the differential diagnosis of other respiratory infections in beef cattle.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Infecções por Dictyocaulus , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dictyocaulus , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Larva
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010709, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura remain significant contributors to the global burden of neglected tropical diseases. Infection may in particular affect child development as they are more likely to be infected with T. trichiura and/or A. lumbricoides and to carry higher worm burdens than adults. Whilst the impact of heavy infections are clear, the effects of moderate infection intensities on the growth and development of children remain elusive. Field studies are confounded by a lack of knowledge of infection history, nutritional status, presence of co-infections and levels of exposure to infective eggs. Therefore, animal models are required. Given the physiological similarities between humans and pigs but also between the helminths that infect them; A. suum and T. suis, growing pigs provide an excellent model to investigate the direct effects of Ascaris spp. and Trichuris spp. on weight gain. METHODS AND RESULTS: We employed a trickle infection protocol to mimic natural co-infection to assess the effect of infection intensity, determined by worm count (A. suum) or eggs per gram of faeces (A. suum and T. suis), on weight gain in a large pig population (n = 195) with variable genetic susceptibility. Pig body weights were assessed over 14 weeks. Using a post-hoc statistical approach, we found a negative association between weight gain and T. suis infection. For A. suum, this association was not significant after adjusting for other covariates in a multivariable analysis. Estimates from generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that a 1 kg increase in weight gain was associated with 4.4% (p = 0.00217) decrease in T. suis EPG and a 2.8% (p = 0.02297) or 2.2% (p = 0.0488) decrease in A. suum EPG or burden, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overall this study has demonstrated a negative association between STH and weight gain in growing pigs but also that T. suis infection may be more detrimental that A. suum on growth.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Doenças dos Suínos , Tricuríase , Animais , Ascaríase/complicações , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/veterinária , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/veterinária , Trichuris/fisiologia , Aumento de Peso
18.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 692022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993791

RESUMO

Buffaloes represent an important economic resource for several regions of the world including Romania. In the present study, we examined 104 faecal samples collected from 38 buffalo calves (2-11 weeks old) from household rearing systems in Romania for gastrointestinal parasites. All samples were tested using the saturated salt flotation, McMaster and modified Ziehl-Nielsen staining methods. PCR coupled with sequencing isolates were used to identify assemblages of Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) and species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1907. Overall, 33 out of 38 examined buffalo calves were infected with different gastrointestinal parasites: 16 had single infections and 17 had mixed infections with two or three parasites. Species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (32/38; 84%) were the most prevalent parasites; eight species were identified according to the oocyst morphology, including the pathogenic E. bareillyi (Gill, Chhabra et Lall, 1963) which was detected for the first time in buffaloes from Romania. The nematodes Toxocara vitulorum (Goeze, 1782) (11/38; 37%) and Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856) (6/38; 16%) were also detected. Cryptosporidium spp. were found in four (11%) buffalo calves; two of them were molecularly identified as C. ryanae Fayer, Santin et Trout, 2008, and another one clustered in the same clade with C. ryanae, C. bovis Fayer, Santin et Xiao, 2005, and C. xiaoi Fayer et Santin, 2009. Giardia duodenalis assemblage E was also molecularly detected in a single (2.6%) buffalo calf. The presence of other buffaloes in the same barn was identified as a risk factor for infection with T. vitulorum. Our results indicate extensive parasitic infections in buffalo calves from northwestern Romania and underline the necessity of prophylactic treatments for T. vitulorum and E. bareillyi.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Eimeria , Giardia lamblia , Parasitos , Animais , Búfalos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Romênia/epidemiologia
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 309: 109770, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921740

RESUMO

Outbreaks of cattle lungworm disease (Dictyocaulus viviparus) are explosive and costly. The unpredictability of the disease often encourages farmers to apply blanket anthelmintic treatments to the herd, which impede the acquisition of immunity, increase the risk of drug resistance, and interfere with efforts to reduce anthelmintic use against ubiquitous gastrointestinal nematodes. Improving our understanding of the factors which lead to a high risk of infection with lungworm, (including climatic pressure), would support a more targeted management. We present GLOWORM-FL-DV, the first mathematical model of the free-living stages of D. viviparus. The ecology of D. viviparus is unique compared with other strongylid nematodes due to its relationship with Pilobilus spp. fungi, which enhance the transmission potential. The role of the fungi was therefore incorporated into the model framework, informed by laboratory observations of Pilobolus spp. development and sporulation. The thermal niche of D. viviparus was characterised based on published and laboratory observations. Mortality of parasitic larvae increased significantly below 0oC, and larval development occurred above 1.4oC, whereas the estimated minimum temperature for migration via Pilobolus spp. was 8.8oC. Model predictions were compared with antibody levels in bulk milk tank samples collected at two-weekly intervals from eight dairy herds across Great Britain over two grazing seasons. The model predicted high levels of larval abundance on pasture 46 days (38-52 days) before a rise in antibody levels and 22-26 days before the onset of clinical signs. The model assesses the impact of climate and weather on lungworm larval availability at pasture and provides a framework for the development of a risk forecasting system. This could help to focus vigilance for clinical signs at high-risk times and facilitate the targeted use of anthelmintics to prevent outbreaks, in support of sustainable parasite control.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Clima , Infecções por Dictyocaulus , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dictyocaulus , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Dictyocaulus/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fungos , Larva , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 294, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine intestinal parasite prevalence may be influenced by geographical region, age, and health status of the dog. Behaviors such as predation, scavenging, or roaming as well as routine administration of anthelmintics also play a role. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fecal test results using zinc sulfate flotation by centrifugation combined with coproantigen testing directed at protein antigens excreted or secreted by hookworms (Ancylostoma spp. Uncinaria stenocephala), ascarids (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris spp. Baylisascaris spp.), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis), and Giardia spp. during active infection in owned dogs visiting dog parks in Western Canada. METHODS: A total of 774 participants were recruited from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Canine fecal samples were collected from seven dedicated off-leash dog parks. Participating dog owners responded to a questionnaire regarding their dogs' signalment, previous veterinary history, and use of parasite-preventive products. Fecal samples were tested using zinc sulfate centrifugation combined with coproantigen testing. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of canine intestinal parasites in client-owned dogs was similar to previous studies conducted in the US. Mean age of dogs tested was 4 years, with puppies and older dogs having higher rates of infection than the mean. Fecal flotation centrifugation found 3.2% hookworm, ascarid, whipworm, and Giardia spp.-positive infections. Coproantigen testing identified 5.8% positive infections, including all of the above that were detected using fecal flotation centrifugation. CONCLUSIONS: Coproantigen testing detected more hookworm, ascarid, whipworm, and Giardia spp.-positive samples in addition to detecting all positive results found using fecal flotation centrifugation. Fecal flotation centrifugation combined with coproantigen testing improves sensitivity over flotation alone and may detect pre-patent or sub-clinical infections in dogs visiting public dog parks.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Giardíase , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Nematoides , Tricuríase , Alberta/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Trichuris , Sulfato de Zinco
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