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1.
Parasitol Res ; 123(4): 183, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622363

RESUMO

Dientamoeba fragilis and Blastocystis sp. are single-celled protozoan parasites of humans and animals. Although they are found in the intestines of healthy hosts, the pathogenicity of them is still unclear. To date, there is no report on D. fragilis and only two studies (without subtyping) on the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in Musca domestica. In this study, fly samples were collected from livestock farms and their surroundings in the Kirsehir province (Central Anatolia Region) of Türkiye from May to August 2023. A total of 150 microscopically identified M. domestica samples were analyzed for the detection of D. fragilis and Blastocystis sp. molecularly. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. and D. fragilis in M. domestica was determined to be 3.3% (5/150) and 8.0% (12/150), respectively. The SSU rRNA gene sequences of the isolates indicated genotype 1 of D. fragilis. Eleven isolates were identical and represented a single isolate (KAU-Dfrag1). BLAST analysis of KAU-Dfrag1 indicated identity with the isolates reported from humans, cattle, sheep, and budgerigars. The other isolate (KAU-Dfrag2) was polymorphic at two nucleotides from KAU-Dfrag1 and three nucleotides from known genotypes from GenBank and represented a variant of genotype 1. The Blastocystis sp. isolates were found to be identical and represent a single genotype (KAU-Blast1). BLAST analysis revealed that the KAU-Blast1 genotype belonged to the potentially zoonotic subtype 5 (ST5) and exhibited the highest genetic identity (ranging from 99.4 to 99.6%) with pigs, cattle, and sheep from different countries. Our study provides the first data on the molecular prevalence, epidemiology, and genotypic characterization of D. fragilis and Blastocystis sp. in M. domestica.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Moscas Domésticas , Muscidae , Humanos , Animais , Ovinos , Bovinos , Suínos , Dientamoeba , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Genótipo , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Nucleotídeos
2.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241242784, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590255

RESUMO

Acute childhood diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan African countries. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are the common cause of childhood diarrhea in the region. However, there are only few studies on protozoa causing diarrhea in sub-Saharan African countries. This study was conducted to investigate the relative prevalence and explore risk factors of E. histolytica and G. lamblia among diarrheic children of under 5 years in a public hospital of Ethiopia. A retrospective study was conducted among diarrheic children at Hiwot Fana hospital, Ethiopia. Records of all diarrheic children less than 5 years who had sought medical treatment in the hospital from September 1, 2020 to December 31, 2022 were included. Data were collected from 1257 medical records of the children using a structured data-collection format. Data were entered into an Excel sheet and exported into SPSS version 22 for data processing and analysis. Descriptive statistical tests, Chi-square, and logistic region analysis were applied to determine predictors of protozoa infections. Of the 1257 cases, 962 (76.5%) had watery diarrhea and the remaining 239 (19.0%) had dysentery. The combined prevalence of E. histolytica and G. lamblia among diarrheic children was 11.8% (95% CI: 9.6-13.4). As the age of children increased, the frequency of these two protozoan infections was significantly increased compared to children with other causes. There were more diarrhea cases during the summer season including those associated with E. histolytica and G. lamblia. This study revealed that 1 in 10 causes of diarhhea among young children in the study area was likely caused by E. histolytica and G. lamblia. These findings call for community-based safe water and food safety interventions in order to reduce childhood diarrhea caused by protozoan infections in resource-poor settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Protozoários , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Prevalência , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fezes/parasitologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/complicações , Hospitais Públicos
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 139, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic infestations have a substantial economic impact on pig production. This study aimed to investigate the gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in pigs and to molecularly characterise two important nematodes, Ascaris and Trichuris species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 500 pig faecal samples were collected from small holder backyard pig farms in five townships within Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. Microscopic examination was conducted to estimate the prevalence of GI helminth infestation in the pigs. DNA extraction and PCR were performed on faecal samples that were morphologically positive for Ascaris and Trichuris eggs. Molecular analysis was then conducted to characterise A. suum and T. suis, the most common and zoonotic helminths. RESULTS: According to microscopic examination, 69.2% (346/500) were positive for GI helminth eggs. The GI helminth species observed were A. suum, Strongyle, Strongyloides spp., T. suis, Metastrongylus spp., Hyostrongylus spp., Fasciolopsis spp., Paragonimus spp., and Schistosoma spp., with occurrences of 34.8%, 29.6%, 21.4%, 20.0%, 4.0%, 1.6%, 1.0%, 1.0%, and 0.4%, respectively. Mixed infections of GI helminths were noted in 31.0% of the samples. Overall, sampled pigs excreted mostly low levels (< 100 EPG) or moderate levels (> 100-500 EPG) of GI helminth eggs. The highest mean EPG for each parasite species was noted in A. suum. The presence of A. suum and T. suis was confirmed molecularly. The sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of A. suum showed high similarity with previously reported sequences. Likewise, the sequences of T. suis exhibited high similarity with the sequences reported from humans and pigs. Age was noted as an associated factor (P < 0.05) for GI helminth infection status. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, A. suum and T. suis were molecularly identified for the first time in Myanmar. It is important to extend the information among the farmers to be aware of the necessity of preventing zoonotic parasites by practicing regular deworming, proper use of anthelmintics and maintaining hygienic conditions in their pig farms.


Assuntos
Ascaris suum , Helmintos , Doenças dos Suínos , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Trichuris/genética , Mianmar , Óvulo , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 113, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a highly pathogenic parasite responsible for diarrhea in children worldwide. Here, the epidemiological status and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium in children with or without diarrhea were investigated with tracking of potential sources in Wenzhou City, China. METHODS: A total of 1032 children were recruited, 684 of whom had diarrhea and 348 without, from Yuying Children's Hospital in Wenzhou, China. Samples of stool were collected from each participant, followed by extraction of DNA, genotyping, and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes. RESULTS: Twenty-two of the 1032 (2.1%) children were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. with 2.5% (17/684) and 1.4% (5/348) in diarrhoeic and asymptomatic children, respectively. Four Cryptosporidium species were identified, including C. parvum (68.2%; 15/22), C. felis (13.6%; 3/22), C. viatorum (9.1%; 2/22), and C. baileyi (9.1%; 2/22). Two C. parvum subtypes named IIdA19G1 (n = 14) and IInA10 (n = 1), and one each of C. felis (XIXa) and C. viatorum (XVaA3g) subtype was found as well. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first research that identified Cryptosporidium in children of Wenzhou, China, using PCR. Identification of zoonotic C. parvum, C. felis, C. viatorum, and their subtypes indicate potential cross-species transmission of Cryptosporidium between children and animals. Additionally, the presence of C. baileyi in children suggests that this species has a wider host range than previously believed and that it possesses the capacity to infect humans.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Cryptosporidium/genética , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Probabilidade
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012041, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases and result in a major disease burden in low- and middle-income countries, especially in school-aged children. Improved diagnostic methods, especially for light intensity infections, are needed for efficient, control and elimination of STHs as a public health problem, as well as STH management. Image-based artificial intelligence (AI) has shown promise for STH detection in digitized stool samples. However, the diagnostic accuracy of AI-based analysis of entire microscope slides, so called whole-slide images (WSI), has previously not been evaluated on a sample-level in primary healthcare settings in STH endemic countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples (n = 1,335) were collected during 2020 from children attending primary schools in Kwale County, Kenya, prepared according to the Kato-Katz method at a local primary healthcare laboratory and digitized with a portable whole-slide microscopy scanner and uploaded via mobile networks to a cloud environment. The digital samples of adequate quality (n = 1,180) were split into a training (n = 388) and test set (n = 792) and a deep-learning system (DLS) developed for detection of STHs. The DLS findings were compared with expert manual microscopy and additional visual assessment of the digital samples in slides with discordant results between the methods. Manual microscopy detected 15 (1.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides, 172 (21.7%) Tricuris trichiura and 140 (17.7%) hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) infections in the test set. Importantly, more than 90% of all STH positive cases represented light intensity infections. With manual microscopy as the reference standard, the sensitivity of the DLS as the index test for detection of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm was 80%, 92% and 76%, respectively. The corresponding specificity was 98%, 90% and 95%. Notably, in 79 samples (10%) classified as negative by manual microscopy for a specific species, STH eggs were detected by the DLS and confirmed correct by visual inspection of the digital samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of digitally scanned stool samples with the DLS provided high diagnostic accuracy for detection of STHs. Importantly, a substantial number of light intensity infections were missed by manual microscopy but detected by the DLS. Thus, analysis of WSIs with image-based AI may provide a future tool for improved detection of STHs in a primary healthcare setting, which in turn could facilitate monitoring and evaluation of control programs.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Solo/parasitologia , Microscopia , Região de Recursos Limitados , Fezes/parasitologia , Trichuris , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ancylostomatoidea , Prevalência
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(1): 105-110, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604694

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an important intestinal parasite that is mainly transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Human infection may occur following ingestion of water and food contaminated by Cryptosporidium oocysts, and children and immunocompromised individuals are at a high risk of infections. The main symptoms of Cryptosporidium infections include diarrhea, vomiting, malnutrition, and even death. Because of high sensitivity and rapid procedures, molecular tests are helpful for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis and may reduce the public health risk of cryptosporidiosis. This review summarizes the advances in the latest prevalence and molecular detection of human Cryptosporidium infections during recent years.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Humanos , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Prevalência , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 126, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethno-veterinary practices could be used as a sustainable developmental tool by integrating traditional phytotherapy and husbandry. Phytotherapeutics are available and used worldwide. However, evidence of their antiparasitic efficacy is currently very limited. Parasitic diseases have a considerable effect on pig production, causing economic losses due to high morbidity and mortality. In this respect, especially smallholders and organic producers face severe challenges. Parasites, as disease causing agents, often outcompete other pathogens in such extensive production systems. A total of 720 faecal samples were collected in two farms from three age categories, i.e. weaners, fatteners, and sows. Flotation (Willis and McMaster method), modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained faecal smear, centrifugal sedimentation, modified Blagg technique, and faecal cultures were used to identify parasites and quantify the parasitic load. RESULTS: The examination confirmed the presence of infections with Eimeria spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Balantioides coli (syn. Balantidium coli), Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides ransomi, and Trichuris suis, distributed based on age category. A dose of 180 mg/kg bw/day of Allium sativum L. and 90 mg/kg bw/day of Artemisia absinthium L. powders, administered for 10 consecutive days, revealed a strong, taxonomy-based antiprotozoal and anthelmintic activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlighted the therapeutic potential of both A. sativum and A. absinthium against gastrointestinal parasites in pigs. Their therapeutic effectiveness may be attributed to the content in polyphenols, tocopherols, flavonoids, sterols, sesquiterpene lactones, and sulfoxide. Further research is required to establish the minimal effective dose of both plants against digestive parasites in pigs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Artemisia absinthium , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Alho , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos , Feminino , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Fazendas , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012049, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization emphasizes the importance of integrated monitoring and evaluation in neglected tropical disease (NTD) control programs. Serological assays offer a potential solution for integrated diagnosis of NTDs, particularly for those requiring mass drug administration (MDA) as primary control and elimination strategy. This scoping review aims (i) to provide an overview of assays using serum or plasma to detect infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in both humans and animals, (ii) to examine the methodologies used in this research field and (iii) to discuss advancements in serological diagnosis of STHs to guide prevention and control programs in veterinary and human medicine. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic search in the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, supplemented by a Google search using predefined keywords to identify commercially available serological assays. Additionally, we performed a patent search through Espacenet. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 85 relevant literature records spanning over 50 years, with a notable increased interest in serological assay development in recent years. Most of the research efforts concentrated on diagnosing Ascaris infections in both humans and pigs, primarily using ELISA and western blot technologies. Almost all records targeted antibodies as analytes, employing proteins and peptides as analyte detection agents. Approximately 60% of sample sets described pertained to human samples. No commercially available tests for Trichuris or hookworms were identified, while for Ascaris, there are at least seven different ELISAs on the market. CONCLUSIONS: While a substantial number of assays are employed in epidemiological research, the current state of serological diagnosis for guiding STH prevention and control programs is limited. Only two assays designed for pigs are used to inform efficient deworming practices in pig populations. Regarding human diagnosis, none of the existing assays has undergone extensive large-scale validation or integration into routine diagnostics for MDA programs.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Ancylostomatoidea , Trichuris , Ascaris , Solo/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(1): e019023, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511818

RESUMO

The high prevalence of Haemonchus contortus and its anthelmintic resistance have affected sheep production worldwide. Machine learning approaches are able to investigate the complex relationships among the factors involved in resistance. Classification trees were built to predict multidrug resistance from 36 management practices in 27 sheep flocks. Resistance to five anthelmintics was assessed using a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), and 20 flocks with FECRT < 80% for four or five anthelmintics were considered resistant. The data were randomly split into training (75%) and test (25%) sets, resampled 1,000 times, and the classification trees were generated for the training data. Of the 1,000 trees, 24 (2.4%) showed 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in predicting a flock as resistant or susceptible for the test data. Forage species was a split common to all 24 trees, and the most frequent trees (12/24) were split by forage species, grazing pasture area, and fecal examination. The farming system, Suffolk sheep breed, and anthelmintic choice criteria were practices highlighted in the other trees. These management practices can be used to predict the anthelmintic resistance status and guide measures for gastrointestinal nematode control in sheep flocks.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Haemonchus , Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/parasitologia
10.
Eur J Protistol ; 93: 126066, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442435

RESUMO

The zoonotic potential of the protist parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in amphibians and reptiles raises public health concerns due to their growing popularity as pets. This review examines the prevalence and diversity of these parasites in wild and captive amphibians and reptiles to better understand the zoonotic risk. Research on Giardia in both groups is limited, and zoonotic forms of Cryptosporidium or Giardia have not been reported in amphibians. Host-adapted Cryptosporidium species dominate in reptiles, albeit some reptiles have been found to carry zoonotic (C. hominis and C. parvum) and rodent-associated (C. tyzzeri, C. muris and C. andersoni) species, primarily through mechanical carriage. Similarly, the limited reports of Giardia duodenalis (assemblages A, B and E) in reptiles may also be due to mechanical carriage. Thus, the available evidence indicates minimal zoonotic risk associated with these organisms in wild and captive frogs and reptiles. The exact transmission routes for these infections within reptile populations remain poorly understood, particularly regarding the importance of mechanical carriage. Although the risk appears minimal, continued research and surveillance efforts are necessary to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the transmission dynamics and ultimately improve our ability to safeguard human and animal health.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Humanos , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Giardíase/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Anuros , Répteis , Prevalência , Fezes/parasitologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 155, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are significant parasitic diseases shared between humans and domestic animals. Due to the close contact between humans and domestic animals in rural areas, it is important to consider the potential transmission of zoonotic parasites from infected domestic animals to humans. This investigation aimed to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in domestic animals and villagers. METHODS: A total of 116 fecal samples from villagers and 686 fecal samples from domestic animals in Heilongjiang Province, China, were analyzed for two parasites using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting various genetic loci and DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products. RESULTS: By sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in humans was 0.9% (1/116), with one species of C. parvum (n = 1) detected; among domestic animals, the prevalence was 2.6% (18/686), with five species identified: C. suis (n = 7) and C. scrofarum (n = 7) in pigs, C. meleagridis (n = 1) in chickens, C. andersoni (n = 1) in cattle, and C. canis (n = 2) in foxes. C. parvum and C. canis were further subtyped as IIdA19G1 and XXa4 on the basis of gp60 gene. Regarding G. duodenalis, based on the SSU rRNA, bg, gdh, and tpi genes, the prevalence in domestic animals was 5.1% (31/608), with three assemblages identified: A (n = 1) in pigs, D (n = 1) in foxes, and E (n = 27) in geese, cattle, pigs, ducks, and sheep, along with mixed infection of A + E (n = 1) in one pig and B + E (n = 1) in one sheep. No G. duodenalis was detected in humans (0/116). CONCLUSIONS: The present results show that no overlap of subtypes between animals and villagers was found in Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis, indicating a minor role of domestic animals in infecting humans in this population. However, the presence of zoonotic protozoa in domestic animals highlights the need for special attention to high-risk individuals during close contact with domestic animals.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Ovinos , Suínos , Giardia lamblia/genética , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Animais Domésticos , Raposas , Galinhas , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Giardíase/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Genótipo
12.
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist ; 24: 100527, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447333

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are the most important gastrointestinal nematodes causing serious losses in sheep production of tropical and subtropical regions. Prophylaxis of gastrointestinal nematode infections is based on anthelmintics use, but their frequent administration selects multiple-resistant parasites. To evaluate how the situation has changed over the last decades, the anthelmintic resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep flocks was assessed in the current study and compared to previous surveys. In each one of the 15 flocks evaluated, animals (n ≥ 7) were allocated into at least five groups and treated as follows: 1) untreated control; 2) albendazole; 3) levamisole; 4) ivermectin; and 5) monepantel. If more animals were available, two additional groups were included: 6) closantel, and 7) moxidectin. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was carried out to evaluate the pre- and post-treatment using the SHINY tool. Haemonchus spp. was the most prevalent nematode from faecal cultures. The mean efficacy of albendazole was 40%. Only in two farms, levamisole presented a relatively high percentage of reduction in the FECRT about 90%, while ivermectin and moxidectin presented the worst mean efficacy of 34% and 21% among all farms, respectively. Like other anthelmintics, closantel demonstrated low efficacy (63%) across all farms evaluated. Monepantel presented an overall mean efficacy of 79%, but it was the only anthelmintic that presented efficacy ≥95%, in five farms. The results revealed that gastrointestinal nematodes with multiple anthelmintic resistance were prevalent in all 15 sheep herds. The research suggests that nematodes are becoming more and more resistant to various anthelmintic compounds, which has made the problem worse. This circumstance highlights the necessity to put into practice sustainable and long-lasting methods to prevent gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep husbandry.


Assuntos
Aminoacetonitrila/análogos & derivados , Anti-Helmínticos , Haemonchus , Macrolídeos , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Salicilanilidas , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Ovinos , Levamisol/farmacologia , Levamisol/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Resistência a Medicamentos
13.
Parasitol Res ; 123(3): 160, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480554

RESUMO

Dog faecal samples examined from January 2019 to December 2019 were retrospectively analysed for frequency of endoparasites. The examinations were performed with several different methods: 29,219 samples were examined by flotation method and sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin concentration (SAFC) technique, 1,330 samples by Baermann-Wetzel migration technique, 12,221 samples using a Giardia coproantigen enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 1,180 samples using a Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISA, 1,671 samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Giardia duodenalis and 447 samples by PCR testing for Cryptosporidium spp.. A total of 7.1% of the samples were positive for parasites in the microscopical examination using the flotation method and SAFC technique. The parasites found included Cystoisospora spp. (2.8%), Giardia duodenalis (2.3%), Ancylostomatidae (1.8%), Toxocara canis (1.6%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%), Toxascaris leonina (0.5%), Capillaria spp. (0.2%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.2%), Crenosoma vulpis (0.1%), Taeniidae (0.1%), Sarcocystis spp. (0.03%), Dipylidium caninum (0.01%), Diphyllobothrium latum (< 0.01%), Spirurida (< 0.01%) and Opisthorchiidae (< 0.01%). Using the Baermann-Wetzel migration technique, Angiostrongylus vasorum was found in 0.75% and Crenosoma vulpis in 0.3% of the samples. ELISAs for Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. revealed 13.9% and 1.0% positive faecal samples, and Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. PCRs 19.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Dogs in the first year of life were more frequently infected with parasites than older animals. In the microscopic examination using flotation method and SAFC technique, the significantly highest detection rates were found in dogs up to six months of age (p < 0.001).


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão , Giardia lamblia , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Cães , Animais , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Prevalência , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 123(3): 158, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460006

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. are the most common protistan parasites of vertebrates. The results show that pigeon populations in Central Europe are parasitised by different species of Cryptosporidium and genotypes of microsporidia of the genera Enterocytozoon and Encephalitozoon. A total of 634 and 306 faecal samples of captive and feral pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) from 44 locations in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland were analysed for the presence of parasites by microscopy and PCR/sequence analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rDNA), 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of SSU rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. parvum, C. andersoni, C. muris, C. galli and C. ornithophilus, E. hellem genotype 1A and 2B, E. cuniculi genotype I and II and E. bieneusi genotype Peru 6, CHN-F1, D, Peru 8, Type IV, ZY37, E, CHN4, SCF2 and WR4. Captive pigeons were significantly more frequently parasitised with screened parasite than feral pigeons. Cryptosporidium meleagridis IIIa and a new subtype IIIl have been described, the oocysts of which are not infectious to immunodeficient mice, whereas chickens are susceptible. This investigation demonstrates that pigeons can be hosts to numerous species, genotypes and subtypes of the studied parasites. Consequently, they represent a potential source of infection for both livestock and humans.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Encephalitozoon , Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Columbidae , Enterocytozoon/genética , Cryptosporidium/genética , Encephalitozoon/genética , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Filogenia , Galinhas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , DNA Ribossômico , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fezes/parasitologia
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 403, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal parasitic protozoan that infects several vertebrates, including humans. Cattle are considered the major source of giardiasis outbreak in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and multilocus genotype (MLG) of G. duodenalis in Shanxi, and lay the foundation for the prevention and control of Giardiosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: DNA extraction, nested polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, MLG analysis, and statistical analysis were performed using 858 bovine fecal samples from Shanxi based on three gene loci: ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi). The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 28.3%, while its prevalence in Yingxian and Lingqiu was 28.1% and 28.5%, respectively. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in dairy cattle and beef cattle was 28.0% and 28.5%, respectively. G. duodenalis infection was detected in all age groups evaluated in this study. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in diarrhea and nondiarrhea samples was 32.4% and 27.5%, respectively, whereas that in intensively farmed and free-range cattle was 35.0% and 19.9%, respectively. We obtained 83, 53, and 59 sequences of bg, gdh, and tpi in G. duodenalis, respectively. Moreover, assemblage A (n = 2) and assemblage E (n = 81) by bg, assemblage A (n = 1) and assemblage E (n = 52) by gdh, and assemblage A (n = 2) and assemblage E (n = 57) by tpi were identified. Multilocus genotyping yielded 29 assemblage E MLGs, which formed 10 subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report cattle infected with G. duodenalis in Shanxi, China. Livestock-specific G. duodenalis assemblage E was the dominant assemblage genotype, and zoonotic sub-assemblage AI was also detected in this region.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Giardia lamblia/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Giardíase/parasitologia , Genótipo , China/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fezes/parasitologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 102, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The integration of molecular data from hosts, parasites, and microbiota can enhance our understanding of the complex biological interactions underlying the resistance of hosts to parasites. Haemonchus contortus, the predominant sheep gastrointestinal parasite species in the tropics, causes significant production and economic losses, which are further compounded by the diminishing efficiency of chemical control owing to anthelmintic resistance. Knowledge of how the host responds to infection and how the parasite, in combination with microbiota, modulates host immunity can guide selection decisions to breed animals with improved parasite resistance. This understanding will help refine management practices and advance the development of new therapeutics for long-term helminth control. METHODS: Eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were obtained from Morada Nova sheep subjected to two artificial infections with H. contortus and used as a proxy to select animals with high resistance or susceptibility for transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of the abomasum and 50 K single-nucleotide genotyping. Additionally, RNA-seq data for H. contortus were generated, and amplicon sequence variants (ASV) were obtained using polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA genes from sheep feces and rumen content. RESULTS: The heritability estimate for EPG was 0.12. GAST, GNLY, IL13, MGRN1, FGF14, and RORC genes and transcripts were differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible animals. A genome-wide association study identified regions on chromosomes 2 and 11 that harbor candidate genes for resistance, immune response, body weight, and adaptation. Trans-expression quantitative trait loci were found between significant variants and differentially expressed transcripts. Functional co-expression modules based on sheep genes and ASVs correlated with resistance to H. contortus, showing enrichment in pathways of response to bacteria, immune and inflammatory responses, and hub features of the Christensenellaceae, Bacteroides, and Methanobrevibacter genera; Prevotellaceae family; and Verrucomicrobiota phylum. In H. contortus, some mitochondrial, collagen-, and cuticle-related genes were expressed only in parasites isolated from susceptible sheep. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified chromosome regions, genes, transcripts, and pathways involved in the elaborate interactions between the sheep host, its gastrointestinal microbiota, and the H. contortus parasite. These findings will assist in the development of animal selection strategies for parasite resistance and interdisciplinary approaches to control H. contortus infection in sheep.


Assuntos
Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Microbiota , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Parasitos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Multiômica , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 55(1): 31-41, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453485

RESUMO

Between 2015 and 2019, a health screening was carried out annually on captive-bred Partula snails prior to export for reintroduction as part of an international effort to repopulate areas of French Polynesia, where the snails were extinct or critically endangered. In total, 129 separate tank populations of 12 different species were screened at ZSL London Zoo. Wet mounts and smears stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) of 535 fecal samples were examined, and 45% contained flagellated protozoa, and 35.5% had MZN-positive oocysts, measuring 3-5 µm in diameter. Smaller (2 µm) presumptive spores, MZN-positive bacilli, ciliated protozoa and nematodes were recorded less frequently. Fecal bacterial culture yielded mixed species, with a clear predominance of Myroides species (88.9% of samples). The MZN-positive oocysts (3-5 µm) were present in 6.5% of impression smears from the apices of 432 snails examined postmortem, plus acid-fast bacilli in a few cases, but no 2 µm spores. Mixed bacteria were cultured from coelomic swabs, with Myroides species again the most common (63.5%). Histologic examination was carried out on 292 snails. Autolysis affected almost 90% of those found dead but only 3.4% of euthanized snails. Histology commonly identified microsporidial sporocysts in the digestive gland and midgut epithelium of all but two species. Intracellular, extracytoplasmic Cryptosporidium-like organisms were also common in the midgut but were only observed when snails were fixed in 10% formalin (2017-2019), not ethanol. There were no clear pathologic changes associated with either organism. Pigmented hemocytic nodules were commonly observed, most frequently in the foot process; these were either age related or evidence of prior chronic inflammatory reaction and of low clinical significance. With no evidence of poor health and no significant organisms found, a total of 4,978 individuals representing 12 species were exported for reintroduction.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Microsporídios , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Bactérias , Fezes/parasitologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011939, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536863

RESUMO

Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) as a prevalent tapeworm infection of human and herbivorous animals worldwide, is caused by accidental ingestion of Echinococcus granulosus eggs excreted from infected dogs. CE is endemic in the Middle East and North Africa, and is considered as an important parasitic zoonosis in Iran. It is transmitted between dogs as the primary definitive host and different livestock species as the intermediate hosts. One of the most important measures for CE control is dog deworming with praziquantel. Due to the frequent reinfection of dogs, intensive deworming campaigns are critical for breaking CE transmission. Dog reinfection rate could be used as an indicator of the intensity of local CE transmission in endemic areas. However, our knowledge on the extent of reinfection in the endemic regions is poor. The purpose of the present study was to determine E. granulosus reinfection rate after praziquantel administration in a population of owned dogs in Kerman, Iran. A cohort of 150 owned dogs was recruited, with stool samples collected before praziquantel administration as a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The re-samplings of the owned dogs were performed at 2, 5 and 12 months following initial praziquantel administration. Stool samples were examined microscopically using Willis flotation method. Genomic DNA was extracted, and E. granulosus sensu lato-specific primers were used to PCR-amplify a 133-bp fragment of a repeat unit of the parasite genome. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method to calculate cumulative survival rates, which is used here to capture reinfection dynamics, and monthly incidence of infection, capturing also the spatial distribution of disease risk. Results of survival analysis showed 8, 12 and 17% total reinfection rates in 2, 5 and 12 months following initial praziquantel administration, respectively, indicating that 92, 88 and 83% of the dogs had no detectable infection in that same time periods. The monthly incidence of reinfection in total owned dog population was estimated at 1.5% (95% CI 1.0-2.1). The results showed that the prevalence of echinococcosis in owned dogs, using copro-PCR assay was 42.6%. However, using conventional microscopy, 8% of fecal samples were positive for taeniid eggs. Our results suggest that regular treatment of the dog population with praziquantel every 60 days is ideal, however the frequency of dog dosing faces major logistics and cost challenges, threatening the sustainability of control programs. Understanding the nature and extent of dog reinfection in the endemic areas is essential for successful implementation of control programs and understanding patterns of CE transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Reinfecção , Fazendas , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
19.
Acta Trop ; 253: 107175, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492874

RESUMO

Cyclospora cayetanensis (C. cayetanensis) is a significant pathogen that causes diarrheal illness and causes large foodborne diarrhea outbreaks in the USA and Canada. However, there is currently a lack of published meta-analysis on the prevalence of C. cayetanensis infection in the global population. A real estimation of a disease prevalence should always be done on the basis of studies designed for that purpose. We conducted a comprehensive search of various databases for articles pertaining to the prevalence of C. cayetanensis infection in humans, spanning from the inception of these databases to March 10, 2023. Utilizing a random effects model, we estimated the prevalence of C. cayetanensis infection in humans. Our analysis included a total of 150 datasets sourced from 42 different countries, which were ultimately selected for the final quantitative assessment. The prevalence of C. cayetanensis infection in humans worldwide was estimated to be 3.4 % (5636/166,611). Notably, Africa exhibited the highest prevalence rate at 5.9 % (606/11,068). Further subgroup analysis revealed a significantly higher infection rate in humans residing in low-income countries (7.6 %, 83/921) compared to those in lower-middle-income countries (4.8 %, 3280/48,852), upper-middle-income countries (2.9 %, 2194/99,419), and high-income countries (0.4 %, 79/17,419). The results indicate that the global prevalence of C. cayetanensis infection in humans is relatively low, despite its extensive geographical distribution and children were found to be more susceptible to C. cayetanensis infection compared to those adults. Sensitivity analysis revealed that one study significantly affects the prevalence of C. cayetanensis, which was adjusted to 2.9 % (4017/160,049; 95 % CI: 2.7-3.1 %) by excluding this study. The findings highlight the relatively high prevalence of C. cayetanensis infection in low-income countries and among humans with diarrhea, particularly in Africa. Consequently, routine surveillance for intestinal protozoa is crucial in these regions.


Assuntos
Cyclospora , Ciclosporíase , Humanos , África/epidemiologia , Ciclosporíase/epidemiologia , Ciclosporíase/complicações , Ciclosporíase/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 327: 110152, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430622

RESUMO

Tapeworm infection in horses can cause serious health concerns, and recent data have documented treatment failures in the most common species, Anoplocephala perfoliata. The threat of anthelmintic resistance in A. perfoliata is of particular concern because of poor diagnostic performance of standard egg counting techniques for detecting this parasite. This study compared the performance of three diagnostic techniques 1) Mini-FLOTAC, 2) Cornell-Wisconsin, and 3) Proudman and Edwards used to detect and quantify A. perfoliata eggs in naturally infected horses. Eighteen adult female horses from the University of Kentucky's historic parasitology herd were included in this study. Fecal samples were collected from all horses at five collection time points two weeks apart and analyzed with the three techniques. A total of 90 samples were collected and 270 counts determined in the study. The proportions of positive samples determined by the three techniques were significantly different from each other (p<0.05): Mini-FLOTAC (16%), Cornell-Wisconsin (47%), and Proudman and Edwards (70%). The Proudman and Edwards technique counted consistently higher numbers of tapeworm eggs compared to the other two techniques throughout the study [p < 0.05]. Total raw counts of tapeworm eggs across the study for each technique were 16, 88, and 410 for the Mini-FLOTAC, Cornell-Wisconsin, and Proudman and Edwards, respectively. This study demonstrated that the Proudman and Edwards technique was superior in diagnosing A. perfoliata infection. Future work needs to assess this technique's potential for Fecal Egg Count Reduction Testing (FECRT).


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Cavalos , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Óvulo , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia
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