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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445647

RESUMO

Unveiling the molecular features in the heart is essential for the study of heart diseases. Non-cardiomyocytes (nonCMs) play critical roles in providing structural and mechanical support to the working myocardium. There is an increasing amount of single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data characterizing the transcriptomic profiles of nonCM cells. However, no tool allows researchers to easily access the information. Thus, in this study, we develop an open-access web portal, ExpressHeart, to visualize scRNA-seq data of nonCMs from five laboratories encompassing three species. ExpressHeart enables comprehensive visualization of major cell types and subtypes in each study; visualizes gene expression in each cell type/subtype in various ways; and facilitates identifying cell-type-specific and species-specific marker genes. ExpressHeart also provides an interface to directly combine information across datasets, for example, generating lists of high confidence DEGs by taking the intersection across different datasets. Moreover, ExpressHeart performs comparisons across datasets. We show that some homolog genes (e.g., Mmp14 in mice and mmp14b in zebrafish) are expressed in different cell types between mice and zebrafish, suggesting different functions across species. We expect ExpressHeart to serve as a valuable portal for investigators, shedding light on the roles of genes on heart development in nonCM cells.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Internet , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Pericitos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Algoritmos , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Software , Peixe-Zebra
2.
Int Heart J ; 62(4): 891-899, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334583

RESUMO

Long-chain noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a new class of molecular regulators in heart development and disease. However, the role of specific lncRNA in cardiac fibrosis remains to be fully explored. This study aimed to investigate the role and potential mechanism of lncRNA MHRT in myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI).Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were isolated from a mouse model of MI. The expression levels of MHRT and miR-3185 in the hearts of MI and CFs mice treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The collagen expression was assessed using qRT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was assessed by performing MTT and EdU assays. The direct interaction between lncRNA and miRNA was analyzed by luciferase assay, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, and RNA pull-down assay.The expression levels of MHRT were raised in MI and CFs mice treated with TGF-ß1. Overexpression of MHRT promoted collagen production and CF proliferation, while silencing of MHRT showed the opposite effect. MiR-3185 was a target gene of MHRT. In addition, overexpression of MHRT reduced the expression levels of miR-3185, and siMHRT reversed the inhibitory effect of TGF-ß1 on the expression of miR-3185. Overexpression of miR-3185 inhibited the upregulation of Col I and Col III induced by TGF-ß1.MHRT promoted cardiac fibrosis after MI through miR-3185 and increased myocardial collagen deposition and promoted myocardial fibrosis.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445461

RESUMO

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate (THDC) is an L-ascorbic acid precursor with improved stability and ability to penetrate the epidermis. The stability and transdermal penetration of THDC, however, may be compromised by the oxidant-rich environment of human skin. In this study, we show that THDC is a poor antioxidant that degrades rapidly when exposed to singlet oxygen. This degradation, however, was prevented by combination with acetyl zingerone (AZ) as a stabilizing antioxidant. As a standalone ingredient, THDC led to unexpected activation of type I interferon signaling, but this pro-inflammatory effect was blunted in the presence of AZ. Moreover, the combination of THDC and AZ increased expression of genes associated with phospholipid homeostasis and keratinocyte differentiation, along with repression of MMP1 and MMP7 expression, inhibition of MMP enzyme activity, and increased production of collagen proteins by dermal fibroblasts. Lastly, whereas THDC alone reduced viability of keratinocytes exposed to oxidative stress, this effect was completely abrogated by the addition of AZ to THDC. These results show that AZ is an effective antioxidant stabilizer of THDC and that combination of these products may improve ascorbic acid delivery. This provides a step towards reaching the full potential of ascorbate as an active ingredient in topical preparations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Colágeno/biossíntese , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacocinética , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Guaiacol/farmacocinética , Guaiacol/farmacologia , Humanos
4.
Nat Methods ; 18(8): 965-974, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341582

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas9 technologies have dramatically increased the ease of targeting DNA sequences in the genomes of living systems. The fusion of chromatin-modifying domains to nuclease-deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) has enabled targeted epigenome editing in both cultured cells and animal models. However, delivering large dCas9 fusion proteins to target cells and tissues is an obstacle to the widespread adoption of these tools for in vivo studies. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of two conditional transgenic mouse lines for epigenome editing, Rosa26:LSL-dCas9-p300 for gene activation and Rosa26:LSL-dCas9-KRAB for gene repression. By targeting the guide RNAs to transcriptional start sites or distal enhancer elements, we demonstrate regulation of target genes and corresponding changes to epigenetic states and downstream phenotypes in the brain and liver in vivo, and in T cells and fibroblasts ex vivo. These mouse lines are convenient and valuable tools for facile, temporally controlled, and tissue-restricted epigenome editing and manipulation of gene expression in vivo.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 959, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381146

RESUMO

The association between kidney stone disease and renal fibrosis has been widely explored in recent years but its underlying mechanisms remain far from complete understanding. Using label-free quantitative proteomics (nanoLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS), this study identified 23 significantly altered secreted proteins from calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM)-exposed macrophages (COM-MP) compared with control macrophages (Ctrl-MP) secretome. Functional annotation and protein-protein interactions network analysis revealed that these altered secreted proteins were involved mainly in inflammatory response and fibroblast activation. BHK-21 renal fibroblasts treated with COM-MP secretome had more spindle-shaped morphology with greater spindle index. Immunofluorescence study and gelatin zymography revealed increased levels of fibroblast activation markers (α-smooth muscle actin and F-actin) and fibrotic factors (fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -2) in the COM-MP secretome-treated fibroblasts. Our findings indicate that proteins secreted from macrophages exposed to COM crystals induce renal fibroblast activation and may play important roles in renal fibrogenesis in kidney stone disease.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Cricetinae , Humanos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Células U937
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(10): e11156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378676

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of human esophageal fibroblast-derived exosomal miR-21 on cisplatin sensitivity against esophageal squamous EC9706 cells. EC9706 cells were co-cultured indirectly with human esophageal fibroblasts (HEF) or miR-21 mimics transfected-HEF in the transwell system. The exosomes in HEF-culture conditioned medium were extracted by differential ultracentrifugation. EC9706 cells were co-cultured with HEF-derived exosomes directly. The cisplatin sensitivity against EC9706 cells was revealed via half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values using MTT assay. The expressions of miR-21, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) mRNA, and gene of phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) mRNA were determined by qRT-PCR. The changes of the protein level were detected using western blot assay. IC50 values of cisplatin against EC9706 cells were increased after EC9706 cells were co-cultured with either HEF or exosomes derived from miR-21 mimics-transfected HEF. Following the increased level of miR-21, the mRNA expression and protein levels of PTEN and PDCD4 were decreased in EC9706 cells. The cisplatin sensitivity to EC9706 cells was reduced by HEF-derived exosomal miR-21 through targeting PTEN and PDCD4. This study suggested that non-tumor cells in the tumor micro-environment increased the tumor anti-chemotherapy effects through their exosomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Esofágicas , MicroRNAs , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360701

RESUMO

Solid platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), consisting of coagulated plasma from fractionated blood, has been proposed to be a suitable carrier for recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to target mesenchymal cells during bone regeneration. However, whether solid PRF can increase the expression of BMPs in mesenchymal cells remains unknown. Proteomics analysis confirmed the presence of TGF-ß1 but not BMP2 in PRF lysates. According to the existing knowledge of recombinant TGF-ß1, we hypothesized that PRF can increase BMP2 expression in mesenchymal cells. To test this hypothesis, we blocked TGF-ß receptor 1 kinase with SB431542 in gingival fibroblasts exposed to PRF lysates. RT-PCR and immunoassays confirmed that solid PRF lysates caused a robust SB431542-dependent increase in BMP2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Additionally, fractions of liquid PRF, namely platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and the buffy coat (BC) layer, but not heat-denatured PPP (Alb-gel), greatly induced the expression of BMP2 in gingival fibroblasts. Even though PRF has no detectable BMPs, PRF lysates similar to recombinant TGF-ß1 had the capacity to provoke canonical BMP signaling, as indicated by the nuclear translocation of Smad1/5 and the increase in its phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that PRF can activate TGF-ß receptor 1 kinase and consequently induce the production of BMP2 in cells of the mesenchymal lineage.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Regeneração Óssea , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gengiva/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteômica , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 307-320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382197

RESUMO

The transition from silenced heterochromatin to a biologically active state and vice versa is a fundamental part of the implementation of cell type-specific gene expression programs. To reveal structure-function relationships and dissect the underlying mechanisms, experiments that ectopically induce transcription are highly informative. In particular, the approach to perturb chromatin states by recruiting fusions of the catalytically inactive dCas9 protein in a sequence-specific manner to a locus of interest has been used in numerous applications. Here, we describe how this approach can be applied to activate pericentric heterochromatin (PCH) in mouse cells as a prototypic silenced state by providing protocols for the following workflow: (a) Recruitment of dCas9 fusion constructs with the strong transcriptional activator VPR to PCH. (b) Analysis of the resulting changes in chromatin compaction, epigenetic marks, and active transcription by fluorescence microscopy-based readouts. (c) Automated analysis of the resulting images with a set of scripts in the R programming language. Furthermore, we discuss how parameters for chromatin decondensation and active transcription are extracted from these experiments and can be combined with other readouts to gain insights into PCH activation.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Heterocromatina/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Expressão Gênica , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Ligação Proteica , Transfecção , Fluxo de Trabalho
9.
mBio ; 12(4): e0157221, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372702

RESUMO

Tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns are highly variable within and across individuals, leading to altered host responses after acute virus infection. Unraveling key tissue-specific response patterns provides novel opportunities for defining fundamental mechanisms of virus-host interaction in disease and the identification of critical tissue-specific networks for disease intervention in the lung. Currently, there are no approved therapeutics for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients, and little is understood about how lung cell types contribute to disease outcomes. MERS-CoV replicates equivalently in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (MVE) and fibroblasts (FB) and to equivalent peak titers but with slower replication kinetics in human airway epithelial cell cultures (HAE). However, only infected MVE demonstrate observable virus-induced cytopathic effect. To explore mechanisms leading to reduced MVE viability, donor-matched human lung MVE, HAE, and FB were infected, and their transcriptomes, proteomes, and lipidomes were monitored over time. Validated functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that MERS-CoV-infected MVE were dying via an unfolded protein response (UPR)-mediated apoptosis. Pharmacologic manipulation of the UPR in MERS-CoV-infected primary lung cells reduced viral titers and in male mice improved respiratory function with accompanying reductions in weight loss, pathological signatures of acute lung injury, and times to recovery. Systems biology analysis and validation studies of global kinetic transcript, protein, and lipid data sets confirmed that inhibition of host stress pathways that are differentially regulated following MERS-CoV infection of different tissue types can alleviate symptom progression to end-stage lung disease commonly seen following emerging coronavirus outbreaks. IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe atypical pneumonia in infected individuals, but the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis remain unknown. While much has been learned from the few reported autopsy cases, an in-depth understanding of the cells targeted by MERS-CoV in the human lung and their relative contribution to disease outcomes is needed. The host response in MERS-CoV-infected primary human lung microvascular endothelial (MVE) cells and fibroblasts (FB) was evaluated over time by analyzing total RNA, proteins, and lipids to determine the cellular pathways modulated postinfection. Findings revealed that MERS-CoV-infected MVE cells die via apoptotic mechanisms downstream of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interruption of enzymatic processes within the UPR in MERS-CoV-infected male mice reduced disease symptoms, virus-induced lung injury, and time to recovery. These data suggest that the UPR plays an important role in MERS-CoV infection and may represent a host target for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/fisiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia
10.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(8): 880-896, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426676

RESUMO

Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells. Here we report the reprogramming of mouse tail-tip fibroblasts simultaneously into cells resembling these three cell types using the microRNA mimic miR-208b-3p, ascorbic acid and bone morphogenetic protein 4, as well as the formation of tissue-like structures formed by the directly reprogrammed cells. Implantation of the formed cardiovascular tissue into the infarcted hearts of mice led to the migration of reprogrammed cells to the injured tissue, reducing regional cardiac strain and improving cardiac function. The migrated endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells contributed to vessel formation, and the migrated cardiomyocytes, which initially displayed immature characteristics, became mature over time and formed gap junctions with host cardiomyocytes. Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to make cardiac tissue may aid the development of applications in cell therapy, disease modelling and drug discovery for cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/transplante , Coração/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/transplante , Regeneração , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/farmacologia , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Transcriptoma
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445485

RESUMO

Environmental stress is ubiquitous in modern societies and can exert a profound and cumulative impact on cell function and health phenotypes. This impact is thought to be in large part mediated by the action of glucocorticoid stress hormones, primarily cortisol in humans. While the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear, epigenetics-the chemical changes that regulate genomic function without altering the genetic code-has emerged as a key link between environmental exposures and phenotypic outcomes. The present study assessed genome-wide DNA (CpG) methylation, one of the key epigenetic mechanisms, at three timepoints during prolonged (51-day) exposure of cultured human fibroblasts to naturalistic cortisol levels, which can be reached in human tissues during in vivo stress. The findings support a spatiotemporal model of profound and widespread stress hormone-driven methylomic changes that emerge at selected CpG sites, are more likely to spread to nearby located CpGs, and quantitatively accrue at open sea, glucocorticoid receptor binding, and chromatin-accessible sites. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights into how prolonged stress may impact the epigenome, with potentially important implications for stress-related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Longevidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Ilhas de CpG , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360637

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by increased activation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts. Previous reports have shown that IPF fibroblasts are resistant to apoptosis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Since inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) has been implicated in the resistance to apoptosis, in this study, we analyzed the role of mitochondrial function and the mPTP on the apoptosis resistance of IPF fibroblasts under basal conditions and after mitomycin C-induced apoptosis. We measured the release of cytochrome c, mPTP opening, mitochondrial calcium release, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential, ADP/ATP ratio, ATP concentration, and mitochondrial morphology. We found that IPF fibroblasts were resistant to mitomycin C-induced apoptosis and that calcium, a well-established activator of mPTP, is decreased as well as the release of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome c. Likewise, IPF fibroblasts showed decreased mitochondrial function, while mPTP was less sensitive to ionomycin-induced opening. Although IPF fibroblasts did not present changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential, we found a fragmented mitochondrial network with scarce, thinned, and disordered mitochondria with reduced ATP levels. Our findings demonstrate that IPF fibroblasts are resistant to mitomycin C-induced apoptosis and that altered mPTP opening contributes to this resistance. In addition, IPF fibroblasts show mitochondrial dysfunction evidenced by a decrease in respiratory parameters.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Poro de Transição de Permeabilidade Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Ionomicina , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitomicina , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445242

RESUMO

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and usually lethal lung disease and it has been widely accepted that fibroblast proliferation is one of the key characteristics of IPF. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of lncRNA FENDRR on fibroblast proliferation. Human lung fibroblasts stably overexpressing FENDRR showed a reduced cell proliferation compared to those expressing the control vector. On the other hand, FENDRR silencing increased fibroblast proliferation. FENDRR bound serine-arginine rich splicing factor 9 (SRSF9) and inhibited the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (PS6K), a downstream protein of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Silencing SRSF9 reduced fibroblast proliferation. FENDRR reduced ß-catenin protein, but not mRNA levels. The reduction of ß-catenin protein levels in lung fibroblasts by gene silencing or chemical inhibitor decreased fibroblast proliferation. Adenovirus-mediated FENDRR transfer to the lungs of mice reduced asbestos-induced fibrotic lesions and collagen deposition. RNA sequencing of lung tissues identified 7 cell proliferation-related genes that were up-regulated by asbestos but reversed by FENDRR. In conclusion, FENDRR inhibits fibroblast proliferation and functions as an anti-fibrotic lncRNA.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445349

RESUMO

Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by mutation of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily D member 1 gene, which encodes the peroxisomal membrane protein, adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). ALDP is associated with the transport of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs; carbon chain length ≥ 24) into peroxisomes. Defective ALDP leads to the accumulation of saturated VLCFAs in plasma and tissues, which results in damage to myelin and the adrenal glands. Here, we profiled the glycosphingolipid (GSL) species in fibroblasts from X-ALD patients. Quantitative analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with a chiral column in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. MRM transitions were designed to scan for precursor ions of long-chain bases to detect GSLs, neutral loss of hexose to detect hexosylceramide (HexCer), and precursor ions of phosphorylcholine to detect sphingomyelin (SM). Our results reveal that levels of C25 and C26-containing HexCer, Hex2Cer, NeuAc-Hex2Cer, NeuAc-HexNAc-Hex2Cer, Hex3Cer, HexNAc-Hex3Cer, and SM were elevated in fibroblasts from X-ALD patients. In conclusion, we precisely quantified SM and various GSLs in fibroblasts from X-ALD patients and determined structural information of the elevated VLCFA-containing GSLs.


Assuntos
Adrenoleucodistrofia/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Adrenoleucodistrofia/patologia , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Glicoesfingolipídeos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445386

RESUMO

Understanding the biological and morphological reactions of human cells towards different dentinal derivate grafting materials is fundamental for choosing the type of dentin for specific clinical situations. This study aimed to evaluate human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPLF) cells exposed to different dentinal derivates particles. The study design included the in vitro evaluation of mineralized dentine (SG), deproteinized and demineralized dentine (DDP), and demineralized dentine (TT) as test materials and of deproteinized bovine bone (BIOS) as the positive control material. The materials were kept with the hPLF cell line, and the evaluations were made after 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days of in vitro culture. The evaluated outcomes were proliferation by using XTT assays, the morphological characteristics by light microscopy (LM) and by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and adhesion by using confocal microscopy (CLSM). Overall, the experimental materials induced a positive response of the hPLFs in terms of proliferation and adhesion. The XTT assay showed the TT, and the SG induced significant growth compared to the negative control at 7 days follow-up. The morphological data supported the XTT assay: the LM observations showed the presence of densely packed cells with a modified shape; the SEM observations allowed the assessment of how fibroblasts exposed to DDP and TT presented cytoplasmatic extensions; and SG and BIOS also presented the thickening of the cellular membrane. The CLMS observations showed the expression of the proliferative marker, as well as and the expression of cytoskeletal elements involved in the adhesion process. In particular, the vinculin and integrin signals were stronger at 72 h, while the actin signal remained constantly expressed in all the follow-up of the sample exposed to SG material. The integrin signal was stronger at 72 h, and the vinculin and actin signals were stronger at 7 days follow-up in the sample exposed to DDP material. The vinculin and integrin signals were stronger at 72 h follow-up in the sample exposed to TT material; vinculin and integrin signals appear stronger at 24 h follow-up in the sample exposed to BIOS material. These data confirmed how dentinal derivates present satisfying biocompatibility and high conductivity and inductivity properties fundamental in the regenerative processes. Furthermore, the knowledge of the effects of the dentin's degree of mineralization on cellular behavior will help clinicians choose the type of dentine derivates material according to the required clinical situation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Substitutos Ósseos/farmacologia , Dentina/química , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Animais , Substitutos Ósseos/química , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrinas/metabolismo , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ligamento Periodontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Vinculina/metabolismo
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1710-1724, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450031

RESUMO

Coatomer complexes function in the sorting and trafficking of proteins between subcellular organelles. Pathogenic variants in coatomer subunits or associated factors have been reported in multi-systemic disorders, i.e., coatopathies, that can affect the skeletal and central nervous systems. We have identified loss-of-function variants in COPB2, a component of the coatomer complex I (COPI), in individuals presenting with osteoporosis, fractures, and developmental delay of variable severity. Electron microscopy of COPB2-deficient subjects' fibroblasts showed dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with granular material, prominent rough ER, and vacuoles, consistent with an intracellular trafficking defect. We studied the effect of COPB2 deficiency on collagen trafficking because of the critical role of collagen secretion in bone biology. COPB2 siRNA-treated fibroblasts showed delayed collagen secretion with retention of type I collagen in the ER and Golgi and altered distribution of Golgi markers. copb2-null zebrafish embryos showed retention of type II collagen, disorganization of the ER and Golgi, and early larval lethality. Copb2+/- mice exhibited low bone mass, and consistent with the findings in human cells and zebrafish, studies in Copb2+/- mouse fibroblasts suggest ER stress and a Golgi defect. Interestingly, ascorbic acid treatment partially rescued the zebrafish developmental phenotype and the cellular phenotype in Copb2+/- mouse fibroblasts. This work identifies a form of coatopathy due to COPB2 haploinsufficiency, explores a potential therapeutic approach for this disorder, and highlights the role of the COPI complex as a regulator of skeletal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/genética , Proteína Coatomer/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complexo I de Proteína do Envoltório/deficiência , Proteína Coatomer/química , Proteína Coatomer/deficiência , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião não Mamífero , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Complexo de Golgi , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361786

RESUMO

Silver birch, Betula pendula Roth, is one of the most common trees in Europe. Due to its content of many biologically active substances, it has long been used in medicine and cosmetics, unlike the rare black birch, Betula obscura Kotula. The aim of the study was therefore to compare the antioxidant properties of extracts from the inner and outer bark layers of both birch trees towards the L929 line treated with acetaldehyde. Based on the lactate dehydrogenase test and the MTT test, 10 and 25% concentrations of extracts were selected for the antioxidant evaluation. All extracts at tested concentrations reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion radical, and 25% extract decreased malonic aldehyde formation in acetaldehyde-treated cells. The chemical composition of bark extracts was accessed by IR and HPLC-PDA methods and surprisingly, revealed a high content of betulin and lupeol in the inner bark extract of B. obscura. Furthermore, IR analysis revealed differences in the chemical composition of the outer bark between black and silver birch extracts, indicating that black birch may be a valuable source of numerous biologically active substances. Further experiments are required to evaluate their potential against neuroinflammation, cancer, viral infections, as well as their usefulness in cosmetology.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Betula/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetaldeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetaldeído/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Betula/classificação , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Oxidantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Planta/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polônia , Superóxidos/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443686

RESUMO

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan very common in commercial products from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics due to its widespread distribution in humans and its diversified physico-chemical proprieties. Despite its extended use and preliminary evidence showing even also opposite activities to the native form, the precise cellular effects of HA at low-molecular-weight (LWM-HA) are currently unclear. The 'omics sciences currently in development offer a new and combined perspective on the cellular and organismal environment. This work aims to integrate lipidomics analyses to our previous quantitative proteomics one for a multi-omics vision of intra- and extra-cellular impact of different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, and 0.50%) of LMW-HA (20-50 kDa) on normal human dermal fibroblasts by LC-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Untargeted lipidomics allowed us to identify 903 unique lipids mostly represented by triacylglycerols, ceramides, and phosphatidylcholines. According to proteomics analyses, LMW-HA 0.50% was the most effective concentration also in the lipidome rearrangement especially stimulating the synthesis of ceramides involved in skin hydration and reparation, cell signaling, and energy balance. Finally, integrative analyses showed 25 nodes covering several intra- and extra-cellular functions. The more complete comprehension of intra- and extra-cellular effects of LMW-HA here pointed out will be useful to further exploit its features and improve current formulations even though further studies on lipids biosynthesis and degradation are necessary.


Assuntos
Derme/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Metabolômica , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipidômica , Peso Molecular , Análise de Componente Principal , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica
19.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7671-7684, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335957

RESUMO

Snail1 is a transcriptional factor required for epithelial to mesenchymal transition and activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). Apart from that, tumor endothelial cells also express Snail1. Here, we have unraveled the role of Snail1 in this tissue in a tumorigenic context. Methods: We generated transgenic mice with an endothelial-specific and inducible Snail1 depletion. This murine line was crossed with MMTV-PyMT mice that develop mammary gland tumors and the consequence of Snail1 depletion in the endothelium were investigated. We also interfere Snail1 expression in cultured endothelial cells. Results: Specific Snail1 depletion in the endothelium of adult mice does not promote an overt phenotype; however, it delays the formation of mammary gland tumors in MMTV-PyMT mice. These effects are associated to the inability of Snail1-deficient endothelial cells to undergo angiogenesis and to enhance CAF activation in a paracrine manner. Moreover, tumors generated in mice with endothelium-specific Snail1 depletion are less advanced and show a papillary phenotype. Similar changes on onset and tumor morphology are observed by pretreatment of MMTV-PyMT mice with the angiogenic inhibitor Bevacizumab. Human breast papillary carcinomas exhibit a lower angiogenesis and present lower staining of Snail1, both in endothelial and stromal cells, compared with other breast neoplasms. Furthermore, human breast tumors datasets show a strong correlation between Snail1 expression and high angiogenesis. Conclusion: These findings show a novel role for Snail1 in endothelial cell activation and demonstrate that these cells impact not only on angiogenesis, but also on tumor onset and phenotype.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7755-7766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335962

RESUMO

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) evokes an organized remodeling process characterized by the activation and transdifferentiation of quiescent cardiac fibroblasts to generate a stable collagen rich scar. Early fibroblast activation may be amenable to targeted therapy, but is challenging to identify in vivo. We aimed to non-invasively image active fibrosis by targeting the fibroblast activation protein (FAP) expressed by activated (myo)fibroblasts, using a novel positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [68Ga]MHLL1 after acute MI. Methods: One-step chemical synthesis and manual as well as module-based radiolabeling yielded [68Ga]MHLL1. Binding characteristics were evaluated in murine and human FAP-transfected cells, and stability tested in human serum. Biodistribution in healthy animals was interrogated by dynamic PET imaging, and metabolites were measured in blood and urine. The temporal pattern of FAP expression was determined by serial PET imaging at 7 d and 21 d after coronary artery ligation in mice as percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). PET measurements were validated by ex vivo autoradiography and immunostaining for FAP and inflammatory macrophages. Results: [68Ga]MHLL1 displayed specific uptake in murine and human FAP-positive cells (p = 0.0208). In healthy mice the tracer exhibited favorable imaging characteristics, with low blood pool retention and dominantly renal clearance. At 7 d after coronary artery ligation, [68Ga]MHLL1 uptake was elevated in the infarct relative to the non-infarcted remote myocardium (1.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.0 ± 0.2 %ID/g, p < 0.001) which persisted to 21 d after MI (1.3 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4 %ID/g, p = 0.013). Excess unlabeled compound blocked tracer accumulation in both infarct and non-infarct remote myocardium regions (p < 0.001). Autoradiography and histology confirmed the regional uptake of [68Ga]MHLL1 in the infarct and especially border zone regions, as identified by Masson trichrome collagen staining. Immunostaining further delineated persistent FAP expression at 7 d and 21 d post-MI in the border zone, consistent with tracer distribution in vivo. Conclusion: The simplified synthesis of [68Ga]MHLL1 bears promise for non-invasive characterization of fibroblast activation protein early in remodeling after MI.


Assuntos
Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Gálio/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Animais , Autorradiografia/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endopeptidases/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Gálio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Distribuição Tecidual/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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