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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25454, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound global impact on governments, health care systems, economies, and populations around the world. Within the East Asia and Pacific region, some countries have mitigated the spread of the novel coronavirus effectively and largely avoided severe negative consequences, while others still struggle with containment. As the second wave reaches East Asia and the Pacific, it becomes more evident that additional SARS-CoV-2 surveillance is needed to track recent shifts, rates of increase, and persistence associated with the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to provide advanced surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission that account for speed, acceleration, jerk, persistence, and weekly shifts, to better understand country risk for explosive growth and those countries who are managing the pandemic successfully. Existing surveillance coupled with our dynamic metrics of transmission will inform health policy to control the COVID-19 pandemic until an effective vaccine is developed. We provide novel indicators to measure disease transmission. METHODS: Using a longitudinal trend analysis study design, we extracted 330 days of COVID-19 data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in East Asia and the Pacific as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: The standard surveillance metrics for Indonesia, the Philippines, and Myanmar were concerning as they had the largest new caseloads at 4301, 2588, and 1387, respectively. When looking at the acceleration of new COVID-19 infections, we found that French Polynesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines had rates at 3.17, 0.22, and 0.06 per 100,000. These three countries also ranked highest in terms of jerk at 15.45, 0.10, and 0.04, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Two of the most populous countries in East Asia and the Pacific, Indonesia and the Philippines, have alarming surveillance metrics. These two countries rank highest in new infections in the region. The highest rates of speed, acceleration, and positive upwards jerk belong to French Polynesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, and may result in explosive growth. While all countries in East Asia and the Pacific need to be cautious about reopening their countries since outbreaks are likely to occur in the second wave of COVID-19, the country of greatest concern is the Philippines. Based on standard and enhanced surveillance, the Philippines has not gained control of the COVID-19 epidemic, which is particularly troubling because the country ranks 4th in population in the region. Without extreme and rigid social distancing, quarantines, hygiene, and masking to reverse trends, the Philippines will remain on the global top 5 list of worst COVID-19 outbreaks resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The second wave will only exacerbate existing conditions and increase COVID-19 transmissions.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Australásia/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Polinésia/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sistema de Registros
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190802, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470383

RESUMO

Natural Sapajus libidinosus populations are in continuous decline due to fragmentation, habitat loss, and the illegal pet trade. They live in Caatinga scrub forests, which already lost over 50% of their original cover. The lack of studies on S. libidinosus population genetics means that we do not know how they are being affected by this striking habitat loss and other anthropogenic disturbances. Polymorphic markers are not available for the study of S. libidinosus diversity and population genetics. Thus, here we aimed to test the transferability of 14 microsatellite markers to S. libidinosus. These microsatellites were previously isolated from Cebus capucinus (white-faced capuchin), species belonging to the same subfamily (Cebinae) as the study species. We found that six of the tested microsatellite markers (tetra-nucleotide) were cross-amplified in our target species. All loci were polymorphic. The number of alleles varied from 4 to 7, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.588 to 0.869. The microsatellite markers transferred to S. libidinosus and characterised in our study will be valuable tools to evaluate the genetic variability of both wild and captive populations. They will considerably reduce the costs of microsatellite isolations, helping to prioritise currently limited research and conservation budgets in Brazil.


Assuntos
Cebinae , Animais , Brasil , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filipinas
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419929

RESUMO

In-person interactions have traditionally been the gold standard for qualitative data collection. The COVID-19 pandemic required researchers to consider if remote data collection can meet research objectives, while retaining the same level of data quality and participant protections. We use four case studies from the Philippines, Zambia, India and Uganda to assess the challenges and opportunities of remote data collection during COVID-19. We present lessons learned that may inform practice in similar settings, as well as reflections for the field of qualitative inquiry in the post-COVID-19 era. Key challenges and strategies to overcome them included the need for adapted researcher training in the use of technologies and consent procedures, preparation for abbreviated interviews due to connectivity concerns, and the adoption of regular researcher debriefings. Participant outreach to allay suspicions ranged from communicating study information through multiple channels to highlighting associations with local institutions to boost credibility. Interviews were largely successful, and contained a meaningful level of depth, nuance and conviction that allowed teams to meet study objectives. Rapport still benefitted from conventional interviewer skills, including attentiveness and fluency with interview guides. While differently abled populations may encounter different barriers, the included case studies, which varied in geography and aims, all experienced more rapid recruitment and robust enrollment. Reduced in-person travel lowered interview costs and increased participation among groups who may not have otherwise attended. In our view, remote data collection is not a replacement for in-person endeavours, but a highly beneficial complement. It may increase accessibility and equity in participant contributions and lower costs, while maintaining rich data collection in multiple study target populations and settings.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados , Relações Interpessoais , África ao Sul do Saara , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Humanos , Índia , Internet , Pandemias , Filipinas , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 115: 107491, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a neurologic disease that carries a high disease burden and likely, a huge treatment gap especially in low-to-middle income countries (LMIC) such as the Philippines. This review aimed to examine the treatment gaps and challenges that burden Philippine epilepsy care. MATERIALS & METHODS: Pertinent data on epidemiology, research, health financing and health systems, pharmacologic and surgical treatment options, cost of care, and workforce were obtained through a literature search and review of relevant Philippine government websites. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of epilepsy in the Philippines is 0.9%. Epilepsy research in the Philippines is low in quantity compared with the rest of Southeast Asia (SEA). Inequities in quality and quantity of healthcare services delivered to local government units (LGUs) have arisen because of devolution. Programs for epilepsy care by both government and nongovernment institutions have been implemented. Healthcare expenditure in the Philippines is still largely out-of-pocket, with only partial coverage from the public sector. There is limited access to antiseizure medications (ASMs), mainly due to cost. Epilepsy surgery is an underutilized treatment option. There are only 20 epileptologists in the Philippines, with one epileptologist for every 45,000 patients with epilepsy. In addition, epilepsy care service delivery has been further impeded by the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSION: There is a large treatment gap in epilepsy care in the Philippines in terms of high epilepsy disease burden, socioeconomic limitations and inadequate public support, sparse clinico-epidemiologic research on epilepsy, inaccessibility of health care services and essential pharmacotherapy, underutilization of surgical options, and lack of specialists capable of rendering epilepsy care. Acknowledgment of the existence of these treatment gaps and addressing such are expected to improve the overall survival and quality of life of patients with epilepsy in the Philippines.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Epilepsia/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Anticonvulsivantes/economia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , /epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Epilepsia/economia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111944, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383320

RESUMO

The increasing amount of marine litter is a global issue that is also being experienced within the Manila Bay Philippines. To better understand the behavior of litter within the bay, particle tracking simulations of floating litter released from several sources were conducted. Forward-in-time (PTM-FIT) simulation of particle movements showed that during the southwest monsoon season, litter particles released by river sources tend to accumulate toward five hotspots located along the northeastern coastline of the bay. Backward-in-time (PTM-BIT) simulation of particles released from the identified hotspots showed coastal and foreign sources contributing to the litter collected within these areas. PTM-FIT simulations during the southwest monsoon season showed that particles tend to circulate locally within the bay before being transported toward the hotspots. By contrast, PTM-FIT simulations during the northwest monsoon season showed that litter particles tend to travel toward the mouth of the bay, an implication for global marine litter pollution.


Assuntos
Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Filipinas , Plásticos , Rios , Estações do Ano
8.
J Environ Radioact ; 227: 106508, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338867

RESUMO

In a previous study in 2016, we presented how 129I in coral cores from the east (Baler) and west (Parola) sides of the Philippines recorded the impacts of human nuclear activities, including nuclear weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing, and nuclear accidents. However, the 2016 Baler dataset only had a two-year time resolution and a crude age model based on growth band counting. Here we present a new 2020 Baler 129I/127I atomic ratio dataset that features at least annual time resolution and a more accurate age model constructed using 3D X-ray Computed Tomography. Results show that the bomb peaks in Baler primarily came from the Pacific Proving Grounds or PPG with a time lag of about 1.8 years (or more specifically, between 1.3 and 2.4 years). Moreover, a review of the Parola dataset shows that PPG signals may have been transported to Parola in the West Philippine Sea via two pathways: the northward and southward bifurcations of the North Equatorial Current, reaching Parola about 4.5 and 8.5 years after detonation, respectively. Moreover, a prominent peak in the year 2014.7 in Baler possibly came from the 2011 Fukushima Accident, transported by the Kuroshio Recirculation Gyre and the North Pacific Mode Waters with a 3.5-year time lag. This study contributes to the understanding of the impact and transport of human-made radionuclides to the Philippines and the relevant oceanographic processes in the Western Equatorial Pacific region.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Radioisótopos do Iodo/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Filipinas , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353250

RESUMO

Very few studies exist of legal interventions (national laws) for essential medicines as part of universal health coverage in middle-income countries, or how the effect of these laws is measured. This study aims to critically assess whether laws related to universal health coverage use five objectives of public health law to promote medicines affordability and financing, and to understand how access to medicines achieved through these laws is measured. This comparative case study of five middle-income countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Philippines, South Africa, Ukraine) uses a public health law framework to guide the content analysis of national laws and the scoping review of empirical evidence for measuring access to medicines. Sixty laws were included. All countries write into national law: (a) health equity objectives, (b) remedies for users/patients and sanctions for some stakeholders, (c) economic policies and regulatory objectives for financing (except South Africa), pricing, and benefits selection (except South Africa), (d) information dissemination objectives (ex. for medicines prices (except Ghana)), and (e) public health infrastructure. The 17 studies included in the scoping review evaluate laws with economic policy and regulatory objectives (n = 14 articles), health equity (n = 10), information dissemination (n = 3), infrastructure (n = 2), and sanctions (n = 1) (not mutually exclusive). Cross-sectional descriptive designs (n = 8 articles) and time series analyses (n = 5) were the most frequent designs. Change in patients' spending on medicines was the most frequent outcome measure (n = 5). Although legal interventions for pharmaceuticals in middle-income countries commonly use all objectives of public health law, the intended and unintended effects of economic policies and regulation are most frequently investigated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Equador , Gana , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Filipinas , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Ucrânia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4890(3): zootaxa.4890.3.1, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311115

RESUMO

New taxonomic and faunistic data for eight species of Paraphloeostiba Steel, 1960 (Omaliini) from China and Laos are provided. Three new species are described and illustrated: P. ampliata sp.n. (China: Yunnan), P. brancuccii sp.n. (Laos), and P. cooteri sp.n. (China: Zhejiang). A new synonymy is established: P. formosana Shavrin Smetana, 2016 = P. amooraphila Shavrin, 2017 syn.n. Paraphloeostiba opacicollis Steel, 1960 is redescribed, illustrated, and recorded from Laos for the first time. A key to the species of Paraphloeostiba of China and Laos is presented. Previous records of P. apicalis (Cameron, 1925) from China are doubtful; additional material from Indonesia and the Philippines is reported. Paraphloeostiba sulcicollis (Fauvel, 1904) is recorded from China for the first time. New records of Paraphloeostiba are reported: P. apicalis from Mindanao (Philippines), P. formosana Shavrin Smetana, 2016 from mainland China and Vietnam, P. gayndahensis (MacLeay, 1873) from Yunnan, and P. sonani (Bernhauer, 1943) from Myanmar. In addition, four new species of Omaliini are described and illustrated: Nipponophloeostiba longilobata sp.n., Omalium khmericum sp.n., and Phloeostiba assingi sp.n. from northern Laos, and Phloeonomus (Phloeonomus) rougemonti sp.n. from China (Yunnan).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Laos , Filipinas
11.
Zootaxa ; 4878(3): zootaxa.4878.3.3, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311143

RESUMO

Seventeen chiton species of the genus Leptochiton are reported from Philippine waters. Of these, nine are reported from the Philippines for the first time, including three species new to science: Leptochiton costatoacus n. sp., L. longigranum n. sp. and L. spiniferus n. sp. The majority of the Philippine leptochitons live mainly in the bathyal zone or deeper.


Assuntos
Poliplacóforos , Animais , Moluscos , Filipinas
12.
Zootaxa ; 4881(3): zootaxa.4881.3.6, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311304

RESUMO

We describe a brackish-water calanoid copepod Acartia (Acanthacartia) cagayanensis sp. nov. collected from river estuaries in the northernmost Luzon, the Philippines. The new species has several characteristic features that are typical to the A. plumosa group (A. (A.) plumosa Scott T., 1894, A. (A.) sinjiensis Mori, 1940 and A. (A.) tropica Ueda Hiromi, 1987); specifically, a short apical spine on the long terminal segment of male left leg 5, which is unique to the group. The morphological features of A. cagayanensis sp. nov. different from those of the A. plumosa group are the barrel-shaped genital double somite and the cylindrical basal part of the terminal segment of female leg 5. Among the species in the group, A. cagayanensis sp. nov. is closest to A. sinjiensis in terms of the spinule patterns on the female antennule, the posterior corner of the prosome, and the male second urosomite. The genetic analysis using DNA sequences of mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) revealed that A. sinjiensis from Japan and A. cagayanensis sp. nov. differed by 16.5-16.9%, in contrast to a small variation (0.0-0.5%) within each population. We confirmed that previous records of A. sinjiensis from the Philippines were not A. cagayanensis sp. nov., and therefore, A. cagayanensis sp. nov. is the third species of the subgenus Acanthacartia Steuer, 1925, after A. sinjiensis and A. (A.) tsuensis Ito, 1956.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Animais , Estuários , Feminino , Masculino , Filipinas , Rios
13.
Zootaxa ; 4868(3): zootaxa.4868.3.1, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311388

RESUMO

The brachyuran fauna of the large southern Philippine island of Mindanao is poorly known, with only a few freshwater and estuarine crab species described or recorded in the last 30 years. Renewed interest in crab biodiversity has led to recent, small-scale surveys (2016-2019) of freshwater and estuarine habitats in various localities in Mindanao, which have yielded a good diversity of brachyuran crabs. As a result, a total of 26 species of brachyuran crab, representing 6 families (Hymenosomatidae, Oziidae, Gecarcinidae, Sesarmidae, Varunidae, and Ocypodidae), are reported here. Of these, 15 species are new records for the main island of Mindanao, 6 of which are also new records for the Philippines. Remarks on the taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of these species are also provided.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Infestações por Piolhos , Animais , Água Doce , Ilhas , Filipinas
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111168, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181914

RESUMO

Climate Change solutions include CO2 extraction from atmosphere and water with burial by living habitats in sediment/soil. Nowhere on the planet are blue carbon plants which carry out massive carbon extraction and permanent burial more intensely concentrated than in SE Asia. For the first time we make a national and total inventory of data to date for "blue carbon" buried from mangroves and seagrass and delineate the constraints. For an area across Southeast Asia of approximately 12,000,000 km2, supporting mangrove forests (5,116,032 ha) and seagrass meadows (6,744,529 ha), we analyzed the region's current blue carbon stocks. This estimate was achieved by integrating the sum of estuarine in situ carbon stock measurements with the extent of mangroves and seagrass across each nation, then summed for the region. We found that mangroves ecosystems regionally supported the greater amount of organic carbon (3095.19Tg Corg in 1st meter) over that of seagrass (1683.97 Tg Corg in 1st meter), with corresponding stock densities ranging from 15 to 2205 Mg ha-1 and 31.3 to 2450 Mg ha-1 respectively, a likely underestimate for entire carbon including sediment depths. The largest carbon stocks are found within Indonesia, followed by the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, Tropical China, Viet-Nam, and Cambodia. Compared to the blue carbon hotspot of tropical/subtropical Gulf of Mexico's total carbon stock (480.48 Tg Corg), Southeast Asia's greater mangrove-seagrass stock density appears a more intense Blue Carbon hotspot (4778.66 Tg Corg). All regional Southeast Asian nation states should assist in superior preservation and habitat restoration plus similar measures in the USA & Mexico for the Gulf of Mexico, as apparently these form two of the largest tropical carbon sinks within coastal waters. We hypothesize it is SE Asia's regionally unique oceanic-geologic conditions, placed squarely within the tropics, which are largely responsible for this blue carbon hotspot, that is, consistently high ambient light levels and year-long warm temperatures, together with consistently strong inflow of dissolved carbon dioxide and upwelling of nutrients across the shallow geological plates.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Ecossistema , Ásia Sudeste , China , Golfo do México , Indonésia , Malásia , Papua Nova Guiné , Filipinas , Tailândia , Vietnã , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153082

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety symptoms) among the general population of Hong Kong and migrant Filipina domestic helpers (FDHs). Having to live with the employers by law, FDHs' working environment might affect their well-being during COVID-19 (e.g., household crowdedness/size, insufficiency of protective equipment against COVID-19, increased workload). Research has suggested that coping resources (e.g., social support, COVID-19-related information literacy) and COVID-19-specific worries are associated with people's well-being during COVID-19. This study examined the psychosocial correlates of probable anxiety among FDHs in Hong Kong amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By purposive sampling, FDHs (n = 295) were recruited and invited to complete a cross-sectional survey. Participants' working environment (crowdedness, household size), COVID-19 job arrangements (workload, provision of protective equipment), coping resources (social support, COVID-19 information literacy), COVID-19-specific worries (contracting COVID-19, getting fired if contracting COVID-19), and anxiety symptoms were measured. Multivariate regression results showed that the insufficiency of protective equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.18, 2.11), increased workload (OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.02, 2.25), and worries about being fired if getting COVID-19 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.68) were significantly associated with probable anxiety. This was one of the earliest studies to indicate that job arrangements and COVID-19-specific worries significantly contributed to FDHs' anxiety symptoms. Our findings shed light on the importance of addressing employment-related rights and pandemic-specific worries through interventions among FDHs in Hong Kong during pandemic situations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Aglomeração , Características da Família , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filipinas/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(6): 426-434, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132262

RESUMO

In Jan 2020, dotinurad (URECE® tablets) was approved for gout and hyperuricemia therapy in Japan. We developed a novel hypouricemic agent because benzbromarone, a commercially available uricosuric agent, has several problems, such as drug-induced liver injury or drug-drug interaction caused by CYP2C9 inhibition. In transporter-overexpressing cells, dotinurad potently inhibited URAT1 which is localized in the renal proximal tubules and functions as a urate reabsorption. On the contrary, dotinurad hardly inhibited urate secretion transporters, ABCG2 or OAT1/3. In Cebus monkeys, dotinurad dose-dependently decreased plasma urate levels at low doses compared with benzbromarone. Inhibitory effect of dotinurad on mitochondria was weaker than that of benzbromarone and there was no observation suggesting a risk of drug-induced liver injury taking into consideration the clinical dose or exposure. Dotinurad weakly inhibited CYPs and further analysis indicated there was no drug-drug interaction risk in the clinical dose. In clinical pharmacology studies, there was no difference among sex and age. Furthermore, dosage and administration are equal even in hepatic impairment patients (mild to severe) and renal impairment patients (mild to moderate). In confirmatory phase II and long-term studies, dotinurad decreased serum urate levels at low doses and almost patients using maintenance dose (2 or 4 mg) achieved a serum urate level ≤ 6.0 mg/dL. Moreover, there was no finding to raise safety concern including liver injury. In conclusion, dotinurad, a selective urate reabsorption inhibitor (SURI) could be a therapeutic option because of its more effective hypouricemic action at low doses than those of commercially available uricosuric agents.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos , Uricosúricos , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Japão , Filipinas , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202706

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought about several features that increased the sense of fear and confusion, such as quarantine and financial losses among other stressors, which may have led to adverse psychosocial outcomes. The influence of such stressors took place within a broader sociocultural context that needs to be considered. The objective was to examine how the psychological response to the pandemic varied across countries and identify which risk/protective factors contributed to this response. An online survey was conducted from 29 May 2020-12 June 2020, among a multinational sample of 8806 adults from eight countries/regions (Canada, United States, England, Switzerland, Belgium, Hong Kong, Philippines, New Zealand). Probable generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depression episode (MDE) were assessed. The independent role of a wide range of potential factors was examined using multilevel logistic regression. Probable GAD and MDE were indicated by 21.0% and 25.5% of the respondents, respectively, with an important variation according to countries/regions (GAD: 12.2-31.0%; MDE: 16.7-32.9%). When considered together, 30.2% of the participants indicated probable GAD or MDE. Several factors were positively associated with a probable GAD or MDE, including (in descending order of importance) weak sense of coherence (SOC), lower age, false beliefs, isolation, threat perceived for oneself/family, mistrust in authorities, stigma, threat perceived for country/world, financial losses, being a female, and having a high level of information about COVID-19. Having a weak SOC yielded the highest adjusted odds ratio for probable GAD or MDE (3.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.73-3.77). This pandemic is having an impact on psychological health. In some places and under certain circumstances, however, people seem to be better protected psychologically. This is a unique opportunity to evaluate the psychosocial impacts across various sociocultural backgrounds, providing important lessons that could inform all phases of disaster risk management.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica , Betacoronavirus , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Cura Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias , Filipinas , Estresse Psicológico , Suíça , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zootaxa ; 4803(2): zootaxa.4803.2.4, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056019

RESUMO

Two new genera, Halista Park, gen. nov. (type species: Ephalista batillosa Park Kim, sp. nov.) and Mireana Park, gen. nov. (type species: Miraena tawitawiensis Park Kim sp. nov.), and four new species, assigned to the previously known genera: Lecithocera wolframmeyi sp. nov, L. bipunctata sp. nov., Torodora platiella sp. nov. and Chrysonasma occidentis sp. nov. are described from the Philippines. Illustrations of adults and genitalia of all new species are provided.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Genitália , Filipinas
19.
Zootaxa ; 4803(2): zootaxa.4803.2.11, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056026

RESUMO

The genus Systelloderes Blanchard, 1852 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Enicocephalomorpha: Enicocephalidae), has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, with the greatest species richness being found in humid tropical and subtropical forests, but species are also present in humid microhabitats of temperate and arid zones (Wygodzinsky Schmidt 1991). In the Eastern Hemisphere species of Systelloderes occur in continental Africa (22 species, see Villiers 1969; 1976; Maldonado 1988; Banar 2008); Madagascar (Systelloders milloti Villiers, 1952); New Zealand (see Stys 1970, 2002) and New Caledonia (Systelloders loebli Stys Banar, 2007). Two species (S. capillicornis Bergroth, 1918 from Luzon and S. aetherius Bergroth, 1916 from Queensland) originally described as Systelloderes belong to the genus Henschiella Horváth, 1888 (P. Stys, unpublished data). As is frequently the case with Enicocephalomorpha, many species of Systelloderes remain to be described, especially from the Afrotropical, Neotropical and Oriental Regions. There are 13 described Systelloderes species from North and Central America (Wygodzinsky Schmidt 1991). To date, there are only six described species of Systelloderes from South America: two from Venezuela, and by a single species from Bolivia, Brazil, Chile and Peru each. There are very few additional records of Systelloderes in the New World tropics, including the works of Wolda (1975) and Ospina-Bautista (2018) on Colombia, Parker et al. (2012) on Peru, and Maestre et al. (2001) from Brazil.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Animais , Equador , Filipinas
20.
Zootaxa ; 4834(2): zootaxa.4834.2.5, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056123

RESUMO

East Timor is an island located to the south of the Indonesian Archipelago and to the north of Australia, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is included in the Coral Triangle and houses an amazing quantity of marine biodiversity. However, only two species of Syllidae (Annelida) have been reported up to now: Trypanosyllis migueli and T. devae. Based on a small collection from the Australian Museum, we have identified nine genera and 17 species: Brevicirrosyllis mariae, Opisthodonta morena, Sphaerosyllis densopapillata, Branchiosyllis australis, B. exilis, B. maculata, B. verruculosa, Haplosyllis djiboutiensis, Opisthosyllis brunnea, Syllis alternata, S. broomensis, S. corallicola, S. erikae, S. gerlachi, S. hyalina, S. setoensis and Trypanosyllis luzonensis. This is the first record of S. gerlachi outside the Indian Ocean, and B. mariae, O. morena, S. densopapillata, H. djiboutiensis, S. corallicola and S. erikae have not been previously reported in tropical Asia. A specimen of Parahaplosyllis sp. could not be identified due to its poor condition. Three species belonging to Syllis are herein described as new: S. cambuk n. sp. has a large size body, with anterior segments much wider and shorter than posterior ones, long whip-shaped dorsal cirri and bidentate midbody and posterior chaetae, with both teeth equal in size and shape; Syllis hampirmenyatu n. sp. has three chaetae per posterior parapodium, with short and wide blades appearing to be fused with shafts, but still clearly distinguishable from each other, bidentate, with proximal tooth clearly smaller and thinner than distal one; and S. maganda n. sp. is easily recognizable because of its spectacular orange and blue colouration, only observable in living specimens, with broad transverse red stripes on the dorsum forming a distinctive pattern and red spots on the cirri and prostomium observable in both living and fixed specimens. Additionally, Philippine samples from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid have been examined corresponding to S. maganda n. sp. A Philippine specimen of S. maganda n. sp. had a small unidentified specimen of Haplosyllis attached to a posterior dorsal cirrus, which is the first documented case of such an interaction between two species of Syllidae. This provisionally called Haplosyllis sp. is characterized by its simple chaetae with short spur and two very long, distinct curved teeth, very close to each other. A regenerated prostomium and a stolon were also found in other Philippine specimens of S. maganda n. sp.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Animais , Austrália , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Timor-Leste
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