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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267555, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic declared by the WHO has affected many countries rendering everyday lives halted. In the Philippines, the lockdown quarantine protocols have shifted the traditional college classes to online. The abrupt transition to online classes may bring psychological effects to college students due to continuous isolation and lack of interaction with fellow students and teachers. Our study aims to assess Filipino college students' mental health status and to estimate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, the shift to online learning, and social media use on mental health. In addition, facilitators or stressors that modified the mental health status of the college students during the COVID-19 pandemic, quarantine, and subsequent shift to online learning will be investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Mixed-method study design will be used, which will involve: (1) an online survey to 2,100 college students across the Philippines; and (2) randomly selected 20-40 key informant interviews (KIIs). Online self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) including Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and Brief-COPE will be used. Moreover, socio-demographic factors, social media usage, shift to online learning factors, family history of mental health and COVID-19, and other factors that could affect mental health will also be included in the SAQ. KIIs will explore factors affecting the student's mental health, behaviors, coping mechanism, current stressors, and other emotional reactions to these stressors. Associations between mental health outcomes and possible risk factors will be estimated using generalized linear models, while a thematic approach will be made for the findings from the KIIs. Results of the study will then be triangulated and summarized. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Our study has been approved by the University of the Philippines Manila Research Ethics Board (UPMREB 2021-099-01). The results will be actively disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed journals, social media, print and broadcast media, and various stakeholder activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Mídias Sociais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Filipinas/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes/psicologia
2.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05015, 2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596944

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted populations globally, and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) surrounding the virus have necessarily evolved. This study was conducted in partnership with International Care Ministries (ICM), a Philippine-based non-governmental organization that runs the "Transform" poverty alleviation program. The main objective of this study was to describe the changes in COVID-19 KAPs among households experiencing extreme poverty in the Philippines over an 8-month period. Methods: A KAP questionnaire was integrated into the household survey collected as part of ICM's regular monitoring and evaluation of "Transform". Data collection for the first survey was conducted between February 20 and March 13, 2020, and the second survey was conducted between November 12 and December 12, 2020. Frequencies and proportions were calculated to describe the respondents' responses and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess if there were significant differences in KAP identification between the two time points. Results: We observed a distinct increase across all KAP domains. Over 90% of study participants were able to correctly identify COVID-19 transmission modes and preventive measures, and an even higher percentage reported adopting these measures. However, the intention to seek care from public hospitals for COVID-19 symptoms dropped from 43.6% to 28.4%, while reports of self-treatment using stored medicines or antibiotics increased. Trust in community members and local health authorities was correlated with higher knowledge and practice scores. Conclusions: Our study results reflect the extraordinary speed of information dissemination and behaviour change globally over the course of the pandemic, but they also highlight the changes in KAP that show the additional challenges faced by populations experiencing poverty in the Philippines. Prioritization of reducing inequities in the implementation and adoption of the evolving public health measures will be integral as the pandemic continues.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Trop Biomed ; 39(1): 150-159, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507938

RESUMO

The poultry industry is a major contributor to the Philippine economy. Given the rising concerns in antibiotic resistance and food security, farmers need to maximize profit and output while ensuring safe and ecologically sustainable farming practices. This study surveyed antibiotic use in 12 commercial poultry farms in the Philippines. All farms reported the use of medically important antibiotics either for prophylaxis (91.67%), metaphylaxis (100%), and growth promotion (50%). Considering the widespread use of medically important antibiotics, we then investigated the potential contribution of local antibiotic treatment protocols to the emergence of antibiotic resistance genes in the fecal samples of broiler chickens under a controlled experimental setup. Significantly, we observed the emergence of antibiotic resistance genes ( ermB) in fecal samples of antibiotic-treated broilers after 7 days and 21 days in antibiotic-free broilers raised in the same farming environment. These data were corroborated by antibiotic resistance gene profiles of fecal samples from commercial poultry farms. Antibiotic resistance genes ( tetA, tetB, tetU, tetW, qnrB, qnrS) were prevalent in the fecal samples of antibiotic-treated broilers treated with tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics. Therefore, our study provides concrete evidence for the strong correlation between the use of medically important antibiotics in poultry farming and the emergence of antibiotic resistance genes. Antimicrobial resistance is a major contributor to failures in infectious disease treatment strategies in humans and animals. Therefore, the cost-benefit ratio of poorly regulated antibiotic treatment protocols in poultry farming could have a long-term detrimental impact on our economy and public health. Our study suggests the need to review our current policies and practices in using medically important antibiotics in the Philippine poultry industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Agricultura , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas , Filipinas , Aves Domésticas
4.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(5): 392-398, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Philippines aims to accelerate TB reduction through the provision of universally accessible and affordable services. The objectives of this paper are to estimate the costs of TB services and interventions using a health systems´ perspective, and to explore cost differences in service delivery via primary care facilities or hospitals.METHODS: Data were collected from a multi-stage stratified random sampling of 28 facilities in accordance with Global Health Cost Consortium costing standards and analysis tools. Unit costs (in US$) estimated using top-down (TD) and bottom-up (BU) approaches, are summarised following Value TB reporting standards and by broad facility type.RESULTS: Cost of delivering 32 TB services and eight interventions varied by costing method and delivery platform. Average BU costs ranged from US$0.38 for treatment support visits, US$2.5 for BCG vaccination, US$19.48 for the Xpert® MTB/RIF test to US$3,677 for MDR-TB treatment using the long regimen. Delivering TB care in hospitals was generally more costly than in primary care facilities, except for TB prevention in children and MDR-TB treatment using the long regimen.CONCLUSION: Comprehensive costing data for TB care in the Philippines are now available to aid in the design, planning, and prioritisation of delivery models to End TB.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Criança , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Filipinas
5.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 6(2): e104-e112, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) is the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health information across the three domains of the health continuum: health care, disease prevention, and health promotion. It is needed for people to effectively manage their health. Information on population HL level is useful for crafting appropriate and targeted interventions to improve HL. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the HL level of Filipino people at the national and subnational levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2018 and 2019 with 2,303 randomly selected Filipino people age 15 to 70 years, using an adapted Asia version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire-47. Prevalence estimates for limited HL and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed at the national and subnational levels. KEY RESULTS: The nationwide prevalence of limited HL was 51.5% (95% CI, [49.5%, 53.6%]), while sub-national prevalence estimates ranged from 48.2% to 65.4%. The prevalence varied across HL dimensions, with difficulty in access to information having the highest level. Similarly, prevalence across domains was variable; health care-related HL had the highest prevalence of limited HL. The HL levels for different dimensions and domains also varied across subnational groups. CONCLUSION: Many Filipino people had limited HL, and prevalence estimates varied across HL dimensions, HL domains, subnational groupings, and sociodemographic characteristics. The results highlight the need for targeted interventions focusing on subgroups with limited HL and on dimensions and domains where Filipino people have limited HL. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2022;6(2):e104-e112.] Plain Language Summary: The National Health Literacy Survey is the first nationwide survey on the prevalence of HL in the Philippines, involving 2,303 randomly selected Filipino residents age 15 to 70 years. Many Filipino people have limited HL, and the prevalence of HL varies across the components of HL, subnational groupings, and sociodemographic characteristics, highlighting the need for targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zootaxa ; 5116(4): 504-516, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35391322

RESUMO

Three new species of Pachyrhynchus Germar, 1824 are described from Mindanao Island, The Philippines: P. similis sp. nov., P. subanon sp. nov., and P. chrysomaculatus sp. nov. For each new taxon habitus photographs of male and female, and illustrations of male genitalia are provided. The author also proposes to consider the above species together with the closest ones as belonging to the new atrocyaneus species group.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Filipinas
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(6): 164, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435500

RESUMO

Erwinia mallotivora is one of the most important bacterial pathogens of papaya and causes bacterial crown rot disease in the Philippines. In this paper, we present the draft genome sequences of six Philippine E. mallotivora isolates to provide insights into the genes involved in host-pathogen interactions and compare their genomes to other Erwinia species. The genomes were sequenced using Illumina Miseq platform. The draft whole-genome assemblies of the E. mallotivora isolates are composed of 36-64 contigs with N50 value ranging from 285 to 332 kbp and cover 96.2-100% of the estimated genome size. Structural genome annotation of these assemblies has predicted 4489-4749 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis using orthologous gene sets led to the identification of conserved genes within the genus and species-specific gene orthologous groups, which collectively provide a baseline for functional genomic studies to determine genes affecting virulence and host specificity. Secreted proteins of E. mallotivora were also predicted and characterized to unravel putative genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This study provides the first draft whole-genome sequences of Philippine isolates of E. mallotivora, thus expanding the genomic knowledge for this species in comparison with other members of the genus Erwinia.


Assuntos
Erwinia , Erwinia/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica , Filipinas
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1852): 20200419, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430879

RESUMO

The population of Mexico has a considerable genetic substructure due to both its pre-Columbian diversity and due to genetic admixture from post-Columbian trans-oceanic migrations. The latter primarily originated in Europe and Africa, but also, to a lesser extent, in Asia. We analyze previously understudied genetic connections between Asia and Mexico to infer the timing and source of this genetic ancestry in Mexico. We identify the predominant origin within Southeast Asia-specifically western Indonesian and non-Negrito Filipino sources-and we date its arrival in Mexico to approximately 13 generations ago (1620 CE). This points to a genetic legacy from the seventeenth century Manila galleon trade between the colonial Spanish Philippines and the Pacific port of Acapulco. Indeed, within Mexico we observe the highest level of this trans-Pacific ancestry in Acapulco, located in the state of Guerrero. This colonial Spanish trade route from East Asia to Europe was centred on Mexico and appears in historical records, but its legacy has been largely ignored. Identities and stories were suppressed due to slavery, assimilation of the immigrants as 'Indios' and incomplete historical records. Here we characterize this understudied Mexican ancestry. This article is part of the theme issue 'Celebrating 50 years since Lewontin's apportionment of human diversity'.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Ásia , Ásia Sudeste , Genética Populacional , Humanos , México , Filipinas
10.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2062819, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Perfectionism is a relevant construct among university students. Researchers have emphasized its significance and even suggested it as an "amplifier of risk" to youth mental health given its association with negative outcomes. The study aims to understand perfectionism and how it is experienced among Filipino perfectionist students from the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD). METHODS: The study employed in-depth phenomenological interviews to gather narratives reflecting the experiences and reflections shared by 10 perfectionist students from UPD. Thematic analysis was used to construct relevant themes about living with perfectionism. RESULTS: Perfectionist students exhibited high standards and behaviours and cognitions associated with rigidity and obsessiveness in many contexts in their lives. The family, pre-college (elementary and high school), and college contexts are significant in their development as perfectionists. Students also struggled with its constant negotiations and trade-offs because of its double-edged nature and the push and pull of their personal and others' standards. Narratives also indicate a relationship between their motivations as perfectionists, their strategies to manage it, and their expected mental health outcomes. CONCLUSION: Living with perfectionism among Filipino perfectionist students can be described as developmental, dialectical, and directed. Implications relevant to understanding Filipino perfectionism are outlined in the study.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Humanos , Motivação , Filipinas , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053389, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The novel (COVID-19 was first reported to have originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. This new strain, SARS-CoV-2, has spread rapidly worldwide, prompting the WHO to declare the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic. The main objective of this cohort study is to determine the risk factors of COVID-19, the modes of COVID-19 vertical transmission, and the maternal and fetal outcomes among non-pregnant and pregnant women and their fetuses. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre epidemiological study that will involve a prospective cohort. COVID-19 status among consulting non-pregnant and pregnant women in public hospitals in Manila, Philippines, will be determined and monitored for 6-12 months. Swab specimens from the nasopharynx, cervix, rectum, amniotic fluid, placenta, cord blood and breastmilk will be collected during consult and admission for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) testing. Blood will be collected during the postdelivery period to monitor the women and their neonates for any undue development and determine the antibody development to indicate an infective or non-infective state. Evidence of vertical transmission will be explored with the presence or absence of the virus using the maternal and fetal neonatal RT-PCR and lateral flow antibody status. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be done, including the associations between exposures and risk factors, description of clinical characteristics, and the COVID-19 status of the participants. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Single Joint Research Ethics Board of the Department of Health has approved this protocol (SJREB 2020-30). The study results will be disseminated through conference presentations, peer-reviewed articles, and various stakeholder public forums and activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
15.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 34(2): 116-130, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438540

RESUMO

Drug use and HIV are key issues for public health interventions in the Philippines. We examined associations of problematic drug use among 320 Filipinx transgender women (trans-WSM) and cisgender men who have sex with men (cis-MSM). The prevalence of exhibited problematic drug use in this sample was 29.38%. Greater odds of problematic drug use were observed among Filipinx participants who recently engaged in sex work (adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.79, 95% CI [1.08, 7.18]), reported having HIV positive and unknown status vs. negative status (aOR = 3.61, 95% CI [1.39, 9.39], and aOR = 13.99, 95% CI [2.04, 29.69], respectively), exhibited low HIV knowledge (aOR = 4.15, 95% CI [1.82, 9.44]), and displayed hazardous drinking (aOR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.21, 6.33]). Given its correlates of HIV-related indicators, integration of HIV and harm reduction services as a public health intervention could potentially decrease problematic drug use.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Pessoas Transgênero , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Políticas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Manage ; 69(6): 1102-1117, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435475

RESUMO

Fisheries compliance has been explored conceptually and empirically in numerous contexts but in many fisheries, compliance with rules is not sufficient to return to sustainable levels of effort. Failing to understand the context and what drives fishers to behave the way they do, has the potential to misdirect investments. The authors present a conceptual model of fisheries ecosystem stewardship (FES) that expands upon fisheries compliance with the addition of moral obligation for fishing communities. This paper uses household survey data from fishing communities in three marine key biodiversity areas (MKBA) in the Philippines to test part of the FES model using logistic regression and multiple regression analysis with empirical data to test the model. Data shows that apart from the respondents' location (i.e., which MKBA is adjacent to their community), knowledge of laws protecting coastal/marine resources was the most important predictor of environmental stewardship, followed by support for limiting fishing effort and knowledge of illegal fishing. Individual decisions about if and how-to fish are influenced by the economic context and available livelihood opportunities. However, the moral obligation to "do the right thing" is equally, if not more important to consider for fisheries ecosystem stewardship in fishing communities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Peixes , Filipinas
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 116, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genus Cissophyllus (Cosmocercoidea: Kathlaniidae) is a rare group of nematodes parasitic in turtles and lizards. To date, only four species have been reported in Asia and North America. However, most of them are inadequately described. The species Cissophyllus leytensis has never been reported since it was originally described by Tubangui and Villaamil in 1933 from the Philippine sailfin lizard Hydrosaurus pustulatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) (Reptilia: Squamata). Furthermore, the systematic status of Cissophyllus/Cissophyllinae in the family Kathlaniidae of the superfamily Cosmocercoidea remains under debate. METHODS: The detailed morphology of C. leytensis was studied using light microscopy (LM) and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), based on newly collected specimens from the type host H. pustulatus. Six different genetic markers, including nuclear sequences [small ribosomal subunit (18S), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large ribosomal subunit (28S)], plus mitochondrial genes [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) and 12S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene] of C. leytensis were sequenced. Additionally, in order to test the validity of the subfamily Cissophyllinae and clarify the phylogenetic relationships of Cissophyllus and the other genera in the family Kathlaniidae, phylogenetic analyses based on 18S + 28S and ITS sequence data were performed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses, respectively. RESULTS: Our observations using LM and SEM revealed some previously unreported morphological features, necessitating the redescription of this poorly known species. The presence of remarkable morphological variation in the isthmus and the position of excretory pore among different individuals was found. Molecular analysis showed no intraspecific nucleotide divergence detected in the 18S, ITS, 28S, cox2 and 12S regions among different individuals of C. leytensis, but a low level of intraspecific genetic variation was found in the cox1 (0.52%). Our phylogenetic results showed the representatives of the Cosmocercoidea divided into four large clades (Cosmocerca + Aplectana + Cosmocercoides representing the family Cosmocercidae, Cruzia representing the subfamily Cruzinae of Kathlaniidae, Falcaustra + Cissophyllus + Megalobatrachonema representing the subfamily Kathlaniinae of Kathlaniidae, and Orientatractis + Rondonia representing the family Atractidae). The genus Cissophyllus clustered together with the genus Megalobatrachonema in both the ML and BI trees using ITS sequence data, but displayed a sister relationship to the genus Falcaustra in the ML tree and to the genera Falcaustra + Megalobatrachonema in the BI tree using 18S + 28S sequence data. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular phylogenetic results further confirmed that the family Kathlaniidae is not a monophyletic group. The subfamily Cruziinae should be moved from the hitherto-defined family Kathlaniidae and elevated as a separate family Cruziidae. The present phylogenetic results also negated the validity of the subfamily Cissophyllinae and supported the genus Cissophyllus assigned in the subfamily Kathlaniinae. Molecular analysis indicated that the morphological variation in the isthmus and position of excretory pore among different individuals should be considered as intraspecific variation. Moreover, some characters important for the specific diagnosis of C. leytensis are reported for the first time: the number of acuminate denticles (lamellae) on each lip, the chitinized pharynx with three flabellate pharyngeal plates, the presence of single medioventral precloacal papilla and the detailed morphology of caudal papillae. The present study is only the second record of C. leytensis.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Lagartos , Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Ascaridídios/anatomia & histologia , Teorema de Bayes , Filipinas , Filogenia
20.
Parasitology ; 149(4): 482-489, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331354

RESUMO

Fresh vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet, however, they can also be agents of transmission of intestinal parasites. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of parasite contamination in vegetable farms as a source of transmission in selected rural communities in Laguna, Philippines. A total of 168 vegetable, 55 soil and 15 water samples collected from four selected farms and a reference farm were processed through various standard parasitological techniques. Of these, 17.3% of vegetables, 47.3% soil and 73.3% water samples were found contaminated with parasites' eggs or cysts. Interestingly, leafy vegetables, such as lettuce, were found to be more contaminated. Results showed that strongylids/hookworms (egg/larva) showed the highest prevalence in farm soil (38.2%) and vegetable (13.1%); other helminth parasite eggs were also recovered such as Toxocara sp., Ascaris sp., Trichiuris, Trichostrongylus sp. and protozoan cysts of Balantidium coli. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts of and Giardia sp. cysts were observed in all water samples in the farms. Furthermore, results revealed that some farming practices such as the use of improperly treated animals manure as fertilizers, unhygienic practice of farmers and sanitation issues were factors that contribute to parasite contamination in the farms. These findings have implications on food safety in poor-resource communities posing public health risks. Recommendations were discussed in the study for the control and prevention of parasite contamination at the farm level.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Parasitos , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Fazendas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , População Rural
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