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1.
An. psicol ; 38(3): 458-468, Oct-Dic. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-208817

RESUMO

El principal objetivo de este estudio longitudinal con dos medi-ciones, una antes del período de confinamiento M1 (del 2 al 8 de marzo), y otra durante el confinamiento M2 (del 20 al 26 de abril), realizadas a los mismos participantes, es conocer la evolución de los aspectos hedónicos y eudaimónicos del bienestar yel efecto que sobre ellos ha supuesto el confinamiento obligatorio debido a la pandemia por COVID-19 en España. El estudio se realizó online, los participantes completaron los dominios de la medida de bienestar “The PERMAProfiler” en ambas mediciones (M1y M2) y la medida de optimismo disposicional “Life Orientation Test-Revised” (LOT-R) en la primera medición (M1). Los resultados muestran una relación significativa entre todos los dominios de bienestar y con la puntuación PERMA Global Bienestar, similares en ambas mediciones (M1 y M2). La comparación de las puntuaciones medias de los dominios de bienestar entre ambas mediciones muestra diferencias significativas en Emociones Positivas, Compromiso, Significado y en la puntuación de PERMA Global Bienestar; la puntuación es más elevada en la primera medición (M1) que en la segunda medición (M2). En el dominio Emociones Negativas, la puntuación es más alta en el período de confinamiento (M2). El optimismo disposicional ejerce un efecto de moderación durante elconfinamiento en el dominio de Logros: cuánto más optimista es la persona más aumenta su puntuación en este dominio. El género también ejerce un efecto de moderación durante el confinamiento en el dominio de Felicidad: en los hombres aumenta la puntuaciónde Felicidad durante el período de confinamiento y en las mujeres disminuye, comparados ambos con sus niveles previos de no confinamiento.(AU)


The main objective of this longitudinal study, with two measurements, one before the lockdown (M1: March 28), and the other during the lockdown (M2: April 2026), using the same participants, is to determine the evolution of the hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being and the effect of compulsory confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. The study was conducted online, participants completed the domains of the PERMA-Profiler well-being measureat both measurement times (M1 and M2) and the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-sR) measure of dispositional optimism at the first measurement (M1). The re-sults show significant relationships between all the well-being domains and the Overall Well-being (PERMA) score, similar at both measurements (M1 and M2). The comparison of the well-being domains score between the two measurements shows significant differences in Positive Emotion, Engagement, Meaning, and the Overall Well-being score; the score is higher at the first measurement (M1) than at the second measurement (M2). For the Negative Emotion domain, the score is higher during the lockdown (M2). Dispositional optimism has a moderation effect during the lockdown on the Accomplishment domain: the more optimistic the person is, the more their Accomplishment score increases. Gender also has a moderation effect during the lockdown on the Happiness domain: in men, the Happiness score increases during the lockdown and, in women, it decreases, when comparing both genders with their previous non confinement levels.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Otimismo , Saúde de Gênero , Filosofia , Iniquidade de Gênero , Seguridade Social , Isolamento Social , Vírus da SARS , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Espanha , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Medicina do Comportamento , Felicidade , Emoções
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 443-450, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073424

RESUMO

The Italian museum system made significant progress in terms of accessibility. Despite the considerable increase in the number of people with functional limitations who visit museums, the percentage of those who do not visit museums is still very high, whatever the presence of limitations. Based on this empirical evidence, a new approach to the problem of accessibility becomes necessary. The paper argues in favor of a performative conception of accessibility. More specifically, it will be shown how the approach of relational sociology and the philosophy of gesture allow for elaborating a broader notion of accessibility than the prescriptive one that currently inspires most interventions. By redefining accessibility in terms of a social relationship that combines the adaptive dimension with the transmission of meanings, new possibilities emerge to make a museum visit an attractive and engaging experience. This guiding idea started to be implemented through the experimental project Smart Cultural Heritage 4 All realized at the Museo Sannitico of Campobasso (Italy).


Assuntos
Gestos , Filosofia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Museus , Sociologia
3.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(3): 725-735, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074358

RESUMO

This interview covers the trajectory of Evelyn Fox Keller, emeritus professor of history and philosophy of science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Keller reflects on her career and the challenges she had to overcome to push back the frontiers of science with her pioneering work on language, gender, and science, which has been very influential in changing views in the history of science.


A entrevista aborda a trajetória de Evelyn Fox Keller, professora emérita de história e filosofia das ciências do Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Keller reflete sobre seu percurso e sobre os desafios que precisou enfrentar para expandir as fronteiras dos estudos de ciências com seu trabalho pioneiro relacionando linguagem, gênero e ciências, que tem sido muito influente em mudar a visão da história das ciências.


Assuntos
Feminismo , Filosofia , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Filosofia/história
4.
Ber Wiss ; 45(3): 384-396, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086844

RESUMO

In this paper, I ask about the broader context of the history and philosophy of biology in the German-speaking world as the place in which Hans-Jörg Rheinberger began his work. Three German philosophical traditions-neo-Kantianism, phenomenology, and Lebensphilosophie-were interested in the developments and conceptual challenges of the life sciences in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Their reflections were taken up by life scientists under the terms theoretische Biologie (theoretical biology) and allgemeine Biologie (general biology), i. e., for theoretical and methodological reflections. They used historical and philosophical perspectives to develop vitalistic, organicist, or holistic approaches to life. In my paper, I argue that the resulting discourse did not come to an end in 1945. Increasingly detached from biological research, it formed an important context for the formation of the field of history and philosophy of biology. In Rheinberger's work, we can see the "Spalten" and "Fugen"-the continuities and discontinuities-that this tradition left there.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Filosofia , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Biologia/história , Filosofia/história , Vitalismo/história
5.
Ber Wiss ; 45(3): 397-414, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086846

RESUMO

In this article, I first outline the professionalization of the history and philosophy of biology from the 1960s onward. Then, I attempt to situate the work of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger with respect to this field. On the one hand, Rheinberger was marginal with respect to Anglo-American philosophical tradition; on the other, he was very influential in building up an integrated history and philosophy of the life sciences community at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin and beyond. This marginality results, I suggest, from three main sources: his use of concepts coming from continental traditions in the study of the life sciences, which are foreign to Anglo-American philosophers of science; his focus on practices instead of theories; and his research trajectory as a molecular biologist, which led him to be critical of disciplinary boundaries. As a first step in situating and historicizing Rheinberger's trajectory, this article invites comparative studies and calls for a history of "continental philosophy of biology" in the twentieth century.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Conhecimento , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história , Biologia/história , Internacionalidade , Filosofia/história , Estados Unidos
6.
Wiad Lek ; 75(8 pt 1): 1914-1919, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The paper aims to examine the relationship between uncertainty and plans for the future in traumatic situations such as war, as well as the role of the Eastern philosophy and its practical implications in managing uncertainty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The authors used integrative anthropological approach, interpretive research paradigm, hermeneutical approach along with narrative approach. The data collection was carried out using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar databases. Research papers were identified according to search terms "uncertainty", "mental health", "health", "refugee", "anxiety", "depression", "war", "future", "Eastern philosophy", "mindfulness". CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Bearing a set of negative beliefs about uncertainty and reacting negatively to uncertain and unpredictable situations, individuals fall into a vicious cycle of uncertainty fueled by their fear of uncertainty. Uncertainty takes us to the future that seems threatening or returns us to the world of primordial chaos. In both cases, we are not in the present moment, "here and now". As far as we have no control over the past and future, we feel helpless and experience fear, anxiety, depression. Returning to the present gives us back control over the situation. By expanding the range of possible visions of the future, we stop focusing on the worst-case scenario. By accepting the situation and realizing what is subject to our control and what is not, we learn to comfort uncertainty by elaborating possible futures taking into account both our desires and the current situation. Our thoughts and actions today determine our tomorrow. We cannot overcome uncertainty since it is ontologically predetermined. But we can manage our responses to uncertainty turning to the Eastern philosophy thereby maintaining our mental and physical health and expanding the functional field of human capabilities to achieve freedom and self-realization.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Medo , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Filosofia , Incerteza
8.
Nurs Sci Q ; 35(4): 395-399, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36171695

RESUMO

This article is concerned with being present to what is emerging in the now moment. Theoretical perspectives from spirituality, psychology, western and eastern philosophy, the humanbecoming paradigm, and personal experiences of the author are presented in relation to the importance of focusing on NOW.


Assuntos
Humanismo , Filosofia , Humanos
9.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 46, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112297

RESUMO

This article examines Kant's overlooked concept of "active play," as opposed to "free play," in connection with the influence of the Brunonian system of medicine, both of which, I propose, are central to understanding the broader significance of intoxication in Kant's post-1795 work. Beginning with a discussion of the late-18th century German reception of Brunonian theory, the idea of vital stimulus, and their importance for Kant, I assess the distinction drawn between gluttony and intoxication in The Metaphysics of Morals and Anthropology from a Practical Point of View. Both are analysed in the context of the Brunonian system of medicine, having establishing Kant's commitment to the Brunonianism system, as corroborated by Wasianski. What emerges is a novel understanding of intoxication in the work of Immanuel Kant, which brings to light a previously unexamined dynamic between imagination, intoxication, and the aesthetic.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Filosofia , Antropologia/história , Estética , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Filosofia/história
10.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2123939, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to gain a broader understanding of the clinical practice experience of Doctor of Philosophy nurses working in nursing positions. METHOD: Participants were 15 full-time nurses who are current Doctor of Philosophy candidates or have acquired a Doctor of Philosophy in nursing. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and the participants' diaries, which were analysed using a descriptive qualitative method. RESULTS: The patient care experiences of Doctor of Philosophy nurses in clinical practice were grouped into four themes: "providing evidence-based and patient-specific education," "proactively taking responsible for communicating with patients," "enhancing the quality of nursing through reflective attitudes," and "advocating for patients using a multifaceted approach." The factors facilitating or inhibiting clinical practice were identified with three themes. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the Doctor of Philosophy nurses used the knowledge and experience they gained in their Doctor of Philosophy nursing programme to serve as role models for the advancement of nursing education and evidence-based practice.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Humanos , Filosofia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , República da Coreia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273476, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048840

RESUMO

The Upanishads are known as one of the oldest philosophical texts in the world that form the foundation of Hindu philosophy. The Bhagavad Gita is the core text of Hindu philosophy and is known as a text that summarises the key philosophies of the Upanishads with a major focus on the philosophy of karma. These texts have been translated into many languages and there exist studies about themes and topics that are prominent; however, there is not much done using language models which are powered by deep learning. In this paper, we use advanced language models such as BERT to provide topic modelling of the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita. We then map those topics of the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads since it is well known that Bhagavad Gita summarizes the key messages in the Upanishads. We also analyse the distinct and overlapping topics amongst the texts and visualise the link of selected texts of the Upanishads with the Bhagavad Gita. Our results show very high similarity between the topics of these two texts with the mean cosine similarity of 73%. We find that out of the fourteen topics extracted from the Bhagavad Gita, nine of them have a cosine similarity of more than 70% with the topics of the Upanishads. We also find that topics generated by the BERT-based models show very high coherence when compared to the conventional models. Our best-performing model gives a coherence score of 73% on the Bhagavad Gita and 69% on the Upanishads. The visualization of the low-dimensional embeddings of these texts shows very clear overlapping themes among their topics adding another level of validation to our results.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Hinduísmo , Idioma , Filosofia
12.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 28(5): 705-710, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053567

RESUMO

Since its foundation in 2010, the annual philosophy thematic edition of this journal has been a forum for authors from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds, enabling contributors to raise questions of an urgent and fundamental nature regarding the most pressing problems facing the delivery and organization of healthcare. Authors have successfully exposed and challenged underlying assumptions that framed professional and policy discourse in diverse areas, generating productive and insightful dialogue regarding the relationship between evidence, value, clinical research and practice. These lively debates continue in this thematic edition, which includes a special section on stigma, shame and respect in healthcare. Authors address the problems with identifying and overcoming stigma in the clinic, interactional, structural and phenomenological accounts of stigma and the 'stigma-shame nexus'. Papers examine the lived experience of discreditation, discrimination and degradation in a range of contexts, from the labour room to mental healthcare and the treatment of 'deviancy' and 'looked-after children'. Authors raise challenging questions about the development of our uses of language in the context of care, and the relationship between stigma, disrespect and important analyses of power asymmetry and epistemic injustice. The relationship between respect, autonomy and personhood is explored with reference to contributions from an important conference series, which includes analyses of shame in the context of medically unexplained illness, humour, humiliation and obstetric violence.


Assuntos
Respeito , Vergonha , Estigma Social , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Filosofia
13.
Biosystems ; 221: 104773, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075548

RESUMO

The ability of developmental systems to produce constant phenotypes, even in a wide range of different environments, and the longstanding stability of species are among the most remarkable phenomena in biology. I argue that understanding the longstanding constancy and stability of species or the constant outcome of development in different environments are also prerequisites for explaining stable change (i.e., change that does not consist of random plasticity). Various approaches to account for stable changes in development are based on the causal role of genes and an organized genome, mathematical-physical-chemical models, or a combination of both. I argue that the constancy of developmental outcome and the longstanding stability of species are associated with organisms' structural and organizational hierarchies, particularly highly organized gene-regulatory networks and genetic causality, which are fundamental principles of life. Mathematical-physical-chemical models that marginalize these principles cannot convincingly account for the observed constancy in development and evolution. However, an integration of physical-chemical processes such as reaction-diffusion mechanisms and genome-based mechanisms of form generation has recently proved fruitful in explaining the development of some periodic structures. Constancy and change were also major topoi in ancient Greek philosophy, in which prominent philosophical schools such as the atomists attempted to bridge the antinomy between them by basing stable change on constant entities. I argue that the idea of change, that is, change without losing complexity or even increasing it, being based on modifications of the otherwise reliable transmission of genomes over long periods of time has a historical parallel in the writings of these ancient speculative thinkers, notwithstanding the fundamental differences between the two thought systems.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Filosofia , Causalidade
14.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9914

RESUMO

Trata-se de um tema que apresenta paralelos com a Homeopatia, uma vez que é voltado à totalidade do organismo. Na atualidade muitos estudos são voltados a esse novo paradigma. Aborda-se a resistência oferecida pelo modelo mecanicista/fragmentado da medicina dominante.


Assuntos
Homeopatia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/imunologia , Processo Saúde-Doença , Organon , Filosofia
15.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9909

RESUMO

Em uma entrevista de 50 min , dividida em quatro partes, Hannah Arendt, que então lecionava filosofia política na universidade de Nova York, discorre sobre diversos aspectos da vida americana contemporânea, comparando seu sistema político e aspectos culturais com a Europa ocidental.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Política
16.
Evolution ; 76(9): 2222-2223, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918876

Assuntos
Biologia , Filosofia
17.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4543851, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017467

RESUMO

Systems theory and Marxist philosophy are inextricably linked. Systems theory and Marxist philosophy are both methodologies in a sense and share the perspective of movement and development. The system theory is also embodied in the Marxist philosophy's conceptions of nature, social history, and epistemology. Studying the system theory in Marxist philosophy will undoubtedly benefit from having a solid understanding of the connection between system theory and that philosophy. It has become crucial to enhance the quality of instruction by analyzing student learning data and providing constructive criticism for teaching methods. The students' learning data from the course teaching Marxist philosophy and systems theory were mined and analyzed based on the Apriori algorithm, and strong association rules between the course teaching contents were generated. We can determine the challenging teaching material that has an impact on students' performance through the analysis of these generation rules, enabling teachers to use this feedback information to enhance their pedagogical approaches.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Teoria de Sistemas , Currículo , Humanos , Filosofia , Estudantes , Ensino
18.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 28(5): 40, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040533

RESUMO

This paper follows a trend in engineering ethics away from universal moral theories towards more contingent/contextual approaches such as pragmatist and care ethics. These methodological considerations are treated in the context of the Volkswagen Diesel Emissions scandal as a case study in the "paradox of loyalty," (i.e. that company loyalty can be both virtuous and vicious). Building upon a combined pragmatist-care ethics approach, the article outlines an "ethics of commitment," inspired by the moral philosophy of Josiah Royce. The ethics of commitment locates the site of moral value in an individual's "commitment to a cause," where a "cause" refers to a purposive community of persons oriented by a shared end or ideal. The ethics of commitment improves upon a pragmatist-care ethics in two notable ways: first, addressing the problem of determining wrongdoing via pragmatist ethics, and second, by emphasizing the costly nature of moral action as a critical part of ethical deliberation, rather than appealing to empathy or moral sentiment. This process-described metaphorically as "centrifugal commitment"-remains contingent and fallible, but in a way that does justice to the broad scope of moral responsibility incumbent upon engineers.


Assuntos
Teoria Ética , Princípios Morais , Empatia , Ética , Filosofia , Justiça Social
19.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 28(5): 38, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040561

RESUMO

To be intrinsically valuable means to be valuable for its own sake. Moral philosophy is often ethically anthropocentric, meaning that it locates intrinsic value within humans. This paper rejects ethical anthropocentrism and asks, in what ways might nonhumans be intrinsically valuable? The paper answers this question with a wide-ranging survey of theories of nonhuman intrinsic value. The survey includes both moral subjects and moral objects, and both natural and artificial nonhumans. Literatures from environmental ethics, philosophy of technology, philosophy of art, moral psychology, and related fields are reviewed, and gaps in these literatures are identified. Although the gaps are significant and much work remains to be done, the survey nonetheless demonstrates that those who reject ethical anthropocentrism have considerable resources available to develop their moral views. Given the many very high-stakes issues involving both natural and artificial nonhumans, and the sensitivity of these issues to how nonhumans are intrinsically valued, this is a vital project to pursue.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Filosofia , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955073

RESUMO

The postnatal period is high-risk time for the first onset and recurrence of maternal mental health disorders. Untreated maternal mental illness can have significant adverse impacts on a woman, her baby, and the wider family unit. For women with mental illnesses that cannot be managed in the community, psychiatric inpatient mother-baby units are the gold standard treatment whereby mothers are co-admitted with their infant for specialist perinatal and infant mental health assessment and treatment. The study explores the model of care and examines the philosophies of care that are used within a psychiatric mother-baby unit. Purposive sampling was used to conduct semi-structured focus group and individual interviews with multidisciplinary staff members at a single mother-baby unit. Themes derived from these interviews were coded into two primary themes and a range of sub-themes. The first primary theme focused on the Model of Care consisting of the following sub-themes: mental health care, physical health care, babies' care, building mother-baby relationship, fostering relationships with supports, and facilitating community support. The second primary theme centered around the Philosophy of Care comprising of: person-centered care, trauma-informed care, compassion-centered care, recovery-oriented care, attachment-informed care, non-judgmental care, strengths-based care and interdisciplinary care. The model can be used to provide consistency across mother-baby units and to support core capabilities of staff in providing an optimal level of care.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Mães , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Mães/psicologia , Filosofia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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