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1.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1053-1058, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859971

RESUMO

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Filosofia/história , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , História do Século XV , Humanos
2.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 77: 101-111, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701873

RESUMO

Although the interdisciplinary nature of contemporary biological sciences has been addressed by philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science, the different ways in which engineering concepts and methods have been applied in biology have been somewhat neglected. We examine - using the mechanistic philosophy of science as an analytic springboard - the transfer of network methods from engineering to biology through the cases of two biology laboratories operating at the California Institute of Technology. The two laboratories study gene regulatory networks, but in remarkably different ways. The research strategy of the Davidson lab fits squarely into the traditional mechanist philosophy in its aim to decompose and reconstruct, in detail, gene regulatory networks of a chosen model organism. In contrast, the Elowitz lab constructs minimal models that do not attempt to represent any particular naturally evolved genetic circuits. Instead, it studies the principles of gene regulation through a template-based approach that is applicable to any kinds of networks, whether biological or not. We call for the mechanists to consider whether the latter approach can be accommodated by the mechanistic approach, and what kinds of modifications it would imply for the mechanistic paradigm of explanation, if it were to address modelling more generally.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Técnicas Genéticas , Modelos Genéticos , Projetos de Pesquisa , California , Filosofia
3.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(12): 1062-1063, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761021
4.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(4): 403-410, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767800

RESUMO

The fruitless fights and battles among biological psychiatry, social psychiatry and antipsychiatry represented obstacles on the road towards development in psychiatry. Psychiatry came into existence as part of medicine, although its best practices often looked over the fence of natural sciences and embraced various approaches and viewpoints from both human sciences and existentialist philosophy. In our review paper, we analyse the philosophy of sciences background of psychiatry and the latest trends such as critical psychiatry and postpsychiatry. Then, under a critical psychiatry angle, we touch on some callenges psychiatry is compelled to face today, namely:(1) limits of the validity of diagnostics and of the research of evidence-based practices; (2) the various drawbacks of the state of being a psychiatric patient; (3) the intertwining of psychiatry and marketing interests; (4) the professional challenges linked to the therapeutic effectiveness of certain illegal drugs. Finally, we will display the benefits of the postmodern approach and postpsychiatry which stem from the various viewpoints and approaches and provide positive and practical answers to challenges in psychiatry. All this together offers us, professionals, new vistas for development and changes. Similarly, postpsychiatry offers a solid theoretical basis to a number of existing good practices.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Humanos , Filosofia , Psiquiatria/tendências
5.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 49, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655927

RESUMO

In this paper, I investigate the variety and richness of the taxonomical practices between the end of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. During these decades, zoologists and paleontologists came up with different quantitative practices in order to classify their data in line with the new biological principles introduced by Charles Darwin. Specifically, I will investigate Florentino Ameghino's mathematization of mammalian dentition and the quantitative practices and visualizations of several German-speaking paleontologists at the beginning of the twentieth century. In so doing, this paper will call attention to the visual and quantitative language of early twentieth-century systematics. My analysis will therefore contribute to a prehistory of the statistical frame of mind in biology, a study which has yet to be written in full. Second, my work highlights the productive intertwinement between biological practices and philosophical frameworks at the turn of the nineteenth century. Deeply rooted in Kantian bio-philosophy, several biologists sought to find rules in order to apply ordering principles to chaotic taxonomic information. This implies the necessity to investigate the neglected role of Kantian and Romantic bio-philosophy in the unfolding of twentieth-century biology.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Paleontologia/história , Filosofia/história , Zoologia/história , Argentina , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
6.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570654

RESUMO

The following is an address given by the author in receipt of the Joseph W. St. Geme, Jr Leadership Award, presented by the Federation of Pediatric Organizations at the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 27, 2019.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Distinções e Prêmios , Esgotamento Profissional , Humanos , Liderança , Tutoria , Filosofia
7.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 325-326, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570664

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Filosofia , Humanos
8.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 78: 101224, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615737

RESUMO

A nonmathematical exposition of the current status of the formal darwinism project is presented, linking it to the fundamental theorem of natural selection, which is regarded as Fisher's own 'formal darwinism project'. The purpose is to found organism-level thinking about design and adaptation, in short Darwinism, on what is known about the mechanics of genetic inheritance, in short Mendelism, and the project is to do so in as general a biological setting as possible. This view also makes sense of the name 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Hereditariedade , Modelos Biológicos , Seleção Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filosofia
10.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480245

RESUMO

Snack foods can be substantial contributors to daily energy intake, with different types of snacks exerting potentially different effects on satiety per calorie consumed. The present research compared the effect of consuming almonds as a mid-morning snack compared to an energy and weight-matched comparator snack (savoury crackers) or the equivalent weight of water (zero energy control). In a crossover design, 42 female participants (age: 26.0 ± 7.9, BMI: 22.0 ± 2.0) consumed a fixed breakfast then a mid-morning snack. Appetite, 24-h energy intake, food hedonics, and consumer perceptions of the snack foods were assessed under laboratory conditions. AUC analyses revealed a lower overall hunger drive after consuming almonds compared to crackers or water. There was no difference in 24-h energy intake in the almond compared to the cracker or the zero-energy control condition, however participants consumed more energy in the cracker condition compared to the zero-energy control condition. In addition, almonds suppressed hedonic preference (implicit wanting) for consuming high-fat foods and demonstrated a higher satiety quotient (SQ) than crackers. Almonds were perceived to have a more favourable consumer profile aligned with successful weight management. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that in the context of a 24-h period of objectively measured energy intake, raw almonds are effective for controlling appetite compared to an energy matched alternative snack. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov [NCT02480582].


Assuntos
Apetite , Filosofia , Prunus dulcis , Saciação , Lanches/psicologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Percepção , Alimentos Crus , Adulto Jovem
11.
Licere (Online) ; 22(3): 492-516, set.2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046736

RESUMO

Nos últimos anos, na era pós-Medina, o surfe brasileiro alcançou um lugar de maior visibilidade no cenário nacional e internacional. Nesse contexto, este artigo teve como objetivo principal analisar o discurso de Ricardo dos Santos, surfista assassinado na Guarda do Embaú em 20 de janeiro de 2015, a partir de alguns conceitos foucaultianos como: discurso; acontecimento e heterotopias. O corpus empírico da pesquisa constituiu-se do Blogue Salt Water Crazy Dreams, criado e mantido pelo próprio surfista. A pesquisa concluiu que apesar de Ricardinho pertencer à geração de surfistas brasileiros que aderiram ao surfe competitivo, seu discurso engajado ressaltava o cuidado com o meio ambiente e uma valoração da dimensão lúdico-brincante do surfe, instituindo assim a possibilidade do surfe constituir-se em uma heterotopia.


Over the last few years, in Post-Medina era, Brazilian surfing has reached a place of greater visibility in international and national scene. In this context, this article has the main objective to analyze the speech of Ricardo dos Santos, a surfer who was murdered at Guarda do Embaú on January 20th in 2015, based on Focauldian concepts such as: speech, events and heterotopia. The empirical corpus of the research consisted of Salt Water Crazy Dreams blog which was created and mainted by the own surfer. The research concluded that despite Ricardinho belong to Brazilian surfers generation who joined competitive surfing, thus his commited speech enphasized the care for the environment and appraisal of the surfing playful dimension establishing thereby the possibility of surfing to become a heterotopia.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Política Pública , Meio Ambiente , Esportes Aquáticos
12.
Orig Life Evol Biosph ; 49(3): 111-145, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399826

RESUMO

In this review, we describe some of the central philosophical issues facing origins-of-life research and provide a targeted history of the developments that have led to the multidisciplinary field of origins-of-life studies. We outline these issues and developments to guide researchers and students from all fields. With respect to philosophy, we provide brief summaries of debates with respect to (1) definitions (or theories) of life, what life is and how research should be conducted in the absence of an accepted theory of life, (2) the distinctions between synthetic, historical, and universal projects in origins-of-life studies, issues with strategies for inferring the origins of life, such as (3) the nature of the first living entities (the "bottom up" approach) and (4) how to infer the nature of the last universal common ancestor (the "top down" approach), and (5) the status of origins of life as a science. Each of these debates influences the others. Although there are clusters of researchers that agree on some answers to these issues, each of these debates is still open. With respect to history, we outline several independent paths that have led to some of the approaches now prevalent in origins-of-life studies. These include one path from early views of life through the scientific revolutions brought about by Linnaeus (von Linn.), Wöhler, Miller, and others. In this approach, new theories, tools, and evidence guide new thoughts about the nature of life and its origin. We also describe another family of paths motivated by a" circularity" approach to life, which is guided by such thinkers as Maturana & Varela, Gánti, Rosen, and others. These views echo ideas developed by Kant and Aristotle, though they do so using modern science in ways that produce exciting avenues of investigation. By exploring the history of these ideas, we can see how many of the issues that currently interest us have been guided by the contexts in which the ideas were developed. The disciplinary backgrounds of each of these scholars has influenced the questions they sought to answer, the experiments they envisioned, and the kinds of data they collected. We conclude by encouraging scientists and scholars in the humanities and social sciences to explore ways in which they can interact to provide a deeper understanding of the conceptual assumptions, structure, and history of origins-of-life research. This may be useful to help frame future research agendas and bring awareness to the multifaceted issues facing this challenging scientific question.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Química/história , Historiografia , Informática/história , Origem da Vida , Paleontologia/história , Filosofia/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Biologia Molecular/história
13.
Med Hypotheses ; 131: 109316, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443759

RESUMO

This paper examines some methodological and epistemological issues underlying the ongoing "artificial" divide between pragmatic-systems biology and systems-theoretical biology. The pragmatic systems view of biology has encountered problems and constraints on its explanatory power because pragmatic systems biologists still tend to view systems as mere collections of parts, not as "emergent realities" produced by adaptive interactions between the constituting components. As such, they are incapable of characterizing the higher-level biological phenomena adequately. The attempts of systems-theoretical biologists to explain these "emergent realities" using mathematics also fail to produce satisfactory results. Given the increasing strategic importance of systems biology, both from theoretical and research perspectives, we suggest that additional epistemological and methodological insights into the possibility of further integration between traditional experimental studies and complex modeling are required. This integration will help to improve the currently underdeveloped pragmatic-systems biology and system-theoretical biology. The "epistemology of complexity," I contend, acts as a glue that connects and integrates different and sometimes opposing viewpoints, perspectives, streams, and practices, thus maintaining intellectual and research coherence of systems research of life. It allows scientists to shift the focus from traditional experimental research to integrated, modeling-based holistic practices capable of providing a comprehensive knowledge of organizing principles of living systems. It also opens the possibility of the development of new practical and theoretical foundations of systems biology to build a better understanding of complex organismic functions.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Análise de Sistemas , Biologia de Sistemas/classificação , Simulação por Computador , Cibernética , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Filosofia , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos
14.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1588-1595, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368024

RESUMO

Until well in the 19th century, the Aristotelian concept of the scala naturae (ladder of nature) was the most common biological theory among Western scientists. It dictated that only humans possessed a rational soul that provided the ability to reason and reflect. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) was the first philosopher influential enough to lastingly posit that animals are cognitive creatures. His view stirred a fierce controversy, with René Descartes (1596-1650) leading among his many adversaries. Only after it became accepted that animals and humans alike have cognitive abilities, did the research on the influence of conscious awareness and intention on the behavior of an animal become possible in the 20th century. We found the anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564) to have already rejected the Aristotelian view on the lack of the rational soul in animals in his 1543 opus magnum De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem. His observation "that there is a difference in size according to the amount of reason that they seem to possess: man's brain is the largest, followed by the ape's, the dog's, and so on, corresponding to the amount of rational force that we deduce each animal to have" resonated some 330 years later when Darwin concluded that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind." We conclude that Vesalius was instrumental in breaking with two millenniums of dominance of the concept of lack of animal cognition.


Assuntos
Anatomia Comparada/história , Cognição , Filosofia/história , Animais , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
15.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 75: 1-11, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426942

RESUMO

Throughout much of the 20th century, philosophers of science maintained a position known as the value-free ideal, which holds that non-epistemic (e.g., moral, social, political, or economic) values should not influence the evaluation and acceptance of scientific results. In the last few decades, many philosophers of science have rejected this position by arguing that non-epistemic values can and should play an important role in scientific judgment and decision-making in a variety of contexts, including the evaluation and acceptance of scientific results. Rejecting the value-free ideal creates some new and vexing problems, however. One of these is that relinquishing this philosophical doctrine may undermine the integrity of scientific research if practicing scientists decide to allow non-epistemic values to impact their judgment and decision-making. A number of prominent philosophers of science have sought to show how one can reject the value-free ideal without compromising the integrity of scientific research. In this paper, we examine and critique their views and offer our own proposal for protecting and promoting scientific integrity. We argue that the literature on research ethics and its focus on adherence to norms, rules, policies, and procedures that together promote the aims of science can provide a promising foundation for building an account of scientific integrity. These norms, rules, policies, and procedures provide a level of specificity that is lacking in most philosophical discussions of science and values, and they suggest an important set of tasks for those working in science and values-namely, assessing, justifying, and prioritizing them. Thus, we argue that bringing together the literature on research ethics with the literature on science and values will enrich both areas and generate a more sophisticated and detailed account of scientific integrity.


Assuntos
Ética em Pesquisa , Filosofia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Valores Sociais , Conhecimento
16.
Rev. med. Rosario ; 85(2): 93-94, mayo-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053317
17.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 71(2): 34-50, mai.-ago 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1010168

RESUMO

O propósito deste artigo é apresentar o conceito de conhecimento como proposto pelo epistemólogo Michael Polanyi, explicitando conceitos como conhecimento tácito, meaning e habitar. De acordo com o autor, todo processo de conhecimento sempre envolve uma dimensão tácita, que vai além daquela em que o conhecimento pode ser explicitado por palavras. O trabalho foi dividido em subpartes com a intenção de facilitar a compreensão dos elementos específicos contemplados por Polanyi para a compreensão do que é conhecer. Compreende-se que o conhecimento sempre envolve consciência que, por sua vez, é dividida em atenção focal e subsidiária, sendo o resultado da integração tácita de elementos subsidiários na relação com o elemento focal (meaning). Considera-se que, apesar de utilizada em diversos campos do conhecimento, a obra desse autor é pouco conhecida no Brasil e ressalta-se a importância de estudos que busquem explicitar sua abordagem, inclusive na relação com outros autores


The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of knowledge as proposed by the epistemologist Michael Polanyi, explaining concepts such as tacit knowledge, meaning and dwelling. According to the author, every process of knowledge always involves a tacit dimension, which goes beyond what can be explained by words. The work was divided into sub parts with the aim of facilitating the comprehension of the specific elements contemplated by Polanyi for the understanding of what is to know. It is understood that knowledge always involves consciousness, which in turn is divided into focal and subsidiary attention and is the result of the tacit integration of subsidiary elements in the relation to the focal element (meaning). It is considered that although it is used in several fields of knowledge, the work of this author is little known in Brazil and it is emphasized the importance of studies that seek to make explicit its approach, including in the relation with other authors


El propósito de este artículo es presentar el concepto de conocimiento como propuesto por el epistemólogo Michael Polanyi, explicitando conceptos como conocimiento tácito, meaning y habitar. De acuerdo con el autor, todo proceso de conocimiento siempre involucra una dimensión tácita, que va más allá de aquella en que el conocimiento puede ser explicitado por palabras. El trabajo se dividió en subpartes con la intención de facilitar la comprensión de los elementos contemplados por Polanyi para la comprensión de lo que es conocer. Se entiende que el conocimiento siempre implica conciencia que, a su vez, se divide en atención focal y subsidiaria, siendo el resultado de la integración tácita de elementos subsidiarios en la relación con el elemento focal (meaning). Se considera que a pesar de ser utilizado en diversos campos del conocimiento la obra de este autor es poco conocida en Brasil y se resalta la importancia de estudios que busquen explicitar su abordaje, incluso en la relación con otros autores


Assuntos
Humanos , Filosofia , Conhecimento
18.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 76: 101188, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326324

RESUMO

This paper elaborates a general framework to make sense of teleological explanations in Darwinian evolutionary biology. It relies on an attempt to tie natural selection to a sense of optimization. First, after assessing the objections made by any attempt to view selection as a maximising process within population genetics, it understands Grafen's Formal Darwinism (FD) as a conceptual link established between population genetics and behavioral ecology's adaptationist framework (without any empirical commitments). Thus I suggest that this provides a way to make sense of teleological explanations in biology under their various modes. Then the paper criticizes two major ways of accounting for teleology: a Darwinian one, the etiological view of biological functions, and a non-Darwinian one, here labeled "intrinsic teleology" view, which covers several subtypes of accounts, including plasticity-oriented conceptions of evolution or organizational views of function. The former is centered on traits while the latter is centered on organisms; this is shown to imply that both accounts are unable to provide a systematic understanding of biological teleology. Finally the paper argues that viewing teleology as maximization of inclusive fitness along the FD lines as understood here allows one to make sense of both the design of organisms and the individual traits as adaptions. Such notion is thereby claimed to be the proper meaning of teleology in evolutionary biology, since it avoids the opposed pitfalls of etiological views and intrinsic-teleology view, while accounting for the same features as they do.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Biologia/métodos , Aptidão Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filosofia
19.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 76: 101186, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326325

RESUMO

I distinguish two roles for a fitness concept in the context of explaining cumulative adaptive evolution: fitness as a predictor of gene frequency change, and fitness as a criterion for phenotypic improvement. Critics of inclusive fitness argue, correctly, that it is not an ideal fitness concept for the purpose of predicting gene-frequency change, since it relies on assumptions about the causal structure of social interaction that are unlikely to be exactly true in real populations, and that hold as approximations only given a specific type of weak selection. However, Hamilton took this type of weak selection, on independent grounds, to be responsible for cumulative assembly of complex adaptations. In this special context, I argue that inclusive fitness is distinctively valuable as a criterion for improvement and a standard for optimality. Yet to call inclusive fitness a criterion for improvement and a standard for optimality is not to make any claim about the frequency with which inclusive fitness optimization actually occurs in nature. This is an empirical question that cannot be settled by theory alone. I close with some reflections on the place of inclusive fitness in the long running clash between 'causalist' and 'statisticalist' conceptions of fitness.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Biologia/métodos , Frequência do Gene , Aptidão Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filosofia
20.
Br J Hist Sci ; 52(2): 345-352, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329086

RESUMO

What are cells? How are they related to each other and to the organism as a whole? These questions have exercised biology since Schleiden and Schwann (1838-1839) first proposed cells as the key units of structure and function of all living things. But how do we try to understand them? Through new technologies like the achromatic microscope and the electron microscope. But just as importantly, through the metaphors our culture has made available to biologists in different periods and places. These two new volumes provide interesting history and philosophy of the development of cell biology. Reynolds surveys the field's changing conceptual structure by examining the varied panoply of changing metaphors used to conceptualize and explain cells - from cells as empty boxes, as building blocks, to individual organisms, to chemical factories, and through many succeeding metaphors up to one with great currency today: cells as social creatures in communication with others in their community. There is some of this approach in the Visions edited collection as well. But this collection also includes rich material on the technologies used to visualize cells and their dialectical relationship with the epistemology of the emerging distinct discipline of cell biology. This volume centres on, but is not limited to, 'reflections inspired by [E.V.] Cowdry's [1924 volume] General Cytology'; it benefits from a conference on the Cowdry volume as well as a 2011 Marine Biological Lab/Arizona State University workshop on the history of cell biology.


Assuntos
Biologia Celular , Compreensão , Conhecimento , Metáfora , Biologia Celular/história , História do Século XX , Filosofia
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