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1.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 2, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411065

RESUMO

In this brief essay, we combine biological, historical, philosophical and anthropological perspectives to ask anew the question about the nature of the virus. How should we understand Sars-CoV-2 and why does it matter? The argument we present is that the virus undermines any neat distinction between the natural and the human-made, the biological and the social. Rather, to understand the virus and the pandemic we need to understand both as intimately connected to our own social and historical condition. What started as a reflection on the nature of the virus thus turns into a reflection on the human condition as refracted in this pandemic or an anthropology of the virus.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Filosofia
2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 3, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417016

RESUMO

Many governments have seen digital health technologies as promising tools to tackle the current COVID-19 pandemic. A much-talked example in this context involves the recent deluge of digital contact tracing apps (DCT) aimed at detecting Covid-19 exposure. In this short contribution we look at the bio-political justification of this phenomenon and reflect on whether DCT apps constitute, as it is often argued, a serious potential breach of our right to privacy. Despite praising efforts attempting to develop legal and ethical frameworks for DCT apps' usage; we argue that such endeavours are not sufficient to tackle the more fundamental problem of mass surveillance, which will remain largely unaddressed unless we deal with the biopolitical arguments presented and resort to a technical and structural defence.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante/ética , Liberdade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filosofia , Privacidade , /prevenção & controle , Humanos
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 4, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420572

RESUMO

In the ongoing pandemic, death statistics influence people's feelings and government policy. But when does COVID-19 qualify as the cause of death? As philosophers of medicine interested in conceptual clarification, we address the question by analyzing the World Health Organization's rules for the certification of death. We show that for COVID-19, WHO rules take into account both facts (causal chains) and values (the importance of prevention).


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Filosofia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Humanos
5.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(331): 39-41, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357667

RESUMO

Based on a clinical situation of a patient infected with COVID-19, the caregivers of the Saint-Étienne mobile psychiatric team describe their anxieties. Are the procedures carried out appropriate? Did we respect the safety measures? Are we at risk of contracting the virus and contaminating other people? The scientific discourse of "experts", who used to guide our actions, has throughout this crisis been inadequate and people's beliefs have crumbled. This abandonment is a source of anxiety for everyone, an anxiety about death. However, this reflection should kindle hope, a precious emotion for those working with patients in psychiatry.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , /epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Filosofia
6.
Soins ; 65(851): 55-56, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357949

RESUMO

This issue of Soins, focusing on the notion of time, is published in the midst of an unprecedented global health, social and economic crisis, due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This crisis highlights a multiplicity of dimensions and timescales and raises questions, in particular, about our era and our civilisational model.


Assuntos
Civilização , Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias , Saúde Global , Humanos , Filosofia
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1031, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 are required to control the current outbreak. Special attention is directed at healthcare professionals as reducing the risk of infection in healthcare is essential. The purpose of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' experiences of awaiting a test result for a potential COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Qualitative interviews with 15 healthcare professionals were performed, underpinned by a phenomenological hermeneutical analytical framework. RESULTS: The participating healthcare professionals' experiences of awaiting a COVID-19 test result were found to be associated with a stoic and altruistic orientation towards their work. These healthcare professionals presented a strong professional identity overriding most concerns about their own health. The result of the coronavirus test was a decisive parameter for whether healthcare professionals could return to work. The healthcare professionals were aware that their family and friends were having a hard time knowing that the COVID-19 infection risk was part of their jobs. This concern did not, however, cause the healthcare professionals to falter in their belief that they were doing the right thing by focusing on their core area. The threat to own health ran through the minds of the healthcare professionals occasionally, which makes access to testing particularly important. CONCLUSION: The participating healthcare professionals had a strong professional identity. However, a discrepancy between an altruistic role as a healthcare professional and the expectations that come from the community was illuminated. A mental health coronavirus hotline for healthcare professionals is suggested.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Altruísmo , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filosofia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Bioeth Inq ; 17(4): 479-482, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169267

RESUMO

The structure of this intervention is deliberately schizo-analytic: "and then-," and "then-." They are preparatory notes for a webinar by Transform! Europe on the COVID, arranged before the global explosion of Black Lives Matter. I question the top-down philanthropy of the bourgeois Left. I take the Rohingyas as bottom-line victims. I speak from two hometowns-Calcutta and New York. I ask the bourgeois Euro-U.S. Left not to monolithize the Global South. Many examples of how "India" is constructed are given. From New York, the United States is declared a failed state. Trump's delinquencies are mentioned. It is argued that the only remedy at present is human behaviour and the typical U.S. character is not ready to practice this. This empirical fact shows the failure of the Kantian Sublime and reminds us that Kant thinks that the human moral will comes in to protect us from a hugely frightening natural phenomenon only by "subreption," the same impulse that says that following steps provided by institutional religion will absolve us. Class and caste are taken into consideration throughout. I mention that as a coronavirus convalescent, I am donating plasma regularly.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Sistemas Políticos , Política , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Humanos , Índia , Islamismo , Pandemias/ética , Filosofia , Saúde Pública , Classe Social , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180806

RESUMO

Guided by parental investment theory and social role theory, this study aimed to understand current contradictory results regarding sex differences in response to infant faces by considering the effect of gender role orientation. We recruited 300 adults in China and asked them to complete an Interest in Infants questionnaire and a Bem Sex Role Inventory and then administered a behavioral assessment that used unfamiliar infant faces with varying expressions (laughing, neutral, and crying) as stimuli to gauge three components of motivation towards infants (i.e., liking, representational responding, and evoked responding). The results demonstrated that sex differences emerged only in self-reported interest in infants, but no difference was found between the sexes in terms of their hedonic reactions to infant faces. Furthermore, femininity was found to correlate with preferences for infants in both verbal and visual tests, but significant interactive effects of feminine traits and sex were found only in the behavioral test. The findings indicated that men's responses to infants were influenced more by their feminine traits than were women's responses, potentially explaining the greater extent to which paternal (vs. maternal) investment is facultative.


Assuntos
Atitude , Reconhecimento Facial , Feminilidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Filosofia , Fatores Sexuais
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216764

RESUMO

In this article, we present the development and validation of an implicit association test for measuring secondary school students' associations between genetics concepts and teleology concepts on the one hand, and between genetics concepts and essentialism concepts on the other hand. In total, 169 students from 16 school classes took part in the study, from January 2018 to May 2018. We investigated the strength of the aforementioned associations and the influence of various covariates such as gender, age, school class, or previous learning of biology on the association of teleology or essentialism concepts with genetics concepts through an analysis of covariance and a multi-level analysis. We found moderate associations between genetics and teleology concepts, as well as between genetics and essentialism concepts. These results might reflect a tendency of students of different ages and with various backgrounds to think about genes in terms of goals (teleology) and stability (essentialism), which should be investigated further in future research.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Genética/educação , Filosofia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(12): 1115-1121, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247797

RESUMO

Risk prediction is one of the central goals of medicine. However, ultimate prediction-perfectly predicting whether individuals will actually get a disease-is still out of reach for virtually all conditions. One crucial assumption of ultimate personalized prediction is that individual risks in the relevant sense exist. In the present paper we argue that perfect prediction at the individual level will fail-and we will do so by providing pragmatic, epistemic, conceptual, and ontological arguments.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Ontologias Biológicas , Humanos , Filosofia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Probabilidade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5150, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051452

RESUMO

It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people's values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being measures (e.g., emotional well-being, relationship support; N = 54,673). Crucially, however, value type moderates whether person-country fit is positively or negatively associated with well-being. People who value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values report lower well-being. In contrast, people who value achievement, power, and security more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values, report higher well-being. Additionally, we find that people who moderately value stimulation report the highest well-being.


Assuntos
Cultura , Valor da Vida , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção , Filosofia , Previdência Social
15.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 49-61, 2020 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988186

RESUMO

When bioethics, by its multidisciplinary and pluralist nature, calls on many constitutive sources, moral and religious thought as philosophy find all the more their place that bioethics is a culture of discussion to make, if not emerge, less to reconstruct or adapt to their time, values whose history is linked to that of religions and philosophical trends. This brief text has only the interest of synthesizing this contribution in the light of what bioethics is today, a phenomenon in which everyone can find an anchor where, as in the labyrinth of Theseus, he will be able to find his way by following a guideline.


Assuntos
Bioética , Diversidade Cultural , Princípios Morais , Religião , Humanos , Filosofia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751907

RESUMO

The pursuit of hedonia and eudaimonia are two ways to fulfill the goal of a "good life". While some studies report that both hedonic and eudaimonic motives improve well-being, others suggest that hedonic motives are counterproductive, raising the question of whether and why eudaimonic motives are more positively associated with well-being. We aimed to identify the distinct associations of hedonic and eudaimonic motives with well-being and investigate whether they are partly mediated by self-control. A total of 2882 college freshmen (1835 females, 1047 males, mean age 18.16 years) completed measures assessing hedonic and eudaimonic motives, self-control, life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, and eudaimonic well-being. Eudaimonic motives were associated with higher life satisfaction, more positive affect, less negative affect, and better eudaimonic well-being. In contrast, hedonic motives were positively associated with life satisfaction, while also being correlated with a greater degree of negative affect and impaired eudaimonic well-being. Self-control mediated the relationships between hedonic and eudaimonic motives and well-being. Eudaimonic and hedonic motives were positively and negatively related to self-control, respectively. Further, high self-control was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, and eudaimonic well-being and lower negative affect. Thus, eudaimonic motives can lead to a better life than hedonic motives because the former enhance self-control, while the latter lower it.


Assuntos
Motivação , Filosofia , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 37, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779044

RESUMO

Within eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition we can distinguish at least three main theoretical positions: (i) Buffon's mechanism, (ii) Reimarus' theory of instincts, and (iii) the sensationalism of Condillac and Leroy. In this paper, I adopt a philosophical perspective on this debate and argue that in order to fully understand the justification Buffon, Reimarus, Condillac, and Leroy gave for their respective theories, we must pay special attention to the theoretical virtues these naturalists alluded to while justifying their position. These theoretical virtues have received little to no attention in the literature on eighteenth-century animal cognition, but figure prominently in the justification of the mechanist, instinctive, and sensationalist theories of animal behavior. Through my philosophical study of the role of theoretical virtues in eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition, we obtain a deeper understanding of how theoretical virtues were conceptualized in eighteenth-century science and how they influenced the justification of theories of animal cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , História Natural/história , Filosofia/história , Animais , História do Século XVIII
18.
J Bioeth Inq ; 17(4): 543-547, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840823

RESUMO

The ethical experience and lessons of China's and the world's response to COVID-19 will be debated for many years to come. But one feature of the Chinese authoritarian response that should not be overlooked is its practice of silencing and humiliating the whistle-blowers who told the truth about the epidemic. In this article, we document the humiliation of Dr Li Wenliang (1986-2020), the most prominent whistle-blower in the Chinese COVID-19 epidemic. Engaging with the thought of Israeli philosopher Avishai Margalit, who argues that humiliation constitutes an injury to a person's self-respect, we discuss his contention that a decent society is one that abolishes conditions which constitute a justification for its dependents to consider themselves humiliated. We explore the ways that institutions humiliate whistle-blowers in Western countries as well as in China.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Controles Informais da Sociedade/métodos , Denúncia de Irregularidades , China , Governo , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Filosofia , Médicos , Sistemas Políticos , Saúde Pública/ética , Respeito , Autoimagem , Denúncia de Irregularidades/ética
19.
J Bioeth Inq ; 17(4): 535-538, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840845

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 comes at the time when a shrinking public sector healthcare is an acknowledged fact in post-colonial societies. The policies adopted by the apparatus of most nation states for the past thirty years or more reveal that providing healthcare to all sections of societies is not a priority. The gradual process of economic liberalization has established "market" as the only legitimate mechanism of the distribution of goods/services as per the efficiency principle. The financial markets are globalized in such a manner that nation states are constantly losing their capacity to perform redistributive functions. State withdrawal from the provision of welfare rights is undermining its moral authority to impose any normative imperative to the people who are being left alone at the mercy of market forces. But the spread of COVID-19 on a global scale has provided an opportunity to the nation state. With the help of healthcare systems, the State has reasserted itself as the ultimate archangel to define human beings and their respective status in the newly emerging nomenclature of the public sphere. In this paper, the rejuvenation of the nation state with respect to bio-power will be discussed in the postcolonial context.


Assuntos
Governo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Sistemas Políticos , Política , /economia , Colonialismo , Mercantilização , Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Pandemias/ética , Filosofia , Poder Psicológico , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Justiça Social
20.
J Bioeth Inq ; 17(4): 503-506, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840855

RESUMO

This essay discusses hope and optimism with reference to current rhetoric around COVID-19. It draws on Spinoza to suggest that much of that rhetoric rests on questionable assumptions about the supremacy of human reason within Nature.


Assuntos
Esperança , Otimismo , Pandemias , Filosofia , Pensamento , Atitude , Humanos
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