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2.
Lancet ; 403(10427): 615-616, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368007
3.
BMC Palliat Care ; 23(1): 43, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the spiritual environment of parents of children receiving palliative care in Southern European countries, which are mostly characterized by secularization (or the abandonment of traditional religiosity) and an increase of cultural and religious diversities resulting in a much broader spectrum of spiritual and religious beliefs. This study aimed to explore the parents' own spirituality, religiosity, and philosophy of life in coping with the care of their child with palliative needs. METHODS: Qualitative interviews of 14 parents of children included in a palliative care program in a pediatric hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Inclusion criteria were parents of children who have been cared for the palliative care program for a minimum of 3 months and who displayed a willingness to talk about their personal experiences and gave written consent. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed by an independent service, and analyzed on a case-by-case basis using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. RESULTS: The three domains identified were life philosophy, relational, and transcendent. Life philosophy included principles that guided parents' decision-making, and how the onset of their child's serious illness had promoted a change in their values. Relational was focused on how they perceived themselves (e.g. motherhood), others (e.g. one's own child exceptionality), and the way they believed others perceived and supported them (e.g. relatives, friends, and healthcare providers). The transcendent domain involved God-related concepts, divinity and divine intervention (e.g. a miracle as an interpretive framework for that which cannot be explained within scientific knowledge limitations). CONCLUSIONS: Inflexible categories identifying parents as having a particular religious faith tradition are not sufficient to capture the interrelation of knowledges (ethical, religious, scientific) that each parent generates when faced with their child receiving palliative care. Clinicians should explore parents' spirituality in an individualized way that responds to the uniqueness of their experiential process.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Espiritualidade , Criança , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Religião , Pais , Filosofia
4.
J Anal Psychol ; 69(1): 27-50, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321836

RESUMO

In the introduction to The Psychology of the Transference (1946), Carl Jung sketched out a theory of "erotic phenomenology" which condenses his teaching about sexuality and romantic love into a very concise summary. But the meaning of this passage is obscured in the English translation given in the Collected Works of C. G. Jung. I propose here a new translation which makes Jung's meaning clearer, along with a commentary which explains it in the context of Freudian drive theory and German 19th century philosophy. Invoking the concepts of instinct, mind, and Eros (both the passion and the divine figure), Jung's theory says that male sexual desire can be cultivated or repressed in four distinct ways, each associated with a female symbolic figure or anima image: Eve, Helen, Mary and Sophia.


Dans son introduction à La Psychologie du Transfert (1946), Carl Jung esquisse une « phénoménologie érotique ¼ qui condense ses enseignements sur la sexualité et le désir en un résumé très concis. Mais le sens de ce passage est brouillé dans la traduction anglaise des Collected Works of C.G. Jung. Je propose ici une nouvelle traduction qui rend l'argument de Jung plus clair, suivie d'un commentaire qui l'explique dans le contexte de la théorie freudienne des pulsions et de la philosophie allemande du XIXe siècle. Invoquant les concepts d'instinct, d'esprit et d'Eros (en tant que passion ainsi que figure divine), la théorie de Jung dit que le désir sexuel masculin peut être cultivé ou réprimé de quatre manières distinctes, chacune associée à une figure symbolique féminine ou image de l'anima: Eve, Hélène, Marie et Sophia.


En la introducción a La Psicología de la Transferencia (1946), Carl Jung esbozó una "fenomenología erótica" que condensa sus enseñanzas sobre la sexualidad y el amor romántico en un resumen muy conciso. Pero el significado de este pasaje queda opacado en la traducción inglesa de las Obras Completas de C.G. Jung. Propongo aquí una nueva traducción que aclara el significado de Jung, junto con un comentario que lo explica en el contexto de la teoría freudiana de la pulsión y la filosofía alemana del siglo XIX. Invocando los conceptos de instinto, mente y Eros (tanto la pasión como la figura divina), la teoría de Jung expresa que el deseo sexual masculino puede cultivarse o reprimirse de cuatro maneras distintas, cada una asociada a una figura simbólica femenina o imagen del ánima: Eva, Helena, María y Sofía.


Assuntos
Teoria Junguiana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Emoções , Teoria Freudiana , Filosofia
6.
Am J Bioeth ; 24(1): 35-38, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236873
7.
Soins ; 69(882): 25-30, 2024.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38296416

RESUMO

Restraint is an extremely controversial practice, symbol of crucial debates on developments in care. This is about trying to think about this painful reality where care is at its limit and carries many dangers. The ethical issues raised by restraint will thus be described, and the responses that can be provided to them.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Restrição Física , Humanos
8.
Soins ; 69(882): 60-63, 2024.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38296424

RESUMO

This article on architecture, care and hospitality is part of a reflection shared by several researchers at the Chair of Philosophy in Hospitals. It follows on from previously published texts by Marie Tesson, Éric de Thoisy and Hugo Martin, which explore in different ways the spaces in which care can be deployed, and how the ethics of care are likely to guide our decisions about our cities and our architectures.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Filosofia , Humanos , Cidades
9.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 103: 168-175, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194853

RESUMO

In a series of articles, Mauricio Suárez defends the neutrality of fictionalism with respect to the scientific realism-anti-realism debate. Suárez understands fictionalism from a strictly methodological point of view, linked to the practice of model building in the context of the philosophy of science. He moves away from the type of fictionalism analysed in other areas of philosophy such as metaphysics, the philosophy of language, aesthetics or the philosophy of mathematics. Following Vaihinger's position, he emphasizes the inferential role of fiction in scientific modelling and argues that scientific fictionalism is not incompatible with scientific realism, as is often believed. We argue against Suárez's position and reject the ubiquitous character assigned to fictions in scientific discourse, as well as the deflationary view of scientific realism defended by Suárez. We conclude that when the semantic, epistemic, and metaphysical aspects at stake in the realism-antirealism debate are taken into account, the alleged compatibility between scientific realism and fictionalism starts to generate some tension.


Assuntos
Metafísica , Filosofia , Estética , Idioma , Semântica
10.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 92: 103907, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199200

RESUMO

Humans have asked themselves the question "who am I" from ancient times. Vedic, upanishadic and buddhist philosophers have pointed out over millennia the illusive nature of the individual self, and posit either a no-self, or a universal Self. Vedantic scholars also posit the illusory nature of the universe (Maya) and suggest that the only reality is the knower (Brahman), a view resonating with modern concepts in quantum theory. On the other hand, western philosophers, notably influenced by the Cartesian dualism, have pursued an individualist view of the self. Recent psychological literature is convergent with eastern views and emphasizes the importance of understanding the self, metacognition and mindful practices to understand the mind and its afflictions. Several recent western psychotherapeutic models resonate with, and may have been motivated, at least in part, by ancient eastern philosophy and spiritual practices. More work is needed to develop and implement psychotherapeutic approaches using eastern insights, and to empirically test their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Meditação , Yoga , Humanos , Filosofia
12.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 25(2): 81-90, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212413

RESUMO

A fundamental goal of research in neuroscience is to uncover the causal structure of the brain. This focus on causation makes sense, because causal information can provide explanations of brain function and identify reliable targets with which to understand cognitive function and prevent or change neurological conditions and psychiatric disorders. In this research, one of the most frequently used causal concepts is 'mechanism' - this is seen in the literature and language of the field, in grant and funding inquiries that specify what research is supported, and in journal guidelines on which contributions are considered for publication. In these contexts, mechanisms are commonly tied to expressions of the main aims of the field and cited as the 'fundamental', 'foundational' and/or 'basic' unit for understanding the brain. Despite its common usage and perceived importance, mechanism is used in different ways that are rarely distinguished. Given that this concept is defined in different ways throughout the field - and that there is often no clarification of which definition is intended - there remains a marked ambiguity about the fundamental goals, orientation and principles of the field. Here we provide an overview of causation and mechanism from the perspectives of neuroscience and philosophy of science, in order to address these challenges.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neurociências , Humanos , Cognição , Encéfalo , Filosofia
13.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 103: 114-122, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154277

RESUMO

The rejection of research results is sometimes thought to be justified in cases of individuals embracing fringe ideas that depart significantly from prevailing orthodoxy, or in cases of individuals who lack appropriate expertise or credentials. The case of John Garcia exhibits both of these dimensions, and illustrates that such rejection can delay scientific advancements. Garcia's work decisively challenged what was the orthodoxy in psychology in the midcentury: behaviorism. Behaviorist learning theorists suffered from theory-entrenchment insofar as they failed to acknowledge Garcia's anomalous research findings that ran counter to their theoretical expectations. The case study also illustrates that theories on the margins can become embraced as a result of advancements in adjacent research fields. Studying how Garcia's work moved from fringe to mainstream results in lessons for the philosophy of science and epistemology more generally. Only when we see the mechanisms of exclusion at work can we understand how science and other knowledge production systems can inadvertently act counterproductively via gatekeeping practices that filter out unorthodox points of view.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Filosofia , Inclusão Escolar
14.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 92: 103869, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157712

RESUMO

Our understanding of the brain basis of mental illness has evolved over three and half millennia. Early insights into the role of the brain in relation to the mind faded during the middle ages as mental illness became the province of religion, spirituality, and philosophy. Psychiatry became a medical discipline again as medical and scientific thinking evolved during the 17th century. However, progress in neuroscience and astute clinical observations were punctuated by setbacks due to lingering dualism, reductionistic thinking, and dogma. Accelerating neuroscience discoveries and methodological innovations are beginning to bring neuroscience and psychiatry closer than ever as we begin the 21st century, This pictorial article seeks to briefly highlight this journey for an early trainee in psychiatry and related professions in mind.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neurociências , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Encéfalo , Filosofia
15.
Ann Sci ; 81(1-2): 100-123, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100558

RESUMO

This paper examines the role of mathematical instrument makers in establishing a public culture of precision measurement in early-modern England. I argue that this culture was promoted through trials and demonstrations, in the context of which artisans held a privileged position. The trials described here cover land surveying, the measurement of magnetic variation, and standards of measurement for customs and excise. These trials were decisive moments in the 'cultural biographies' of precision instruments. I ask how it was that instrument makers were able to assume positions of authority, and what this means for our understanding of the socio-material system of precision measurement in the early-modern period, and the contemporary rise of 'experimental' and 'philosophical' trials. Because practical mathematics was a self-consciously economic activity - motivated by trade, commerce, exploration and colonization - direct connections to natural philosophy are significant, a point explored in my conclusion.


Assuntos
Filosofia , Inglaterra , Matemática
16.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1895): 20220410, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38104599

RESUMO

In the last few years, a remarkable convergence of interests and results has emerged between scholars interested in the arts and aesthetics from a variety of perspectives and cognitive scientists studying the mind and brain within the predictive processing (PP) framework. This convergence has so far proven fruitful for both sides: while PP is increasingly adopted as a framework for understanding aesthetic phenomena, the arts and aesthetics, examined under the lens of PP, are starting to be seen as important windows into our mental functioning. The result is a vast and fast-growing research programme that promises to deliver important insights into our aesthetic encounters as well as a wide range of psychological phenomena of general interest. Here, we present this developing research programme, describing its grounds and highlighting its prospects. We start by clarifying how the study of the arts and aesthetics encounters the PP picture of mental functioning (§1). We then go on to outline the prospects of this encounter for the fields involved: philosophy and history of art (§2), psychology of aesthetics and neuroaesthetics (§3) and psychology and neuroscience more generally (§4). The upshot is an ambitious but well-defined framework within which aesthetics and cognitive science can partner up to illuminate crucial aspects of the human mind. This article is part of the theme issue 'Art, aesthetics and predictive processing: theoretical and empirical perspectives'.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Neurociências , Humanos , Estética , Filosofia , Ciência Cognitiva
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1895): 20220423, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38104606

RESUMO

Predictive processing is a recent approach in cognitive science that describes the brain as an engine of probabilistic hierarchical inference. Initially proposed as a general theory of brain function, predictive processing has recently been expanding to account for questions of consciousness in philosophy and neuroscience. In my previous work (Kukkonen 2020 Probability designs: literature and predictive processing. New York, NY: Oxford University Press), I have shown how predictive processing can also be used to model our engagement with literary texts. In this article, I use my account of our engagement with literature in predictive processing terms, as well as recent work on predictive processing and consciousness, to explore how literature can shed light on various aspects of conscious experience, including qualia, counterfactual depth in conscious experience and sense of self. In the final section, I propose a number of theoretical questions that could be addressed by drawing on literature as a source of hypotheses and stimuli for possible experimental designs. The upshot is a picture where literature is not just a source of illustrative examples about conscious experience, but a designer environment through which we can explore and rethink consciousness. This article is part of the theme issue 'Art, aesthetics and predictive processing: theoretical and empirical perspectives'.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Neurociências , Humanos , Encéfalo , Filosofia , New York
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 115: 737-746, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37972881

RESUMO

In medicine and science, one is typically taught the main theories in a discipline or field along with standard models before receiving more instructions on how to apply certain methods. The aim of this work is not to address one method, but rather methodology, the study and evaluation of methods, by taking a philosophy of science detour. In this, a critique of biomedicine will be used as a starting point to address some positions regarding reductionism, specifying notions such as systems and mechanisms, as well as regarding the mind-body problem discussing psychosomatic medicine and psychoneuroimmunology. Some recommendations to make science more pluralistic, robust and translationally-relevant will then be made as a way to foster constructive debates on reductionism and the mind-body problem and, in turn, favor more interdisciplinary research.


Assuntos
Filosofia
19.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 18(1): 20, 2023 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38115053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1926, Fritz Jahr described bio-ethics (German: bio-ethik) as "the assumption of moral obligations not only towards humans, but towards all forms of life." Jahr summarized his philosophy by declaring, "Respect every living being on principle as an end in itself and treat it, if possible, as such!." Bioethics was thus originally an ethical system concerned with the "problems of interference with other living beings… and generally everything related to the balance of the ecosystem" according to the 1978 Encyclopedia of Bioethics. This definition was predicated on the work of Fritz Jahr, Menico Torchio, and Van Rensselaer Potter. METHODS: In order to proceed with depthful analysis of the origin and major bioethical flare up, we will use critical analysis of existing literature, followed by a study trip to relevant bioethical localities (collecting photo and other documentations regarding Menico Torchio). RESULTS: While Jahr and Potter are typically given intellectual credit for developing the field of bioethics, the eco-ethical contributions of Menico Torchio have been forgotten.This article will first trace the origins of "bioethics" - now commonly bifurcated into "biomedical ethics" and "environmental bioethics." The former was developed by Tom Beauchamp from the Philosophy Department and James Childress of the Religious Studies department at Georgetown University and is based on principlism, with a narrow focus on medical settings. The latter addresses the environmental impact of the medical industry and climate change health hazards. Second, we will present a panorama of Torchio's significant intellectual contribution to bioethics. Menico Torchio's concept of bioethics synthesized work of both Jahr and Potter, advocating "the need to expand our ethical obligations and embrace the most developed groups of animals, not only physically but also psychologically." Third, we will reflect on the lasting legacy of "bioethics" on biomedical and environmental bioethics today. Thematic elements such as interconnectedness of planetary health and human health, dedication to living in harmony with nature, and emphasis on systems and symbiosis remain unchanged from the legacy of Tochio onward. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion will underscore the necessity of understanding the connections between planetary, environmental, and human health.


Assuntos
Bioética , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Bioética/história , Obrigações Morais , Princípios Morais , Filosofia , Ética Baseada em Princípios , História do Século XX
20.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580231214759, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38031354

RESUMO

Safe and secure housing is a pressing concern for survivors of domestic violence (DV). Domestic Violence Housing First (DVHF) is a policy that serves DV survivors' needs by removing barriers to housing stability via flexible financial assistance, mobile advocacy, trauma-informed practice, and partnerships with community housing providers. In this paper, we outline a study protocol developed to evaluate the efficacy of the Wisconsin Domestic Violence Housing First Pilot Program (WI-DVHF). Funding was provided to 9 social service programs across the state and implemented in novel ways. We develop a multi-site, multi-level, longitudinal analysis of WI-DVHF at the individual, site, and community levels. WI-DVHF includes 4 elements differentiating it from previous studies, including analysis of DVHF in rural and urban locations, unique implementation across different sites, and access to a WI rental education program. We also include data from comparable non-WI-DVHF sites and clients served during the study period. This will address concerns about comparing survivors within a site as DVHF funding may free up funds that can benefit other survivors at that site and to better understand the general challenges and trends these organizations face during the study period. The US housing crisis emphasizes the importance of identifying unique and flexible ways to meet the housing needs of DV survivors. This study highlights the potential for DVHF to improve the lives of survivors, and its adaptability to previously understudied cultural groups and across the rural-urban divide. Further, WI-DVHF funds may positively benefit other programs and participants within a site by freeing up valuable space in DV shelters and other resources.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Habitação , Humanos , Wisconsin , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Filosofia
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