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1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1390937, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706546

RESUMO

Background: Universal health coverage (UHC) is crucial for public health, poverty eradication, and economic growth. However, 97% of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly Africa and Asia, lack it, relying on out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure. National Health Insurance (NHI) guarantees equity and priorities aligned with medical needs, for which we aimed to determine the pooled willingness to pay (WTP) and its influencing factors from the available literature in Africa and Asia. Methods: Database searches were conducted on Scopus, HINARI, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Semantic Scholar from March 31 to April 4, 2023. The Joanna Briggs Institute's (JBI's) tools and the "preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) 2020 statement" were used to evaluate bias and frame the review, respectively. The data were analyzed using Stata 17. To assess heterogeneity, we conducted sensitivity and subgroup analyses, calculated the Luis Furuya-Kanamori (LFK) index, and used a random model to determine the effect estimates (proportions and odds ratios) with a p value less than 0.05 and a 95% CI. Results: Nineteen studies were included in the review. The pooled WTP on the continents was 66.0% (95% CI, 54.0-77.0%) before outlier studies were not excluded, but increased to 71.0% (95% CI, 68-75%) after excluding them. The factors influencing the WTP were categorized as socio-demographic factors, income and economic issues, information level and sources, illness and illness expenditure, health service factors, factors related to financing schemes, as well as social capital and solidarity. Age has been found to be consistently and negatively related to the WTP for NHI, while income level was an almost consistent positive predictor of it. Conclusion: The WTP for NHI was moderate, while it was slightly higher in Africa than Asia and was found to be affected by various factors, with age being reported to be consistently and negatively related to it, while an increase in income level was almost a positive determinant of it.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Humanos , África , Ásia , Financiamento Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(5)2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740495

RESUMO

The goal of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is that everyone needing healthcare can access quality services without financial hardship. Recent research covering countries with UHC systems documents the emergence, and acceleration following the COVID-19 pandemic of unapproved informal payment systems by providers that collect under-the-table payments from patients. In 2001, Thailand extended its '30 Baht' government-financed coverage to all uninsured people with little or no cost sharing. In this paper, we update the literature on the performance of Thailand's Universal Health Coverage Scheme (UCS) with data covering 2019 (pre-COVID-19) through 2021. We find that access to care for Thailand's UCS-covered population (53 million) is similar to access provided to populations covered by the other major public health insurance schemes covering government and private sector workers, and that, unlike reports from other UHC countries, no evidence that informal side payments have emerged, even in the face of COVID-19 related pressures. However, we do find that nearly one out of eight Thailand's UCS-covered patients seek care outside the UCS delivery system where they will incur out-of-pocket payments. This finding predates the COVID-19 pandemic and suggests the need for further research into the performance of the UHC-sponsored delivery system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Tailândia , COVID-19/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Pandemias/economia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8869, 2024 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632372

RESUMO

Universal health coverage relies on providing essential medical services and shielding individuals from financial risks. Our study assesses the progressivity of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, identifies factors contributing to healthcare expenditure inequality, and examines catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) prevalence in Kazakhstan from 2018 to 2021. Using retrospective analysis of National Statistics Bureau data, we employed STATA 13 version for calculations CHE incidence, progressivity, Lorenz and concentration curves. In 2020-2021, OOP expenditures in Kazakhstan decreased, reflecting a nearly twofold reduction in the CHE incidence to 1.32% and 1.24%, respectively. However, during these years, we observe a transition towards a positive trend in the Kakwani index to 0.003 and 0.005, respectively, which may be explained by household size and education level factors. Increased state financing and quarantine measures contributed to reduced OOP payments. Despite a low healthcare expenditure share in gross domestic product, Kazakhstan exhibits a relatively high private healthcare spending proportion. The low CHE incidence and proportional expenditure system suggest private payments do not significantly impact financial resilience, prompting considerations about the role of government funding and social health insurance in the financing structure.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Pobreza , Humanos , Características da Família , Cazaquistão , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doença Catastrófica , Financiamento Pessoal , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde
4.
Rural Remote Health ; 24(1): 8328, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670163

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aboriginal Australians face significant health disparities, with hospitalisation rates 2.3 times greater, and longer hospital length of stay, than non-Indigenous Australians. This additional burden impacts families further through out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure (OOPHE), which includes additional healthcare expenses not covered by universal taxpayer insurance. Aboriginal patients traveling from remote locations are likely to be impacted further by OOPHE. The objective of this study was to examine the impacts and burden of OOPHE for rurally based Aboriginal individuals. METHODS: Participants were recruited through South Australian community networks to participate in this study. Decolonising methods of yarning and deep listening were used to centralise local narratives and language of OOPHE. Qualitative analysis software was used to thematically code transcripts and organise data. RESULTS: A total of seven yarning sessions were conducted with 10 participants. Seven themes were identified: travel, barriers to health care, personal and social loss, restricted autonomy, financial strain, support initiatives and protective factors. Sleeping rough, selling assets and not attending appointments were used to mitigate or avoid OOPHE. Government initiatives, such as the patient assistance transport scheme, did little to decrease OOPHE burden on participants. Family connections, Indigenous knowledges and engagement with cultural practices were protective against OOPHE burden. CONCLUSION: Aboriginal families are significantly burdened by OOPHE when needing to travel for health care. Radical change of government initiative and policies through to health professional awareness is needed to ensure equitable healthcare access that does not create additional financial hardship in communities already experiencing economic disadvantage.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , Humanos , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália do Sul , Financiamento Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/economia
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296714, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568920

RESUMO

Adoption of clean electric energy depends not only on administrative regulations, but also on public support, in particular, the public is willing to pay for environmental improvements. However, the increase of solar photovoltaic power generation willingness to pay (WTP) associated with higher education attainment and the identification of their causality has been missing. Present paper used the enactment of the Compulsory Schooling Law as an instrumental variable to solve the causal relationship between education and willingness to pay for photovoltaic power generation. The results are as follows:Heckman two-stage model and instrumental variable both confirmed that higher education has a positive impact on WTP for solar photovoltaic power generation. For each level of public education in the east, the WTP of photovoltaic power generation will increase by 7.540 CNY, 8.343 CNY and 8.343 CNY respectively, the central public will increase by 9.637 CNY, 10.775 CNY and 11.758 CNY, and the western public will increase by 12.723 CNY, 15.740 CNY and 17.993 CNY respectively. The positive influence of education level is smaller among the people who know the ladder price better, but it is bigger among the people who are male, older than 45 years old, healthier, higher income and stronger awareness of safe electricity use. The total socio-economic value of photovoltaic power generation is significantly different in eastern, central and western region China.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Renda , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Escolaridade , China , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 801, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is currently experiencing a double burden of disease. Families with members having both communicable and noncommunicable diseases are at a greater risk of impoverishment due to enormous out-of-pocket payments. This study examines the percentile distribution of the determinants of the out-of-pocket expenditure on the double disease burden. METHOD: The study extracted a sample of 6,775 households with at least one member experiencing both communicable and noncommunicable diseases from the Household Integrated Economic Survey 2018-19. The dataset is cross-sectional and nationally representative. Quantile regression was used to analyze the association of various socioeconomic factors with the OOP expenditure associated with double disease burden. RESULTS: Overall, 28.5% of households had double disease in 2018-19. The households with uneducated heads, male heads, outpatient healthcare, patients availing public sector healthcare services, and rural and older members showed a significant association with the prevalence of double disease. The out-of-pocket expenditure was higher for depression, liver and kidney disease, hepatitis, and pneumonia in the upper percentiles. The quantile regression results showed that an increased number of communicable and noncommunicable diseases was associated with higher monthly OOP expenditure in the lower percentiles (10th percentile, coefficient 312, 95% CI: 92-532), and OOP expenditure was less pronounced among the higher percentiles (75th percentile, coefficient 155, 95% CI: 30-270). The households with older members were associated with higher OOP expenditure at higher tails (50th and 75th percentiles) compared to lower (10th and 25th percentiles). Family size was associated with higher OOPE at lower percentiles than higher ones. CONCLUSION: The coexistence of communicable and noncommunicable diseases is associated with excessive private healthcare costs in Pakistan. The results call for addressing the variations in financial costs associated with double diseases.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Financiamento Pessoal , Análise de Regressão , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
8.
Health Econ ; 33(6): 1229-1240, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379204

RESUMO

Economists originally developed methods to assess financial catastrophe using total or aggregate out-of-pocket health spending. Aggregate out-of-pocket health spending is financially catastrophic when it exceeds a fixed proportion (i.e., threshold) of a household's total income or expenditure in a given period. However, these methods are now applied to assess financial catastrophe in disease- or service-specific rather than aggregate out-of-pocket health spending without using disease- or service-specific thresholds. This paper argues that not using disease- or service-specific thresholds for such assessments is misleading and underestimates the burden of financial catastrophe, especially among households from poorer backgrounds. It then proposed disease- or service-specific catastrophic payment thresholds, applied them to Nigeria and found that financial catastrophe was underestimated for the five service groups considered. The paper stresses the importance of using disease- or service-specific thresholds and avoiding unadjusted thresholds, which may leave poorer households behind as financially protected.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria , Doença Catastrófica/economia
9.
J Cancer Policy ; 39: 100469, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer imposes a substantial economic burden due to treatment costs, supportive care, and loss of productivity. Besides all the affecting factors, major concerns lead to significant financial burdens of cancer treatment, bringing unwanted huge unbearable direct and indirect treatment costs. The aim was to explore the nature of additional mobility/travel required for accessing health care for cancer patients and also to assess financial burden due to additional mobility/travel costs for cancer treatment. METHODS: This study employed unit-level cross-sectional data from the 75th round (2017-18) of India's National Sample Survey (NSS). The primary analysis commenced with descriptive and bivariate analyses to explore mean health spending and out-of-pocket expenses. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to estimate the associations between catastrophic health expenditure, distress financing, and the treatment location. RESULTS: The findings highlight distinct healthcare utilization patterns: inpatient treatments predominantly occur within the same district (50.4 %), followed by a different district (38.8 %), and a smaller share in other states (10.8 %). Outpatients largely receive treatment in the same district (65.5 %), followed by a different district (26.8 %), and around 8 % percent in other states. Urban areas show higher inpatient visits within the same district (41.8 %) and different districts (33.5 %). Outpatients, particularly those seeking treatment in other states, experience higher total expenditures, notably with higher out-of-pocket expenses. Distress financing is more common among inpatients (20.6 %) and combined inpatient/outpatient cases (23.9 %), while outpatients exhibit a lower rate (6.8 %). CONCLUSION: The findings collectively suggest the importance of developing local healthcare infrastructures to reduce the additional mobility of cancer patients. The policy should focus to train and deploy oncologists in non-urban areas can help bridge the gap in cancer care proficiency and reduce the need for patients to travel long distances for treatment.


Assuntos
Estresse Financeiro , Neoplasias , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Financiamento Pessoal , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0290746, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166087

RESUMO

In developing nations, catastrophic health expenditures have become an all-too-common occurrence, threatening to push households into impoverishment and poverty. By analyzing the Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2016, which features a sample of 46,080 households, this study provides a comprehensive district-by-district analysis of the variation in household catastrophic health expenditures and related factors. The study utilizes a multilevel logistic regression model, which considers both fixed and random effects to identify factors associated with catastrophic health expenditure. The findings of the study indicate that districts located in the eastern and southern regions are at a significantly higher risk of experiencing catastrophic health expenditures. A potential explanation for this trend may be attributed to the high prevalence of chronic diseases in these districts, as well as their economic conditions. The presence of chronic diseases (AOR 5.45 with 95% CI: 5.14, 5.77), presence of old age person (AOR 1.50 with 95% CI: 1.39, 1.61), place of residence (AOR 1.40 with 95% CI: 1.14, 1.73) are found to be highly associated factors. Additionally, the study reveals that the thresholds used to define catastrophic health expenditures exhibit substantial variation across different regions, and differ remarkably from the threshold established by the WHO. On average, the thresholds are 23.12% of nonfood expenditure and 12.14% of total expenditure. In light of these findings, this study offers important insights for policymakers and stakeholders working towards achieving universal health coverage and sustainable development goals in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Financiamento Pessoal , Doença Catastrófica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica
11.
J Health Econ ; 93: 102842, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056032

RESUMO

Adjusting the valuation of life along the (i) person-specific (age, health, wealth) and (ii) mortality risk-specific (beneficial or detrimental, temporary or permanent changes) dimensions is relevant in prioritizing healthcare interventions. These adjustments are provided by solving a life cycle model of consumption, leisure and health choices and the associated Hicksian variations for mortality changes. The calibrated model yields plausible Values of Life Year between 154K$ and 200K$ and Values of Statistical Life close to 6.0M$. The willingness to pay (WTP) and to accept (WTA) compensation are equal and symmetric for one-shot beneficial and detrimental changes in mortality risk. However, permanent, and expected longevity changes are both associated with larger willingness for gains, relative to losses, and larger WTA than WTP. Ageing lowers both variations via falling resources and health, lower marginal continuation utility of living and decreasing longevity returns of changes in mortality.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos
12.
J Law Med Ethics ; 51(S1): 17-38, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38156357

RESUMO

There is evidence of persistent inequalities in household financial protection of health and drugs spending in Latin America. Despite the expansion of coverage, strong inequalities persist in access to health and family spending on drugs in the region. Out-of-pocket spending in medicines is regressive in greater need for affordable medicines.


Assuntos
Declarações Financeiras , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Financiamento Pessoal , Características da Família
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 1317, 2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38031065

RESUMO

Laos has introduced various SHI schemes for multiple groups of the population, such as government officials and other population groups under the NHI schemes. There is no specific health insurance policy for this group of people who need special health services and may have a higher possibility of entering financial catastrophe. This study aims to assess the impact of SHI schemes on accessibility and financial catastrophe against catastrophic health expenditures for older people in Laos. A structured questionnaire has been used to retrieve information from 400 older people across 39 villages in Kaysone Phomvihane District, Savannakhet province, the largest province in Laos. In the analytical process, this study used a cross-sectional study design and binary logistic regression models to predict the likelihood of accessing health facilities and experiencing financial catastrophe. The study outcome shows that the increase in age, occupation, number of older people within a household, and presence of chronic conditions increase the likelihood of using health services. Despite the existence of various SHI schemes, this study found that 74 out of 165 households reported using health services experienced catastrophic health expenditure. Several characteristics are associated with catastrophic health expenditure: age, income level, and gender are prone to suffer from catastrophic health expenditure. The difficult problems stem from the absence of comprehensive legislation regarding the older population. Recommendations for policymakers in various timeframes have been made, which cover short- and long-term policy proposals, including providing a specialized lane or fast-track for an older population, building health facilities exclusively for older people, and providing transportation services for older individuals living alone.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Pobreza , Humanos , Idoso , Laos , Estudos Transversais , Seguro Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Doença Catastrófica
14.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2298, 2023 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37986174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since its emergence, the COVID-19 pandemic has compromised the food security both directly by impacting food supply chain and indirectly by overwhelming the individual health and/or personal financial situation. The overarching aim of the current study is to assess aspects of the food security crisis that have arisen due to COVID-19 and to identify which, if any, food security dimensions were specifically compromised. METHODS: Primary research articles were initially identified through four online databases (Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science), with the references of each paper then also reviewed for additional article. The food security status of individuals and the wider community, both before and after the emergence of COVID-19, were examined. RESULTS: Of the 2,057 studies initially identified, a total of ten were included in the final review. The included studies confirmed that COVID-19 had substantially impacted food security, with individuals, households and the wider community experiencing food insecurity. Nine of the included studies aruged that the food accessibility dimension was the most compromised. CONCLUSION: To address the identified direct and indirect food security issues associated with COVID-19, it is proposed that a combination of prevention practices and proactive food security activities is required. Integrating food security interventions, supporting and facilitating food security resilience, and conducting further studies on the food security of COVID-19 are also recommended.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Bases de Dados Factuais , Financiamento Pessoal , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos
15.
Archiv. med. fam. gen. (En línea) ; 20(3): 26-35, nov. 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524383

RESUMO

Determinar el gasto de bolsillo en salud en las familias con diabetes mellitus y/o hipertensión arterial y el porcentaje del ingreso familiar durante la pandemia del Covid-19. Estudio de gasto de bolsillo en salud que incluyó muestreo consecutivo de 268 familias de México. El ingreso trimestral familiar se definió como la suma de ingresos de cada uno de los integrantes de la familia, el gasto en salud se definió como el total de erogaciones que tuvo la familia para cubrir los diferentes servicios de salud, y porcentaje de gasto en salud se definió como la relación del gasto total trimestral y el gasto corriente del hogar, valores expresados en pesos mexicanos. El promedio trimestral del gasto de bolsillo en salud en la familia con diabetes mellitus y/o hipertensión arterial en la dimensión consulta fue $975,82 y en la dimensión medicamentos $1,371.22; el gasto promedio total trimestral fue $3,133.08. El ingreso trimestral de la familia después de la pandemia del covid-19 fue $85,348.86 lo que representa 5,93% menos del ingreso trimestral antes de la pandemia. El gasto trimestral en salud fue $3,133.08, lo cual corresponde a 3,45% y 3,67% del ingreso trimestral familiar antes y después de la pandemia del Covid-19 respectivamente (AU)


Determine out-of-pocket health spending in families with diabetes mellitus and/or high blood pressure and the percentage of family income during the Covid-19 pandemic. Study of out-of-pocket health spending that included consecutive sampling of 268 families in Mexico. The quarterly family income was defined as the sum of income of each of the family members, health spending was defined as the total expenses that the family had to cover the different health services, and percentage of health spending. It was defined as the relationship between total quarterly expenditure and current household expenditure, values expressed in Mexican pesos. The quarterly average of out-of-pocket health expenditure in the family with diabetes mellitus and/or arterial hypertension in the consultation dimension was $975.82 and in the medication dimension $1,371.22; The average total quarterly expense was $3,133.08. The family's quarterly income after the covid-19 pandemic was $85,348.86, which represents 5.93% less than the quarterly income before the pandemic. The quarterly health expenditure was $3,133.08, which corresponds to 3.45% and 3.67% of the family's quarterly income before and after the Covid-19 pandemic respectively (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus , Financiamento Pessoal , Hipertensão , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19 , México
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 208, 2023 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37805483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Financial risk protection is a core dimension of universal health coverage. Hardship financing, defined as borrowing and selling land or assets to pay for healthcare, is a measure of last recourse. Increasing indebtedness and high interest rates, particularly among unregulated money lenders, can lead to a vicious cycle of poverty and exacerbate inequity. METHODS: To inform efforts to improve Cambodia's social health protection system we analyze 2019-2020 Cambodia Socio-economic Survey data to assess hardship financing, illness and injury related productivity loss, and estimate related economic impacts. We apply two-stage Instrumental Variable multiple regression to address endogeneity relating to net income. In addition, we calculate a direct economic measure to facilitate the regular monitoring and reporting on the devastating burden of excessive out-of-pocket expenditure for policy makers. RESULTS: More than 98,500 households or 2.7% of the total population resorted to hardship financing over the past year. Factors significantly increasing risk are higher out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures, illness or injury related productivity loss, and spending of savings. The economic burden from annual lost productivity from illness or injury amounts to US$ 459.9 million or 1.7% of GDP. The estimated household economic cost related to hardship financing is US$ 250.8 million or 0.9% of GDP. CONCLUSIONS: Such losses can be mitigated with policy measures such as linking a catastrophic health coverage mechanism to the Health Equity Funds, capping interest rates on health-related loans, and using loan guarantees to incentivize microfinance institutions and banks to refinance health-related, high-interest loans from money lenders. These measures could strengthen social health protection by enhancing financial risk protection, mitigating vulnerability to the devastating economic effects of health shocks, and reducing inequities.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Pobreza , Humanos , Camboja , Renda , Gastos em Saúde , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Doença Catastrófica
17.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 60(3): 237-240, 2023.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37730323
19.
South Med J ; 116(7): 537-541, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37400098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Some physicians believe that they have difficulty managing their own personal finances, and many medical schools and residences do not have formal financial curricula embedded in education. Given that many medical students have >$200,000 in school loans, physicians are expected to navigate the complex financial world without guidance. METHODS: In this article, the authors developed a personal finance curriculum for Internal Medicine residents with the aim of evaluating the proportion of residents engaging in active personal finance activities, increasing their knowledge of financial literacy and their comfort with personal finance concepts using a pre- and postintervention survey. The content of the curriculum included four modules structured around different financial themes and delivered to trainees in 45-minute sessions. RESULTS: A majority of the residents were able to participate in workplace retirement, log into their retirement account, possessed a Roth individual retirement account, manage a budget, and check their credit score. An area prompting concern postintervention was the level of discomfort engaging with personal finance that disproportionally affected the female trainees more than their male counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that an individual's comfort level managing finances stems from money beliefs, rather than actual ability given the requirements to graduate from medical school and the demands of an Internal Medicine residency.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Currículo , Financiamento Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Faculdades de Medicina
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 18(1): 179, 2023 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37415155

RESUMO

AIM: The implementation of newborn screening programs for inborn errors of metabolism has advanced the diagnosis and management of affected infants and undoubtedly improved their outcomes. We aimed to determine out-of-pocket health expenditures of patients with inborn errors of metabolism during follow-up and treatment processes and to determine the economic burden on the families. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 232 patients who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study and were regularly followed up in the Department of Pediatric Metabolism with the diagnosis of Inborn Errors of Metabolism between April 2022 and July 2022 were included. Questionnaires were asked about the demographic characteristics of patients, use of health services, follow-up, treatment procedures, frequency of controls and health expenditures. RESULTS: The average out-of-pocket expenditure of the households in the last month was 1039.22 ± 1030.08 (minimum: 20, maximum: 5000) Turkish Liras. When we consider the catastrophic health expenditure rate as expenditure exceeding 40% of household income, we found that 9.9% (23 people) of parents included in the study made catastrophic health expenditures. The rate of catastrophic expenditure of patients with a diagnosis of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders was found to be higher than that of patients with a diagnosis of Vitamin and Cofactor Metabolism Disorders. Similarly, patients with a diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases had more expenditures than patients with a diagnosis of vitamin and cofactor metabolism disorders. When we compared the rate of catastrophic health expenditure of the patients with urea cycle disorders and the patients with a diagnosis of vitamin and cofactor metabolism disorders, the former had more expenditure than the latter (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between other disease groups in terms of catastrophic expenditure. The rate of catastrophic expenditures of the households living as large family type were higher than the families living as nuclear family type (p < 0.01). A statistically significant difference was found between the rates of catastrophic expenditures of the families living in Ankara and those who were admitted from other provinces for follow-up and treatment (p < 0.001). However, there was no difference between the rates of catastrophic expenditure of the patients who received any treatment and those who were followed up without treatment (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages in our country, the development of newborn screening programs, the increase in awareness about metabolic diseases and the improvement in diagnostic methods, the frequency of metabolic diseases is increasing, and mortality and morbidity rates are significantly reduced with early diagnosis and treatment opportunities. It is necessary to carry out more comprehensive studies to determine and prevent the socioeconomic effects of out-of-pocket health expenditures of patients living with Inborn Errors of Metabolism.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos , Gastos em Saúde , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Criança , Características da Família , Financiamento Pessoal , Doença Catastrófica
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