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1.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) ; 64(2): 40-46, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308585

RESUMO

The frequency of cleft lip with/without palate (CL/P) in the Mongolian population is approximately 1 in 1314 live births. This research aims to disseminate information about this congenital disability to the public to better understand CL/P, and people's fissures, and review administrative measures, as there is a lack of research in this area. A questionnaire survey was conducted using Google Forms, with 1000 Mongolian participants. Most participants (86.7%) said they had knowledge of the word, whereas 86.2% said they had knowledge of the condition. Most participants' answers were question-related disadvantages of CL/P patients, including statements such as "It's uncomfortable in human relationships" and "It makes an uncomfortable impression on the person you meet the first time." The results of this study revealed that most Mongolians were aware of CL/P and are concerned about patients. However, the causes of CL/P in the general population remain unknown, and further research is needed in this area.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Feminino , Humanos , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 36, 2024 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185687

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly, including non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate and cleft palate only. Failure in the fusion of median and lateral nasal processes, the maxillary prominence, and soft tissues around the oral cavity can cause CL/P. Previously, the prevalence has been estimated to be 1 among every 1000 births in 2014 among American neonates and no other reports have been available since. Thus, this study aimed to calculate the prevalence and trend of isolated CL/P among American live births from 2016 to 2021 with its associated risk factors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this cross-sectional population-based retrospective study, we used live birth data provided by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We calculated the prevalence per 10,000 live births of isolated (non-syndromic) CL/P from 2016 to 2021. To examine risk factors for developing isolated CL/P, we used logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: The total prevalence per 10,000 births from 2016 to 2021 was 4.88 (4.79-4.97), for both sexes, and 5.96 (5.82-6.10) for males, and 3.75 (3.64-3.87) for females. The prevalence did not show any consistent linear decreasing or increasing pattern. We found significant association between increased odds of developing isolated CL/P among cases with 20 to 24 year-old mothers (OR = 1.07, 1.01-1.13, p = 0.013), mothers who smoked 11 to 20 cigarettes per day (OR = 1.46, 1.33-1.60, p <  0.001), mothers with extreme obesity (OR = 1.32, 1.21-1.43, p <  0.001), mothers with grade II obesity (OR = 1.32, 1.23-1.42, p <  0.001), mothers with pre-pregnancy hypertension (OR = 1.17, 1.04-1.31, p = 0.009), mothers with pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.96, 1.71-2.25, p <  0.001), and mothers who used assisted reproductive technology (OR = 1.40, 1.18-1.66, p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a minuscule increase, albeit insignificant, in the trend of CL/P prevalence from 2016 to 2021. Developing CL/P had greater odds among mothers with pre-pregnancy diabetes, smoking, obesity, and pre-pregnancy hypertension mothers along with mothers who used assisted reproductive technology. Isolated CL/P had the highest prevalence in non-Hispanic Whites, American Indian or Alaskan Native and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Hipertensão , Feminino , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade
4.
Birth Defects Res ; 116(3): e2295, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38179866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orofacial clefts (OFCs) include cleft palate (CP), cleft lip (CL), and cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP) and require multidisciplinary healthcare services. Alberta, Canada has a publicly funded, universal access healthcare system. This study determined publicly funded healthcare costs for children with an OFC and compared these costs to children without congenital anomalies. METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort analysis used the Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System to identify children born between 2002 and 2018 with an isolated OFC. They were matched 1:1 to a reference cohort based on sex and year of birth. The study population included 1614 children, from birth to 17 years of age linked to administrative databases to estimate annual inpatient and outpatient costs. Average annual all-cause costs were compared using two-sample independent t tests. RESULTS: The mean total cleft-related costs per patient were highest for children with CLP ($74,138 CAD, standard deviation (SD) $43,447 CAD), followed by CP ($53,062 CAD, SD $74,366 CAD), and CL ($35,288 CAD, SD $49,720 CAD). The mean total all-cause costs per child were statistically significantly higher (p < .001) in children with an OFC ($56,305 CAD, SD $57,744 CAD) compared to children without a congenital anomaly ($18,600 CAD, SD $61,300 CAD). CONCLUSIONS: Despite public health strategies to mitigate risk factors, the trend for OFCs has remained stable in Alberta, Canada for over 20 years. The costs reported are useful to other jurisdictions for comparison, and to families, healthcare professionals, service planners, and policy makers.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Criança , Humanos , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Alberta/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
5.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital anomalies worldwide. Although CL/P management may require a series of interventions, mortality resulting from CL/P alone is rare. This study aims to examine recent trends of CL/P mortality rates in the USA. METHODS: A retrospective population-based study was conducted using official US birth and death certificate data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2000 to 2019. Annual mortality rates per 1000 births with CL/P were calculated across sex and racial groups. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the effects of sex and race on the risk of mortality with CL/P, and linear regression models were used to examine temporal changes in mortality rate across sex and race. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2019, 1119 deaths occurred in patients with documented CL/P, for an overall incidence of 20.3 deaths per 1000 births with CL/P (95% CI 18.9 to 22.8). Of these, Patau syndrome was the listed cause of death in 167 cases (14.9%). Black individuals (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.85 to 2.01), Hispanic (1.54, 1.49 to 1.58) and American Indian individuals (1.28, 1.20 to 1.35) were at a greater risk of CL/P mortality compared with white individuals. Additionally, females were also at a greater risk (1.35, 1.21 to 1.49). A significant upward trend in CL/P mortality was observed in Hispanic (r2=0.70, p<0.01) and American Indian individuals (r2=0.81, p<0.01) from 2000 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Cleft birth and mortality surveillance is essential in healthcare and prevention planning. Future studies are required to understand the differences in CL/P mortality rates across various sociodemographic groups.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brancos
6.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 17(1): 41-48, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate if maternal body mass index, diabetes and hypertension are associated with orofacial clefts. METHODS: Case-control study. Information from 53,188 live births with and without orofacial cleft registered at USA Vital Statistics Natality Birth Data between 2017 and 2021. Case group consisted of all affected live births diagnosed with orofacial clefts (13,297 cases). Comparison group consisted of 39,891 live births without clefts or any other congenital malformation. Information about orofacial cleft cases were compared with the comparison group. The unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios were estimated to evaluate the strength of association between mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal diabetes and hypertension and orofacial cleft occurrence, assuming a p value < 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals (95% C.I.) for statistically significant differences. RESULTS: Mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal diabetes and maternal hypertension are conditions associated with an increased risk of orofacial cleft development in the child (OR = 1.08, p = 0.004, 95% C.I. = 1.024-1.149; OR = 1.32, 95%, p = 0.000, 95% C.I. = 1.202-1.444; and OR = 1.35, p = 0.000, 95% C.I. = 1.239-1.484; respectively). Maternal ethnicity, sex of infant, and cigarette smoking pregnancy remained as covariates after adjustments in all logistic regression models. CONCLUSION: Due to the increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, and also to their association with congenital malformations, such as clefts, it is recommended that mothers planning to become pregnant to follow healthy habits, maintain healthy weight, and be screened for possible diabetes or hypertension prior to conception and early in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações
7.
Congenit Anom (Kyoto) ; 64(1): 17-22, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37964631

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to examine the association of congenital anomalies with the specific classes of pre-pregnancy BMI. An IRB-approved retrospective cohort study was performed using the data from the Natality Public Use File from the National Center for Health Statistics (2019). We included all singleton live births and excluded pregnancies with suspected or confirmed chromosomal abnormalities and people with pre-existing diabetes mellitus and missing pertinent data. The primary outcome was the incidence of any major congenital anomalies in liveborn infants. The incidence of anomaly was analyzed across all BMI classes, using individuals with BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2 as the comparison group. A test of trend was also performed to determine if the risk increased as the BMI class increased. A total of 3 047 382 maternal-neonatal dyads were included in the analysis. A non-significant higher incidence of any major anomaly was noted among people who had underweight and class III BMI. The risk of open neural tube defects, omphalocele, and cleft lip/palate increased and the risk of gastroschisis decreased with an increase in maternal BMI class (p < 0.05). The incidence of congenital anomalies increases as the pre-pregnancy BMI increases. Individuals should be encouraged to optimize their weight prior to conception and if feasible, they should obtain screening for fetal anatomy assessment by a Maternal-Fetal Medicine specialist.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Anormalidades Congênitas , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Nascido Vivo , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia
8.
J Pediatr ; 265: 113799, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37879601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of disease and burden of care in infants with congenital micrognathia from a multicenter cohort hospitalized at tertiary care centers. STUDY DESIGN: The Children's Hospitals Neonatal Database was queried from 2010 through 2020 for infants diagnosed with micrognathia. Demographics, presence of genetic syndromes, and cleft status were summarized. Outcomes included death, length of hospitalization, neonatal surgery, and feeding and respiratory support at discharge. RESULTS: Analysis included 3,236 infants with congenital micrognathia. Cleft palate was identified in 1266 (39.1%). A genetic syndrome associated with micrognathia was diagnosed during the neonatal hospitalization in 256 (7.9%). Median (IQR) length of hospitalization was 35 (16, 63) days. Death during the hospitalization (n = 228, 6.8%) was associated with absence of cleft palate (4.4%, P < .001) and maternal Black race (11.6%, P < .001). During the neonatal hospitalization, 1289 (39.7%) underwent surgery to correct airway obstruction and 1059 (32.7%) underwent gastrostomy tube placement. At the time of discharge, 1035 (40.3%) were exclusively feeding orally. There was significant variability between centers related to length of stay and presence of a feeding tube at discharge (P < .001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Infants hospitalized with congenital micrognathia have a significant burden of disease, commonly receive surgical intervention, and most often require tube feedings at hospital discharge. We identified disparities based on race and among centers. Development of evidence-based guidelines could improve neonatal care.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Fissura Palatina , Micrognatismo , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Micrognatismo/epidemiologia , Micrognatismo/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , América do Norte , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 27(1): 110-117, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37501526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A longitudinal cohort study was established to investigate the well-being of children born with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) during the COVID-19 pandemic, in Victoria, Australia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Royal Children's Hospital cleft service database was used to identify children aged between 4 and 17 years old born with an isolated CL/P. Families of eligible children who consented to participate were asked to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) between October and December 2020 and again 6-month later. SDQ results from typically developing Australian children during the COVID-19 pandemic were utilized from a previously published study. RESULTS: 63 parents completed the baseline questionnaire, with 44 completing the 6-month follow-up. For participants at baseline, the mean age was 8.9 years, with 55% male. All outcome domains of the SDQ improved between baseline and timepoint 2, with the difference in total difficulties scores being statistically significant, indicating a reduction in total difficulties at timepoint 2, associated with the easing of COVID-19 restrictions. When compared with the Australian population during the COVID-19 pandemic, Victorian children born with CL/P had lower SDQ scores for all difficulties outcome domains, with statistically significant results for conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and total difficulties, indicating fewer difficulties for children born with CL/P. CONCLUSIONS: Children born with CL/P experienced fewer difficulties when compared with the typically developing Australian population during the COVID-19 pandemic. The level of restrictions imposed because of the pandemic also had little influence on the well-being of these children.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Feminino , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia
10.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 88: 344-351, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064913

RESUMO

Maternal cigarette use is associated with the fetal development of orofacial clefts. Air pollution should be investigated for similar causation. We hypothesize that the incidence of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCLP) and non-syndromic cleft palate (NSCP) would be positively correlated with air pollution concentration. METHODS: The incidence of NSCLP and NSCP per 1000 live births from 2016 to 2020 was extracted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vital Statistics Database and merged with national reports on air pollution using the Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality Systems annual data. The most commonly reported pollutants were analyzed including benzene, sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter (PM) 2.5, PM 10, ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO). Multivariable negative binomial and Poisson log-linear regression models evaluated the incidence of NSCLP and NSCP as a function of the pollutants, adjusting for race. All p-values are reported with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: The median NSCLP incidence was 0.22/1000 births, and isolated NSCP incidence was 0.18/1000 births. For NSCLP, SO2 had a coefficient estimate (CE) of 0.60 (95% CI [0.23, 0.98], p < 0.007) and PM 2.5 had a CE of 0.20 (95% CI [0.10, 0.31], p < 0.005). Among isolated NSCP, no pollutants were found to be significantly associated. CONCLUSION: SO2 and PM 2.5 were significantly correlated with increased incidence of NSCLP. The American people and perinatal practitioners should be aware of the connection to allow for risk reduction and in utero screening.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Poluentes Ambientais , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Incidência , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 61(1): 87-93, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The development of the maxillary sinus is different in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) compared to non-CLP individuals. To investigate the prevalence and features of maxillary sinus septa (MSS) in patients with CLP in comparison with the non-CLP population. DESIGN: Retrospective study. INTERVENTION: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation. SETTING: CLP center in Shiraz faculty of dentistry, Iran. PATIENTS: A total 306 sinuses (88 cleft and 218 noncleft) on 153 images (CLP group: n = 66; control group: n = 87) were examined to determine the prevalence of septa and characterize them. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sinus septa were characterized according to height, orientation, angle, origin, and location. The chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of septa was 28.9% and 32.1% in the CLP and control groups, respectively. No significant difference was found between the study groups in terms of prevalence, location, and orientation of MSS. The average height and angle of septa were significantly higher in the control group compared to the CLP group. Inferior origin was significantly more prevalent in the control group than in the CLP group (P = .004). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the prevalence of MSS between patients with CLP and non-CLP individuals. However, certain features of the septa were different in patients with CLP.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Humanos , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Seio Maxilar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos
12.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 61(1): 40-51, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the UK prevalence of behavioral problems in 5-year-old children born with isolated or syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) compared to the general population and identify potentially associated factors. DESIGN: Observational study using questionnaire data from the Cleft Collective 5-Year-Old Cohort study and three general population samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). PARTICIPANTS: Mothers of children (age: 4.9-6.8 years) born with CL/P (n = 325). UK general population cohorts for SDQ scores were: Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) (n = 12 511), Office of National Statistics (ONS) normative school-age SDQ data (n = 5855), and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 9386). RESULTS: By maternal report, 14.2% of children born with CL/P were above clinical cut-off for behavioral problems, which was more likely than in general population samples: 7.5% of MCS (OR = 2.05 [1.49-2.82], P < 0.001), 9.8% of ONS (OR = 1.52 [1.10-2.09], P = 0.008), and 6.6% of ALSPAC (OR = 2.34 [1.70-3.24], P < 0.001). Children in the Cleft Collective had higher odds for hyperactivity, emotional and peer problems, and less prosocial behaviors. Maternal stress, lower maternal health-related quality of life and family functioning, receiving government income support, and maternal smoking showed evidence of association (OR range: 4.41-10.13) with behavioral problems, along with maternal relationship status, younger age, and lower education (OR range: 2.34-3.73). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest elevated levels of behavioral problems in children born with CL/P compared to the general population with several associated maternal factors similar to the general population.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/psicologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Longitudinais , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 829, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of orofacial Clefts (OFCs) is a congenital disease caused by many factors. According to recent studies, air pollution has a strong correlation with the occurrence of OFCs. However, there are still some controversies about the current research results, and there is no relevant research to review the latest results in recent years. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, the authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the correlation between ambient air pollution and the occurrence of neonatal OFCs deformity. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Web of science, and Embase databases from the establishment of the database to May 2023. We included observational studies on the relationship between prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), fine particulate matter 10 (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and the risk of cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P). the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the literature. Funnel plot and Egger's regression were used to verify the publication bias. Random effect model or fixed effect model was used to estimate the combined relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: A total of eleven studies were included in this study, including four cohort studies and seven case-control studies, including 22,453 cases of OFCs. Ten studies had low risk of bias and only one study had high risk of bias. Three studies reported that PM2.5 was positively correlated with CL and CP, with a combined RR and 95%CI of 1.287(1.174,1.411) and 1.267 (1.105,1.454). Two studies reported a positive correlation between O3 and CL, with a combined RR and 95%CI of 1.132(1.047,1.225). Two studies reported a positive correlation between PM10 and CL, with a combined RR and 95%CI of 1.108 (1.017,1.206). No association was found between SO2, CO, NO2 exposure during pregnancy and the risk of OFCs. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that there was a significant statistical correlation between exposure to PM10, PM2.5, O3 and the risk of OFCs in the second month of pregnancy. Exposure assessment, research methods and mechanisms need to be further explored.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Ozônio , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Ozônio/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental
14.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2538, 2023 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This is the first national study to investigate the incidence of non-syndromic oro-facial clefts (NSOFC) and Pierre-Robin-Sequence in Saudi Arabia over the Covid-19 pandemic period. METHODS: All maternity hospitals (30-hospitals) in the major regions and cities of Saudi from November 2020-to-2021 were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for cleft phenotype using the LASHAL-classification system. The incidence of NSOFC in Saudi Arabia was calculated by comparing the number of NSOFCs cases born out of all live births during the study period at the included hospitals. Clinical examination was performed and information was gathered using a validated data collection form. RESULTS: In one year, 140,380 live-infants were born at the selected hospitals. Of these, 177 were diagnosed with NSOFC giving an incidence of 1.26/1,000 live-births in Saudi Arabia and the highest incidence in Medina city (2.46/1000 live-births). The incidence of cleft lip-and-palate (0.67/1000 live-births) was higher than that of cleft-palate (0.37/1000 live-births) and cleft-lip (0.22/1000 live-births). Pierre-Robin Sequence incidence was (0.04/1000 live-births). There were 21(12.1) or 23(13.2%) of NSOFC's mothers exposed or vaccinated with Covid-19, respectively. CONCLUSION: The national incidence of NSOFC in Saudi Arabia was 1.26/1000 live births with variation between phenotypes and regions in the country. In addition, to reporting Covid-19 infection prevalence and vaccine exposure among NSOFC's mothers, this study represents the first of its type to evaluate NSOFC prevalence in Saudi Arabia on a national level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Incidência , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Prevalência
15.
Chin J Dent Res ; 26(4): 209-226, 2023 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126367

RESUMO

Birth defects have always been one of the most important diseases in medical research as they affect the quality of the birth population. Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common birth defects that place a huge burden on families and society. Early screening and prevention of OFCs can promote better natal and prenatal care and help to solve the problem of birth defects. OFCs are the result of genetic and environmental interactions; many genes are involved, but the current research has not clarified the specific pathogenesis. The mouse animal model is commonly used for research into OFCs; common methods of constructing OFC mouse models include transgenic, chemical induction, gene knockout, gene knock-in and conditional gene knockout models. Several main signal pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of OFCs, including the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß pathways. The genes and proteins in each molecular pathway form a complex network to jointly regulate the formation and development of the lip and palate. When one or more genes, proteins or interactions is abnormal, OFCs will form. This paper summarises the mouse models of OFCs formed by different modelling methods, as well as the key pathogenic genes from the SHH and TGF-ß pathways, to help to clarify the pathogenesis of OFCs and develop targets for early screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Fenda Labial/genética , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/genética , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética
16.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 24(9): 655-659, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38152938

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effect of facial clefts on the dental health quality of life of affected individuals, and to determine whether age and gender affect the oral health quality of life differently. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional survey included 50 participants (32 females and 18 males) from the northern region of Saudi Arabia, using a reliable and validated questionnaire, the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP), which measured self-reported oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children and adults using a five-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis was performed, and results were considered significant if the p-value was less than 0.05. RESULTS: The highest scores in the oral health domain were related to bad breath and reluctance in speaking or reading aloud in class within the school environment domain, with mean scores of 3.44 ± 1.3 and 3.52 ± 1.2, respectively. Most patients showed apprehension regarding necessary dental treatments (mean = 1.44 ± 0.07). The study found a non-statistically significant difference in tooth discomfort between age groups (p = 0.092), with individuals aged from 20 to 29 experiencing higher levels of discomfort than other age groups surveyed. CONCLUSION: The two topics with the highest mean scores in the oral health domain and the school environment domain were bad breath and not wanting to speak or read aloud in class. Females reported more discomfort, and there was a substantial association between gender and tooth pain/sensitivity. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Understanding the difficulties cleft patients face is crucial, as doing so will enable dentists to encourage and handle these issues more effectively.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Bucal , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Clin Oral Investig ; 27(12): 7809-7820, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37955725

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of development defects of enamel (DDE) in patients with cleft based on the cleft phenotype and explore the relationship between surgical procedures and different types of DDE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 290 standardized orthodontic documentation and medical records from a reference hospital were evaluated, which treated patients with: cleft lip (CL), cleft lip with alveolar bone involvement (CLa), cleft lip and palate (CLP), cleft palate (CP), cleft median (CM), and considering laterality as unilateral or bilateral. DDE was assessed using the Ghanim Index (2015). Information on surgical intervention periods was obtained from medical records. Statistical analyses were performed using prevalence ratio (PR) for DDE comparisons between cleft phenotypes and surgical procedures. RESULTS: The prevalence of DDE was 77.2%. Demarcated hypomineralization was associated with CP and CLP, while hypoplasia was associated with CLa, especially when bilateral. Hypoplasia was also associated with the labial adhesion surgery. CONCLUSION: Demarcated hypomineralization was the most common DDE in this population, and the cleft phenotype influenced the type of DDE manifested. The lip adhesion surgery increased the chances of hypoplasia manifestation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The type of DDE in patients with cleft depends on the cleft phenotype. Understanding this susceptibility enables the multidisciplinary team to monitor dental development, thus allowing early diagnosis and timely referral to the pediatric dentist and better prognoses.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Defeitos de Desenvolvimento do Esmalte Dentário , Criança , Humanos , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(42): e34419, 2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37861535

RESUMO

Cleft lip and/or palate is the most prevalent type of head and neck deformity, accounting for 65% of cases. The occurrence of this condition is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Cleft defects are classified into 2 types: syndromic cleft lip and palate syndrome and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate syndrome. Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most common type of cleft defect, and the surgical repair is the primary treatment option for patients. Our study was a retrospective case-control study that included 132 cases of patients with cleft defects and 132 healthy babies without cleft defects serving as controls. Personal information, including the name, age, and origin of the participants, was collected. Additionally, we collected information on all potential risk factors, including medical history, daily habits, consanguinity between parents, and family history. Information was collected in Excel and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and a Chi-Square test was performed to determine the results and their relationship to cleft lip and palate. Our study identified various risk factors that have a significant association with cleft lip and palate with a P-value <5% in addition to factors that are not considered risk factors. Using relative risk analysis, we were able to rank the top 5 most significant and influential risk factors. The most impactful factor was not taking folic acid during pregnancy. The primary risk factors associated with cleft lip and palate include a family history of the condition, lack of folic acid supplementation, maternal age over 35 years, and high temperatures exceeding 39 °C. Consequently, we recommend that mothers who intend to conceive should take folic acid supplements at a dose of 0.4 to 0.8 mg during the initial trimester of pregnancy. Additionally, we advise careful monitoring of all risk factors, particularly during the first trimester of pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Otolaringologia , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico
19.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 25(10): 678-682, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37846996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal facial clefts are among the most common congenital anomalies detected prenatally. This finding may lead to termination of pregnancy in some cases. OBJECTIVES: To compare a cohort of fetuses with facial clefts in which the pregnancy was terminated to the cohort of cases that were born with facial clefts. To investigate risk factors for facial clefts. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all women with prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of facial cleft that were managed in our institute. A telephone questionnaire was conducted regarding a positive family history and/or genetic predisposition for facial clefts abnormalities. RESULTS: The final cohort consisted of two group. One group included 54 cases of termination of pregnancy (TOP) that were performed due to cleft lip (CL) or cleft palate (CLP); 27 women answered the telephone questionnaire. The second group comprised 99 women who delivered children with facial cleft during the same period; 60 answered the questionnaire. Only seven cases were diagnosed prenatal. Among the two groups, no correlation to family history was discovered. Of note, there was one case of three consecutive fetuses with CL in one woman, without any significant genetic findings. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe an anatomical malformation posing an ethical dilemma before TOP. Primary prevention with folic acid and early sonographic detection of CL/CLP with multidisciplinary consultation should be considered.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Gravidez , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/genética , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/genética
20.
J Glob Health ; 13: 04127, 2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37856736

RESUMO

Background: Given the increased risk of malnutrition in children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP), determining their nutritional status is critical for preventing adverse surgical risks. However, no such disaggregated, national-level data are available in Indonesia. We aimed to determine the nutritional status of patients with clefts in Indonesia and to identify problems and solutions for malnutrition cases within the population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we considered records of individuals who underwent primary surgery for CLP in Smile Train-sponsored facilities in Indonesia between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2021 (n = 18 480). We only included children under the age of five with an evaluation date prior to admission date and excluded subjects with invalid data values. We classified their nutritional status by z-scores according to the World Health Organization Child Growth Standard (2006). Malnutrition cases cover four indicators - stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight. We compared the prevalence for malnutrition cases in children under the age of five using national health survey data. Results: We included 1899 records following data validation. The national prevalence of stunting (24.4%), wasting (12.5%), and overweight cases (12.9%) was high, while underweight cases (6.8%) were comparatively low. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in nutritional status based on length/height-for-age between girls and boys aged 0-5 months (P = 0.008) and 48-60 months (P = 0.001), and based on body mass index-for-age (P = 0.000) between girls and boys aged 0-5 months. Girls in different age groups exhibited a statistically significant difference in nutritional status based on length/height-for-age (P = 0.002) and weight-for-age (P = 0.017). Concurrent stunting and overweight were the most common forms of concurrent malnutrition (8.7%). We found a significant difference in the prevalence of underweight (P = 0.001) and overweight (P = 0.000) cases between children with CLP and those without CLP. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of nutritional interventions for children with orofacial clefts in Indonesia, and the importance of age and gender in their design and implementation. Further investigation is necessary to explore the risks of overweight and concurrent malnutrition among this population.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Desnutrição , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional , Peso Corporal , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Prevalência
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