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1.
Immunity ; 57(4): 859-875.e11, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513665

RESUMO

At mucosal surfaces, epithelial cells provide a structural barrier and an immune defense system. However, dysregulated epithelial responses can contribute to disease states. Here, we demonstrated that epithelial cell-intrinsic production of interleukin-23 (IL-23) triggers an inflammatory loop in the prevalent oral disease periodontitis. Epithelial IL-23 expression localized to areas proximal to the disease-associated microbiome and was evident in experimental models and patients with common and genetic forms of disease. Mechanistically, flagellated microbial species of the periodontitis microbiome triggered epithelial IL-23 induction in a TLR5 receptor-dependent manner. Therefore, unlike other Th17-driven diseases, non-hematopoietic-cell-derived IL-23 served as an initiator of pathogenic inflammation in periodontitis. Beyond periodontitis, analysis of publicly available datasets revealed the expression of epithelial IL-23 in settings of infection, malignancy, and autoimmunity, suggesting a broader role for epithelial-intrinsic IL-23 in human disease. Collectively, this work highlights an important role for the barrier epithelium in the induction of IL-23-mediated inflammation.


Assuntos
Interleucina-23 , Periodontite , Humanos , Inflamação , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais , Interleucina-8 , Flagelina/farmacologia
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e16841, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361767

RESUMO

Background: During active infections, plants prevent further spread of pathogenic microorganisms by inducing the rapid programmed death of cells around the infection point. This phenomenon is called the hypersensitive response and is a common feature of plant immune responses. Plants recognize conserved structures of pathogenic microorganisms, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), e.g., flagellin 22 (flg22) and chitohexose, which bind to receptors on plant cells to induce various immune-response pathways. Although abiotic stresses are known to alter photosynthesis, the different effects of flg22 and chitohexose, which are involved into PAMP-induced signaling, on photosynthesis needs further study. Methods: In the present study, we assessed the role of PAMPs in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) photosynthesis, particularly, the interaction between PAMPs and Ca2+ signal transduction pathway. Results: Both flg22 and chitohexose significantly promoted the expression of the pathogenesis-related genes PR-4 and PR-10, as did Ca2+. We found that Ca2+ is involved in downregulating the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center activity induced by the flg22 immune response, but the role of chitohexose is not obvious. Additionally, Ca2+ significantly reduced the non-photochemical energy dissipation in the flg22- and chitohexose-induced immune response. Conclusion: These results indicated that flg22 and chitohexose can trigger peanut immune pathways through the Ca2+ signaling pathway, but they differ in their regulation of the activity of the PSII reaction center.


Assuntos
Arachis , Moléculas com Motivos Associados a Patógenos , Flagelina/farmacologia , Plantas , Fotossíntese
3.
PeerJ ; 12: e16716, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38188180

RESUMO

Objective: The objective is to explore whether the flagellin-TLR5 complex signal can enhance the antigen presentation ability of myeloid DCs through the TRIF-ERK1/2 pathway, and the correlation between this pathway and intestinal mucosal inflammation response. Methods: Mouse bone marrow-derived DC line DC2.4 was divided into four groups: control group (BC) was DC2.4 cells cultured normally; flagellin single signal stimulation group (DC2.4+CBLB502) was DC2.4 cells stimulated with flagellin derivative CBLB502 during culture; TLR5-flagellin complex signal stimulation group (ov-TLR5-DC2.4+CBLB502) was flagellin derivative CBLB502 stimulated ov-TLR5-DC2.4 cells with TLR5 gene overexpression; TRIF signal interference group (ov-TLR5-DC2.4+CBLB502+Pepinh-TRIFTFA) was ov-TLR5-DC2.4 cells with TLR5 gene overexpression stimulated with flagellin derivative CBLB502 and intervened with TRIF-specific inhibitor Pepinh-TRIFTFA. WB was used to detect the expression of TRIF and p-ERK1/2 proteins in each group of cells; CCK8 was used to detect cell proliferation in each group; flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of surface molecules MHCI, MHCII, CD80, 86 in each group of cells; ELISA was used to detect the levels of IL-12 and IL-4 cytokines in each group. Results: Compared with the BC group, DC2.4+CBLB502 group, and ov-TLR5-DC2.4+CBLB502+Pepinh-TRIFTFA group, the expression of TRIF protein and p-ERK1/2 protein in ov-TLR5-DC2.4+CBLB502 group was significantly upregulated (TRIF: p = 0.02,  = 0.007,  = 0.048) (ERK1: p < 0.001, =0.0003,  = 0.0004; ERK2:p = 0.0003,  = 0.0012,  = 0.0022). The cell proliferation activity in ov-TLR5-DC2.4+CBLB502 group was enhanced compared with the other groups (p = 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.0015); at the same time, the expression of surface molecules MHCI, MHCII, CD80, 86 on DCs was upregulated (p < 0.05); and the secretion of IL-12 and IL-4 cytokines was increased, with significant differences (IL-12: p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.0005; IL-4: p =  < 0.0001, p =  < 0.0001, p = 0.0001). However, the ov-TLR5-DC2.4+CBLB502+Pepinh-TRIFTFA group, which was treated with TRIF signal interference, showed a decrease in intracellular TRIF protein and p-ERK1/2 protein, as well as a decrease in cell proliferation ability and surface stimulation molecules, and a decrease in the secretion of IL-12 and IL-4 cytokines (p < 0.05). Conclusion: After stimulation of flagellin protein-TLR5 complex signal, TRIF protein and p-ERK1/2 protein expression in myeloid dendritic cells were significantly up-regulated, accompanied by increased proliferation activity and maturity of DCs, enhanced antigen presentation function, increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-4. This process can be inhibited by the specific inhibitor of TRIF signal, suggesting that the TLR5-TRIF-ERK1/2 pathway may play an important role in abnormal immune response and mucosal chronic inflammation infiltration mediated by flagellin protein in DCs, which can provide a basis for our subsequent animal experiments.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Apresentação de Antígeno , Antígeno B7-1 , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas , Flagelina/farmacologia , Glicina Desidrogenase (Descarboxilante) , Interleucina-12 , Interleucina-4 , Mucosa Intestinal , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 146: 109373, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272332

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) responds to the monomeric form of flagellin and induces the MyD88-depending signaling pathway, activating proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB and the consequent induction of cytokines. On the other hand, HMGB1 is a highly conserved non-histone chromosomal protein shown to interact with and activate TLR5. The present work aimed to design and characterize TLR5 agonist peptides derived from the acidic tail of Salmo salar HMGB1 based on the structural knowledge of the TLR5 surface using global molecular docking platforms. Peptide binding poses complexed on TLR5 ectodomain model from each algorithm were filtrated based on docking scoring functions and predicted theoretical binding affinity of the complex. Circular dichroism spectra were recorded for each peptide selected for synthesis. Only intrinsically disordered peptides (6W, 11W, and SsOri) were selected for experimental functional assay. The functional characterization of the peptides was performed by NF-κB activation assays, RT-qPCR gene expression assays, and Piscirickettsia salmonis challenge in SHK-1 cells. The 6W and 11W peptides increased the nuclear translation of p65 and phosphorylation. In addition, the peptides induced the expression of genes related to the TLR5 pathway activation, pro- and anti-inflammatory response, and differentiation and activation of T lymphocytes towards phenotypes such as TH1, TH17, and TH2. Finally, it was shown that the 11W peptide protects immune cells against infection with P. salmonis bacteria. Overall, the results indicate the usefulness of novel peptides as potential immunostimulants in salmonids.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Salmo salar , Animais , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Salmo salar/genética , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Flagelina/farmacologia
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 259(Pt 2): 129395, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218285

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes diseases in aquatic organisms, leading to substantial financial losses to the aquaculture industry; its flagellin F (flaF) protein triggers severe inflammation in host cells. To enhance the understanding of the function of flaF in V. parahaemolyticus infection, in this study, a flaF-deficient mutant was constructed by employing two-step homologous recombination. The flaF-deficient mutant induced a significantly lower toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression and apoptosis in fish intestinal epithelial cells than the wild-type V. parahaemolyticus. Furthermore, fluorescence labelling and microscopy analysis of TLR5 showed that V. parahaemolyticus and its mutant strain significantly enhanced TLR5 expression. Additionally, the findings suggest that flaF deletion did not significantly affect the expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) induced by V.parahaemolyticus. In summary, V. parahaemolyticus induced a TLR5-dependent inflammatory response and apoptosis through MyD88, which was observed to be influenced by flaF deletion. In this study, we obtained stable mutants of V. parahaemolyticus via target gene deletion-which is a rapid and effective approach-and compared the induction of inflammatory response and apoptosis by V. parahaemolyticus and its mutant strain, providing novel perspectives for functional gene research in V. parahaemolyticus.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética , Flagelina/genética , Flagelina/farmacologia , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Perciformes/genética
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 144: 109219, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37952850

RESUMO

Based on the structural knowledge of TLR5 surface and using blind docking platforms, peptides derived from a truncated HMGB1 acidic tail from Salmo salar was designed as TLR5 agonistic. Additionally, a template peptide with the native N-terminal of the acidic tail sequence as a reference was included (SsOri). Peptide binding poses complexed on TLR5 ectodomain model from each algorithm were filtrated based on docking scoring functions and predicted theoretical binding affinity of the complex. The best peptides, termed 6WK and 5LWK, were selected for chemical synthesis and experimental functional assay. The agonist activity by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry was determined following the NF-κBp65 phosphorylation (p-NF-κBp65) and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κBp65 subunit from the cytosol, respectively. HeLa cells stably expressing a S. salar TLR5 chimeric form (TLR5c7) showed increased p-NF-κBp65 levels regarding extracts from flagellin-treated cells. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in the detected p-NF-κBp65 levels between cellular extracts treated with peptides or flagellin by one-way ANOVA. The image analysis of NF-κBp65 immunolabeled cells obtained by confocal microscopy showed increased nuclear NF-κBp65 co-localization in cells both 5LWK and flagellin stimulated, while 6WK and SsOri showed less effect on p65 nuclear translocation (p < 0.05). Also, an increased transcript expression profile of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1ß, and IL-8 in HKL cells isolated from Salmo salar was evidenced in 5LWK - stimulated by RT-PCR analysis. Overall, the result indicates the usefulness of novel peptides as a potential immunostimulant in S. salar.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Salmo salar , Animais , Humanos , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Flagelina/farmacologia , Flagelina/metabolismo , Salmo salar/genética , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Células HeLa , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Cauda , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo
7.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 23(2): 100705, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38135118

RESUMO

The microbe-associated molecular pattern flg22 is recognized in a flagellin-sensitive 2-dependent manner in root tip cells. Here, we show a rapid and massive change in protein abundance and phosphorylation state of the Arabidopsis root cell proteome in WT and a mutant deficient in heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled signaling. flg22-induced changes fall on proteins comprising a subset of this proteome, the heterotrimeric G protein interactome, and on highly-populated hubs of the immunity network. Approximately 95% of the phosphorylation changes in the heterotrimeric G-protein interactome depend, at least partially, on a functional G protein complex. One member of this interactome is ATBα, a substrate-recognition subunit of a protein phosphatase 2A complex and an interactor to Arabidopsis thaliana Regulator of G Signaling 1 protein (AtRGS1), a flg22-phosphorylated, 7-transmembrane spanning modulator of the nucleotide-binding state of the core G-protein complex. A null mutation of ATBα strongly increases basal endocytosis of AtRGS1. AtRGS1 steady-state protein level is lower in the atbα mutant in a proteasome-dependent manner. We propose that phosphorylation-dependent endocytosis of AtRGS1 is part of the mechanism to degrade AtRGS1, thus sustaining activation of the heterotrimeric G protein complex required for the regulation of system dynamics in innate immunity. The PP2A(ATBα) complex is a critical regulator of this signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas Heterotriméricas de Ligação ao GTP , Proteínas RGS , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/química , Proteínas RGS/genética , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Heterotriméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Flagelina/farmacologia , Flagelina/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(18)2023 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37762236

RESUMO

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of septic cardiomyopathy through a toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune response. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) can reflect the innate immune abilities of cardiomyocytes. Therefore, hiPSC-CMs may provide an attractive tool with which to study PAMP-induced alterations in cardiomyocytes. HiPSC-CMs from two different healthy donors were exposed to the PAMP flagellin (FLA) at different doses and exposure times. Alterations in the expression levels of distinct inflammation-associated cytokines, intracellular inflammation pathways including TLR5 downstream signaling, reactive oxygen species levels and surface antigen composition were assessed using PCR, ELISA and FACS techniques. Higher doses of flagellin increased the expression levels of inflammation-associated cytokines like TNFα (p < 0.01) and downstream signaling molecules like caspase-8 (p < 0.05). TLR5 expression (p < 0.01) and TLR5 fluorescence proportion (p < 0.05) increased in hiPSC-CMs after prolonged FLA exposure. FLA-induced innate immune response processes in cardiomyocytes might be detectable with an hiPSC-CMs-based in vitro model.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Humanos , Flagelina/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Imunidade Inata , Citocinas , Inflamação
9.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 36(12): 796-804, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37638673

RESUMO

Temporospatial regulation of immunity components is essential for properly activating plant defense response. Flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2) is a surface-localized receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin. The immune function of FLS2 is compromised in early stages of shoot development. However, the underlying mechanism for the age-dependent FLS2 signaling is not clear. Here, we show that the reduced basal immunity of juvenile leaves against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is independent of FLS2. The flg22-induced marker gene expression and reactive oxygen species activation were comparable in juvenile and adult stages, but callose deposition was more evident in the adult stage than the juvenile stage. We further demonstrated that microRNA156, a master regulator of plant aging, does not influence the expression of FLS2 and FRK1 (Flg22-induced receptor-like kinase 1) but mildly suppresses callose deposition in juvenile leaves. Our experiments revealed an intrinsic mechanism that regulates the amplitude of FLS2-mediated resistance during aging. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , MicroRNAs , Flagelina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
10.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 10(1)2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37433685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stellate cells are responsible for liver and pancreas fibrosis and strictly correlate with tumourigenesis. Although their activation is reversible, an exacerbated signalling triggers chronic fibrosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) modulate stellate cells transition. TLR5 transduces the signal deriving by the binding to bacterial flagellin from invading mobile bacteria. DESIGN: Human hepatic and pancreatic stellate cells were activated by the administration of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). TLR5 was transiently knocked down by short-interference RNA transfection. Reverse Transcription-quantitativePCR and western blot were performed to analyse the transcript and protein level of TLR5 and the transition players. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to identify these targets in spheroids and in the sections of murine fibrotic liver. RESULTS: TGF-ß-activated human hepatic and pancreatic stellate cells showed an increase of TLR5 expression. TLR5 knockdown blocked the activation of those stellate cells. Furthermore, TLR5 busted during murine liver fibrosis and co-localised with the inducible Collagen I. Flagellin suppressed TLR5, COL1A1 and ACTA2 expression after the administration of TGF-ß. Instead, the antagonist of TLR5 did not block the effect of TGF-ß. Wortmannin, a specific AKT inhibitor, induced TLR5 but not COL1A1 and ACTA2 transcript and protein level. CONCLUSION: TGF-ß-mediated activation of hepatic and pancreatic stellate cells requires the over-expression of TLR5. Instead, its autonomous signalling inhibits the activation of the stellate cells, thus prompting a signalling through different regulatory pathways.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas , Receptor 5 Toll-Like , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Flagelina/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 249: 126048, 2023 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517756

RESUMO

Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway is a key mediator of inflammation response that plays a role in host defense for pathogen elimination, but excessive activation may lead to tissue damage or pathogen transmission. The negative regulation of NF-κB in lower vertebrates is largely unknown, hindering further understanding of immune signaling evolution. Here, we provided evidence that Epinephelus coioides soluble toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5S), a member of the TLR5 subfamily, has been newly identified as a negative regulator of NF-κB signaling. EcTLR5S was a cytoplasmic protein consisting of 17 leucine-rich repeat domains, which specifically responded to Vibrio flagellin and suppressed flagellin-induced NF-κB signaling activation and cytokine expression. The amino-terminal LRR 1-5 region was necessary for its negative regulatory function. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that EcTLR5S significantly inhibited the NF-κB-luc activity induced by inhibitor of NF-κB kinase α (IKKα) and IKKß. Subsequently, the functional relationship between EcTLR5M and EcTLR5S was analyzed, revealing that the negative regulatory function of EcTLR5S targeted the activation of the NF-κB pathway mediated by EcTLR5M. The above results reveal that EcTLR5S negatively regulates the flagellin-induced EcTLR5M-NF-κB pathway activation, which may prevent over-activation of immune signaling and restore homeostasis.


Assuntos
Bass , Receptor 5 Toll-Like , Animais , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Flagelina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo
12.
Life Sci Alliance ; 6(8)2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37208193

RESUMO

Many viruses require proteolytic activation of their envelope proteins for infectivity, and relevant host proteases provide promising drug targets. The transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) has been identified as a major activating protease of influenza A virus (IAV) and various coronaviruses (CoV). Increased TMPRSS2 expression has been associated with a higher risk of severe influenza infection and enhanced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we found that Legionella pneumophila stimulates the increased expression of TMPRSS2-mRNA in Calu-3 human airway cells. We identified flagellin as the dominant structural component inducing TMPRSS2 expression. The flagellin-induced increase was not observed at this magnitude for other virus-activating host proteases. TMPRSS2-mRNA expression was also significantly increased by LPS, Pam3Cys, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, although less pronounced. Multicycle replication of H1N1pdm and H3N2 IAV but not SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV was enhanced by flagellin treatment. Our data suggest that bacteria, particularly flagellated bacteria, up-regulate the expression of TMPRSS2 in human airway cells and, thereby, may support enhanced activation and replication of IAV upon co-infections. In addition, our data indicate a physiological role of TMPRSS2 in antimicrobial host response.


Assuntos
Serina Endopeptidases , Humanos , Flagelina/farmacologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
13.
Molecules ; 28(5)2023 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36903639

RESUMO

Flagellin is the major component of the flagellum in gram-positive and -negative bacteria and is also the ligand for the Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). The activation of TLR5 promotes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the subsequent activation of T cells. This study evaluated a recombinant domain from the amino-terminus D1 domain (rND1) of flagellin from Vibrio anguillarum, a fish pathogen, as an immunomodulator in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). We demonstrated that rND1 induced an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in PBMCs, characterized at the transcriptional level by an expression peak of 220-fold for IL-1ß, 20-fold for IL-8, and 65-fold for TNF-α. In addition, at the protein level, 29 cytokines and chemokines were evaluated in the supernatant and were correlated with a chemotactic signature. MoDCs treated with rND1 showed low levels of co-stimulatory and HLA-DR molecules and kept an immature phenotype with a decreased phagocytosis of dextran. We probed that rND1 from a non-human pathogen promotes modulation in human cells, and it may be considered for further studies in adjuvant therapies based on pathogen-associated patterns (PAMPs).


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Flagelina , Humanos , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Flagelina/genética , Flagelina/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo
14.
J Leukoc Biol ; 113(6): 567-576, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36976041

RESUMO

TLR5 agonist flagellin is an effective mucosal adjuvant via intranasal administration. Previous studies demonstrated that the mucosal adjuvanticity of flagellin depends on TLR5 signaling of airway epithelial cells. Since dendritic cells play a central role in antigen sensitization and the initiation of primary immune responses, we wondered how dendritic cells were modulated by the intranasally administrated flagellin. In this study, a mouse model of intranasal immunization with ovalbumin, a model antigen, in the presence or absence of flagellin was utilized. We found that nasal administration of flagellin enhanced the coadministered antigen-specific antibody responses and T-cell clonal expansion in a TLR5-dependent manner. However, neither the entering of flagellin to nasal lamina propria nor the uptake of coadministered antigen by nasal resident dendritic cells was associated with TLR5 signaling. In contrast, migration of antigen-loaded dendritic cells from the nasal cavity to the cervical lymph nodes and activation of dendritic cells in the cervical lymph nodes were both enhanced through TLR5 signaling. Furthermore, for the dendritic cells, flagellin enhanced the expression of CCR7, which was pivotal for dendritic cells in the priming site migrating to draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, the migration, activation, and chemokine receptor expression levels of antigen-loaded dendritic cells were all significantly higher than that of bystander dendritic cells. In conclusion, intranasally administrated flagellin enhanced TLR5-dependent antigen-loaded dendritic cells' migration and activation but not antigen uptake.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Receptor 5 Toll-Like , Camundongos , Animais , Flagelina/farmacologia , Flagelina/metabolismo , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Sistema Respiratório , Imunização
15.
Plant Sci ; 331: 111686, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36963637

RESUMO

Many pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and their corresponding ligands have been identified. However, it is largely unknown how similar and different these ligands are in inducing plant innate immunity and affecting plant development. In this study, we examined three well characterized ligands in Arabidopsis thaliana, namely flagellin 22 (flg22), plant elicitor peptide 1 (pep1) and a conserved 20-amino-acid fragment found in most necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like proteins (nlp20). Our quantitative analyses detected the differences in amplitude in the early immune responses of these ligands, with nlp20-induced responses typically being slower than those mediated by flg22 and pep1. RNA sequencing showed the shared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was mostly enriched in defense response, whereas nlp20-regulated genes represent only a fraction of those genes differentially regulated by flg22 and pep1. The three elicitors all inhibited primary root growth, especially pep1, which inhibited both auxin transport and signaling pathway. In addition, pep1 significantly inhibited the cell division and genes involved in cell cycle. Compared with flg22 and nlp20, pep1 induced much stronger expression of its receptor in roots, suggesting a potential positive feedback regulation in the activation of immune response. Despite PRRs and their co-receptor BAK1 were necessary for both PAMP induced immune response and root growth inhibition, bik1 mutant only showed impaired defense response but relatively normal root growth inhibition, suggesting BIK1 acts differently in these two biological processes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Flagelina/farmacologia , Flagelina/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
16.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 24(4): 331-345, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691963

RESUMO

Citrus cancer, caused by strains of Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii (Xa), is one of the most economically important citrus diseases. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying citrus canker development has advanced remarkably in recent years, exactly how citrus plants fight against these pathogens remains largely unclear. Using a Xa pathotype C strain that infects Mexican lime only and sweet oranges as a pathosystem to study the immune response triggered by this bacterium in these hosts, we herein report that the Xa flagellin C protein (XaFliC) acts as a potent defence elicitor in sweet oranges. Just as Xa blocked canker formation when coinfiltrated with Xc in sweet orange leaves, two polymorphic XaFliC peptides designated flgIII-20 and flgIII-27, not related to flg22 or flgII-28 but found in many Xanthomonas species, were sufficient to protect sweet orange plants from Xc infection. Accordingly, ectopic expression of XaFliC in a Xc FliC-defective mutant completely abolished the ability of this mutant to grow and cause canker in sweet orange but not Mexican lime plants. Because XaFliC and flgIII-27 also specifically induced the expression of several defence-related genes, our data suggest that XaFliC acts as a main immune response determinant in sweet orange plants.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Citrus , Xanthomonas , Citrus/genética , Citrus/microbiologia , Flagelina/farmacologia , Flagelina/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/genética , Citrus sinensis/microbiologia , Percepção , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
17.
J Mol Model ; 29(2): 35, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), an autoimmune signaling receptor that plays a role in cancer, can be exploited for the suppression of human colon cancer. Salmonella flagellin protein, a novel agonist of TLR5 activating downstream signaling, could be a basis for designing anticancer peptides. METHODS: The three-dimensional crystal structure of TLR5 (PDB ID: 3J0A, Resolution = 26.0 Å) was optimized using the AMBER force field in the YASARA suit. In silico enzymatic digestion tool, PeptideCutter, was used to identify peptides from Salmonella flagellin, an agonist against human TLR5. The 3D structure of the peptides was generated using PEP-FOLD3. These peptides were screened against human TLR5 using shape complementarity principles based on the binding affinity and interactions with the active residue of TLR5 monomer, and the selected peptides were further validated by molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. RESULTS: In this study, we generated 42 peptides from Salmonella flagellin protein by in silico protein digestion. Then, based on a new hidden Markov model sub-optimal conformation sampling approach as well as the size of the fragments, we select 38 effective peptides from these 42 cleavages. These peptides were screened against the monomeric Xray structure of human TLR5 using shape complementarity principles. Based on the binding affinity and interactions with the active residue of TLR5 monomer (residues 294 and 366 of TLR5), nine top-scored peptides were selected for the initial molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Among these peptides, Clv10, Clv17, and Clv28 showed high stability and less flexibility during MD simulation. A 1 µs MD simulation was performed on TLR5-Clv10, TLR-Clv17, and TLR5-Clv28 complexes to further analyze the stability, conformational changes, and binding mode (Clv10, Clv17, and Clv28). During this MD study, the peptides showed high salt bridges and ionic interactions with residue ASP294 and residue ASP366 throughout the simulation and remained in the concave of the human TLR5 monomer. The RMSD and Rg values showed that the peptide-protein complexes become stable after 200 ns of contraction and extraction. CONCLUSION: These findings can facilitate the rational design of selected peptides as an agonist of TLR5, which have antitumor activity, suppress colorectal cancer tumors, and can be used as promising candidates and novel agonists of TLR5.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Receptor 5 Toll-Like , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Flagelina/farmacologia , Flagelina/química , Flagelina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 31, 2023 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635337

RESUMO

Primary and adaptive resistance to immune checkpoint therapies (ICT) represent a considerable obstacle to achieving enhanced overall survival. Innate immune activators have been actively pursued for their antitumor potential. Herein we report that a syngeneic 4T1 mammary carcinoma murine model for established highly-refractory triple negative breast cancer showed enhanced survival when treated intra-tumorally with either the TLR5 agonist flagellin or CBLB502, a flagellin derivative, in combination with antibodies targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1. Long-term survivor mice showed immunologic memory upon tumor re-challenge and a distinctive immune activating cytokine profile that engaged both innate and adaptive immunity. Low serum levels of G-CSF and CXCL5 (as well as high IL-15) were candidate predictive biomarkers correlating with enhanced survival. CBLB502-induced enhancement of ICT was also observed in poorly immunogenic B16-F10 melanoma tumors. Combination immune checkpoint therapy plus TLR5 agonists may offer a new therapeutic strategy to treat ICT-refractory solid tumors.


Assuntos
Melanoma Experimental , Receptor 5 Toll-Like , Animais , Camundongos , Imunidade Adaptativa , Citocinas , Flagelina/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/agonistas
19.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 99(2): 238-244, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Purpose is to study the hepatoprotective effect of a new promising radiation countermeasure flagellin, in the long term after irradiation. The results of the study can be useful for mitigating the consequences of man-made radiation accidents, protecting professional contingents, reducing the toxic effect of radiation therapy, and expanding the range of drug use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effect of flagellin was investigated 10 months after its administration of irradiated male of mice F1 (CBAхC57Bl/6). Flagellin (0.2 mg/kg) was administrated once intraperitoneally before exposure of mice to low-intensive (10 mGy/min) γ-radiation at a dose of 12.65 Gy. The effect was evaluated in three groups: control, irradiated mice without of flagellin and with the administration flagellin 30 minutes before irradiation. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effect in bone marrow was studied with micronucleus assay (OECD 474), in liver - with the original technique for cytome analysis of hepatocytes after fixation of liver pieces with 10% formalin, dissociation of cells with 50% KOH, staining with aceto-orcein and light green. The proportion of cells 2n, 2n + 2n, 4n, 4n + 4n, ≥8n and ≥8n + 8n was determined. Cytogenetic disorders were counted as cells with micronuclei, nuclear buds, and internuclear bridges. The ploidy index and nuclearity index were defined. RESULTS: In all studied groups of mice, the frequency of polychromatic bone marrow erythrocytes with micronuclei and hepatocytes with cytogenetic disorders did not exceed the background level. A decrease in the ploidy index of hepatocytes by 4.3 times was established 10 months after exposure to low-power ionizing radiation. In mice treated with flagellin before irradiation, the ploidy index was normalized to control. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in the ploidy of hepatocytes was revealed 10 months after exposure to a high dose of low-power ionizing radiation, which may indicate the initiation of carcinogenesis. For the first time, a new aspect of the anti-radiation effect of promising radiation countermeasure flagellin was established and its hepatoprotective properties were determined in the long term after exposure to ionizing radiation.


Assuntos
Flagelina , Radiação Ionizante , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Flagelina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Testes para Micronúcleos , Raios gama/efeitos adversos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(1)2023 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38203480

RESUMO

Pneumonia caused by multi-drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-Kpneu) poses a major public health threat, especially to immunocompromised or hospitalized patients. This study aimed to determine the immunostimulatory effect of the Toll-like receptor 5 ligand flagellin on primary human lung epithelial cells during infection with MDR-Kpneu. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells, grown on an air-liquid interface, were inoculated with MDR-Kpneu on the apical side and treated during ongoing infection with antibiotics (meropenem) and/or flagellin on the basolateral and apical side, respectively; the antimicrobial and inflammatory effects of flagellin were determined in the presence or absence of meropenem. In the absence of meropenem, flagellin treatment of MDR-Kpneu-infected HBE cells increased the expression of antibacterial defense genes and the secretion of chemokines; moreover, supernatants of flagellin-exposed HBE cells activated blood neutrophils and monocytes. However, in the presence of meropenem, flagellin did not augment these responses compared to meropenem alone. Flagellin did not impact the outgrowth of MDR-Kpneu. Flagellin enhances antimicrobial gene expression and chemokine release by the MDR-Kpneu-infected primary human bronchial epithelium, which is associated with the release of mediators that activate neutrophils and monocytes. Topical flagellin therapy may have potential to boost immune responses in the lung during pneumonia.


Assuntos
Klebsiella , Pneumonia , Humanos , Flagelina/farmacologia , Meropeném/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
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