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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7889, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570541

RESUMO

Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid with antiapoptotic and antioxidative properties, could safeguard against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Cisplatin, as the pioneer of anti-cancer drug, the severe ototoxicity limits its clinical applications, while the effect of nobiletin on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity has not been identified. The current study investigated the alleviating effect of nobiletin on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. Apoptosis and ROS formation were evaluated using the CCK-8 assay, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence, indicating that nobiletin attenuated cisplatin-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. LC3B and SQSTM1/p62 were determined by Western blotting, qPCR, and immunofluorescence, indicating that nobiletin significantly activated autophagy. Nobiletin promoted the nuclear translocation of NRF2 and the transcription of its target genes, including Hmox1, Nqo1, and ferroptosis markers (Gpx4, Slc7a11, Fth, and Ftl), thereby inhibiting ferroptosis. Furthermore, RNA sequencing analysis verified that autophagy, ferroptosis, and the NRF2 signaling pathway served as crucial points for the protection of nobiletin against ototoxicity caused by cisplatin. Collectively, these results indicated, for the first time, that nobiletin alleviated cisplatin-elicited ototoxicity through suppressing apoptosis and oxidative stress, which were attributed to the activation of autophagy and the inhibition of NRF2/GPX4-mediated ferroptosis. Our study suggested that nobiletin could be a prospective agent for preventing cisplatin-induced hearing loss.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Flavonas , Ototoxicidade , Humanos , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ototoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ototoxicidade/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/farmacologia , Autofagia
2.
J Biomater Appl ; 38(9): 1000-1009, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456269

RESUMO

Morin is an antioxidant and anticancer flavonoid, extracted from natural sources, that may exert beneficial effects for several pathologies. Despite this, the administration of morin represents a challenge due to its low aqueous solubility. Mesoporous silica materials have emerged as biocompatible tools for drug delivery, as their pore size can be modulated for maximum surface area to volume ratio. In this contribution, we evaluate the ability of iron-modified mesoporous materials, for morin loading and controlled delivery. The SBA-15 and MCM-41 sieves were synthesized and modified with iron (metal content 4.02 and 6.27 % wt, respectivily). Characterization by transmission electron microscopy, XRD and UV-Vis revealed adequate pore size and agglomerates of very small metallic nanospecies (nanoclusters), without larger iron oxide nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra confirmed the presence of silanol groups in the solid hosts, which can interact with different groups present in morin molecules. SBA-15 materials were more efficient in terms of morin loading capacity (LC) due to their larger pore diameter. LC was more than 35% for SBA-15 materials when adsorptions studies were carried out with 9 mg of drug. Antioxidant activity were assayed by using DPPH test. Free iron materials presented a significate improvement as antioxidants after morin incorporation, reaching a scavenging activity of almost a 90%. On the other hand, in iron modified mesoporous materials, the presence of morin did not affect the scavenging activity. The results could be related with the formation of a complex between the flavonoid and the iron. Finally, biosafety studies using normal epithelial cells revealed that neither the loaded nor the unloaded materials exerted toxicity, even at doses of 1 mg/ml. These findings expand knowledge about mesoporous materials as suitable carriers of flavonoids with the aim of improving therapies for a wide range of pathologies.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Flavonoides , Neoplasias , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Flavonoides/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ferro , Porosidade
3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 706: 149747, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479243

RESUMO

Nobiletin is a natural flavonoid found in citrus fruits with beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-oxidation effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nobiletin improves mitochondrial function in porcine oocytes and examine the underlying mechanism. Oocytes enclosed by cumulus cells were cultured in TCM-199 for 44 h with 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (control), or supplemented with 5, 10, 25, and 50 µM of nobiletin (Nob5, Nob10, Nob25, and Nob50, respectively). Oocyte maturation rate was significantly enhanced in Nob10 (70.26 ± 0.45%) compared to the other groups (control: 60.12 ± 0.47%; Nob5: 59.44 ± 1.63%; Nob25: 63.15 ± 1.38%; Nob50: 46.57 ± 1.19%). The addition of nobiletin reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and increased glutathione levels. Moreover, Nob10 promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating the protein levels of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). This resulted in an increase in the number of active mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP production, thereby enhancing mitochondrial function. The protein level of p53 decreased, followed by the phosphorylation of B-cell lymphoma 2, suggesting a reduction in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in the Nob10 group. Additionally, the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria was significantly diminished along with a decrease in the protein expression of caspase 3. Thus, nobiletin has a great potential to promote the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes by suppressing oxidative stress and promoting mitochondrial function through the upregulation of the SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Mitocôndrias , Sirtuína 1 , Animais , Suínos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Oócitos/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 173: 116370, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458012

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are widespread in the Parkinson's disease (PD) brain and contribute to the synaptic degradation and dopaminergic cell loss that result in cognitive impairment and motor dysfunction. The polymethoxyflavone Gardenin A (GA) has been shown to activate the NRF2-regulated antioxidant pathway and inhibit the NFkB-dependent pro-inflammatory pathway in a Drosophila model of PD. Here, we evaluate the effects of GA on A53T alpha-synuclein overexpressing (A53TSyn) mice. A53TSyn mice were treated orally for 4 weeks with 0, 25, or 100 mg/kg GA. In the fourth week, mice underwent behavioral testing and tissue was harvested for immunohistochemical analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phosphorylated alpha synuclein (pSyn) expression, and quantification of synaptic, antioxidant and inflammatory gene expression. Results were compared to vehicle-treated C57BL6J mice. Treatment with 100 mg/kg GA improved associative memory and decreased abnormalities in mobility and gait in A53TSyn mice. GA treatment also reduced pSyn levels in both the cortex and hippocampus and attenuated the reduction in TH expression in the striatum seen in A53Tsyn mice. Additionally, GA increased cortical expression of NRF2-regulated antioxidant genes and decreased expression of NFkB-dependent pro-inflammatory genes. GA was readily detectable in the brains of treated mice and modulated the lipid profile in the deep gray brain tissue of those animals. While the beneficial effects of GA on cognitive deficits, motor dysfunction and PD pathology are promising, future studies are needed to further fully elucidate the mechanism of action of GA, optimizing dosing and confirm these effects in other PD models.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Doença de Parkinson , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase , Camundongos , Animais , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Cognição , Modelos Animais de Doenças
5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 76, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a persistent inflammatory condition triggered and exacerbated by several factors including lipid accumulation, endothelial dysfunction and macrophages infiltration. Nobiletin (NOB) has been reported to alleviate atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. METHODS: This study involved comprehensive bioinformatic analysis, including multidatabase target prediction; GO and KEGG enrichment analyses for function and pathway exploration; DeepSite and AutoDock for drug binding site prediction; and CIBERSORT for immune cell involvement. In addition, target intervention was verified via cell scratch assays, oil red O staining, ELISA, flow cytometry, qRT‒PCR and Western blotting. In addition, by establishing a mouse model of AS, it was demonstrated that NOB attenuated lipid accumulation and the extent of atherosclerotic lesions. RESULTS: (1) Altogether, 141 potentially targetable genes were identified through which NOB could intervene in atherosclerosis. (2) Lipid and atherosclerosis, fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis may be the dominant pathways and potential mechanisms. (3) ALB, AKT1, CASP3 and 7 other genes were identified as the top 10 target genes. (4) Six genes, including PPARG, MMP9, SRC and 3 other genes, were related to the M0 fraction. (5) CD36 and PPARG were upregulated in atherosclerosis samples compared to the normal control. (6) By inhibiting lipid uptake in RAW264.7 cells, NOB prevents the formation of foam cell. (7) In RAW264.7 cells, the inhibitory effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein on foam cells formation and lipid accumulation was closely associated with the PPARG signaling pathway. (8) In vivo validation showed that NOB significantly attenuated intra-arterial lipid accumulation and macrophage infiltration and reduced CD36 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Nobiletin alleviates atherosclerosis by inhibiting lipid uptake via the PPARG/CD36 pathway.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Flavonas , PPAR gama , Animais , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Células Espumosas , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Antígenos CD36/genética , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474023

RESUMO

Flavonoids are a large family of polyphenolic compounds with important agro-industrial, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications. Among the structural diversity found in the flavonoid family, methylated flavonoids show interesting characteristics such as greater stability and improved oral bioavailability. This work is focused on the reconstruction of the entire biosynthetic pathway of the methylated flavones diosmetin and chrysoeriol in Streptomyces albidoflavus. A total of eight different genes (TAL, 4CL, CHS, CHI, FNS1, F3'H/CPR, 3'-OMT, 4'-OMT) are necessary for the heterologous biosynthesis of these two flavonoids, and all of them have been integrated along the chromosome of the bacterial host. The biosynthesis of diosmetin and chrysoeriol has been achieved, reaching titers of 2.44 mg/L and 2.34 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, an additional compound, putatively identified as luteolin 3',4'-dimethyl ether, was produced in both diosmetin and chrysoeriol-producing strains. With the purpose of increasing flavonoid titers, a 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP synthase) from an antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) from Amycolatopsis balhimycina was heterologously expressed in S. albidoflavus, enhancing diosmetin and chrysoeriol production titers of 4.03 mg/L and 3.13 mg/L, which is an increase of 65% and 34%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the de novo biosynthesis of diosmetin and chrysoeriol in a heterologous host.


Assuntos
3-Desoxi-7-Fosfo-Heptulonato Sintase , Flavonas , Streptomyces , 3-Desoxi-7-Fosfo-Heptulonato Sintase/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Flavonas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474182

RESUMO

Blocking the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (hACE2) protein serves as a therapeutic strategy for treating COVID-19. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments containing bioactive products could alleviate the symptoms of severe COVID-19. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has complicated the process of developing broad-spectrum drugs. As such, the aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of TCM treatments against SARS-CoV-2 variants through targeting the interaction of the viral spike protein with the hACE2 receptor. Antiviral activity was systematically evaluated using a pseudovirus system. Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) was found to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it mediated the interaction between the viral spike protein and the hACE2 protein. Moreover, the active molecules of S. baicalensis were identified and analyzed. Baicalein and baicalin, a flavone and a flavone glycoside found in S. baicalensis, respectively, exhibited strong inhibitory activities targeting the viral spike protein and the hACE2 protein, respectively. Under optimized conditions, virus infection was inhibited by 98% via baicalein-treated pseudovirus and baicalin-treated hACE2. In summary, we identified the potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors from S. baicalensis that mediate the interaction between the Omicron spike protein and the hACE2 receptor. Future studies on the therapeutic application of baicalein and baicalin against SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Flavonas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Scutellaria baicalensis , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Angiotensinas , Ligação Proteica
8.
Cells ; 13(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474379

RESUMO

With the increase in the age of laying chickens, the aging of follicles is accelerated, and the reproductive ability is decreased. Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial malfunction are indispensable causes of ovarian aging. In this study, the physiological condition of prehierarchical small white follicles (SWFs) was compared between D280 high-producing chickens and D580 aging chickens, and the effect of a plant-derived flavonoid nobiletin (Nob), a natural antioxidant, on senescence of SWFs granulosa cells (SWF-GCs) was investigated. The results showed that Nob treatment activated cell autophagy by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) pathways in D-galactose (D-gal)-generated senescent SWF-GCs, restoring the expression of proliferation-related mRNAs and proteins. In addition, the expression of inflammation-related protein NF-κB was significantly enhanced in aging GCs that were induced by D-gal. Nob supplementation significantly increased the antioxidant capacity and decreased the expression of several genes associated with cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Nob promoted activation of PINK1 and Parkin pathways for mitophagy and alleviated mitochondrial edema. Either the AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin (Compound C) or SIRT1 inhibitor selisistat (EX-527) attenuated the effect of Nob on mitophagy. The protective effect of Nob on natural aging, GC proliferation, and elimination of the beneficial impact on energy regulation of naturally aging ovaries was diminished by inhibition of Nob-mediated autophagy. These data suggest that Nob treatment increases the expression of mitophagy-related proteins (PINK1 and Parkin) via the AMPK/SIRT1 pathways to prevent ovarian aging in the laying chickens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Flavonas , Feminino , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Envelhecimento , Autofagia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474489

RESUMO

Metabolism-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), a growing health problem worldwide, is one of the major risks for the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Oral administration of nobiletin (NOB), a natural citrus flavonoid, modulates the gut microbes and their metabolites in mice. In the present study, we established a mouse model of MAFLD by subjecting mice to a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Throughout this timeframe, NOB was administered to investigate its potential benefits on gut microbial balance and bile acid (BA) metabolism using various techniques, including 16S rRNA sequencing, targeted metabolomics of BA, and biological assays. NOB effectively slowed the progression of MAFLD by reducing serum lipid levels, blood glucose levels, LPS levels, and hepatic IL-1ß and TNF-α levels. Furthermore, NOB reinstated diversity within the gut microbial community, increasing the population of bacteria that produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) to enhance BA excretion. By exploring further, we found NOB downregulated hepatic expression of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and its associated small heterodimer partner (SHP), and it increased the expression of downstream enzymes, including cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and cytochrome P450 27A1 (CYP27A1). This acceleration in cholesterol conversion within the liver contributes to mitigating MAFLD. The present findings underscore the significant role of NOB in regulating gut microbial balance and BA metabolism, revealing that long-term intake of NOB plays beneficial roles in the prevention or intervention of MAFLD.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Camundongos , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Microb Pathog ; 189: 106609, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452830

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug resistance and increased pathogenicity in microorganisms is conferred by the presence of highly synchronized cell density dependent signalling pathway known as quorum sensing (QS). The QS hierarchy is accountable for the secretion of virulence phenotypes, biofilm formation and drug resistance. Hence, targeting the QS phenomenon could be a promising strategy to counteract the bacterial virulence and drug resistance. In the present study, artocarpesin (ACN), a 6-prenylated flavone was investigated for its capability to quench the synthesis of QS regulated virulence factors. From the results, ACN showed significant inhibition of secreted virulence phenotypes such as pyocyanin (80%), rhamnolipid (79%), protease (69%), elastase (84%), alginate (88%) and biofilm formation (88%) in opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Further, microscopic observation of biofilm confirmed a significant reduction in biofilm matrix when P. aeruginosa PAO1 was supplemented with ACN at its sub-MIC concentration. Quantitative gene expression studies showed the promising aspects of ACN in down regulation of several QS regulatory genes associated with production of virulence phenotypes. Upon treatment with sub-MIC of ACN, the bacterial colonization in the gut of Caenorhabditis elegans was potentially reduced and the survival rate was greatly improved. The promising QS inhibition activities were further validated through in silico studies, which put an insight into the mechanism of QS inhibition. Thus, ACN could be considered as possible drug candidate targeting chronic microbial infections.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Percepção de Quorum , Humanos , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
11.
Se Pu ; 42(3): 234-244, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503700

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen refers to the dried seed of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou. The seed is composed of a reddish brown coat and a yellow kernel. A comparative study was conducted to investigate differences in the chemical composition and their relative contents between the seed coat and kernel of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. First, the chemical compounds found in the seed coat and kernel were characterized and identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). The analytical results tentatively identified 57 chemical compounds based on reference-compound comparison, literature retrieval, and chemical-database (e. g., MassBank) searches; these compounds included 14 triterpenes, 23 flavonoids, 7 alkaloids, 6 carboxylic acids, and 7 other types of compounds. The mass error of the identified compounds was within the mass deviation range of 5×10-6 (5 ppm). Next, two methods of multivariate statistical analysis, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were used to compare the differential compounds between the two seed parts. A total of 17 differential compounds were screened out via OPLS-DA based on a variable importance in projection (VIP) value of >5. The results revealed that betulinic acid, betulonic acid, alphitolic acid, and jujuboside Ⅰ mainly existed in the seed coat whereas the 13 other compounds, such as spinosin, jujuboside A, and 6‴-feruloylspinosin, mainly existed in the seed kernel. Therefore, these 17 differential compounds can be used to distinguish between the two seed parts. Finally, a semiquantitative method was established using UPLC and a charged aerosol detector (CAD) with inverse gradient compensation in the mobile phase. Six representative compounds with different types were selected to examine the CAD response consistency: magnoflorine (alkaloid), spinosin (flavone), 6‴-feruloylspinosin (flavone), jujuboside A (triterpenoid saponin), jujuboside B (triterpenoid saponin), and betulinic acid (triterpenoid acid). The results showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the average response factors at different levels of these six compounds was 7.04% and that their response intensities were similar. Moreover, each compound in the fingerprint demonstrated good response consistency, and the peak areas obtained directly reflected the contents of each compound. Based on the semiquantitative fingerprints obtained, betulinic acid and oleic acid were considered the main components of the seed coat. The betulinic acid content in the seed coat was approximately 7 times higher than that in the seed kernel. Spinosin, jujuboside A, linoleic acid, betulinic acid, and oleic acid were the main components of the seed kernel. The spinosin content in the seed kernel was 18 times higher than that in the seed coat. In addition, the jujuboside A content in the seed kernel was 24 times higher than that in the seed coat. The proposed method can accurately determine the main components and compare the relative contents of these components in different seed parts. In summary, this study identified the differences in chemical components between the seed coat and kernel of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and clarified the main components and their relative contents in these parts. The findings can not only provide a basis for the identification of chemical compounds and quality research on different parts of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen but also promote the development and utilization of this traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Flavonas , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Ziziphus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ácido Betulínico , Saponinas/química , Ácidos Oleicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ziziphus/química , Sementes
12.
Molecules ; 29(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542959

RESUMO

Previous studies have revealed the microbial metabolism of dietary choline in the gut, leading to its conversion into trimethylamine (TMA). Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), exemplified by tangeretin, have shown efficacy in mitigating choline-induced cardiovascular inflammation. However, the specific mechanism by which these compounds exert their effects, particularly in modulating the gut microbiota, remains uncertain. This investigation focused on tangeretin, a representative PMFs, to explore its influence on the gut microbiota and the choline-TMA conversion process. Experimental results showed that tangeretin treatment significantly attenuated the population of CutC-active bacteria, particularly Clostridiaceae and Lactobacillus, induced by choline chloride in rat models. This inhibition led to a decreased efficiency in choline conversion to TMA, thereby ameliorating cardiovascular inflammation resulting from prolonged choline consumption. In conclusion, tangeretin's preventive effect against cardiovascular inflammation is intricately linked to its targeted modulation of TMA-producing bacterial activity.


Assuntos
Arterite , Flavonas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ratos , Animais , Colina/metabolismo , Metilaminas/farmacologia , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7184, 2024 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532039

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to analyse, whether malting technique (consisting of seed hydration, germination and drying) can be used to modify concentration of various isoflavonoids in soybean seeds. Seeds of three soybean varieties were germinated by different lengths of time (from 24 to 120 h) and dried by two different methods, typically used to produce so-called 'light' and 'caramel' malts. It was determined, that malting decreases concentration of 7-O-ß-D-glucosides such as daidzin, genisitin and glycitin, while at the same time increasing concentration of aglycones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein). Increasing time of the germination period increased concentration of aglycones. 'Caramel' type malts were characterised with higher concentration of most of the isoflavonoids (daidzin, daidzein, genistin, genistein and glycitein) than 'light' type malts. Results of this study suggest that soybean malts can be an interesting substrate in the production of various food products with increased aglycone content.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Isoflavonas , Genisteína , Isoflavonas/química , Germinação , Plântula/química , Sementes/química
14.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 205, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Flavonoids are a class of secondary plant metabolites that have been shown to have multiple health benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. This study was to explore the association between dietary flavonoid consumption and the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) in adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: The six main types of flavonoids, including isoflavones, anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, and flavonols, were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 and 2017-2018 by the two 24-h recall interviews. The prevalence of CRDs, including asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis, was determined through a self-administered questionnaire. The analysis included 15,753 participants aged 18 years or older who had completed a diet history interview. After adjustment for potential confounders, the inverse link was found with total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones, with an OR (95%CI) of 0.86 (0.75-0.98), 0.84 (0.72-0.97), 0.80(0.69-0.92), and 0.85(0.73-0.98) for the highest group compared to the lowest group. WQS regression revealed that the mixture of flavonoids was negatively linked with the prevalence of CRDs (OR = 0.88 [0.82-0.95], P < 0.01), and the largest effect was mainly from flavanones (weight = 0.41). In addition, we found that flavonoid intake was negatively linked with inflammatory markers, and systemic inflammation significantly mediated the associations of flavonoids with CRDs, with a mediation rate of 12.64% for CRP (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Higher flavonoid intake was related with a lower prevalence of CRDs in adults, and this relationship may be mediated through systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Flavanonas , Flavonas , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Humanos , Flavonoides , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Antocianinas , Prevalência , Dieta , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Brain Behav ; 14(2): e3444, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morin is a flavonoid found in many edible fruits. The hippocampus and entorhinal cortex play crucial roles in memory formation and consolidation. This study aimed to characterize the effect of morin on recognition and space memory in healthy C57BL/6 adult mice and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Morin was administered i.p. at 1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg/24 h for 10 days. The Morris water maze (MWM), novel object recognition, novel context recognition, and tasks were conducted 1 day after the last administration. The mice's brains underwent histological characterization, and their protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. RESULTS: In the MWM and novel object recognition tests, mice treated with 1 mg/kg of morin exhibited a significant recognition index increase compared to the control group. Besides, they demonstrated faster memory acquisition during MWM training. Additionally, the expression of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), BDNF, and postsynaptic density protein 95 proteins in the hippocampus of treated mice showed a significant increase. In the entorhinal cortex, only the pro-BDNF increased. Morin-treated mice exhibited a significant increase in the hippocampus's number and length of dendrites. CONCLUSION: This study shows that morin improves recognition memory and spatial memory in healthy adult mice.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Flavonas , Flavonoides , Camundongos , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Memória Espacial
16.
Cell Rep ; 43(2): 113725, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300800

RESUMO

Flavonoids are a class of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants. Regiospecific modification by methylation and glycosylation determines flavonoid diversity. A rare flavone glycoside, diosmin (luteolin-4'-methoxyl-7-O-glucosyl-rhamnoside), occurs in Chrysanthemum indicum. How Chrysanthemum plants evolve new biosynthetic capacities remains elusive. Here, we assemble a 3.11-Gb high-quality C. indicum genome with a contig N50 value of 4.39 Mb and annotate 50,606 protein-coding genes. One (CiCOMT10) of the tandemly repeated O-methyltransferase genes undergoes neofunctionalization, preferentially transferring the methyl group to the 4'-hydroxyl group of luteolin with ortho-substituents to form diosmetin. In addition, CiUGT11 (UGT88B3) specifically glucosylates 7-OH group of diosmetin. Next, we construct a one-pot cascade biocatalyst system by combining CiCOMT10, CiUGT11, and our previously identified rhamnosyltransferase, effectively producing diosmin with over 80% conversion from luteolin. This study clarifies the role of transferases in flavonoid diversity and provides important gene elements essential for producing rare flavone.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Diosmina , Flavonas , Metiltransferases/genética , Luteolina , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Chrysanthemum/genética , Genômica , Flavonoides
17.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 65, 2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavokawain B is one of the naturally occurring chalcones in the kava plant (Piper methysticum). It exhibits anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antimalarial properties. Due to its therapeutic potential, flavokawain B holds promise for the treatment of many diseases. However, due to its poor bioavailability and low aqueous solubility, its application remains limited. The attachment of a sugar unit impacts the stability and solubility of flavonoids and often determines their bioavailability and bioactivity. Biotransformation is an environmentally friendly way to improve the properties of compounds, for example, to increase their hydrophilicity and thus affect their bioavailability. Recent studies proved that entomopathogenic filamentous fungi from the genera Isaria and Beauveria can perform O-methylglycosylation of hydroxyflavonoids or O-demethylation and hydroxylation of selected chalcones and flavones. RESULTS: In the present study, we examined the ability of entomopathogenic filamentous fungal strains of Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria caledonica, Isaria farinosa, Isaria fumosorosea, and Isaria tenuipes to transform flavokawain B into its glycosylated derivatives. The main process occurring during the reaction is O-demethylation and/or hydroxylation followed by 4-O-methylglycosylation. The substrate used was characterized by low susceptibility to transformations compared to our previously described transformations of flavones and chalcones in the cultures of the tested strains. However, in the culture of the B. bassiana KCh J1.5 and BBT, Metarhizium robertsii MU4, and I. tenuipes MU35, the expected methylglycosides were obtained with high yields. Cheminformatic analyses indicated altered physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties in the derivatives compared to flavokawain B. Pharmacological predictions suggested potential anticarcinogenic activity, caspase 3 stimulation, and antileishmanial effects. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the study provided valuable insights into the enzymatic transformations of flavokawain B by entomopathogenic filamentous fungi, elucidating the structural modifications and predicting potential pharmacological activities of the obtained derivatives. The findings contribute to the understanding of the biocatalytic capabilities of these microbial cultures and the potential therapeutic applications of the modified flavokawain B derivatives.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Flavonas , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonas/metabolismo , Biotransformação
18.
Drug Dev Res ; 85(2): e22165, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400652

RESUMO

Isocryptomerin (ISO) is a flavonoid isolated from the natural medicine Selaginellae Herba, which has various pharmacological activities. This study investigated the antitumor effect and underlying molecular mechanism of ISO on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The cell viability assay revealed that ISO has a considerable killing effect on HCC cell lines. The apoptosis assay showed that ISO induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through the Bad/cyto-c/cleaved (cle)-caspase-3/cleaved (cle)-PARP pathway. The network pharmacological analysis found 13 key target genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathways were strongly associated with ISO against HCC. Further verification of the results showed that ISO induced apoptosis by increasing p-p38 and p-JNK expression and decreasing p-EGFR, p-SRC, p-ERK, and p-STAT3 expression. Furthermore, ISO induced G0/G1 phase arrest by downregulating p-AKT, Cyclin D, and CDK 4 expression and upregulating p21 and p27 expression in HepG2 cells. Moreover, ISO inhibited HepG2 cell migration by decreasing p-GSK-3ß, ß-catenin, and N-cadherin expression and increasing E-cadherin expression. Additionally, ISO promoted ROS accumulation in HepG2 cells, and ISO-induced apoptosis, arrest cell cycle, and inhibition of migration were reversed by an ROS scavenger, N-acetyl- l-cysteine. Overall, ISO induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and inhibited cell migration by ROS-mediated EGFR, AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways in HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Flavonas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Células Hep G2 , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Farmacologia em Rede , Receptores ErbB
19.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 753: 109926, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346547

RESUMO

Of the more than 100 families of glycosyltransferases, family 1 glycosyltransferases catalyze glycosylation using uridine diphosphate (UDP)-sugar as a sugar donor and are thus referred to as UDP-sugar:glycosyl transferases. The blue color of the Nemophila menziesii flower is derived from metalloanthocyanin, which consists of anthocyanin, flavone, and metal ions. Flavone 7-O-ß-glucoside-4'-O-ß-glucoside in the plant is sequentially biosynthesized from flavons by UDP-glucose:flavone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase (NmF4'GT) and UDP-glucose:flavone 4'-O-glucoside 7-O-glucosyltransferase (NmF4'G7GT). To identify the molecular mechanisms of glucosylation of flavone, the crystal structures of NmF4'G7GT in its apo form and in complex with UDP-glucose or luteolin were determined, and molecular structure prediction using AlphaFold2 was conducted for NmF4'GT. The crystal structures revealed that the size of the ligand-binding pocket and interaction environment for the glucose moiety at the pocket entrance plays a critical role in the substrate preference in NmF4'G7GT. The substrate specificity of NmF4'GT was examined by comparing its model structure with that of NmF4'G7GT. The structure of NmF4'GT may have a smaller acceptor pocket, leading to a substrate preference for non-glucosylated flavones (or flavone aglycones).


Assuntos
Flavonas , Glucosiltransferases , Glucosiltransferases/química , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Ligantes , Uridina Difosfato Glucose/química , Glucose , Glicosiltransferases , Glucosídeos , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 173: 116322, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401524

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases and is emerging as one of the fastest-growing causes of liver-related deaths worldwide. It is necessary to find strategies to effectively prevent and treat NAFLD, as no definitive drug has been approved. Nobiletin (NOB) is the critical active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicines such as Citrus aurantium and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, which have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, lipid regulating, and insulin resistance regulating effects. Numerous studies have demonstrated that NOB can prevent and treat the onset and progression of NAFLD. In this review, the mechanisms of NOB for treating NAFLD have been summarized, hoping to provide a basis for subsequent studies of NOB and to provide a research ground for the development of therapeutic drugs for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Flavonas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Flavonas/uso terapêutico , Fígado , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia
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