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1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(1): 1-7, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of icariin (ICA) on early ß-defensin-2 and T cell subsets in rats after tracheotomy. METHODS: A total of 54 SPF male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal control group (group A), a model group (group B), and a model+ICA treatment group (group C), with 18 rats in each group. A tracheotomy intubation model of the B and C group was prepared. After 6 h of surgery, ICA intervention was given to group C. Groups A and B were given the same amount of normal saline. Lung tissue, alveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood were taken at 24 h, 72 h and 168 h, respectively. The expression of rat ß-defensin-2 mRNA in lung tissue was detected by RT-PCR. The content of ß-defensin-2 in alveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood serum was detected by ELISA. The content of peripheral blood T cell subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+) was detected by flow cytometry, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ was calculated. RESULTS: After tracheotomy, the levels of ß-defensin-2 mRNA and ß-defensin-2 in lung tissue from the group B were increased significantly at 24 h, then they were decreased gradually, and decreased most significantly at 168 h (P<0.05). The content of ß-defensin-2 in peripheral blood of group B decreased gradually, and the content of ß-defensin-2 in 168 h was significantly lower than that in 24 h (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between group B and group A (P>0.05). The level of CD3+ T cells in peripheral blood was significantly lower than that in the group A (P<0.05), but their was no significant difference in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with group A (P>0.05). After ICA intervention in group C: lung tissue, alveolar lavage fluid, peripheral blood serum ß-defensin-2 content, and peripheral blood CD3+ and CD4+ T cell levels were gradually increased, significantly higher than those in the group B (P<0.05). CD8+ T cell level was significantly lower than that in the group A at 24 h (P<0.05), the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was significantly higher at 168 h than those in the group A or B (both P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: ICA can improve the early lung immune function in rats with tracheotomy, which might be related to up-regulation of ß-defensin-2 in lung tissue and alveolar lavage fluid, concomitant with increases in CD3+ and CD4+ T cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood while reduction in CD8+ cells.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Animais , Flavonoides , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traqueotomia , beta-Defensinas
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108978, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044341

RESUMO

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) accumulates in human body, probably influencing adipocyte differentiation and causing various toxic effects, including wasting syndrome. Recently, orientin, a phenolic compound abundant in natural health products, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. We investigated the protective effects of orientin against TCDD-induced adipocyte dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms. In this study, orientin suppressed TCDD-induced loss of lipid accumulation. Orientin inhibited TCDD-driven decreases in the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and adiponectin. Orientin also reduced TCDD-induced prostaglandin E2, and cytosolic phospholipase A2α levels, and increased TCDD-inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TCDD reduced the levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 and glucose transporter 4, and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity; however, orientin diminished these TCDD-induced effects. These results suggest that orientin may have beneficial effects on the prevention of TCDD-induced wasting syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus accompanied by insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Dinoprostona , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Camundongos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3033-3049, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052629

RESUMO

The high levels of secondary metabolites in rapeseed play important roles in determining the oil quality and feeding value. Here, we characterized the metabolic profiles in seeds of various yellow- and black-seeded rapeseed accessions. Two hundred and forty-eight features were characterized, including 31 phenolic acids, 54 flavonoids, 24 glucosinolates, 65 lipid compounds, and 74 other polar compounds. The most abundant phenolic acids and various flavonoids (epicatechin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, quercetin, and their derivatives) were widely detected and showed significant differences in distribution between the yellow- and black-seeded rapeseed. Furthermore, the related genes (e.g., BnTT3, BnTT18, BnTT10, BnTT12, and BnBAN) involved in the proanthocyanidin pathway had lower expression levels in yellow-seeded rapeseed, strongly suggesting that the seed coat color could be mainly determined by the levels of epicatechin and their derivatives. These results improve our understanding of the primary constituents of rapeseed and lay the foundation for breeding novel varieties with a high nutritional value.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Brassica napus/classificação , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Catequina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Flavonoides/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111819, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062388

RESUMO

Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. is a common plant in much of Brazil. Despite containing metabolites with a wide range of pharmacological applications, there are few tissue culture reports for this plant. The possibility of large-scale in vitro production of this material has significant biotechnological potential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on the growth of cells in suspension, observing the production and yield of biomass and bioactive compounds and the enzymatic behavior. Calli obtained from leaf segments were cultured in solid medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 of 2,4-D, 2.5 mg L-1 kinetin, pH 5.7, in the dark. After 110 days of subculture, the calli were transferred to liquid medium. Cells were kept in the dark under agitation at 110 rpm and 25 °C and subcultured every 30 days. After 90 days of culture, 20 mL aliquots of cell suspension were added to flasks containing approximately 20 mL of medium (1:1) and cultured at different wavelengths (white, green, blue, red, and blue/red) under a photoperiod of 16 h with irradiance of 50 µmol m-2 s-1) and in the absence of light. The experiment was performed in a 6 × 6 factorial design (light condition × culture time). The cell cultures showed viability throughout the entire cycle, and chlorogenic and ferulic acids, orientin, quercitrin and, in higher amounts, quercetin, were detected in the first 7 days of culture. There was an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase and a decrease in ascorbate peroxidase after exposure to different light conditions; for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, no differences were observed. The different light conditions were not sufficient to trigger responses in the concentrations of bioactive compounds, despite the detection of increased levels of the enzymes involved in cellular homeostasis.


Assuntos
Luz , Solanum/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Condutividade Elétrica , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/metabolismo , Solanum/citologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 57(1): 72-80, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074563

RESUMO

AIM: Kampo medicines containing Scutellariae Radix (the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi; SR) sometimes cause serious adverse effects, including interstitial pneumonia and liver dysfunction. Baicalin (BL) is the major active component of SR and is presumed to be responsible for the adverse effects. We analyzed the amounts of BL in Kampo medicines to better understand how they can be used safely. METHODS: We determined the amounts of BL in 28 Kampo decoctions containing SR (recommended daily dose: 1.5-4 g/day) and corresponding Kampo extract products by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The amounts of BL in the Kampo decoctions were 1.7-4.0-fold higher than those of the corresponding Kampo extract products. Inter-product variations in the amounts of BL in Shosaikoto, Otsujito, Daisaikoto, Saibokuto, Orengedokuto, and Saireito Kampo extracts from various companies were also examined. Significant differences in the amounts of BL were observed for Shosaikoto, Otsujito, Daisaikoto, and Saibokuto extract products (up to 2.6, 1.6, 1.5, and 1.3-fold differences, respectively), whereas no significant differences were observed for Orengedokuto and Saireito extract products. CONCLUSIONS: Because the Kampo decoctions containing SR that we examined contained 1.7-4.0 times as much BL as the corresponding Kampo extract products, medical doctors and pharmacists should be aware that Kampo decoctions containing SR might cause more severe side effects than corresponding Kampo extract products. Furthermore, we recommend that the amounts of BL and its aglycone, baicalein (BA), in Kampo extract products be made known to practitioners and patients.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Flavanonas , Flavonoides , Medicina Kampo , Scutellaria baicalensis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavanonas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
Planta Med ; 86(5): 364-372, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005042

RESUMO

Lupinifolin, a plant flavonoid, has been reported to possess various pharmacological effects. It most likely exerts low oral bioavailability because of poor water solubility. The objective of this study was to develop lipid nanocarriers as drug delivery systems to increase the gastrointestinal absorption of lupinifolin extracted from Albizia myriophylla. Three types of nanocarriers, lupinifolin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles, lupinifolin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers, and lupinifolin-loaded nanoemulsions, were prepared by an emulsification-sonication technique. All three types of nanocarriers loaded with lupinifolin, lupinifolin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles, lupinifolin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers, and lupinifolin-loaded nanoemulsions, were successfully synthesized. The lipid components chosen to formulate nanocarriers were tripalmitin and/or medium chain triglyceride. Physicochemical characterizations along with releasing profiles of lupinifolin-loaded lipid nanocarriers were compared. It was found that the best lipid nanocarrier for lupinifolin was lupinifolin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers, which demonstrated the particle size of 151.5 ± 0.1 nm, monodispersity distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.24, negative surface charge at - 41.2 ± 0.7 mV, high encapsulation (99.3%), and high loading capacity (5.0%). The obtained lupinifolin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers exhibited prolonged release in a simulated circulatory system but produced a low release in gastrointestinal conditions (3.7%). Intestinal permeability of the nanocarriers was further evaluated in everted intestinal sacs. The results from the ex vivo study indicated that lupinifolin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers significantly increased the absorption of lupinifolin compared to the native form. In conclusion, lupinifolin-loaded lipid nanocarriers were successfully formulated as delivery systems to enhance its oral bioavailability. Further in vivo experiments are needed to validate the results from this study.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Nanopartículas , Flavonoides , Absorção Intestinal , Lipídeos , Tamanho da Partícula
7.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 279-376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006364

RESUMO

Fruits come in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and flavors. This chapter will cover selected fruits that are known to be healthy and highly nutritious. These fruits were chosen due to their common usage and availability. Since it is not possible to cover all health benefits or essential nutrients and important phytochemicals of the fruit composition, this chapter will focus on the key valuable constituents and their potential health effects.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Valor Nutritivo , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
8.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(2): 206-212, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030953

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of icariin on early steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Methods: Fifty mature New Zealand rabbits (weighing, 2.5-3.0 kg) were randomly divided into control group ( n=10), model group ( n=20), and experimental group ( n=20). The rabbits of model and experimental groups were injected with lipopolysaccharide and methylprednisolone to establish the animal model of early steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The rabbits of experimental group were feeded with icariin solution once a day for 6 weeks since the first injection of methylprednisolone, whereas the rabbits of control and model groups were given normal saline at the same time points. The left femoral heads were removed after 6 weeks and gross morphological features were evaluated. Micro-CT scan was performed to analyze the trabecular microstructure with the following parameters: trabecular bone volume to total volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Tn), and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). The Micro-CT scan was also converted to three-dimensional reconstruction images for observation. HE staining was applied to observe the trabecular structure and morphological changes of osteocytes and marrow adipocytes. It was also used to determine whether the samples of femoral heads occurred osteonecrosis based on the criteria for pathological diagnosis, and calculate the rate of empty lacunae. Results: Seven rabbits died during the study, and 9, 16, and 18 rabbits in the control, model, and experimental groups, respectively, enrolled the final analysis. Compared with control group, the femoral head collapse and trabecular breaks were more obvious, and the trabeculae were sparse with irregular arrangement in the model group according to the results of gross observation, Micro-CT scan, and three-dimensional reconstruction images. But in the experimental group, the surface of femoral head was slight shrinking without obvious collapse, and the degeneration of trabecular structure was mild. According to bone microstructures analysis, the Tb.N, Tb.Tn, and BV/TV of femoral head in model and experimental groups were lower than those in control group, while the Tb.Sp in the model and experimental groups were significantly higher. The Tb.N, Tb.Tn, and BV/TV of femoral head in experimental group were higher than those in model group, while the Tb.Sp in the experimental group was significantly lower. The differences between groups were all significant ( P<0.05). In the model group, HE staining showed that the number of osteocytes reduced, the number of empty lacunae increased, and the marrow adipocytes piled up in the space between femoral trabeculae, some even mashed together like a cyst. In the experimental group, the trabecular structure was still relatively complete compared with model group, no obvious apoptosis of osteocytes was observed, the size and number of adipocytes were basically normal. None of the animals in control group occurred osteonecrosis of the femoral head based on the criteria for pathological diagnosis, and the incidence of osteonecrosis were 81.3% (13/16) in the model group and 66.7% (12/18) in the experimental group, and the difference was not significant ( P=0.448). The rate of empty lacunae of osteonecrotic femoral heads in the model group was 33.1%±1.4%, which was higher than that in experimental group (18.9%±0.8%) and in control group (12.7%±1.5%), and the differences between groups were significant ( P<0.05). Conclusion: The icariin has a protective effect on the early steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits, which can decrease osteocytes apoptosis, improve the bone microstructure, and delay such disease processes.


Assuntos
Cabeça do Fêmur , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur , Flavonoides , Metilprednisolona , Coelhos
9.
Phytochemistry ; 172: 112272, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032827

RESUMO

Banana passion fruit of the Passiflora genus, are commercially cultivated on a small to medium scale, mainly as edible fruits or as components of traditional herbal medicines. This subgenus comprises several species and hybrid specimens that grow readily in the wild. Due to their taxonomical complexity, many of these species have recently been reclassified (Ocampo Pérez and Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, 2017), and their chemical profile has still to be determined. In this study, an 1H NMR-based platform was applied to the chemical profiling of seven wild species of the Passiflora subgenus, and UHPLC-DAD-MS was additionally used for the identification of phenolic compounds. A total of 59 compounds were detected including 26 O- and C-glycosidated flavonoids and polyphenols, nine organic acids, seven amino acids, GABA, sucrose, glucose, myo-inositol, and five other non-identified compounds. Two of the identified compounds are the previously undescribed C-glycosyl flavonoids, apigenin-4'-O-ß-glucopyranosyl, 8-C-ß-(6″acetyl)-glucopyranoside and apigenin-4-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-8-C-ß-neohesperidoside. These C-glycosyl flavonoids were isolated to confirm their proposed structures by NMR and LCMS analysis. The PCA score plots obtained from the 1H NMR data of the studied Passiflora samples showed P. cumbalensis and P. uribei as the species with the most distinguishable chemical profile. In addition, a correlation analysis using OPLS-DA was conducted between 1H-NMR data and the quorum quenching activity (QQ) of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532. This analysis revealed P. lehmannii, and P. uribei extracts to be the most active, and apigenin-4'-O-ß-glucopyranosyl, 8-C-ß-(6″acetyl)-glucopyranoside and apigenin-4-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-8-C-ß-neohesperidoside were identified as possibly responsible for the QQ activity. To confirm this, QQ activity of both compounds was tested against C. violaceum ATCC 3153. An inhibition of violacein production of 0.135 mM (100 µg/mL) and 0.472 mM (300 µg/mL) was observed for apigenin-4'-O-ß-glucopyranosyl,8-C-ß-(6″acetyl)-glucopyranoside and apigenin-4-O-ß-glucopyranosyl-8-C-ß-neohesperidoside respectively, while bacterial growth was unaffected in both cases. Furthermore, both compounds showed the ability to inhibit the production of the toxoflavin of the phytopathogen Burkholderia glumae ATCC 33617.


Assuntos
Musa , Passiflora , Flavonoides , Frutas , Percepção de Quorum
10.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 45(2): 203-212, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999468

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary flavonoid intake and the prevalence of obesity using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent body fat (%BF) according to sex among Korean adults. Based on the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011, 23 118 adults in Korea were included. Dietary intakes were obtained using 24-h dietary recall data. A higher total intake of flavonoid was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity in women, based on %BF (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.82 [0.71-0.94]), and abdominal obesity (0.81 [0.71-0.92]). The intake of flavonols (0.88 [0.78-0.99]), flavanones (0.81 [0.72-0.92]), flavanols (0.85 [0.74-0.97]), isoflavones (0.85 [0.75-0.96]), and proanthocyanidins (0.81 [0.71-0.92]) was inversely associated with abdominal obesity, and a higher intake of flavanones (0.87 [0.76-0.99]) and proanthocyanidins (0.85 [0.75-0.98]) was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, with respect to %BF in women. In contrast, the intake of flavonols (1.16 [1.02-1.33]), flavanones (1.18 [1.04-1.35]), and anthocyanidins (1.27 [1.11-1.46]) was positively associated with obesity based on BMI in men. In conclusion, high intake of dietary flavonoids may be associated with a decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity and obesity, based on %BF, among women. Novelty Higher flavonoid intake was associated with decreased prevalence of abdominal obesity and obesity based on %BF in Korean women. However, in men, the intake of flavonols, flavanones, and anthocyanidins was positively associated with obesity as given by BMI.


Assuntos
Dieta , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
11.
Food Chem ; 312: 126091, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901828

RESUMO

Stinging nettle is an annual plant. This plant is known for applications in folk medicine, and as the human diet. The stinging nettle leaves has been used to obtain extracts, which are expected to be with a high content of biologically active compounds. Prepared microwave extracts were applied in the formulation of the functional products. The article completes preparation of the bread with addition of the stinging nettle leaves and its extract, and bread's composition in phenolic acids, flavonoids, micro elements, and macro elements. The biological activity of the prepared bread samples showed significant antioxidant activity. This was especially true against DPPH radicals. It has been shown that it holds a high cytotoxic activity. Leaves themselves decreased the quality of the bread, while the extract improved the quality. It was sensorially confirmed. The article concluded that the extract substitutes leaves in bread as a product of a high benefit.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Alimento Funcional , Extratos Vegetais/química , Urtica dioica/química , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Micro-Ondas , Folhas de Planta/química
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 799-807, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893634

RESUMO

Onion is the most widely cultivated vegetable around the world. In this study, the isolation, concentration, quantification, and bioactivity evaluation of the phenolics in onion peels were investigated. Thirty-four phenolics, including 17 flavonoids and 17 nonflavonoid phenolics, were purified and identified. Among them, there were 2 new unusual epoxyflavanones and a new phenolic constituent, as well as 13 unreported constituents from the genus Allium. The total flavonoids were concentrated, and finally obtained 90.25% of flavonoid content extract. Fifteen main flavonoids were quantified using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA), and quercetin (36.94%) and quercetin 4'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (15.81%) were the richest contents of flavonoids. The antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory capacities were evaluated, and the bioactive results indicated that the flavonoids in onion exhibited pronounced activities. The study suggested that the flavonoids in onion peels could be used in functional food.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Cebolas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1480-1493, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899641

RESUMO

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) possesses a substantial share of the global markets for its unique sweet flavor and diverse pharmacological compounds. Cultivated licorice is widely distributed in northwest regions of China, covered with land with a broad range of salinities. A preliminary study indicated that suitable salt stress significantly increased the content of bioactive constituents in licorice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of salinity on the accumulation of these constituents remain unclear, which hinders quality breeding of cultivated licorice. In our study, flavonoid-related structural genes were obtained, and most of them, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, cinnamate 4-hydroxylases, 4-coumarate: CoA ligases, chalcone synthases, chalcone-flavanone isomerase, and flavonol synthase, showed high levels after salt treatment. In the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin, three key enzymes (bAS, CYP88D6, and CYP72A154) were identified as differentially expressed proteins and remarkably upregulated in the salt-stressed group. Combining these results with the contents of 14 bioactive constituents, we also found that the expression patterns of those structural proteins were logically consistent with changes in bioactive constituent profiles. Thus, we believe that suitable salt stress increased the accumulation of bioactive constituents in licorice by upregulating proteins involved in the related biosynthesis pathways. This work provided valuable proteomic information for unraveling the molecular mechanism of flavonoid and glycyrrhizin metabolism and offered fundamental resources for quality breeding in licorice.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/genética , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Estresse Salino
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 961-974, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910000

RESUMO

Manipulating light transmission by shading is the most effective method of improving the nutritional value and sensory qualities of tea. In this study, the metabolic profiling of two tea cultivars ("Yulv" and "Maotouzhong") in response to different shading periods during the summer season was performed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The metabolic pathway analyses showed that the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) in the leaves and shoots of "Maotouzhong" were significantly inhibited by long-term shading. The nitrogen metabolism in the leaves of the two cultivars was promoted by short-term shading, while it was inhibited by long-term shading. However, the nitrogen metabolism in the shoots of the two cultivars was always inhibited by shading, whether for short or long-term periods. In addition, the intensity of the flavonoid metabolism in both tea cultivars could be reduced by shading. These results revealed that shading could regulate the carbon and nitrogen metabolism and short-term shading could improve the tea quality to some extent.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/efeitos da radiação , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Produção Agrícola , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Luz , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1494-1504, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917553

RESUMO

Flavonoids are widely distributed in mulberry leaves and have been recognized for their beneficial physiological effects on the human health. Here, we analyzed variations in 44 flavonoid compounds among 91 mulberry resources. Metabolic profiling revealed that O-rhamnosylated flavonols and malonylated flavonol glycosides, including rutin and quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-malonylglucoside) (Q3MG), were absent from Morus notabilis and multiple mulberry (Morus alba L.) resources. Transcriptome and phylogenetic analyses of flavonoid-related UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) suggested that the flavonol 3-O-glucoside-O-rhamnosyltransferase (FGRT) KT324624 is a key enzyme involved in rutin synthesis. A recombinant FGRT protein was able to convert kaempferol/quercetin 3-O-glucoside to kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (K3G6″Rha) and rutin. The recombinant FGRT was able to use 3-O-glucosylated flavonols but not flavonoid aglycones or 7-O-glycosylated flavonoids as substrates. The enzyme preferentially used UDP-rhamnose as the sugar donor, indicating that it was a flavonol 3-O-glucoside: 6″-O-rhamnosyltransferase. This study provided insights into the biosynthesis of rutin in mulberry.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Morus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Flavonoides/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Morus/química , Morus/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rutina/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 312: 126028, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896454

RESUMO

The present study investigated the distribution of several primary metabolites (soluble sugar, protein, and mineral) and secondary metabolites (carotenoids, vitamin C, anthocyanin, flavonoids, and total phenolic compounds) among the leaf layers of headed cabbage. The leaf layers of two cultivars were separated and numbered sequentially from the outer to the inner leaves. The fructose and glucose content of the inner leaf layers was significantly greater than that of the outer layers. Similarly, the level of glucosinolates increased gradually from the outer leaves to the umbilicus of the leaf head. However, the content of antioxidants decreased from the outer leaves to the core of the leaf head, in line with the antioxidant capacity. The levels of soluble protein and mineral shared the similar decreasing trend. These results provide a reference for consumers to choose optimal fractions of whole cabbage heads in order to cater to their particular dietary needs.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 313: 126117, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951881

RESUMO

Licania tomentosa is a Brazilian plant species that produces edible fruits, yet there is little information available concerning their nutritional and/or bioactive composition. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and polyphenol composition of L. tomentosa fruits (pulp and seeds) and measure antioxidant activity in ethanolic extracts.The pulp and seeds were excellent sources of fiber (25.62%-41.70%) as well as minerals and vitamins. L. tomentosa contained no lectins or protease inhibitors (chymotrysin and trypsin) and 12 polyphenol compounds were identified in the seed extracts with a predominance of flavonoids. The seeds also presented antioxidant activities using the DPPH (SC5010.30-15.87 µg/mL), TBARS (IC50 18.46-20.84 µg/mL), and FRAP (RC50 0.203-0.309 µg/mL) assays. Due to its nutrient and antioxidant content, L. tomentosa may be used for food applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Chrysobalanaceae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Chrysobalanaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Farinha/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Inibidores de Proteases/análise , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918307

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to develop an efficient and economical method for the enrichment of total flavonoids from Pteris ensiformis Burm. extracts. Resin screening, adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics were successively researched prior to the dynamic adsorption and desorption tests. NKA-II resin was chosen as the best adsorbent, and the adsorption data were best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and Langmuir isotherm model. The optimum enrichment conditions were as follows: for adsorption the total flavonoids concentration, flow rate and volume of sample were 1.84 mg/mL, 2 BV/h and 5 BV, respectively, and for desorption the flavonoids-loaded NKA-II resin column was desorbed by 7 BV of 50% ethanol at a rate of 2 BV/h. The product had a 6.63-fold higher total flavonoids content than crude extracts, and the recovery yield of total flavonoids was 80.65%. Furthermore, flavonoids-enriched extracts exhibited higher in vitro scavenging activity against superoxide anion radical and hydroxyl radical than crude extracts. In addition, higher antiproliferative activity of flavonoids-enriched extracts against MCF-7 and HepG-2 cell lines was also found as compared to the crude extracts. The developed method is appropriate for large-scale enrichment of total flavonoids from Pteris ensiformis Burm. extracts in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides , Pteris/química , Adsorção , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resinas Sintéticas/química
19.
Cell Prolif ; 53(2): e12743, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Alveolar bone osteoporosis has attracted more and more attention because of its profound impact on stomatognathic function and treatment, but current treatments have not been targeted to alveolar bone and might even cause severe side effects. Thus, identifying the effects of anti-osteoporosis agents on alveolar bone is essential. Icariin ameliorates metabolic dysfunction of long bones, but its effects on alveolar bone remain unclarified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BMSCs were isolated from rat mandibles (mBMSCs). The osteogenic potential of mBMSCs and the signalling pathway involved under icariin treatment were measured by ALP and alizarin red staining, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Dual-luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and co-immunoprecipitation were used to investigate the molecular mechanism. Ovariectomized and sham-operated rats treated with or without icariin were analysed by micro-CT, TRAP staining and calcein double labelling. RESULTS: We found that icariin promoted osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Furthermore, STAT3 was critical for icariin-promoted osteoblast differentiation, as indicated by increased phosphorylation levels in icariin-treated mBMSCs, while preventing STAT3 activation blocked icariin-induced osteoblast differentiation. Mechanistically, icariin-promoted transcription of the downstream osteogenic gene osteocalcin (Ocn) through STAT3 and STAT3 bound to the promoter of Ocn. Notably, icariin prevented the alveolar bone osteoporosis induced by oestrogen deficiency through promoting bone formation. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our work provides evidence supporting the potential application of icariin in promoting osteogenesis and treating alveolar bone osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/tratamento farmacológico , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Perda do Osso Alveolar/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2146-2154, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984739

RESUMO

Flavonoids are valuable natural products widely used in human health and nutrition applications. Engineering microbial consortia to express complex flavonoid biosynthetic pathways is a promising approach for flavonoid production. In this study, the entire flavonoid biosynthetic pathway was split into two independent pathways, each of which was contained in separate Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The first cell type, sNAR5, which was genetically engineered to express the naringenin biosynthetic pathway, produced 144.1 mg/L naringenin. The second cell type was genetically modified with the heterologous naringenin-to-delphinidin pathway. A coculture produced a delphinidin titer, significantly higher than that produced in a monoculture of strain sDPD2, harboring the entire pathway. Furthermore, we successfully employed this coculture platform for the production of 3 flavonols and 2 anthocyanidins in flask-scale culture. This coculture platform paves the way for the development of an economical and efficient process for microbial flavonoid production.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química
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