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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13201, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915209

RESUMO

Scutellaria baicalensis is a well-studied medicinal plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, prized for the unique 4'-deoxyflavones produced in its roots. In this study, three native species to the Americas, S. lateriflora, S. arenicola, and S. integrifolia were identified by DNA barcoding, and phylogenetic relationships were established with other economically important Lamiaceae members. Furthermore, flavone profiles of native species were explored. 4'-deoxyflavones including baicalein, baicalin, wogonin, wogonoside, chrysin and 4'-hydroxyflavones, scutellarein, scutellarin, and apigenin, were quantified from leaves, stems, and roots. Qualitative, and quantitative differences were identified in their flavone profiles along with characteristic tissue-specific accumulation. 4'-deoxyflavones accumulated in relatively high concentrations in root tissues compared to aerial tissues in all species except S. lateriflora. Baicalin, the most abundant 4'-deoxyflavone detected, was localized in the roots of S. baicalensis and leaves of S. lateriflora, indicating differential accumulation patterns between the species. S. arenicola and S. integrifolia are phylogenetically closely related with similar flavone profiles and distribution patterns. Additionally, the S. arenicola leaf flavone profile was dominated by two major unknown peaks, identified using LC-MS/MS to most likely be luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and 5,7,2'-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone 7-O-glucuronide. Collectively, results presented in this study suggest an evolutionary divergence of flavonoid metabolic pathway in the Scutellaria genus of Lamiaceae.


Assuntos
Flavanonas , Flavonas , Scutellaria , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Flavonas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Scutellaria baicalensis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955513

RESUMO

Light is the key factor affecting the synthesis of anthocyanins in pepper. In this study, pepper fruit under different light days was used as experimental material to explore the synthesis of anthocyanins in purple pepper. A total of 38 flavonoid metabolites were identified in the purple pepper germplasm HNUCA21 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), of which 30 belong to anthocyanins. The detected anthocyanin with the highest content was Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (17.13 µg/g), which reached the maximum after 168 h of light treatment. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), the brown module was identified to be related to the early synthesis of anthocyanins. This module contains many structural genes related to flavonoid synthesis, including chalcone synthase (CHS 107871256, 107864266), chalcone isomerase (CHI 107871144, 107852750), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR 107860031), flavonoid 3' 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H 107848667), flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase (F3M 107862334), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX 107866341), and trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase (TCM 107875406, 107875407). The module also contained some genes related to anthocyanin transport function, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST 107861273), anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UDPGT 107861697, 107843659), and MATE (107863234, 107844661), as well as some transcription factors, such as EGL1 (107865400), basic helix-loop-helix 104 (bHLH104 107864591), and WRKY44 (107843538, 107843524). The co-expression regulatory network indicated the involvement of CHS, DFR, CHI, and EGL1, as well as two MATE and two WRKY44 genes in anthocyanin synthesis. The identified genes involved in early, middle, and late light response provided a reference for the further analysis of the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in pepper.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Capsicum , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955548

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome of cardiac insufficiency caused by abnormalities in cardiac structure and function that arise for various reasons, and it is the final stage of most cardiovascular diseases' progression. Total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. (TFDM) has many pharmacological and biological roles, such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-atherogenic, antihypertensive, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. However, its effect on HF and its molecular mechanism are still unclear. In this study, we used systems pharmacology and an animal model of HF to investigate the cardioprotective effect of TFDM and its molecular mechanism. Eleven compounds in TFDM were obtained from the literature, and 114 overlapping genes related to TFDM and HF were collected from several databases. A PPI network and C-T network were established, and GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis were performed. The top targets from the PPI network and C-T network were validated using molecular docking. The pharmacological activity was investigated in an HFpEF (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction) mouse model. This study shows that TFDM has a protective effect on HFpEF, and its protective mechanism may be related to the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related genes, fibrosis-related genes, etc. Collectively, this study offers new insights for researchers to understand the protective effect and mechanism of TFDM against HFpEF using a network pharmacology method and a murine model of HFpEF, which suggest that TFDM is a promising therapy for HFpEF in the clinic.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Lamiaceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Lamiaceae/química , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , Volume Sistólico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955577

RESUMO

Low light and drought often limit the growth and performance of Masson pines (Pinus massoniana) in the subtropical forest ecosystem of China. We speculated that stress-induced defensive secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and terpenoids, might influence the growth of Masson pines, considering the existence of tradeoffs between growth and defense. However, the mechanisms of Masson pines responsive to low light and drought at the levels of these two metabolites remain unclear. In the present work, the compositions of flavonoids and terpenoids, as well as their biosynthetic pathways, were revealed through metabolome and transcriptome analyses, respectively, coupled with a study on carbon allocation using a 13CO2-pulse-labeling experiment in two-year-old seedlings under low light (LL), drought (DR), and their combined stress (DL) compared to a control (CK). A total of 35 flavonoids and derivatives (LL vs. CK: 18; DR vs. CK: 20; and DL vs. CK: 18), as well as 29 terpenoids and derivatives (LL vs. CK: 23; DR vs. CK: 13; and DL vs. CK: 7), were differentially identified in the leaves. Surprisingly, most of them were decreased under all three stress regimes. At the transcriptomic level, most or all of the detected DEGs (differentially expressed genes) involved in the biosynthetic pathways of flavonoids and terpenoids were downregulated in phloem and xylem under stress treatments. This indicated that stress treatments limited the production of flavonoids and terpenoids. The reduction in the 13C allocation to stems might suggest that it is necessary for maintaining the growth of Masson pine seedlings at the whole-plant level by attenuating energetic resources to the biosynthetic pathways of flavonoids and terpenoids when facing the occurrence of adverse environments. Our results provide new insight into understanding the acclimation strategy of Masson pines or other conifers in adverse environments.


Assuntos
Pinus , Aclimatação , Secas , Ecossistema , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Pinus/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendrobium officinale is a perennial epiphytic herb in Orchidaceae. Cultivated products are the main alternative for clinical application due to the shortage of wild resources. However, the phenotype and quality of D. officinale have changed post-artificial cultivation, and environmental cues such as light, temperature, water, and nutrition supply are the major influencing factors. This study aims to unveil the mechanisms beneath the cultivation-induced variation by analyzing the changes of the metabolome and transcriptome of D. officinale seedlings treated with red- blue LED light and potassium fertilizer. RESULTS: After light- and K-treatment, the D. officinale pseudobulbs turned purple and the anthocyanin content increased significantly. Through wide-target metabolome analysis, compared with pseudobulbs in the control group (P), the proportion of flavonoids in differentially-accumulated metabolites (DAMs) was 22.4% and 33.5% post light- and K-treatment, respectively. The gene modules coupled to flavonoids were obtained through the coexpression analysis of the light- and K-treated D. officinale transcriptome by WGCNA. The KEGG enrichment results of the key modules showed that the DEGs of the D. officinale pseudobulb were enriched in phenylpropane biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis post-light- and K-treatment. In addition, anthocyanin accumulation was the main contribution to the purple color of pseudobulbs, and the plant hormone JA induced the accumulation of anthocyanins in D. officinale. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that light and potassium affected the accumulation of active compounds in D. officinale, and the gene-flavone network analysis emphasizes the key functional genes and regulatory factors for quality improvement in the cultivation of this medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Dendrobium/genética , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 567, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acer pseudosieboldianum is a kind of excellent color-leafed plants, and well known for its red leaves in autumn. At the same time, A. pseudosieboldianum is one of the native tree species in the northeast of China, and it plays an important role in improving the lack of color-leafed plants in the north. In previous study, we found a mutant of the A. pseudosieboldianum that leaves intersect red and green in spring and summer. However, it is unclear which genes cause the color change of mutant leaves. RESULTS: In order to study the molecular mechanism of leaf color formation, we analyzed the leaves of the mutant group and the control group from A. pseudosieboldianum by RNA deep sequencing in this study. Using an Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 276,071,634 clean reads. After the sequences were filtered and assembled, the transcriptome data generated a total of 70,014 transcripts and 54,776 unigenes, of which 34,486 (62.96%) were successfully annotated in seven public databases. There were 8,609 significant DEGs identified between the control and mutant groups, including 4,897 upregulated and 3,712 downregulated genes. We identified 13 genes of DEGs for leaf color synthesis that was involved in the flavonoid pathway, 26 genes that encoded transcription factors, and eight genes associated with flavonoid transport. CONCLUSION: Our results provided comprehensive gene expression information about A. pseudosieboldianum transcriptome, and directed the further study of accumulation of anthocyanin in A. pseudosieboldianum, aiming to provide insights into leaf coloring of it through transcriptome sequencing and analysis.


Assuntos
Acer , Transcriptoma , Acer/genética , Acer/metabolismo , Antocianinas , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
7.
Food Res Int ; 159: 111644, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940772

RESUMO

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is a tree valued for the high medicinal and nutritional value of its leaves and seeds. However, the metabolite profiles of ginkgo leaves and seeds and their changes during development have not been comprehensively analyzed, which hinders improvements in the utilization of ginkgo. A comprehensive and systematic untargeted LC-MS metabolomics analysis of the metabolites in ginkgo leaves (male and female) and seeds at two developmental stages identified 8146 known metabolites, which mainly included lipids and lipid-like molecules, phenylpropanoids and polyketides, organoheterocyclic compounds, organic acids and derivatives, organic oxygen compounds, and benzenoids. Some of the identified metabolites have known healthcare and food value, and some of the others are newly discovered metabolites with potential for new drug development. The small number of differential Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways between leaves of male and female gingko trees indicated that the developmental stage affected the metabolic pathways more significantly than sex. Among the flavonoid constituents of ginkgo, 653 flavonoid metabolites were identified, and these included some new flavonoid components, which confirmed that the developmental stage is a critical factor in secondary metabolite variations. This study illuminated the metabolites and medicinal and edible values of ginkgo leaves and seeds at different developmental stages and thus supports further effective utilization of ginkgo leaves and seeds.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Metabolômica
8.
Neuropharmacology ; 217: 109209, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940347

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that occurs after Alzheimer's disease. Rotenone is a neurotoxin commonly used in creating PD models. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) contains some flavonoids that are effective against neurodegenerative diseases, and it has long been used in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases in China. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of safflower standardized flavonoid extract (SAFE) on a rotenone-induced PD rat model. The results showed that SAFE (17.5, 35, or 70 mg kg-1·day-1) treatment modified the progressive loss in body weight, alleviated behavioral deficits, and promoted survival, especially in the middle-dose SAFE (35 mg kg-1·day-1) group. SAFE treatment significantly modifies the progressive decrease in the level of DA and its metabolites, DOPAC and HVA, 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA in the St, and levels of TH-positive DA-ergic neurons in the SNpc. SAFE also inhibited the decrease in TH and DA levels and increase in Ach content in the St. SAFE (35 mg kg-1·day-1) group treatment modifying the rotenone-induced downregulation of JAK2, STAT3, and ɑ7-nAChR, and also modifying the increase in ACh in the hippocampus. SAFE preventive treatment can also partially inhibit changes in the ECS parameters associated with PD. The marker components of SAFE such as Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside or anhydrosafflor yellow B can bind with TH, JAK2, STAT3, and ɑ7-nAChR based on molecular docking analyses. Current studies have shown that SAFE is a potential candidate for the prevention of PD.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Carthamus tinctorius/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Rotenona/toxicidade
9.
Planta ; 256(2): 44, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857143

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Auxin response factor 2 acts as a positive regulator to fine-tune the spatial and temporal accumulation of flavonoid compounds, mainly flavonols and proanthocyanidins in Arabidopsis. Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins are reported to involve in auxin-mediated regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. However, the detailed regulation mechanism of ARF remains still unknown. Here, we provide genetic and molecular evidence that one of the twenty-three ARF members-ARF2-positively regulates flavonoid biosynthesis at multi-level in tissue-specific manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. Loss-of-function mutation of ARF2 led to significant reduction in flavonoid content (e.g., flavonols and proanthocyanidins) in the seedlings and seeds of the Arabidopsis arf2 mutants. Over-expression of ARF2 increased flavonols and proanthocyanidins content in Arabidopsis. Additionally, the changes of flavonoid content correlate well with the transcript abundance of several regulatory genes (e.g., MYB11, MYB12, MYB111, TT2, and GL3), and key biosynthetic genes (e.g., CHS, F3'H, FLS, ANS, ANR, TT12, TT19, and TT15), in the arf2 mutant and ARF2 over-expression lines. Transient transactivation assays with site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that ARF2 directly regulates the expression of MYB12 and FLS genes in the flavonol pathway and ANR in the proanthocyanidin pathway, and indirectly regulates MYB11 and MYB111 genes in the flavonol pathway, and ANS, TT12, TT19 and TT15 genes in the proanthocyanidin pathway. Further genetic results indicated that ARF2 acts upstream of MYB12 to regulate flavonol accumulation, and of TT2 to regulate proanthocyanidins accumulation. In particular, yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that ARF2 physically interacts with TT2, a master regulator of proanthocyanidins biosynthesis. Combined together, these results indicated that ARF2 functions as a positive regulator for the fine-tuned spatial and temporal regulation of flavonoids (mainly flavonols and proanthocyanidins) accumulation in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proantocianidinas , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Mutação , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887044

RESUMO

Bacteria can spread on surfaces to colonize new environments and access more resources. Rhizobia, a group of α- and ß-Proteobacteria, establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with legumes that rely on a complex signal interchange between the partners. Flavonoids exuded by plant roots and the bacterial transcriptional activator NodD control the transcription of different rhizobial genes (the so-called nod regulon) and, together with additional bacterial regulatory proteins (such as TtsI, MucR or NolR), influence the production of different rhizobial molecular signals. In Sinorhizobium fredii HH103, flavonoids and NodD have a negative effect on exopolysaccharide production and biofilm production. Since biofilm formation and motility are often inversely regulated, we have analysed whether flavonoids may influence the translocation of S. fredii HH103 on surfaces. We show that the presence of nod gene-inducing flavonoids does not affect swimming but promotes a mode of surface translocation, which involves both flagella-dependent and -independent mechanisms. This surface motility is regulated in a flavonoid-NodD1-TtsI-dependent manner, relies on the assembly of the symbiotic type 3 secretion system (T3SS), and involves the participation of additional modulators of the nod regulon (NolR and MucR1). To our knowledge, this is the first evidence indicating the participation of T3SS in surface motility in a plant-interacting bacterium. Interestingly, flavonoids acting as nod-gene inducers also participate in the inverse regulation of surface motility and biofilm formation, which could contribute to a more efficient plant colonisation.


Assuntos
Rhizobium , Sinorhizobium fredii , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Plantas/metabolismo , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Sinorhizobium fredii/metabolismo , Simbiose/fisiologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889537

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogenous group of malignancies in the bile duct, which proliferates aggressively. CCA is highly prevalent in Northeastern Thailand wherein it is associated with liver fluke infection, or Opisthorchis viverrini (OV). Most patients are diagnosed in advanced stages, when the cancer has metastasized or severely progressed, thereby limiting treatment options. Several studies investigate the effect of traditional Thai medicinal plants that may be potential therapeutic options in combating CCA. Galangin is one such herbal flavonoid that has medicinal properties and exhibits anti-tumor properties in various cancers. In this study, we investigate the role of Galangin in inhibiting cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in OV-infected CCA cell lines. We discovered that Galangin reduced cell viability and colony formation by inducing apoptosis in CCA cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Galangin also effectively inhibited invasion and migration in OV-infected CCA cells by reduction of MMP2 and MMP9 enzymatic activity. Additionally, using proteomics, we identified proteins affected post-treatment with Galangin. Enrichment analysis revealed that several kinase pathways were affected by Galangin, and the signature corroborated with that of small molecule kinase inhibitors. Hence, we identified putative targets of Galangin using an in silico approach which highlighted c-Met as candidate target. Galangin effectively inhibited c-Met phosphorylation and subsequent signaling in in vitro CCA cells. In addition, Galangin was able to inhibit HGF, a mediator of c-Met signaling, by suppressing HGF-stimulated invasion, as well as migration and MMP9 activity. This shows that Galangin can be a useful anti-metastatic therapeutic strategy in a subtype of CCA patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Opistorquíase , Opisthorchis , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Opistorquíase/complicações
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e065073, 2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antioxidants are common dietary compounds with multiple health benefits. This study aimed to identify the association between dietary antioxidant consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus (defined using the Korean Diabetes Association criteria) in South Korean adults. DESIGN: Baseline and follow-up data from the Health Examinees (HEXA) study, a large-scale community-based genomic cohort study conducted in South Korea SETTING: A South Korean community. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 20 594 participants, aged 40-79 years, who participated in the baseline and follow-up surveys of the HEXA study were included. After an average of 5 years of follow-up, there were 332 men and 360 women with T2D. RESULTS: Participants with the highest total flavonoid consumption (Q5) had a lower risk of T2D (men: HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.93; p value for trend=0.0169; and women: HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.438 to 0.78; p value for trend=0.0001) than those with the lowest consumption (Q1). Dietary total antioxidant capacity was significantly inversely associated with the development of T2D mellitus in women participants alone (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.83; p value for trend=0.0004). Stratified analyses according to age and body mass index (BMI) showed that dietary total flavonoid consumption and total antioxidant capacity had a negative association with the development of T2D in women aged >52 years and women with BMI >25 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary flavonoid consumption and total antioxidant capacity were associated with a lower risk of T2D in South Korean adults, especially in women aged >52 years and overweight. The findings of this study may provide reference data for the modification of dietary guidelines for South Koreans.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Flavonoides/química , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897693

RESUMO

The primary cilium provides cell sensory and signaling functions. Cilia structure and function are regulated by ciliogenesis-associated kinase 1 (CILK1). Ciliopathies caused by CILK1 mutations show longer cilia and abnormal Hedgehog signaling. Our study aimed to identify small molecular inhibitors of CILK1 that would enable pharmacological modulation of primary cilia. A previous screen of a chemical library for interactions with protein kinases revealed that Alvocidib has a picomolar binding affinity for CILK1. In this study, we show that Alvocidib potently inhibits CILK1 (IC50 = 20 nM), exhibits selectivity for inhibition of CILK1 over cyclin-dependent kinases 2/4/6 at low nanomolar concentrations, and induces CILK1-dependent cilia elongation. Our results support the use of Alvocidib to potently and selectively inhibit CILK1 to modulate primary cilia.


Assuntos
Cílios , Ciliopatias , Cílios/metabolismo , Ciliopatias/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Piperidinas
14.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889387

RESUMO

Dracaena cochinchinensis has special defensive reactions against wound stress. Under wound stress, D. cochinchinensis generates a resin that is an important medicine known as dragon's blood. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the defensive reactions is unclear. Metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses were performed on stems of D. cochinchinensis at different timepoints from the short term to the long term after wounding. According to the 378 identified compounds, wound-induced secondary metabolic processes exhibited three-phase characteristics: short term (0-5 days), middle term (10 days-3 months), and long term (6-17 months). The wound-induced transcriptome profile exhibited characteristics of four stages: within 24 h, 1-5 days, 10-30 days, and long term. The metabolic regulation in response to wound stress mainly involved the TCA cycle, glycolysis, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylalanine biosynthesis, and flavonoid biosynthesis, along with some signal transduction pathways, which were all well connected. Flavonoid biosynthesis and modification were the main reactions against wound stress, mainly comprising 109 flavonoid metabolites and 93 wound-induced genes. A group of 21 genes encoding CHS, CHI, DFR, PPO, OMT, LAR, GST, and MYBs were closely related to loureirin B and loureirin C. Wound-induced responses at the metabolome and transcriptome level exhibited phase characteristics. Complex responses containing primary metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis are involved in the defense mechanism against wound stress in natural conditions, and flavonoid biosynthesis and modification are the main strategies of D. cochinchinensis in the long-term responses to wound stress.


Assuntos
Dracaena , Dracaena/genética , Dracaena/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Transcriptoma
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 297: 115500, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35863614

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is relevant to dysregulation of inflammation and immune processes. Sophora flavescens Aiton is a classic medicine widely used in the treatment of UC in ancient and modern China, alkaloids and flavonoids are the main components. Previous studies reveal that Sophora flavescens Aiton total flavonoids extracts (SFE) exert an anti-UC effect by regulating the intestinal microbe structure and restoring the balance of the "host-microbe" co-metabolic network in UC mice. However, whether SFE influences immune inflammation remains unclear, which is the core link to UC disease. It also remains to be verified flavonoids are the material basis that plays a role in SFE. AIM OF THE STUDY: To identify the action mechanism of the immune-inflammatory regulation of SFE and its main active component Kurarinone against UC. METHODS: This study constructed UC mice and abnormal immune RAW 264.7 cell models, and subsequently used western blotting and flow cytometry (FCM) to evaluate the effects of SFE on the NF-κB pathway and the regulation of immunity in UC mice. Kurarinone was screened from flavonoid compounds of SFE by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells, and its effect was subsequently investigated in UC mice. Western blotting, ELISA, FCM, and RT-PCR were used to determine the regulation of Kurarinone on the Th17/Treg differentiation and the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. RESULTS: SFE regulated the differentiation of Th17/Treg in peripheral blood and inhibited immune-inflammatory response to treat UC. Various flavonoid components in SFE inhibited the synthesis of IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells, among which Kurarinone had better effect. This study revealed the therapeutic effects of Kurarinone in UC mice for the first time. Kurarinone promoted the secretion of SIgA to improve the regulation of the intestinal mucosal barrier and resistance to pathogens. It also regulated the transcription level of RORγt and Foxp3 in colon, decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory factor IL-17A and up-regulated the expression of immunosuppressive factors TGF-ß1 and IL-10 in colon. Furthermore, Kurarinone restored intestinal immune system homeostasis by down-regulating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and regulating the balance of Th17/Treg cell differentiation in UC. CONCLUSIONS: SFE, especially the flavonoid ingredients represented by Kurarinone, has significant effects on immunoregulation against UC. And their mechanism of effect is related to inhibiting the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and regulating differentiation of Th17/Treg cells. KEYWORK: Immunoregulatory; Kurarinone; Th17 cells; Treg cells; Ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Sophora , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Homeostase , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Células Th17
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5445291, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707379

RESUMO

Plants generally secrete secondary metabolites in response to stress. These secondary metabolites are very useful for humankind as they possess a wide range of therapeutic activities. Secondary metabolites produced by plants include alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and steroids. Flavonoids are one of the classes of secondary metabolites of plants found mainly in edible plant parts such as fruits, vegetables, stems, grains, and bark. They are synthesized by the phenylpropanoid pathway. Flavonoids possess antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. Due to their various therapeutic applications, various pharmaceutical companies have exploited different plants for the production of flavonoids. To overcome this situation, various biotechnological strategies have been incorporated to improve the production of different types of flavonoids. In this review, we have highlighted the various types of flavonoids, their biosynthesis, properties, and different strategies to enhance the production of flavonoids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Plantas Medicinais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Terpenos
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 299, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sea buckthorn is an economically important woody plant for desertification control and water soil conservation. Its berry pulp is rich in flavonoids and unsaturated fatty acids. Cultivars containing high oil and flavonoid contents have higher economic value and will increase in the planting area. However, the cause of the differences in oil and flavonoid contents among cultivars is still unclear. The influence of key enzymes in the lipid and flavonoid synthesis pathways on their content needs to be explored and clarified. RESULTS: The flavonoid content in XE (Xin'e 3) was 54% higher than that in SJ (Suiji 1). Rutin was the main flavonoid in sea buckthorn pulp, and the differences in the rutin content could cause flavonoid differences between the two cultivars. The oil content of XE was 31.58% higher than that of SJ, and the difference in oil content was highest at 50-70 DAF. High-throughput proteomics was used to quantify key enzymes of flavonoid and lipid synthesis pathways in two cultivars at three developmental stages. By functional annotation and KEGG analysis, 41 key enzymes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis and TAG biosynthesis were quantified. CHS, F3H, ANS, fabD, FATA, FAB2, LPIN and plcC showed significant differences between the two cultivars. In addition, we quantified 6 oleosins. With the exception of a 16 kDa oleosin, the other oleosins in the two cultivars were positively correlated with oil content. CONCLUSIONS: In the flavonoid synthesis pathway, CHS and F3H were the main enzymes responsible for the difference in flavonoid content between the two cultivars. In the lipid synthesis pathway, LPIN, plcC and MGD were the main enzymes with different contents in the middle to late stages. Higher contents of LPIN and plcC in XE than in SJ could cause DAG to generate TAG from PC, since the difference in DGAT between the two cultivars was not significant. Investigating the causes of flavonoid and oil content differences among different cultivars from the perspective of proteomics, could provide a basis for understanding the regulatory mechanism of flavonoids and lipid synthesis in sea buckthorn pulp.


Assuntos
Hippophae , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Rutina/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 296, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sediment is crucial for the unique marine angiosperm seagrass growth and successful restoration. Sediment modification induced by eutrophication also exacerbates seagrass decline and reduces plantation and transplantation survival rates. However, we lack information regarding the influence of sediment on seagrass photosynthesis and the metabolics, especially regarding the key secondary metabolic flavone. Meanwhile, sulfation of flavonoids in seagrass may mitigate sulfide intrusion, but limited evidence is available. RESULTS: We cultured the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii under controlled laboratory conditions in three sediment types by combining different ratios of in-situ eutrophic sediment and coarse beach sand. We examined the effects of beach sand mixed with natural eutrophic sediments on seagrass using photobiology, metabolomics and isotope labelling approaches. Seagrasses grown in eutrophic sediments mixed with beach sand exhibited significantly higher photosynthetic activity, with a larger relative maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance. Simultaneously, considerably greater belowground amino acid and flavonoid concentrations were observed to counteract anoxic stress in eutrophic sediments without mixed beach sand. This led to more positive belowground stable sulfur isotope ratios in eutrophic sediments with a lower Eh. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that coarse beach sand indirectly enhanced photosynthesis in T. hemprichii by reducing sulfide intrusion with lower amino acid and flavonoid concentrations. This could explain why T. hemprichii often grows better on coarse sand substrates. Therefore, it is imperative to consider adding beach sand to sediments to improve the environmental conditions for seagrass and restore seagrass in eutrophic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Hydrocharitaceae , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Baías , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ecossistema , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Areia , Sulfetos/metabolismo
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(6)2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741840

RESUMO

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.), which has a complex genome, is one of the most important storage root crops in the world. Sweetpotato blades are considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants owing to their high phenolic content with powerful free radical scavenging ability. The molecular mechanism of phenolic metabolism in sweetpotato blades has been seldom reported thus far. In this work, 23 sweetpotato genotypes were used for the analysis of their antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). 'Shangshu19' and 'Wan1314-6' were used for RNA-seq. The results showed that antioxidant activity, TPC and TFC of 23 genotypes had significant difference. There was a significant positive correlation between TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity. The RNA-seq analysis results of two genotypes, 'Shangshu19' and 'Wan1314-6', which had significant differences in antioxidant activity, TPC and TFC, showed that there were 7810 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two genotypes. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was the main differential pathway, and upregulated genes were mainly annotated to chlorogenic acid, flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis pathways. Our results establish a theoretical and practical basis for sweetpotato breeding with antioxidant activity and phenolics in the blades and provide a theoretical basis for the study of phenolic metabolism engineering in sweetpotato blade.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742975

RESUMO

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is an important environmental cue inducing the production of many secondary metabolites involved in plant oxidative stress avoidance and tolerance. To examine the complex role of PAR irradiance and specific spectral components on the accumulation of phenolic compounds (PheCs), we acclimated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) to different spectral qualities (white, blue, green, red) at three irradiances (100, 200, 400 µmol m-2 s-1). We confirmed that blue light irradiance is essential for the accumulation of PheCs in secondary barley leaves (in UV-lacking conditions), which underpins the importance of photoreceptor signals (especially cryptochrome). Increasing blue light irradiance most effectively induced the accumulation of B-dihydroxylated flavonoids, probably due to the significantly enhanced expression of the F3'H gene. These changes in PheC metabolism led to a steeper increase in antioxidant activity than epidermal UV-A shielding in leaf extracts containing PheCs. In addition, we examined the possible role of miRNAs in the complex regulation of gene expression related to PheC biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Raios Ultravioleta , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Luz , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
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