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1.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114426, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763676

RESUMO

Germination is a process that enhances the content of health-promoting secondary metabolites. However, the bioaccessibility of these compounds depends on their stability and solubility throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The study aimed to explore how germination time influences the content and bioaccessibility of γ-aminobutyric acid and polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) sprouts during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Gamma-aminobutyric acid showed a decrease following gastrointestinal digestion (GID) whereas phenolic acids and flavonoids exhibited bioaccessibilities of up to 82.56 and 114.20%, respectively. Although the digestion process affected the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids, certain isoflavonoids identified in 7-day sprouts (G7) showed resistance to GID. Germination not only favored antioxidant activity but also resulted in germinated samples exhibiting greater antioxidant properties than ungerminated counter parts after GID. Intestinal digests from G7 did not show cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and notably, they showed an outstanding ability to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species. This suggests potential benefit in mitigating oxidative stress. These findings contribute to understand the dynamic interplay between bioprocessing and digestion in modulating the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds in lupin, thereby impacting health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Germinação , Lupinus , Lupinus/metabolismo , Lupinus/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Animais , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 401, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants, such as Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ex Benth. are a natural and available source of treatment for a wide range of diseases. The objective of the present study was to assess the morphological and biochemical variation of 70 accessions of this species collected from seven geographical areas of Markazi province in the center of Iran. RESULTS: The measured traits exhibited considerable variability across the populations. Positive correlations were observed between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content, as well as total flavonoid content. Principal component analysis showed six components explaining 72.15% of the total variance, and the PC1 explained 20.68% of the total variance. The Ward dendrogram based on morphological variables identified two main clusters. Morphological analysis of A. chamaecistus showed a high variation between qualitative and quantitative traits that help the breeders for selecting the desired genotypes. The accessions collected from the Robat-Mil area showed the highest values for the recorded morphological characteristics. Also, the populations of Robat-Mil, Hassanabad, and Khaneh-Miran were characterized by high values of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity, which can be used in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present results showed that the best place for the growth of A. chamaecistus with the production of significant contents of phenol and flavonoid is in Robat-Mil area.


Assuntos
Ajuga , Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Irã (Geográfico) , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ajuga/química , Ecossistema , Fenóis/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 211: 108698, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714132

RESUMO

Plants accumulate flavonoids as part of UV-B acclimation, while a high level of UV-B irradiation induces DNA damage and leads to genome instability. Here, we show that MYB4, a member of the R2R3-subfamily of MYB transcription factor plays important role in regulating plant response to UV-B exposure through the direct repression of the key genes involved in flavonoids biosynthesis and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Our results demonstrate that MYB4 inhibits seed germination and seedling establishment in Arabidopsis following UV-B exposure. Phenotype analyses of atmyb4-1 single mutant line along with uvr8-6/atmyb4-1, cop1-6/atmyb4-1, and hy5-215/atmyb4-1 double mutants indicate that MYB4 functions downstream of UVR8 mediated signaling pathway and negatively affects UV-B acclimation and cotyledon expansion. Our results indicate that MYB4 acts as transcriptional repressor of two key flavonoid biosynthesis genes, including 4CL and FLS, via directly binding to their promoter, thus reducing flavonoid accumulation. On the other hand, AtMYB4 overexpression leads to higher accumulation level of DSBs along with repressed expression of several key DSB repair genes, including AtATM, AtKU70, AtLIG4, AtXRCC4, AtBRCA1, AtSOG1, AtRAD51, and AtRAD54, respectively. Our results further suggest that MYB4 protein represses the expression of two crucial DSB repair genes, AtKU70 and AtXRCC4 through direct binding with their promoters. Together, our results indicate that MYB4 functions as an important coordinator to regulate plant response to UV-B through transcriptional regulation of key genes involved in flavonoids biosynthesis and repair of UV-B induced DNA damage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Raios Ultravioleta , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Repressoras
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 211: 108665, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735155

RESUMO

Budding mutations are known to cause metabolic changes in new jujube varieties; however, the mechanisms underlying these changes are still unclear. Here, we performed muti-omics analysis to decipher the detailed metabolic landscape of "Saimisu 1" (S1) and its budding mutation line "Saimisu 2" (S2) at all fruit stages. We found that the genes involved in the biosyntheses of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and amino acids were upregulated in S2 fruits at all stages, especially PAL and DFR, resulting in increased accumulation of related compounds in S2 mature fruits. Further co-expression regulatory network analysis showed that the transcription factors MYB41 and bHLH93 potentially regulated the expression of PAL and DFR, respectively, by directly binding to their promoters. Moreover, the overexpression of MYB41 or bHLH93 induced their expression levels to redirect the flux of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, eventually leading to high levels of related compounds in S2 fruits. Overall, this study revealed the metabolic variations between S1 and S2 and contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying budding mutation-mediated metabolic variations in plants, eventually providing the basis for breeding excellent jujube varieties using budding mutation lines.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas , Ziziphus , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Flavonoides/genética , Ziziphus/genética , Ziziphus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 442, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778262

RESUMO

The popular leafy vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is susceptible to cold stress during the growing season, which slows growth rate, causes leaf yellowing and necrosis, and reduced yield and quality. In this study, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of two cold-resistant lettuce cultivars (GWAS-W42 and F11) and two cold-sensitive lettuce cultivars (S13K079 and S15K058) were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in the cold response of lettuce. Overall, transcriptome analysis identified 605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including significant enrichment of genes involved in the flavonoid and flavonol (CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, CYP75B1, HCT, etc.) biosynthetic pathways related to oxidation-reduction and catalytic activity. Untargeted metabolomic analysis identified fifteen flavonoid metabolites and 28 other metabolites potentially involved in the response to cold stress; genistein, quercitrin, quercetin derivatives, kaempferol derivatives, luteolin derivatives, apigenin and their derivatives accumulate at higher levels in cold-resistant cultivars. Moreover, MYBs, bHLHs, WRKYs and Dofs also play positive role in the low temperature response, which affected the expression of structural genes contributing to the variation of metabolites between the resistant and sensitive. These results provide valuable evidence that the metabolites and genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway play important roles in the response of lettuce to cold stress.


Assuntos
Lactuca , Metabolômica , Transcriptoma , Lactuca/genética , Lactuca/metabolismo , Lactuca/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Temperatura Baixa , Metaboloma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791260

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the antioxidant capacity of lemon flavonoid extract Eriomin® (LE) and its impact on cholesterol metabolism in the context of healthy aging. We orally treated 24-month-old male Wistar rats with an LE (40 mg/kg) suspended in 0.3 mL of sunflower oil. At the same time, control groups received an equal volume of sunflower oil (CON) or remained untreated (ICON) daily for 4 weeks. We examined LE's effects on superoxide dismutase and catalase- and glutathione-related enzyme activities, the concentration of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls, total oxidant status (TOS) and antioxidant status (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in the liver, jejunum, and ileum. We also measured total cholesterol, its biosynthetic precursors (lanosterol, lathosterol, desmosterol), its degradation products (bile acid precursors) in the serum, liver, jejunum, and ileum, and serum phytosterols (intestinal absorption markers). LE reduced TOS, TAS, and OSI (p < 0.05) compared with control values, indicating its consistent antioxidant action in all examined organs. LE lowered hepatic desmosterol (p < 0.05) while also reducing 7α- and 24-hydroxycholesterol levels in the liver and ileum (p < 0.01). Serum cholesterol, hepatic gene expression, and the immunostaining intensity of CYP7A1 were unchanged. In conclusion, LE exerted non-enzymatic antioxidant effects and reduced cholesterol degradation, reducing its biosynthesis products, thereby maintaining serum cholesterol levels.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Antioxidantes , Colesterol , Citrus , Flavonoides , Fígado , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos Wistar , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791294

RESUMO

With the depletion of the ozone layer, the intensity of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface increases, which in turn causes significant stress to plants and affects all aspects of plant growth and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of response to UV-B radiation in the endemic species of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall. (R. chrysanthum) in the Changbai Mountains and to study how exogenous ABA regulates the response of R. chrysanthum to UV-B stress. The results of chlorophyll fluorescence images and OJIP kinetic curves showed that UV-B radiation damaged the PSII photosystem of R. chrysanthum, and exogenous ABA could alleviate this damage to some extent. A total of 2148 metabolites were detected by metabolomics, of which flavonoids accounted for the highest number (487, or 22.67%). KEGG enrichment analysis of flavonoids that showed differential accumulation by UV-B radiation and exogenous ABA revealed that flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis were significantly altered. GO analysis showed that most of the DEGs produced after UV-B radiation and exogenous ABA were distributed in the cellular process, cellular anatomical entity, and catalytic activity. Network analysis of key DFs and DEGs associated with flavonoid synthesis identified key flavonoids (isorhamnetin-3-O-gallate and dihydromyricetin) and genes (TRINITY_DN2213_c0_g1_i4-A1) that promote the resistance of R. chrysanthum to UV-B stress. In addition, multiple transcription factor families were found to be involved in the regulation of the flavonoid synthesis pathway under UV-B stress. Overall, R. chrysanthum actively responded to UV-B stress by regulating changes in flavonoids, especially flavones and flavonols, while exogenous ABA further enhanced its resistance to UV-B stress. The experimental results not only provide a new perspective for understanding the molecular mechanism of the response to UV-B stress in the R. chrysanthum, but also provide a valuable theoretical basis for future research and application in improving plant adversity tolerance.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Rhododendron , Raios Ultravioleta , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Rhododendron/metabolismo , Rhododendron/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791394

RESUMO

Dendrobium nobile is an important orchid plant that has been used as a traditional herb for many years. For the further pharmaceutical development of this resource, a combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis was performed in different parts of D. nobile. First, saccharides, organic acids, amino acids and their derivatives, and alkaloids were the main substances identified in D. nobile. Amino acids and their derivatives and flavonoids accumulated strongly in flowers; saccharides and phenols accumulated strongly in flowers and fruits; alkaloids accumulated strongly in leaves and flowers; and a nucleotide and its derivatives and organic acids accumulated strongly in leaves, flowers, and fruits. Simultaneously, genes for lipid metabolism, terpenoid biosynthesis, and alkaloid biosynthesis were highly expressed in the flowers; genes for phenylpropanoids biosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were highly expressed in the roots; and genes for other metabolisms were highly expressed in the leaves. Furthermore, different members of metabolic enzyme families like cytochrome P450 and 4-coumarate-coA ligase showed differential effects on tissue-specific metabolic accumulation. Members of transcription factor families like AP2-EREBP, bHLH, NAC, MADS, and MYB participated widely in differential accumulation. ATP-binding cassette transporters and some other transporters also showed positive effects on tissue-specific metabolic accumulation. These results systematically elucidated the molecular mechanism of differential accumulation in different parts of D. nobile and enriched the library of specialized metabolic products and promising candidate genes.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Dendrobium/genética , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metaboloma , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Alcaloides/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791442

RESUMO

Acorn flour is a rich source of nutrients and is beneficial to human health due to, among other things, its low glycemic index and polyphenol content. In order to obtain more accurate data on the levels and activities of the substances tested after ingestion and digestion, it may be beneficial to use a simulated in vitro digestion method. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to elucidate the content of polyphenols, individual phenolic acids, flavonoids and antiradical properties of acorn flour and pasta enriched with acorn flour before and after simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The results indicate that the total polyphenol content (TPC), flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity exhibited an increasing trend following the initial digestion stage and a decreasing trend following the second stage. Nevertheless, the levels of phenolic acids demonstrated an increase in both digestion phases. The digestion processes of polyphenols in acorn flour differ significantly from those in pasta. In the case of pasta, total polyphenols, phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as free radical scavenging properties, demonstrated a decreasing trend following each digestion stage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Digestão , Flavonoides , Farinha , Polifenóis , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Farinha/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(10)2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791503

RESUMO

Paeonia ostii is an important economic oil and medicinal crop. Its anthers are often used to make tea in China with beneficial effects on human health. However, the metabolite profiles, as well as potential biological activities of P. ostii anthers and the pollen within anthers have not been systematically analyzed, which hinders the improvement of P. ostii utilization. With comprehensive untargeted metabolomic analysis using UPLC-QTOF-MS, we identified a total of 105 metabolites in anthers and pollen, mainly including phenylpropanoids, polyketides, organic acids, benzenoids, lipids, and organic oxygen compounds. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed the metabolite differences between anthers and pollen, with higher carbohydrates and flavonoids content in pollen and higher phenolic content in anthers. Meanwhile, both anthers and pollen extracts exhibited antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity. In general, the anther stage of S4 showed the highest biological activity among all samples. This study illuminated the metabolites and biological activities of anthers and pollen of P. ostii, which supports the further utilization of them.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Paeonia , Pólen , Pólen/metabolismo , Pólen/química , Paeonia/metabolismo , Paeonia/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Flores/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
11.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792110

RESUMO

Flavonoids, a class of phenolic compounds, are one of the main functional components and have a wide range of molecular structures and biological activities in Polygonatum. A few of them, including homoisoflavonoids, chalcones, isoflavones, and flavones, were identified in Polygonatum and displayed a wide range of powerful biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-viral, and blood sugar regulation. However, few studies have systematically been published on the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Therefore, in the present study, a combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis was performed on the leaf, stem, rhizome, and root tissues of P. cyrtonema to uncover the synthesis pathway of flavonoids and to identify key regulatory genes. Flavonoid-targeted metabolomics detected a total of 65 active substances from four different tissues, among which 49 substances were first study to identify in Polygonatum, and 38 substances were flavonoids. A total of 19 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) (five flavonols, three flavones, two dihydrochalcones, two flavanones, one flavanol, five phenylpropanoids, and one coumarin) were finally screened by KEGG enrichment analysis. Transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 222 unigenes encoding 28 enzymes were annotated into three flavonoid biosynthesis pathways, which were "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", "flavonoid biosynthesis", and "flavone and flavonol biosynthesis". The combined analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome revealed that 37 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) encoding 11 enzymes (C4H, PAL, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, LAR, ANR, FNS, FLS) and 19 DAMs were more likely to be regulated in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The expression of 11 DEGs was validated by qRT-PCR, resulting in good agreement with the RNA-Seq. Our studies provide a theoretical basis for further elucidating the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Polygonatum.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Flavonoides , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica , Polygonatum , Transcriptoma , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/genética , Polygonatum/genética , Polygonatum/metabolismo , Polygonatum/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metaboloma
12.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792114

RESUMO

Flavonoids and stilbenoids, crucial secondary metabolites abundant in plants and fungi, display diverse biological and pharmaceutical activities, including potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects. However, conventional production methods, such as chemical synthesis and plant extraction, face challenges in sustainability and yield. Hence, there is a notable shift towards biological production using microorganisms like Escherichia coli and yeast. Yet, the drawbacks of using E. coli and yeast as hosts for these compounds persist. For instance, yeast's complex glycosylation profile can lead to intricate protein production scenarios, including hyperglycosylation issues. Consequently, Corynebacterium glutamicum emerges as a promising alternative, given its adaptability and recent advances in metabolic engineering. Although extensively used in biotechnological applications, the potential production of flavonoid and stilbenoid in engineered C. glutamicum remains largely untapped compared to E. coli. This review explores the potential of metabolic engineering in C. glutamicum for biosynthesis, highlighting its versatility as a cell factory and assessing optimization strategies for these pathways. Additionally, various metabolic engineering methods, including genomic editing and biosensors, and cofactor regeneration are evaluated, with a focus on C. glutamicum. Through comprehensive discussion, the review offers insights into future perspectives in production, aiding researchers and industry professionals in the field.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium glutamicum , Flavonoides , Engenharia Metabólica , Estilbenos , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolismo , Corynebacterium glutamicum/genética , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Estilbenos/metabolismo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 930: 172796, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692325

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) affects gene transcription, metabolite biosynthesis and growth in plants. The tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is highly adaptive to adversity, whereas the mechanisms underlying its response to Pb remain uncertain. In this work, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses were employed to study tung trees under Pb stress. The results showed that the biomass of tung seedlings decreased with increasing Pb doses, and excessive Pb doses resulted in leaf wilting, root rot, and disruption of Pb homeostasis. Under non-excessive Pb stress, a significant change in the expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthesis genes was observed in the roots of tung seedlings, leading to changes in the accumulation of flavonoids in the roots, especially the upregulation of catechins, which can chelate Pb and reduce its toxicity in plants. In addition, Pb-stressed roots showed a large accumulation of VfWRKY55, VfWRKY75, and VfLRR1 transcripts, which were shown to be involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway by gene module analysis. Overexpression of VfWRKY55, VfWRKY75, and VfLRR1 significantly increased catechin concentrations in tung roots, respectively. These data indicate that Pb stress-induced changes in the expression patterns of those genes regulate the accumulation of catechins. Our findings will help to clarify the molecular mechanism of Pb response in plants.


Assuntos
Catequina , Chumbo , Transcriptoma , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo
14.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731636

RESUMO

Plant in vitro cultures can be an effective tool in obtaining desired specialized metabolites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on phenolic compounds in Rhaponticum carthamoides shoots cultured in vitro. R. carthamoides is an endemic and medicinal plant at risk of extinction due to the massive harvesting of its roots and rhizomes from the natural environment. The shoots were cultured on an agar-solidified and liquid-agitated Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 0.5 mg/L of 6-benzyladenine (BA). The effect of the medium and different treatments of LED lights (blue (BL), red (RL), white (WL), and a combination of red and blue (R:BL; 7:3)) on R. carthamoides shoot growth and its biosynthetic potential was observed. Medium type and the duration of LED light exposure did not affect the proliferation rate of shoots, but they altered the shoot morphology and specialized metabolite accumulation. The liquid medium and BL light were the most beneficial for the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (CQAs) production, shoot growth, and biomass increment. The liquid medium and BL light enhanced the content of the sum of all identified CQAs (6 mg/g DW) about three-fold compared to WL light and control, fluorescent lamps. HPLC-UV analysis confirmed that chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) was the primary compound in shoot extracts regardless of the type of culture and the light conditions (1.19-3.25 mg/g DW), with the highest level under R:BL light. BL and RL lights were equally effective. The abundant component was also 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, accompanied by 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, a tentatively identified dicaffeoylquinic acid derivative, and a tricaffeoylquinic acid derivative 2, the contents of which depended on the LED light conditions.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Luz , Brotos de Planta , Ácido Quínico , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/metabolismo , Ácido Quínico/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3991, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734724

RESUMO

Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis (CRC) is an important medicinal plant, its dried mature peels named "Guangchenpi", has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat cough, indigestion, and lung diseases for several hundred years. However, the biosynthesis of the crucial natural products polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) in CRC remains unclear. Here, we report a chromosome-scale genome assembly of CRC with the size of 314.96 Mb and a contig N50 of 16.22 Mb. Using multi-omics resources, we discover a putative caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (CcOMT1) that can transfer a methyl group to the 3-hydroxyl of natsudaidain to form 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HPMF). Based on transient overexpression and virus-induced gene silencing experiments, we propose that CcOMT1 is a candidate enzyme in HPMF biosynthesis. In addition, a potential gene regulatory network associated with PMF biosynthesis is identified. This study provides insights into PMF biosynthesis and may assist future research on mining genes for the biosynthesis of plant-based medicines.


Assuntos
Citrus , Flavonoides , Metiltransferases , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Multiômica
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 11002-11012, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700031

RESUMO

Due to the increasing demand for natural food ingredients, including taste-active compounds, enzyme-catalyzed conversions of natural substrates, such as flavonoids, are promising tools to align with the principles of Green Chemistry. In this study, a novel O-methyltransferase activity was identified in the mycelium of Lentinula edodes, which was successfully applied to generate the taste-active flavonoids hesperetin, hesperetin dihydrochalcone, homoeriodictyol, and homoeriodictyol dihydrochalcone. Furthermore, the mycelium-mediated OMT activity allowed for the conversion of various catecholic substrates, yielding their respective (iso-)vanilloids, while monohydroxylated compounds were not converted. By means of a bottom-up proteomics approach, three putative O-methyltransferases were identified, and subsequently, synthetic, codon-optimized genes were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes confirmed the biocatalytic O-methylation activity against targeted flavonoids containing catechol motifs.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Catecol O-Metiltransferase , Flavonoides , Proteínas Fúngicas , Cogumelos Shiitake , Cogumelos Shiitake/enzimologia , Cogumelos Shiitake/genética , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/química , Micélio/enzimologia , Micélio/genética , Micélio/química , Micélio/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731810

RESUMO

Dihydrochalcones (DHCs) constitute a specific class of flavonoids widely known for their various health-related advantages. Melatonin (MLT) has received attention worldwide as a master regulator in plants, but its roles in DHC accumulation remain unclear. Herein, the elicitation impacts of MLT on DHC biosynthesis were examined in Lithocarpus litseifolius, a valuable medicinal plant famous for its sweet flavor and anti-diabetes effect. Compared to the control, the foliar application of MLT significantly increased total flavonoid and DHC (phlorizin, trilobatin, and phloretin) levels in L. litseifolius leaves, especially when 100 µM MLT was utilized for 14 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were boosted after MLT treatments, resulting in a decrease in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, MLT triggered the biosynthesis of numerous phytohormones linked to secondary metabolism (salicylic acid, methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA), and ethylene), while reducing free JA contents in L. litseifolius. Additionally, the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme activities were enhanced by the MLT in leaves. Multiple differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RNA-seq might play a crucial role in MLT-elicited pathways, particularly those associated with the antioxidant system (SOD, CAT, and POD), transcription factor regulation (MYBs and bHLHs), and DHC metabolism (4CL, C4H, UGT71K1, and UGT88A1). As a result, MLT enhanced DHC accumulation in L. litseifolius leaves, primarily by modulating the antioxidant activity and co-regulating the physiological, hormonal, and transcriptional pathways of DHC metabolism.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melatonina , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Folhas de Planta , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Chalconas/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732065

RESUMO

The research investigates the influence of different lighting conditions and soil treatments, in particular the application of food polymers separately and in combination with spores of Trichoderma consortium, on the growth and development of herbs-Thymus vulgaris and Thymus serpyllum. The metabolic analysis focuses on detecting changes in the levels of biologically active compounds such as chlorophyll a and b, anthocyanins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds (including flavonoids), terpenoids, and volatile organic compounds with potential health-promoting properties. By investigating these factors, the study aims to provide insights into how environmental conditions affect the growth and chemical composition of selected plants and to shed light on potential strategies for optimising the cultivation of these herbs for the improved quality and production of bioactive compounds. Under the influence of additional lighting, the growth of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum seedlings was greatly accelerated, resulting in an increase in shoot biomass and length, and in the case of T. vulgaris, an increase in carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Regarding secondary metabolites, the most pronounced changes were observed in total antioxidant capacity and flavonoid content, which increased significantly under the influence of additional lighting. The simultaneous or separate application of Trichoderma and food polymers resulted in an increase in flavonoid content in the leaves of both Thymus species. The increase in terpenoid content under supplemental light appears to be related to the presence of Trichoderma spores as well as food polymers added to the soil. However, the nature of these changes depends on the thyme species. Volatile compounds were analysed using an electronic nose (E-nose). Eight volatile compounds (VOCs) were tentatively identified in the vapours of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum: α-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene; 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol. Tendencies to increase the percentage of thymol and γ-terpinene under supplemental lighting were observed. The results also demonstrate a positive effect of food polymers and, to a lesser extent, Trichoderma fungi on the synthesis of VOCs with health-promoting properties. The effect of Trichoderma and food polymers on individual VOCs was positive in some cases for thymol and γ-terpinene.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Luz , Thymus (Planta) , Trichoderma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta)/química , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732191

RESUMO

Acacia melanoxylon is highly valued for its commercial applications, with the heartwood exhibiting a range of colors from dark to light among its various clones. The underlying mechanisms contributing to this color variation, however, have not been fully elucidated. In an effort to understand the factors that influence the development of dark heartwood, a comparative analysis was conducted on the microstructure, substance composition, differential gene expression, and metabolite profiles in the sapwood (SW), transition zone (TZ), and heartwood (HW) of two distinct clones, SR14 and SR25. A microscopic examination revealed that heartwood color variations are associated with an increased substance content within the ray parenchyma cells. A substance analysis indicated that the levels of starches, sugars, and lignin were more abundant in SP compared to HW, while the concentrations of phenols, flavonoids, and terpenoids were found to be higher in HW than in SP. Notably, the dark heartwood of the SR25 clone exhibited greater quantities of phenols and flavonoids compared to the SR14 clone, suggesting that these compounds are pivotal to the color distinction of the heartwood. An integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolomics data uncovered a significant accumulation of sinapyl alcohol, sinapoyl aldehyde, hesperetin, 2', 3, 4, 4', 6'-peptahydroxychalcone 4'-O-glucoside, homoeriodictyol, and (2S)-liquiritigenin in the heartwood of SR25, which correlates with the up-regulated expression of CCRs (evm.TU.Chr3.1751, evm.TU.Chr4.654_667, evm.TU.Chr4.675, evm.TU.Chr4.699, and evm.TU.Chr4.704), COMTs (evm.TU.Chr13.3082, evm.TU.Chr13.3086, and evm.TU.Chr7.1411), CADs (evm.TU.Chr10.2175, evm.TU.Chr1.3453, and evm.TU.Chr8.1600), and HCTs (evm.TU.Chr4.1122, evm.TU.Chr4.1123, evm.TU.Chr8.1758, and evm.TU.Chr9.2960) in the TZ of A. melanoxylon. Furthermore, a marked differential expression of transcription factors (TFs), including MYBs, AP2/ERFs, bHLHs, bZIPs, C2H2s, and WRKYs, were observed to be closely linked to the phenols and flavonoids metabolites, highlighting the potential role of multiple TFs in regulating the biosynthesis of these metabolites and, consequently, influencing the color variation in the heartwood. This study facilitates molecular breeding for the accumulation of metabolites influencing the heartwood color in A. melanoxylon, and offers new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying heartwood formation in woody plants.


Assuntos
Acacia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Madeira , Acacia/metabolismo , Acacia/genética , Madeira/metabolismo , Madeira/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Fenóis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732228

RESUMO

Herein, I will review our efforts to develop a comprehensive and robust model for the estimation of the first oxidation potential, Ep1, and antioxidant activity, AA, of flavonoids that would, besides enabling fast and cheap prediction of Ep1 and AA for a flavonoid of interest, help us explain the relationship between Ep1, AA and electronic structure. The model development went forward with enlarging the set of flavonoids and, that way, we had to learn how to deal with the structural peculiarities of some of the 35 flavonoids from the final calibration set, for which the Ep1 measurements were all made in our laboratory. The developed models were simple quadratic models based either on atomic spin densities or differences in the atomic charges of the species involved in any of the three main oxidation mechanisms. The best model takes into account all three mechanisms of oxidation, single electron transfer-proton transfer (SET-PT), sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), yielding excellent statistics (R2 = 0.970, S.E. = 0.043).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Oxirredução , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Elétrons , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Teóricos
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