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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203927

RESUMO

Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana has been traditionally used for the treatment of digestive ailments such as gastritis, whose main etiological agent is Helicobacter pylori. In a previous screening study, the aqueous extract exhibited a good in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. With the aim of determining the efficacy of this species as a treatment for H. pylori related diseases and finding bioactive compounds, its aqueous extract was subjected to solvent partitioning and the fractions obtained were tested for their in vitro anti-H. pylori effect, as well as for their in vivo gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. The aqueous extract showed a MIC = 250 µg/mL. No acute toxicity was induced in mice. A gastroprotection of 69.8 ± 3.8%, as well as anti-inflammatory effects of 47.6 ± 12.4% and 38.8 ± 10.2% (by oral and topical administration, respectively), were attained. Estafiatin and eupatilin were isolated and exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with MBCs of 15.6 and 31.2 µg/mL, respectively. The finding that A. ludoviciana aqueous extract has significant anti-H. pylori, gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities is a relevant contribution to the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this species. This work is the first report about the in vivo gastroprotective activity of A. ludoviciana and the anti-H. pylori activity of eupatilin and estafiatin.


Assuntos
Artemisia/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204433

RESUMO

Catechins are a part of the chemical family of flavonoids, a naturally occurring antioxidant, and a secondary metabolite in certain plants. Green tea catechins are well recognized for their essential anti-inflammatory, photo-protective, antioxidant, and chemo-preventive functions. Ultraviolet radiation is a principal cause of damage to the skin. Studies observed that regular intake of green tea catechins increased the minimal dose of radiation required to induce erythema. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis are to determine the effectiveness of green tea catechins in cutaneous erythema and elucidate whether green tea catechin consumption protects against erythema (sunburn) inflammation. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify the relevant studies. Two researchers carried out independent screening, data extraction, and quality assessment according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). The pooled effect of green tea catechins on protection against erythema was assessed using approaches fixed-effects or random-effects model to quantify the effectiveness of green tea catechins in the erythema dose-response. Studies not be included in meta-analyses were summarized narratively. Six randomized controlled studies of enrolled studies regularly administrated green tea catechins orally for 6 to 12 weeks involving healthy volunteers comprising a total of 100 participants were included in the analysis. The results revealed green tea catechins have favorable protection against erythema inflammation even at increased minimal erythema dose (MED) of ultraviolet radiation. Meta-analysis results confirm oral supplementation of green tea catechins is highly effective at low-intensity ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema response (MED range; 1.25-1.30) compared to placebo, showing a significant pooling difference (p = 0.002) in erythema index (SMD: -0.35; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.13; I2 = 4%, p = 0.40) in the random-effects model. The pro-inflammatory signaling pathways through oral supplementation with green tea catechins are an attractive strategy for photo-protection in healthy human subjects and could represent a complementary approach to topical sunscreens. Therefore, studies that involved green tea catechin in topical applications to human subjects were also evaluated separately, and their meta-analysis is presented as a reference. The evidence indicates that regular green tea catechin supplementation is associated with protection against UV-induced damage due to erythema inflammation.


Assuntos
Catequina/farmacologia , Eritema/tratamento farmacológico , Chá/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catequina/química , Eritema/metabolismo , Eritema/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Chá/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207335

RESUMO

Several medical plants, such as Passiflora incarnata L., contain C-glycosylated flavonoids, which may contribute to their efficacy. Information regarding the bioavailability and metabolism of these compounds is essential, but not sufficiently available. Therefore, the metabolism of the C-glycosylated flavones orientin, isoorientin, schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vitexin, and isovitexin was investigated using the Caco-2 cell line as an in vitro intestinal and epithelial metabolism model. Isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin showed broad ranges of phase I and II metabolites containing hydroxylated, methoxylated, and sulfated compounds, whereas schaftoside, isoschaftoside, and vitexin underwent poor metabolism. All metabolites were identified via UHPLC-MS or UHPLC-MS/MS using compound libraries containing all conceivable metabolites. Some structures were confirmed via UHPLC-MS experiments with reference compounds after a cleavage reaction using glucuronidase and sulfatase. Of particular interest is the observed cleavage of the C-C bonds between sugar and aglycone residues in isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin, resulting in unexpected glucuronidated or sulfated luteolin and apigenin derivatives. These findings indicate that C-glycosidic flavones can be highly metabolized in the intestine. In particular, flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxy groups showed sulfated metabolites. The identified glucuronidated or sulfated aglycones demonstrate that enzymes expressed by Caco-2 cells are able to potentially cleave C-C bonds in vitro.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Passiflora/química , Células CACO-2 , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Humanos
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206169

RESUMO

In addition to the vast diversity of fauna and flora, the Brazilian Amazon has different climatic periods characterized by periods with greater and lesser rainfall. The main objective of this research was to verify the influence of climatic seasons in the Brazilian Amazon (northeast of Pará state) concerning the aromatic and bioactive profiles of fermented and dried cocoa seeds. About 200 kg of seeds was fermented using specific protocols of local producers. Physicochemical analyzes (total titratable acidity, pH, total phenolic compounds, quantification of monomeric phenolics and methylxanthines) and volatile compounds by GC-MS were carried out. We observed that: in the summer, the highest levels of aldehydes were identified, such as benzaldehyde (6.34%) and phenylacetaldehyde (36.73%), related to the fermented cocoa and honey aromas, respectively; and a total of 27.89% of this same class was identified during winter. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05, Tukey test) in the profile of bioactive compounds (catechin, epicatechin, caffeine, and theobromine), being higher in fermented almonds in winter. This study indicates that the climatic seasons in the Amazon affect the aromatic and bioactive profiles and could produce a new identity standard (summer and winter Amazon) for the cocoa almonds and their products.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ecossistema , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Estações do Ano , Sementes , Cacau/química , Cacau/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Odorantes , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206953

RESUMO

Quercetin, classified as a flavonoid, is a strong antioxidant that plays a significant role in the regulation of physiological processes in plants, which is particularly important in the case of biotic and abiotic stresses. The study investigated the effect of the use of potassium quercetin solutions in various concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%) on the physiological and biochemical properties of wheat seedlings. A pot experiment was carried out in order to determine the most beneficial dose of this flavonoid acting as a bio-stimulant for wheat plants. Spraying with quercetin derivative solutions was performed twice, and physiological measurements (chlorophyll content and fluorescence as well as gas exchange) were carried out on the first and seventh days after each application. The total phenolic compounds content and the total antioxidant capacity were also determined. It was shown that the concentrations of potassium quercetin applied have a stimulating effect on the course of physiological processes. In the case of most of the tested physiological parameters (chlorophyll content and fluorescence and gas exchange) and the total antioxidant capacity, no significant differences were observed in their increase as a result of application with concentrations of 3.0 and 5.0%. Therefore, the beneficial effect of quercetin on the analysed parameters is already observed when spraying with a concentration of 3.0%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206985

RESUMO

Microbial conjugation studies of licochalcones (1-4) and xanthohumol (5) were performed by using the fungi Mucor hiemalis and Absidia coerulea. As a result, one new glucosylated metabolite was produced by M. hiemalis whereas four new and three known sulfated metabolites were obtained by transformation with A. coerulea. Chemical structures of all the metabolites were elucidated on the basis of 1D-, 2D-NMR and mass spectroscopic data analyses. These results could contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic fates of licochalcones and xanthohumol in mammalian systems. Although licochalcone A 4'-sulfate (7) showed less cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines compared to its substrate licochalcone A, its activity was fairly retained with the IC50 values in the range of 27.35-43.07 µM.


Assuntos
Absidia/metabolismo , Chalconas/química , Flavonoides/química , Mucor/metabolismo , Propiofenonas/química , Células A549 , Absidia/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/metabolismo , Chalconas/toxicidade , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Metaboloma , Mucor/química , Propiofenonas/metabolismo , Propiofenonas/toxicidade
7.
Food Chem ; 362: 130238, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098441

RESUMO

The aims of present study were to determine the impact of rutin complexation on the ability of soybean protein isolates (SPI) to form and stabilize foams and its mechanism. At pH 7.0, the foaming capacity and foaming stability of the rutin-SPI complexes (28.33% and 14.22%) was appreciably changed when compared with that of SPI alone (19.64% and 32.95%). The improvement in foaming properties was mainly attributed to decrease gas bubble size and increase interfacial thickness as suggested by light microscopy analysis. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the absorption peak of the SPI was increased and red shifted after complexation with rutin. ITC confirmed that there was an interaction between rutin and SPI. This interaction was hydrophobic interaction and the binding process was entropy driven. This study shows that the foaming properties of plant-based proteins can be improved by forming complexes with flavonoids, which may be useful for foaming agents in foods.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Rutina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Aerossóis/química , Flavonoides/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068821

RESUMO

The peel color is an important external quality of melon fruit. To explore the mechanisms of melon peel color formation, we performed an integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome with three different fruit peel samples (grey-green 'W', dark-green 'B', and yellow 'H'). A total of 40 differentially expressed flavonoids were identified. Integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that flavonoid biosynthesis was associated with the fruit peel coloration of melon. Twelve differentially expressed genes regulated flavonoids synthesis. Among them, nine (two 4CL, F3H, three F3'H, IFS, FNS, and FLS) up-regulated genes were involved in the accumulation of flavones, flavanones, flavonols, and isoflavones, and three (2 ANS and UFGT) down-regulated genes were involved in the accumulation of anthocyanins. This study laid a foundation to understand the molecular mechanisms of melon peel coloration by exploring valuable genes and metabolites.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/genética , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 246, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, AACC) is one of the most important oil crops and sources of protein for animal feed worldwide. Lignin is a large molecule aromatic polymer and a major cell wall component. However, lignin in the seed coat reduces the availability and restricts the development of rapeseed cake. Therefore, it is critical to reduce the lignin content of the seed coat. Here, high-lignin (H-lignin) and low-lignin (L-lignin) content recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were selected from an RIL population for analysis. RESULTS: The cross-section results indicated that the seed coat of the H-lignin lines was thicker than that of the L-lignin lines, especially the palisade layer. The seed coats and embryos at 35, 40 and 46 days after flowering (DAF) were subjected to RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and the expression of the BnPAL and BnC4H gene families in the lignin pathway was significantly higher in the H-lignin seed coat than in the L-lignin seed coat. The Bn4CL gene family also showed this trend. In addition, among the genes related to plant hormone synthesis, BnaC02g01710D was upregulated and BnaA07g11700D and BnaC09g00190D were downregulated in H-lignin lines. Some transcription factors were upregulated, such as BnNAC080, BnNAC083, BnMYB9, BnMYB9-1, BnMYB60 and BnMYB60-1, while BnMYB91 was downregulated in H-lignin lines. Moreover, most genes of the flavonoid pathway, such as BnCHS and BnDFR, were strongly expressed in H-lignin seed coat. CONCLUSIONS: In Our study, some key genes such as hormone synthesis genes, transcription factors and miRNAs related to lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. A regulatory model of B. napus seed coat lignin was proposed. These results provide new insight into lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in B. napus.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Plant Sci ; 308: 110904, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034864

RESUMO

Plants are the sole source of flavonoids, a chemical category that includes flavonols. For the most part, flavonols occur as glycosides with numerous postulated biological roles in plants, including photoprotection, modulation of hormone translocation, and sequestration of reactive oxygen species. Flavonol glycosides are often considered as dead-end metabolites because related flavonoids (i.e., anthocyanins) occur in terminal tissues such as flowers and fruit, but recent evidence points to their turnover in planta, including developing photosynthetic tissues. Although microbial degradation pathways for flavonol glycosides of plant origin are well described, plant catabolic pathways are little studied by comparison. This review will address our current understanding of biochemical processes leading to the loss of flavonol glycosides in plants, with a specific emphasis on the evidence for flavonol-specific ß-glucosidases. Complete elucidation of these catabolic pathways is dependent on the identification of regiospecific modifying steps, including enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of rhamnosylated flavonols, as well as flavonol peroxidation and their encoding genes. Herein, we highlight challenges for the identification of hypothetical plant α-rhamnosidases and peroxidases involved in flavonol glycoside degradation, and the potential biological role of this catabolism in mitigating oxidative stress in developing and postharvest plant tissues.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(21): 5897-5906, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027663

RESUMO

The activation of adipose tissue browning and thermogenesis provides a new strategy to counter obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Here, a natural flavonoid chrysin is used as the supplement of a high-fat diet (HFD). Dietary chrysin alleviates adiposity and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. Meanwhile, dietary chrysin elevates systemic energy expenditure and enhances the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) level in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), which is accompanied by the increased thermogenic program, beige preadipocyte number, and angiogenesis in SAT. Dietary chrysin also induces the expression of SAT platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), which commits adipose progenitor cells to differentiate into beige or white adipocytes in response to various environmental signals. Double immunofluorescent staining for UCP1 and PDGFRα reveals that chrysin elevates the number of UCP1+PDGFRα+ beige progenitors in SAT. Further, chrysin treatment reverses the effects of the specific PDGFRα inhibitor imatinib on browning differentiation of stromal vascular fraction cells from SAT. Finally, chrysin-induced adipocyte browning is correlated with the expressions of microRNAs as PDGFRα inhibitors or thermogenesis suppressors. In conclusion, dietary chrysin promotes subcutaneous adipocyte browning and systematic energy expenditure by regulating PDGFRα and microRNA expressions in HFD-fed mice.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Termogênese , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 361: 130166, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058658

RESUMO

Use of 'green biomass' of the grapevine is gradually extending into the food industry. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the potential of metabolomic fingerprinting for characterization of grapevine leaves and canes. Our method comprises successive aqueous-methanolic extractions, followed by U-HPLC-HRMS/MS. For data processing, PCA and (O)PLS-DA methods were utilized, and mathematical models were validated. We showed that from all factors investigated, harvesting season explained most of the variability between samples, followed by locality combined with farming system. The identified statistically significant metabolites for harvesting season models mostly represented the groups of fatty acids, fatty phenols, (lyso)phospholipids, flavonoids and organic acids. For models of localities with different farming systems, majority of identified metabolites significant for organic farming belonged to groups of fatty acids and their derivatives, terpenoids, sterols, and fat soluble vitamins, whereas for conventional farming, the only identified significant metabolites were the pesticide residues.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Vitis/metabolismo , Biomassa , Quimioinformática/métodos , República Tcheca , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Orgânica , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Vitis/química
13.
Food Chem ; 361: 130064, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029895

RESUMO

In this study, black geotextile inter-row mulch, a weed control practice, was applied under a semi-arid climate to attenuate solar reflection in 2015-2017, and it concurrently increased soil temperature and fruit-zone high temperature duration and decreased low temperature duration. Inter-row mulch decreased anthocyanins concentrations in grapes in 2015-2016, and consistently inhibited flavonols accumulation in 2015-2017. Correlation analysis between microclimate parameters and flavonoids concentrations reflected the importance of solar reflection, fruit-zone high and low temperature duration, heat accumulation and soil temperature to flavonoids accumulation. Basal leaf removal, a widely applied practice to increase fruit-zone light exposure, was applied to mulch-treated grapevines to investigate if increasing incident light could mitigate the impact of inter-row mulch on flavonoids, and it had limited influence on anthocyanins whereas compensated the loss of flavonols in grapes caused by inter-row mulch. Notably, inter-row mulch wines showed less red and more yellow color than controls because of lower anthocyanins concentrations.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Clima Desértico , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Luz , Espectrometria de Massas , Microclima , Solo/química , Vitis/efeitos da radiação , Vinho/análise , Vinho/efeitos da radiação
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925918

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the underlying mechanisms of xanthohumol (XN) on the proliferation inhibition and death of C6 glioma cells. METHODS: To determine the effects of XN on C6 cells, cell proliferation and mortality after XN treatment were assessed by SRB assay and trypan blue assay respectively. Apoptotic rates were evaluated by flowcytometry after Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. The influence of XN on the activity of caspase-3 was determined by Western blot (WB); and nuclear transposition of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was tested by immunocytochemistry and WB. By MitoSOXTM staining, the mitochondrial ROS were detected. Mitochondrial function was also tested by MTT assay (content of succinic dehydrogenase), flow cytometry (mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)-JC-1 staining; mitochondrial abundance-mito-Tracker green), immunofluorescence (MMP-JC-1 staining; mitochondrial morphology-mito-Tracker green), WB (mitochondrial fusion-fission protein-OPA1, mfn2, and DRP1; mitophagy-related proteins-Pink1, Parkin, LC3B, and P62), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (energy charge). Finally, mitochondrial protein homeostasis of C6 cells after XN treatment with and without LONP1 inhibitor bortezomib was investigated by trypan blue assay (proliferative activity and mortality) and WB (mitochondrial protease LONP1). All cell morphology images were taken by a Leica Microsystems microscope. RESULTS: XN could lead to proliferation inhibition and death of C6 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induce apoptosis of C6 cells through the AIF pathway. After long incubation of XN, mitochondria of C6 cells were seriously impaired, and mitochondria had a diffuse morphology and mitochondrial ROS were increased. The content of succinic dehydrogenase per cell was significantly decreased after XN insults of 24, 48, and 72 h. The energy charge was weakened after XN insult of 24 h. Furthermore, the MMP and mitochondrial abundance were significantly decreased; the protein expression levels of OPA1, mfn2, and DRP1 were down-regulated; and the protein expression levels of Pink1, Parkin, LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and p62 were up-regulated in long XN incubation times (24, 48, and 72 h). XN incubation with bortezomib for 48 h resulted in lower proliferative activity and higher mortality of C6 cells and caused the cell to have visible vacuoles. Moreover, the protein expression levels of LONP1 was up-regulated gradually as XN treatment time increased. CONCLUSION: These data supported that XN could induce AIF pathway apoptosis of the rat glioma C6 cells by affecting the mitochondria.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Propiofenonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/metabolismo , Caspase 3/análise , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Glioma/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Propiofenonas/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Food Sci ; 86(4): 1463-1474, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818774

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) is the only food rich in flavonoid bioactive substances in grains. Studies have shown that flavonoids interaction with amylose has an important impact on the physical and chemical properties and structure of starch. In this study, Tartary buckwheat was used as a raw material. It was then threshed with pullulanase, and a high amylose Tartary buckwheat starch flavonoid complex (HBS/BF) was prepared by physical mixing (PM), water bath treatment (WT), acid-base precipitation (AP), microwave treatment (MT), and ultrasonic treatment (UT); the physical and chemical properties were then evaluated. The results show that HBS/BF-UT and HBS/BF-MT have a higher iodine binding rate than HBS/BF-PM; X-ray diffraction results show that HBS/BF-AP has a V-type crystal form, but the relative crystallinity was reduced. Fourier infrared spectroscopy showed that there is no new covalent bond between Tartary buckwheat starch and flavonoids. In vitro digestion showed that adding flavonoid significantly increased the digestibility of Tartary buckwheat starch. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: These results will provide a theoretical basis for further starch anti-digestion mechanisms and the preparation of resistant starch. These steps will provide insights into the application of Tartary buckwheat starch and flavonoids in the food industry.


Assuntos
Amilose/química , Fagopyrum/química , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Ultrassom
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800078

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) acts as a regulatory stimulus, inducing the dose-dependent biosynthesis of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids at the leaf level. However, the heterogeneity of biosynthesis activation generated within a whole plant is not fully understood until now and cannot be interpreted without quantification of UV-B radiation interception. In this study, we analyzed the spatial UV-B radiation interception of kales (Brassica oleracea L. var. Acephala) grown under supplemental UV-B LED using ray-tracing simulation with 3-dimension-scanned models and leaf optical properties. The UV-B-induced phenolic compounds and flavonoids accumulated more, with higher UV-B interception and younger leaves. To distinguish the effects of UV-B energy and leaf developmental age, the contents were regressed separately and simultaneously. The effect of intercepted UV-B on flavonoid content was 4.9-fold that of leaf age, but the effects on phenolic compound biosynthesis were similar. This study confirmed the feasibility and relevance of UV-B radiation interception analysis and paves the way to explore the physical and physiological base determining the intraindividual distribution of phenolic compound in controlled environments.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/anatomia & histologia , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 204, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Rhododendron sanguineum complex is endemic to alpine mountains of northwest Yunnan and southeast Tibet of China. Varieties in this complex exhibit distinct flower colors even at the bud stage. However, the underlying molecular regulations for the flower color variation have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated this via measuring flower reflectance profiles and comparative transcriptome analyses on three coexisting varieties of the R. sanguineum complex, with yellow flush pink, bright crimson, and deep blackish crimson flowers respectively. We compared the expression levels of differentially-expressed-genes (DEGs) of the anthocyanin / flavonoid biosynthesis pathway using RNA-seq and qRT-PCR data. We performed clustering analysis based on transcriptome-derived Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) data, and finally analyzed the promoter architecture of DEGs. RESULTS: Reflectance spectra of the three color morphs varied distinctively in the range between 400 and 700 nm, with distinct differences in saturation, brightness, hue, and saturation/hue ratio, an indirect measurement of anthocyanin content. We identified 15,164 orthogroups that were shared among the three varieties. The SNP clustering analysis indicated that the varieties were not monophyletic. A total of 40 paralogous genes encoding 12 enzymes contributed to the flower color polymorphism. These anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes were associated with synthesis, modification and transportation properties (RsCHS, RsCHI, RsF3H, RsF3'H, RsFLS, RsANS, RsAT, RsOMT, RsGST), as well as genes involved in catabolism and degradation (RsBGLU, RsPER, RsCAD). Variations in sequence and cis-acting elements of these genes might correlate with the anthocyanin accumulation, thus may contribute to the divergence of flower color in the R. sanguineum complex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the varieties are very closely related and flower color variations in the R. sanguineum complex correlate tightly with the differential expression levels of genes involved in the anabolic and catabolic synthesis network of anthocyanin. Our study provides a scenario involving intricate relationships between genetic mechanisms for floral coloration accompanied by gene flow among the varieties that may represent an early case of pollinator-mediated incipient sympatric speciation.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Rhododendron/genética , Transcriptoma , Cor , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Pigmentação/genética , Rhododendron/metabolismo , Simpatria , Tibet
18.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799689

RESUMO

Although our previous study revealed that gamma-irradiated chrysin enhanced anti-inflammatory activity compared to intact chrysin, it remains unclear whether the chrysin derivative, CM1, produced by gamma irradiation, negatively regulates toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for the downregulation of TLR4 signal transduction by CM1 in macrophages. We initially determined the appropriate concentration of CM1 and found no cellular toxicity below 2 µg/mL. Upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CM1 modulated LPS-stimulated inflammatory action by suppressing the release of proinflammatory mediators (cytokines TNF-α and IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) and downregulated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. Furthermore, CM1 markedly elevated the expression of the TLR negative regulator toll-interacting protein (Tollip) in dose- and time-dependent manners. LPS-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), COX-2, and iNOS-mediated NO were inhibited by CM1; these effects were prevented by the knockdown of Tollip expression. Additionally, CM1 did not affect the downregulation of LPS-induced expression of MAPKs and NF-κB signaling in Tollip-downregulated cells. These findings provide insight into effective therapeutic intervention of inflammatory disease by increasing the understanding of the negative regulation of TLR signaling induced by CM1.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/efeitos da radiação , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6 , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
19.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923487

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor deeply implicated in health and diseases. Historically identified as a sensor of xenobiotics and mainly toxic substances, AhR has recently become an emerging pharmacological target in cancer, immunology, inflammatory conditions, and aging. Multiple AhR ligands are recognized, with plant occurring flavonoids being the largest group of natural ligands of AhR in the human diet. The biological implications of the modulatory effects of flavonoids on AhR could be highlighted from a toxicological and environmental concern and for the possible pharmacological applicability. Overall, the possible AhR-mediated harmful and/or beneficial effects of flavonoids need to be further investigated, since in many cases they are contradictory. Similar to other AhR modulators, flavonoids commonly exhibit tissue, organ, and species-specific activities on AhR. Such cellular-context dependency could be probably beneficial in their pharmacotherapeutic use. Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and isoflavones are the main subclasses of flavonoids reported as AhR modulators. Some of the structural features of these groups of flavonoids that could be influencing their AhR effects are herein summarized. However, limited generalizations, as well as few outright structure-activity relationships can be suggested on the AhR agonism and/or antagonism caused by flavonoids.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800482

RESUMO

Homoisoflavonoids (3-benzylidene-4-chromanones) are considered as an infrequent flavonoid class, possessing multi-beneficial bioactivities. The present study gives an overview on phytochemical aspects of homoisoflavonoids, including utilized plant species, parts, extracts, and separation techniques. Overall, these compounds have mainly been isolated and identified from bulbs and rhizomes of the plants belonging to Asparagaceae and Fabaceae families, particularly the genera of Ophiopogon, Dracaena, Scilla, Polygonatum, and Caesalpinia.


Assuntos
Asparagaceae , Fabaceae , Flavonoides , Rizoma , Asparagaceae/química , Asparagaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/química , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/classificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo
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