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1.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 91-95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902904

RESUMO

Magnolia Flower is a crude drug used for the treatment of headaches, toothaches, and nasal congestion. Here, we focused on Magnolia kobus, one of the botanical origins of Magnolia Flower, and collected the flower parts at different growth stages to compare chemical compositions and investigate potential inhibitory activities against interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in murine splenic T cells. After determining the structures, we examined the inhibitory effects of the constituents of the bud, the medicinal part of the crude drug, against IL-2 production. We first extracted the flower parts of M. kobus from the bud to fallen bloom stages and analysed the chemical compositions to identify the constituents characteristic to the buds. We found that the inhibitory activity of the buds against IL-2 production was more potent than that of the blooms. We isolated two known compounds, tiliroside (1) and syringin (2), characteristic to the buds from the methanol (MeOH) extract of Magnolia Flower. Moreover, we examined the inhibitory activities of both compounds against IL-2 production and found that tiliroside (1) but not syringin (2), showed strong inhibitory activity against IL-2 production and inhibited its mRNA expression. Thus, our strategy to examine the relationship between chemical compositions and biological activities during plant maturation could not only contribute to the scientific evaluation of medicinal parts of crude drugs but also assist in identifying biologically active constituents that have not yet been reported.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Magnolia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Magnolia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/isolamento & purificação , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 614-622, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica Thunb is a common herb in East Asia. The flower buds are usually regarded as the traditional medicinal part, while leaves and stems are considered less valuable and receive little attention. This study compared the chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory effects of the different tissues in L. japonica Thunb for the first time. RESULTS: Thirty compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode detector-quadrupole / time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, and iridoids were identified as the major components. The flower buds (FLJ), leaves (LLJ), and stems (SLJ) of L. japonica Thunb showed strong similarities in chemical components. The LLJ contained higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids than the FLJ and SLJ. Furthermore, FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema assays in mice. Moreover, FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ showed a cytoprotective effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were suppressed by treatments of FLJ, LLJ, and SLJ, respectively. The LLJ possessed a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than the FLJ. CONCLUSION: Leaves and stems of L. japonica Thunb have chemical components and anti-inflammatory properties similar to flower buds, and may become alternative or supplementary sources of flower buds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Lonicera/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/genética , Edema/imunologia , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/química , Flores/química , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 732-743, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using water with high salinity for plant fertigation may have detrimental effects on plant development and total yield and on the quality of the crop produced. As a possible means to alleviate the negative effects of salinity, silicon (Si) can be incorporated in the nutrient solution supplied to plants. In the present study, hydroponically grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) plants were subjected to two different salinity levels (0 and 50 mmol L-1 NaCl) with and without the application of Si (0 and 2 mmol L-1 K2 SiO3 ) in order to evaluate its possible positive impact on mitigation of salinity stress-induced symptoms. An additional experiment was implemented with postharvest Si application (sodium silicate) to investigate effects on the shelf-life of tomato fruit. RESULTS: Salinity (50 mmol L-1 NaCl) decreased plant size, total yield and fresh fruit weight while a high percentage of blossom end rot symptoms of tomato fruit was also observed. The application of Si in the nutrient solution counteracted these detrimental effects, generating a higher yield and healthier fruit (lower blossom end rot incidence) compared to the untreated plants (no application of Si). Salinity improved several quality-related traits in tomato fruit, resulting in higher marketability, whereas the addition of Si (pre- and postharvest) maintained fruit firmness following storage thereby increasing the shelf-life of tomato fruit. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that Si application (pre- and postharvest) could provide an effective means of alleviating the unfavorable effects of using low-quality water in plant fertigation on tomato plant development, fruit yield and post-harvest quality, through increased fruit firmness. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Frutas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Silício/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Flores , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Salinidade
4.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 129-139, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650660

RESUMO

Pollination is thought to be under positive density-dependence, destabilising plant coexistence by conferring fitness disadvantages to rare species. Such disadvantage is exacerbated by interspecific competition but can be mitigated by facilitation and intraspecific competition. However, pollinator scarcity should enhance intraspecific plant competition and impose disadvantage on common over rare species (negative density-dependence, NDD). We assessed pollination proxies (visitation rate, pollen receipt, pollen tubes) in a generalised plant community and related them to conspecific and heterospecific density, expecting NDD and interspecific facilitation due to the natural pollinator scarcity. Contrary to usual expectations, all proxies indicated strong intraspecific competition for common plants. Moreover interspecific facilitation prevailed and was stronger for rare than for common plants. Both NDD and interspecific facilitation were modulated by specialisation, floral display and pollinator group. The combination of intraspecific competition and interspecific facilitation fosters plant coexistence, suggesting that pollination can be a niche axis maintaining plant diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Polinização , Flores , Plantas , Pólen
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122336, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704603

RESUMO

Bauhinia variegate flower (BVF) was supposed to improve silage fermentation due to its abundant active components. Thus, corn stalk and stylo were ensiled with addition of 0, 5% or 10% BVF, and then ensiling characteristics, protein fraction and bacterial community were analyzed after 60-day fermentation. The contents of butyric acid (2.9 vs not detected, 13.2 vs 3.0 g/kg DM in corn stalk and stylo silage, respectively), ammonia-N (100.2 vs 83.2, 110.8 vs 61.9 g/kg total N) and free amino acid (35.6 vs 16.5, 35.0 vs 16.4 g/kg total N) were decreased in 10% BVF treated silages. The bacterial diversity was increased, where the relative abundance of Enterobacter or Clostridium decreased and that of lactic acid producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Weissella or Enterococcus increased. It is suggested that BVF could be used to improve fermentation quality and nutrient preservation of high-moisture corn stalk and stylo silage.


Assuntos
Bauhinia , Silagem , Bactérias , Fermentação , Flores , Proteólise , Características de Residência , Zea mays
6.
Zootaxa ; 4695(4): zootaxa.4695.4.9, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719347

RESUMO

Tenothrips keruing sp. n. is described from Malaysia. This new species was taken from the flowers of Dipterocarpus sublamellatus (local name Keruing kerut) during the recent mass-flowering. The male of this species has a pair of stout setae on abdominal tergite IX, and there are no sternal pore plates. A key to species of Tenothrips from Indomalaysia is provided.


Assuntos
Dipterocarpaceae , Tisanópteros , Animais , Flores , Malásia , Masculino , Reprodução
7.
Zootaxa ; 4629(1): zootaxa.4629.1.9, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712538

RESUMO

A new species of the anthocorid genus Orius Wolff (subgenus Heterorius Wagner), O. (H.) hibiscus sp. n., is described, based on specimens recently found from the coastal area of Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. This new species, evidently most related to Orius (Heterorius) strigicollis (Poppius), was found to prefer cryptic habitat, or bract and flower bud of Hibiscus tiliaceus (L.) (Malvaceae) planted at urbanized zones in Naha City. Diagnostic characters of the new species are described, comparing with those of other Japanese members of Heterorius, based on detailed observation using a SEM. An updated checklist and revised key are provided to aid in identification of all known Japanese Orius species.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Hibiscus , Malvaceae , Animais , Flores , Japão
8.
Zootaxa ; 4683(2): zootaxa.4683.2.6, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715929

RESUMO

The flower beetle genus Aurum new genus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Schizorhinini: Schizorhinina) is described. Aurum is endemic to Australia, and contains a single species, Aurum leonorensis new species, from Western Australia. The genus is compared to the most closely related Australian flower beetle genera, Diaphonia Newman, 1840, Aphanesthes Kraatz, 1880, and Chondropyga Kraatz, 1880. Ecological observations and the collecting localities are detailed for Aurum leonorensis.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Austrália , Ecologia , Flores , Austrália Ocidental
9.
Zootaxa ; 4564(2): zootaxa.4564.2.11, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716510

RESUMO

Larva, subimago, imago and eggs of Guajirolus ektrapeloglossa Flowers 1985 are described based on reared males and females from the type locality in Panama and a reared female from Peru. Structure and development of male genitals testify that the Neotropical taxon Guajirolus/g1 (incl. Chane) does not belong to Labiobaetini Kluge Novikova 2016 and, therefore, is not related to the Afrotropical genus Pseudopannota Waltz McCafferty 1987. At the same time, larvae of Guajirolus have striking similarity with that of Pseudopannota. The existent descriptions of Guajirolus nanus Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty 1995, G. queremba Nieto 2003 and G. flowersi Thomas Dominique (in Thomas, Dominique Orth) 2005 do not contain characters allowing to distinguish them from G. ektrapeloglossa. Thus, new synonymy is proposed: G. ektrapeloglossa (= G. nanus syn. n.; G. queremba syn. n.; G. flowersi syn. n.). Among the characters described as species-specific for Guajirolus rondoni Salles 2007, only the shape of labial palps allows to distinguish it from G. ektrapeloglossa.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Feminino , Flores , Masculino , Óvulo , Panamá , Peru
10.
Zootaxa ; 4612(3): zootaxa.4612.3.9, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717058

RESUMO

The Neotropical region has a high species richness of flower flies. However, there are many known species awaiting proper description. Cepa Thompson Vockeroth is a Neotropical genus with scattered records and few individuals collected of its three species. In the present study, a female of a new species of Cepa is described, C. simonettii Barahona-Segovia sp. nov., from the Valdivian evergreen forest representing the first record of this genus in Chile. In addition, an identification key to all known species of Cepa is provided. Morphological and biogeographic aspects of this new Cepa species are discussed, as well as the potential phylogenetic relationship with other members of Merodontini.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Chile , Feminino , Flores , Florestas , Filogenia
11.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111670, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706087

RESUMO

Synthesis of nanoparticles using plant sources as reducing agent has become important, as physical and chemical methods are costlier and affects environment. Hence it is important to develop environment friendly nanoparticle synthesis by avoiding the use of toxic chemicals. The present study aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) and gold nanoparticles (AuNps) using Musa acuminata colla flower and its pharmaceutical activity against extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) gene producing bacteria and anticancer efficacy. The synthesized Ag and Au NPs were analysed by means of UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD,SEM and EDAX evidenced the bioreduction of Ag+ ions to Ag0 and Au3+ ions to Au0 respectively. Both nanoparticles and flower extracts were studied for antibacterial activity of ESBL gene producing bacteria by disc diffusion and microdilution (Resazurin) method. In vitro anticancer efficacy (MCF-7) and toxicity (VERO) of AgNPs, AuNPs, aqueous extract and ethanol extract of flowers were performed by MTT assay. IC50 value for DPPH analysis was at 390 µg and 460 µg for ethanol and aqueous extract respectively. Total antioxidant content was found be 740 µg/mg and 460 µg/mg for ethanol and aqueous extract. GCMS analysis authenticated the existence of the compounds namely, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid(z,z)- and n-hexadecanoic acid in the crude extract of the samples. Among the samples, AgNPs had best antibacterial activity. AgNPs and AuNPs were confirmed by colour change to reddish brown and ruby red. Further ƛmax were obtained at 474 and 540 nm by UV - visible spectrum. SEM analysis revealed the particle size ranges from 12.6 to 15.7 nm for silver and 10.1 to 15.6 nm for gold nanoparticles. The EDAX spectrum shows a strong signal for elemental Ag and Au at ~ 3 keV and 1.5 keV. The XRD patterns for silver and gold nanoparticles at 36.701, 42.900, 63.281 and 76.398 corresponding to the lattice planes 2.4467, 2.1064, 1.46839, 1.24564 nm and 27.32, 36.7228, 39.56, 42.888, 63.253, 63.253, 65.02 and 76.383 corresponding to the lattice planes 3.262, 2.44530, 2.276, 2.1070, 1.46897, 1.4332 and 1.24585 nm. The IC50 values for MCF-7 and VERO cells were 30.0 µg/ml and 55.0 µg/ml respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Ouro/química , Musa/química , Prata/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Musa/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células Vero
12.
Oecologia ; 191(4): 887-896, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686227

RESUMO

Herbivore attack can alter plant interactions with pollinators, ranging from reduced to enhanced pollinator visitation. The direction and strength of effects of herbivory on pollinator visitation could be contingent on the type of plant tissue or organ attacked by herbivores, but this has seldom been tested experimentally. We investigated the effect of variation in feeding site of herbivorous insects on the visitation by insect pollinators on flowering Brassica nigra plants. We placed herbivores on either leaves or flowers, and recorded the responses of two pollinator species when visiting flowers. Our results show that variation in herbivore feeding site has profound impact on the outcome of herbivore-pollinator interactions. Herbivores feeding on flowers had consistent positive effects on pollinator visitation, whereas herbivores feeding on leaves did not. Herbivores themselves preferred to feed on flowers, and mostly performed best on flowers. We conclude that herbivore feeding site choice can profoundly affect herbivore-pollinator interactions and feeding site thereby makes for an important herbivore trait that can determine the linkage between antagonistic and mutualistic networks.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Polinização , Animais , Flores , Insetos , Folhas de Planta
13.
Ecol Lett ; 22(12): 2103-2110, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621156

RESUMO

Bees are ecosystem service providers that are globally threatened by losses of plant diversity. However, effects of multi-species floral displays on bees in agro-ecosystems with variable landscape context remain poorly understood, hindering pollinator conservation tactics. We addressed this knowledge gap through a novel application of the modified Price equation to evaluate responses of bees to diverse floral communities on 36 farms in Washington, USA, over 3 years. We found that floral richness, not floral identity, was the best predictor of floral visits by bees. However, the benefits of regionally rare floral species (i.e. plants found at relatively few sites) were only fully realised when farms were embedded in diverse landscapes. Our analysis used the modified Price equation to demonstrate that plant diversity, rather than specific plant species, promotes pollinator visitation, and that diverse landscapes promote the response of pollinators to regionally rare plant species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Polinização , Animais , Abelhas , Flores
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3100-3106, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602859

RESUMO

Sugar-poison caused blood-heat is the pathological basis of many complications of diabetes. Advanced glycation end products( AGEs) are considered as the potential glycotoxic factor that can cause blood-heat. Sophorae Flos hold the effect of removing pathogenic heat from blood. In this study,chromatographic non-enzymatic glycation reaction system of bovine serum albumin( BSA)/methylglyoxal( MGO) and Sophorae Flos was established to identify active components in Sophorae Flos inhibiting AGEs formation. The HPLC was used to analyze chromatograms before and after the incubation of Sophorae Flos and methylglyoxal. Changes of chromatographic peaks of eight compounds was found. It is speculated that this change may be due to new substance produced by the reaction of active components in Sophorae Flos and methylglyoxal,and these active components may be flavonoid component rutin. Further investigation for the effects of rutin and MGO reaction( 1 ∶ 1,1 ∶ 3,3 ∶ 1) for 6 days on the formation of AGEs was performed. The results showed that the inhibition activity of rutin on AGEs production was most obvious when the reaction ratio was 1 ∶3,and the most inhibition was in 24 h and stabilized after 3 d. The product of the reaction of rutin with MGO was identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS,which indicated that the newly formed seven substances were the mono-and di-MGO adducts of rutin. This study showed that rutin is the active component on Sophorae Flos for removing pathogenic heat from blood by forming new compounds to inhibit the formation of sugar poison products,which provides reference for rational application of Sophorae Flos.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Flores/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Rutina/química , Sophora/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Aldeído Pirúvico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3312-3315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602888

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Hosta plantaginea led to isolate of one new flavonoid glycoside,plantanone C( 1) by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,and RP-HPLC column chromatographies. Its structure was extensively determined on basis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antioxidant activity against DPPH radical scavenging activity,with an IC50 value of 240. 2 µmol·L~(-1).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Hosta/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Glicosídeos/análise
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12374-12381, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613611

RESUMO

The uptake, distribution, metabolism, and degradation of three neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs)-imidacloprid (IMI), acetamiprid (ACE), and thiamethoxam (THI) in different parts of cotton plants were investigated under field conditions. Insecticides were either applied by foliar spraying or root irrigation. Foliar application resulted in high tissue concentration (average tissue concentration ratio, TCR: 46.78-68.61% for leaves and 12.2-31.40% for flowers). The flowers showed high NI residual. The metabolism and trends of NIs in different parts of cotton were reported here for the first time. Metabolites, toxic to bees, were detected in the flowers. The translocation factor was around 0.004 for the spray treatment and 0.2-0.7 for the root irrigation treatment. The average root concentration factors of IMI, ACE, and THI were 0.838, 8.027, and 1.014, respectively, indicating that the three NIs can be transported from the soil to the plant. The high concentrations of NIs and their metabolites in flowers indicate exposure risk to pollinators, such as bees.


Assuntos
Gossypium/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/química , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Animais , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Biológico , Flores/metabolismo , Gossypium/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 34, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence and frequency of plant-pollinator interactions are acknowledged to be a function of multiple factors, including the spatio-temporal distribution of species. The study of pollination specialization by examining network properties and more recently incorporating predictors of pairwise interactions is emerging as a useful framework, yet integrated datasets combining network structure, habitat disturbance, and phylogenetic information are still scarce. RESULTS: We found that plant-pollinator interactions in a grassland ecosystem in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains are not randomly distributed and that high levels of reciprocal specialization are generated by biological constraints, such as floral symmetry, pollinator size and pollinator sociality, because these traits lead to morphological or phenological mismatching between interacting species. We also detected that landscape degradation was associated with differences in the network topology, but the interaction webs still maintained a consistently higher number of reciprocal specialization cases than expected. Evidence for the reciprocal evolutionary dependence in visitors (e.g., related pollinators visiting related plants) were weak in this study system, however we identified key species joining clustered units. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the conserved links with keystone species may provide the foundation for generating local reciprocal specialization. From the general topology of the networks, plant-pollinators interactions in sites with disturbance consisted of generalized nodes connecting modules (i.e., hub and numerous connectors). Vice versa, interactions in less disturbed sites consisted of more specialized and symmetrical connections.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Polinização , Alberta , Flores , Filogenia , Plantas
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10853-10862, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496237

RESUMO

Leptosperin (methyl syringate ß-d-gentiobioside) is abundantly found in manuka honey, which is widely used because of its antibacterial and possible anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanism underlying the metabolism of leptosperin. Five phytochemicals (leptosperin, methyl syringate (MSYR), glucuronate conjugate of MSYR (MSYR-GA), sulfonate conjugate of MSYR (MSYR-S), and syringic acid (SYR)) were separately incubated with HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. After incubation, we found that the concentration of MSYR decreased, whereas the concentrations of SYR, MSYR-GA, and MSYR-S increased. By profiling with inhibitors and carboxylesterases (CES1, 2), we found that the conversion from MSYR to SYR was mediated by CES1. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells restored MSYR-GA to MSYR possibly by the secreted ß-glucuronidase. All of the mice administered with leptosperin, MSYR, or manuka honey showed higher MSYR (13.84 ± 11.51, 14.29 ± 9.19, or 6.66 ± 2.30 nM) and SYR (1.85 ± 0.66, 6.01 ± 1.20, or 8.16 ± 3.10 nM) levels in the plasma compared with that of the vehicle controls (3.33 ± 1.45 (MSYR) and 1.85 ± 0.66 (SYR) nM). The findings of our study indicate that the unique metabolic pathways of these compounds may account for possible functionalities of manuka honey.


Assuntos
Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Mel/análise , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Feminino , Flores/química , Ácido Gálico/análise , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/análise , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Leptospermum/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10891-10903, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505929

RESUMO

Jasmonates (JAs) play an important role in plant developmental processes and regulate the biosynthesis of various specialized metabolites, and transcription factors are crucial in mediating JA signaling to regulate these processes. Capsaicinoids (Caps) are intriguing specialized metabolites produced uniquely by Capsicum species that give their fruits a pungent flavor to defend against herbivory and pathogens. In this study, we identify a R2R3-MYB transcription factor CaMYB108 and demonstrate its roles in regulating the biosynthesis of Caps and stamen development. Transcriptional analysis indicated that CaMYB108 was preferentially expressed in the flower and fruit, while the subcellular localization of CaMYB108 was shown to be the nucleus. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaMYB108 led to the expression of capsaicinoid biosynthetic genes (CBGs), and the contents of Caps dramatically reduce. Moreover, the CaMYB108-silenced plants showed delayed anther dehiscence and reduced pollen viability. Transient overexpression of CaMYB108 caused the expression of CBGs to be upregulated, and the Caps content significantly increased. The results of dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that CaMYB108 targeted CBG promoters. In addition, the expression of CaMYB108 and CBGs was inducible by methyl jasmonate and was consistent with the increased content of Caps. Overall, our results indicate that CaMYB108 is involved in the regulation of Caps biosynthesis and stamen development.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11053-11065, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525973

RESUMO

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is the second highest yielding oil crop worldwide. In addition to being used as an edible oil and a feed for livestock, rapeseed has high ornamental value. In this study, we identified and characterized the main floral major constituents, including phenolic acids and flavonoids components, in rapeseed accessions with different-colored petals. A total of 144 constituents were identified using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-HESI-mass spectrometry (UPLC-HESI-MS/MS), 57 of which were confirmed and quantified using known standards and mainly contained phenolic acids, flavonoids, and glucosinolates compounds. Most of the epicatechin, quercetin, and isorhamnetin derivates were found in red and pink petals of B. napus, while kaempferol derivates were in yellow and pale white petals. Moreover, petal-specific compounds, including a putative hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, sinapoyl malate, 1-O-sinapoyl-ß-d-glucose, feruloyl glucose, naringenin-7-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-ß-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3,4'-O-di-ß-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, might contribute to a variety of petal colors in B. napus. In addition, bound phenolics were tentatively identified and contained three abundant compounds (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and 8-O-4'-diferulic acid). These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying petal color and suggest strategies for breeding rapeseed with a specific petal color in the future.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/química , Flores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cor , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Flavonoides/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Quempferóis/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
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