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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130862, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428690

RESUMO

Crocus sativus (Iridaceae) or saffron is important for its flavoring properties in the food industry and its medicinal properties in the pharmaceutical industry. Real saffron must meet the quality requirements set to FDA or ISO specifications, and in addition, must be safe and non-toxic. An "autumn crocus" or scientific name Colchicum spp. (Colchicaceae) is a plant that contains a highly toxic alkaloid colchicine. The problem is that Colchicum autumnale is often mistaken for C. sativus. This study aim is to develop the high-performance liquid chromatography method for determining the presence of colchicine in C. sativus stigma, flowers and corms, and then for solving the issue of saffron possible falsification and toxicity. The chromatographic separation was performed on ACE C18 column (5.0 µm, 250 mm × 4.6 mm), by using 0.1% acetic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase and UV detector (350 nm). Current analysis showed that all Crocus raw materials didn't contain colchicine. This confirms the safety of saffron and its parts for using in the development of substances based on them. The proposed method was successfully applied on C. autumnale corms and showed good separation and colchicine identification. The presence of tricyclic proto-alkaloid colchicine in plant products is not a new phenomenon, however, the need for new sensitive analytical methods that can detect it in food and medicine still exists. The identification and confirmation of colchicine absence in saffron raw materials are important for further herbal drug development and for the food industry.


Assuntos
Colchicum , Crocus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colchicina , Flores
2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 2991-3004, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622612

RESUMO

Flowering is a critical transitional stage during plant growth and development, and is closely related to seed production and crop yield. The flowering transition is regulated by complex genetic networks, whereas many flowering-related genes generate multiple transcripts through alternative splicing to regulate flowering time. This paper summarizes the molecular mechanisms of alternative splicing in regulating plant flowering from several perspectives, future research directions are also envisioned.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética
4.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1089-94, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical therapeutic effect between deep needling at Xiaguan (ST 7) with round sharp needle combined with plum-blossom needle and conventional acupuncture in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) of wind and heat, and explore its mechanism. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with TN of wind and heat were randomized into an observation group (30 cases) and a control group (30 cases). In the observation group, deep needling with round sharp needle was applied at Xiaguan (ST 7), and tapping with plum-blossom needle was applied at Yangbai (GB 14), Quanliao (SI 18), Dicang (ST 4), Sibai (ST 2), etc. of affected side. In the control group, conventional acupuncture was applied at the same acupoints selected in the observation group. The treatment was given once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks in the both groups. Before and after treatment, the scores of short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), TCM syndrome, patient global impression of change (PGIC) and comprehensive symptom were observed, the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and ß-endorphin (ß-EP) were detected, and the adverse reaction was observed in the both groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the scores of PRI, PPI, VAS, TCM syndrome, PGIC and comprehensive symptom and the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and VIP were decreased compared before treatment in the both groups (P<0.05), and the variations of above indexes in the observation group were larger than those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum levels of ß-EP were increased compared before treatment in the both groups (P<0.05), and the variation of that in the observation group was larger than the control group (P<0.05). No severe adverse reaction was observed in the both groups. CONCLUSION: Deep needling at Xiaguan (ST 7) with round sharp needle combined with plum-blossom needle can effectively treat the trigeminal neuralgia of wind and heat and relieve pain, its therapeutic effect is superior to conventional acupuncture. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of serum IL-6, TNF-α, VIP and ß-EP.


Assuntos
Prunus domestica , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Flores , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/terapia , Vento
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 1035-1048, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600181

RESUMO

Lonicera japonica Thunb. is widely used in traditional medicine systems of East Asian and attracts a large amount of studies on the biosynthesis of its active components. Currently, there is little understanding regarding the regulatory mechanisms behind the accumulation of secondary metabolites during its developmental stages. In this study, published transcriptomic and proteomic data were mined to evaluate potential linkage between protein modification and secondary metabolism during the floral development. Stronger correlations were observed between differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their corresponding differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) in the comparison of juvenile bud stage (JBS)/third green stage (TGS) vs. silver flowering stage (SFS). Seventy-five and 76 cor-rDEGs and cor-rDAPs (CDDs) showed opposite trends at both transcriptional and translational levels when comparing their levels at JBS and TGS relative to those at SFS. CDDs were mainly involved in elements belonging to the protein metabolism and the TCA cycle. Protein-protein interaction analysis indicated that the interacting proteins in the major cluster were primarily involved in TCA cycle and protein metabolism. In the simple phenylpropanoids biosynthetic pathway of SFS, both phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxyheptonate aldolase (PDA) and glutamate/aspartate-prephenate aminotransferase (AAT) were decreased at the protein level, but increased at the gene level. A confirmatory experiment indicated that protein ubiquitination and succinylation were more prominent during the early floral developmental stages, in correlation with simple phenylpropanoids accumulation. Taken together, those data indicates that phenylpropanoids metabolism and floral development are putatively regulated through the ubiquitination and succinylation modifications of PDA, AAT, and TCA cycle proteins in L. japonica.


Assuntos
Lonicera , Flores , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica , Metabolismo Secundário
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639557

RESUMO

The global spread of COVID-19 has disrupted the normality of people's daily lives, leading the population to social distancing and isolation. The closure of green areas also affected the well-being of the individual during the COVID-19 pandemic. Viewing flowers is expected to have similar positive effects to viewing natural scenery. Therefore, this study investigates how white, red, and yellow flower colors affect individuals' psychological and physiological well-being. The experiment was conducted in an office-like setting with 50 participants. Participants looked at each flower color for 3 min. Electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate variability, and skin conductivity were measured to evaluate physiological responses along with both the semantic differential questionnaire (SD) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to assess psychological responses. EEGs showed that the mean values of alpha relative power in the prefrontal lobe were significantly higher when viewing yellow and red flowers vs. white flowers. Furthermore, heart rate variability revealed that viewing yellow and red flowers increased parasympathetic nerve activity significantly. After viewing the yellow and red flowers, the average results for each subscale of the POMS questionnaire improved. The vigor (V) subscale and overall mood status values were significantly improved. The results of the SD method revealed that viewing yellow and red flowers resulted in a significantly higher sense of relaxation, cheerfulness, and comfort than viewing white flowers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cor , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Flores , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11406-11416, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529418

RESUMO

According to legislation, unifloral honeys are characterized by their organoleptic, physicochemical, and microscopic properties. Melissopalynology is the established method for identifying the pollen taken up with the floral nectar by forager bees and is used for authentication of the nectar sources in honey. For cornflower honey (Centaurea cyanus), the pollen input does not correlate with the nectar input, because the nectar is produced both in floral and in extrafloral nectaries. The well-known cornflower marker lumichrome has now also been detected in the extrafloral nectar. Therefore, lumichrome is a suitable marker substance for cornflower honey. Four different methods for the sole analysis of lumichrome in honey were validated and compared. Studies over nine years have shown that unifloral cornflower honey should contain approximately 35 mg/kg lumichrome. For a further differentiated cornflower honey specific verification, other nonvolatile compounds like 7-carboxylumichrome and volatiles, such as 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan I and 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan II, should be analyzed. This enables a more specific accuracy for the classification of unifloral cornflower honey.


Assuntos
Centaurea , Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Biomarcadores , Flavinas , Flores , Mel/análise , Néctar de Plantas
8.
Planta ; 254(4): 74, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529136

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Growing degree hours (GDH) predicted floral bud development of 'Montmorency' sour cherry and explained changes in lethal temperatures (LT50) that preempted any visible changes in bud phenology. The gradual warming during late winter and early spring promotes floral bud development and, concomitantly, the de-acclimation of Prunus sp. flowers. In fact, once ecodormancy releases, an approximate 20 °C loss of hardiness occurs prior to any distinguishable changes in external bud phenology. The aim of the following work was to characterize the physiological changes of 'Montmorency' sour cherry floral buds as they transition from endo- and ecodormancy and resume growth, and to determine whether physiological and anatomical characteristics within the buds preempt or signify dormancy release to enable a better prediction of freeze susceptibility. Here, we present a developmental timeline of the preanthesis changes of 'Montmorency' floral buds, ovaries and anthers over 2 years following their completion of chilling and relate these changes to growing degree hours (GDH) and the lethal temperature (LT50) of flowers. Changes in bud dry weight (DW), fresh weight (FW), volume, and external phenology stage including the percentage of green color development of bud scales were predicted by heat accumulation but were not early predictors of the increasing freeze susceptibility of pistils. Between endodormancy and green tip stage, ovary volume increased nearly threefold and relative water content (RWC) increased from ~ 45 to 70% in both years. A linear mixed regression model indicated that RWC and the interaction between RWC and ovary growth were significant predictors of LT50. Importantly, the loss of ~ 20 °C of freeze resistance occurred between 45 and 57% RWC and preceded any detectable changes in bud phenology. Microsporogenesis was observed after dormancy release when measurable changes in the ovary and bud RWC had already occurred. A GDH model estimated freeze sensitivity of pistils and explained 93% of the variation in LT50 during preanthesis development. A simple GDH model to predict critical freeze temperature of pistils should aid producers to manage frost protection.


Assuntos
Flores , Prunus avium , Compostos Orgânicos , Prunus avium/fisiologia , Água
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 426, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproduction in most flowering plants may be limited because of the decreased visitation or activity of pollinators in fragmented habitats. Hedysarum scoparium Fisch. et Mey. is an arid region shrub with ecological importance. We explored the pollen limitation and seed set of Hedysarum scoparium in fragmented and restored environments, and examined whether pollen limitation is a significant limiting factor for seed set. We also compared floral traits and pollinator visitation between both habitats, and we determined the difference of floral traits and pollinators influenced reproductive success in Hedysarum scoparium. RESULTS: Our results indicated that supplementation with pollen significantly increased seed set per flower, which is pollen-limited in this species. Furthermore, there was greater seed set of the hand cross-pollination group in the restored habitat compared to the fragmented environment. More visits by Apis mellifera were recorded in the restored habitats, which may explain the difference in seed production between the fragmented and restored habitats. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a positive association between pollinator visitation frequency and open flower number was observed. The findings of this study are important for experimentally quantifying the effects of floral traits and pollinators on plant reproductive success in different habitats.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Pólen/fisiologia , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Polinização , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550201

RESUMO

Astragalus argaeus is an endemic plant species that is under critical risk of extinction. Here we investigated its population census, breeding system and reproductive success to determine the main factors affecting restricted distribution of this species. According to the results from pollination experiments, A. argaeus was autogamous but benefit from the cross pollination (xenogamous) and the presence of pollinators increases fruit set. The pollen/ovule ratio of A. argaeus was calculated as 3119,which correspond to facultative xenogamy. Reproduction biology data obtained by both methods are quite compatible with each other. Pollen viability and stigma receptivity data showed that both stigma receptivity and pollen viability were high and was no temporal isolation throughout the anthesis. Seed viability of A. argaues was determined as 52%. The low reproductive success of the species could be attributed to low seed viability and germination rates, small population size and variations in season and climate.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Biologia , Flores , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polinização , Reprodução
13.
Am J Bot ; 108(9): 1595-1611, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478152

RESUMO

PREMISE: Celtis is the most species-rich genus of Cannabaceae, an economically important family. Celtis species have been described as wind-pollinated and andromonoecious. However, the andromonoecy of Celtis has been debated because there are reports of monoclinous flowers with non-opening anthers on short filaments. Our objective was to study the floral morphogenesis of Celtis to establish the breeding system and to better understand the developmental patterns that lead to the formation of reduced flowers in the genus. METHODS: Flowers and floral buds of Celtis species were studied using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, and light microscopy. RESULTS: All flowers initiate stamens and carpels during early floral development, but either stamens or carpels abort during later stages. Thus, at anthesis, flowers are either functionally pistillate or functionally staminate. In pistillate flowers, stamens abort late and become staminodes with normal-looking anthers. These anthers have no functional endothecium and, in most of the species studied, produce no viable pollen grains. The gynoecium is pseudomonomerous, and its vascularization is similar in the sampled species. In staminate flowers, the gynoecium aborts early resulting in small pistillodes. No vestiges of petals were found. CONCLUSIONS: The species studied are monoecious and not andromonoecious as described earlier. The absence of petals, the carpel and stamen abortion, and the pseudomonomerous gynoecium result in the reduced flowers of Celtis species. The use of high-resolution x-ray computed tomography was essential for a more accurate interpretation of ovary vascularization, confirming the pseudomonomerous structure of the gynoecium.


Assuntos
Cannabaceae , Ulmaceae , Flores , Morfogênese , Melhoramento Vegetal
14.
Am J Bot ; 108(9): 1716-1730, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590308

RESUMO

PREMISE: Pollinators are thought to exert selective pressures on plants, mediating the evolution of convergent floral shape often recognized as pollination syndromes. However, little is known about the accuracy of using petal shape for inferring convergence in pollination mode without a priori pollination information. Here we studied the genus Erythrina L. as a test case to assess whether ornithophyllous pollination modes (hummingbirds, passerines, sunbirds, or mixed pollination) can be inferred based on the evolutionary analysis of petal shape. METHODS: We characterized the two-dimensional dissected shape of standard, keel, and wing petals from 106 Erythrina species using geometric morphometrics and reconstructed a phylogenetic tree of 83 Erythrina species based on plastid trnL-F and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. We then used two phylogenetic comparative methods based on Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models, SURFACE and l1OU, to infer distinct morphological groups using petal shape and identify instances of convergent evolution. The effectiveness of these methods was evaluated by comparing the groups inferred to known pollinators. RESULTS: We found significant petal shape differences between hummingbird- and passerine-pollinated Erythrina species. Our analyses also revealed that petal combinations generally provided better inferences of pollinator types than individual petals and that the method and optimization criterion can affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: We show that model-based approaches using petal shape can detect convergent evolution of floral shape and relatively accurately infer pollination modes in Erythrina. The inference power of the keel petals argues for a deeper investigation of their role in the pollination biology of Erythrina and other bird-pollinated legumes.


Assuntos
Erythrina , Passeriformes , Animais , Flores , Filogenia , Polinização
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 619-629, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479030

RESUMO

Lily is one of the most economically important flowers worldwide due to its elegant appearance and appealing scent, which is mainly composed of monoterpene ocimene, linalool and benzenoids. Sugars are the primary products of plants, with fructose and hexose sugars being the substrate material for most organic compounds and metabolic pathways in plants. Herein, we isolated and functionally characterized hexokinase (LoHXK) and fructokinase (LoFRK) from Lilium 'Siberia' flower, which indicated their potential roles in floral aroma production. Real-time PCR analysis showed that LoHXK and LoFRK were highly expressed in the flower filament. Overexpression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assays revealed that LoHXK and LoFRK significantly modified the emission of ß-ocimene and linalool contents via regulation of expression of key structural volatile synthesis genes (LoTPS1 and LoTPS3). Under exogenous glucose and fructose application, the volatile contents of ß-ocimene and linalool were increased and the expression levels of key structural genes were upregulated. The emission of ß-ocimene and linalool followed a diurnal circadian rhythm. Determination of carbon fluxes via 13C-labeled glucose and 13C-labeled fructose experiments showed that the mass spectra of ocimene and linalool significantly increased, however, the m/z ratio of ethyl benzoate did not change. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that LoFRK interacted with LoMYB1 and LoMYB2 proteins. Together, these results suggest that hexokinase and fructokinase may play significant roles in the regulation of ocimene and linalool biosynthesis in Lilium 'Siberia'.


Assuntos
Frutoquinases , Hexoquinase , Lilium , Odorantes , Flores/enzimologia , Frutoquinases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hexoquinase/genética , Lilium/enzimologia , Lilium/genética
16.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 642, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA polymerase II plays critical roles in transcription in eukaryotic organisms. C-terminal Domain Phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1) regulates the phosphorylation state of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II subunit B1, which is critical in determining RNA polymerase II activity. CPL1 plays an important role in miRNA biogenesis, plant growth and stress responses. Although cpl1 mutant showes delayed-flowering phenotype, the molecular mechanism behind CPL1's role in floral transition is still unknown. RESULTS: To study the role of CPL1 during the floral transition, we first tested phenotypes of cpl1-3 mutant, which harbors a point-mutation. The cpl1-3 mutant contains a G-to-A transition in the second exon, which results in an amino acid substitution from Glu to Lys (E116K). Further analyses found that the mutated amino acid (Glu) was conserved in these species. As a result, we found that the cpl1-3 mutant experienced delayed flowering under both long- and short-day conditions, and CPL1 is involved in the vernalization pathway. Transcriptome analysis identified 109 genes differentially expressed in the cpl1 mutant, with 2 being involved in floral transition. Differential expression of the two flowering-related DEGs was further validated by qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Flowering genetic pathways analysis coupled with transciptomic analysis provides potential genes related to floral transition in the cpl1-3 mutant, and a framework for future studies of the molecular mechanisms behind CPL1's role in floral transition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Flores/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 407, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) belongs to the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family, which is involved in inflorescence meristem development and represses flowering in several plant species. In the present study, four TFL1 genes were cloned from the mango (Mangifera indica L.) variety 'SiJiMi' and named MiTFL1-1, MiTFL1-2, MiTFL1-3 and MiTFL1-4. RESULTS: Sequence analysis showed that the encoded MiTFL1 proteins contained a conserved PEBP domain and belonged to the TFL1 group. Expression analysis showed that the MiTFL1 genes were expressed in not only vegetative organs but also reproductive organs and that the expression levels were related to floral development. Overexpression of the four MiTFL1 genes delayed flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. Additionally, MiTFL1-1 and MiTFL1-3 changed the flower morphology in some transgenic plants. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis showed that several stress-related proteins interacted with MiTFL1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The four MiTFL1 genes exhibited a similar expression pattern, and overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed flowering. Additionally, MiTFL1-1 and MiTFL1-3 overexpression affected floral organ development. Furthermore, the MiTFL1 proteins could interact with bHLH and 14-3-3 proteins. These results indicate that the MiTFL1 genes may play an important role in the flowering process in mango.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Mangifera/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 409, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periderm is a protective barrier crucial for land plant survival, but little is known about genetic factors involved in its development and regulation. Using a transcriptomic approach in the cork oak (Q. suber) periderm, we previously identified an RS2-INTERACTING KH PROTEIN (RIK) homologue of unknown function containing a K homology (KH)-domain RNA-binding protein, as a regulatory candidate gene in the periderm. RESULTS: To gain insight into the function of RIK in the periderm, potato (S. tuberosum) tuber periderm was used as a model: the full-length coding sequence of RIK, hereafter referred to as StRIK, was isolated, the transcript profile analyzed and gene silencing in potato performed to analyze the silencing effects on periderm anatomy and transcriptome. The StRIK transcript accumulated in all vegetative tissues studied, including periderm and other suberized tissues such as root and also in wounded tissues. Downregulation of StRIK in potato by RNA interference (StRIK-RNAi) did not show any obvious effects on tuber periderm anatomy but, unlike Wild type, transgenic plants flowered. Global transcript profiling of the StRIK-RNAi periderm did show altered expression of genes associated with RNA metabolism, stress and signaling, mirroring the biological processes found enriched within the in silico co-expression network of the Arabidopsis orthologue. CONCLUSIONS: The ubiquitous expression of StRIK transcript, the flower associated phenotype and the differential expression of StRIK-RNAi periderm point out to a general regulatory role of StRIK in diverse plant developmental processes. The transcriptome analysis suggests that StRIK might play roles in RNA maturation and stress response in the periderm.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/anatomia & histologia , Tubérculos/citologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Solanum tuberosum/citologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5445, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521854

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) serves as a major source of protein and edible oils worldwide. The genetic and genomic bases of the adaptation of soybean to tropical regions remain largely unclear. Here, we identify the novel locus Time of Flowering 16 (Tof16), which confers delay flowering and improve yield at low latitudes and determines that it harbors the soybean homolog of LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY). Tof16 and the previously identified J locus genetically additively but independently control yield under short-day conditions. More than 80% accessions in low latitude harbor the mutations of tof16 and j, which suggests that loss of functions of Tof16 and J are the major genetic basis of soybean adaptation into tropics. We suggest that maturity and yield traits can be quantitatively improved by modulating the genetic complexity of various alleles of the LHY homologs, J and E1. Our findings uncover the adaptation trajectory of soybean from its temperate origin to the tropics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Produtos Agrícolas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma de Planta , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Clima Tropical
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 651-664, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488151

RESUMO

As harbingers of bursting growth, flower buds and leaf buds generally show similar surface morphologies but different structural and functional changes. Dioecious plants further generate four types of Female/Male Flower/Leaf Buds (FFB, FLB, MFB, and MLB), showing a complex regulation. However, little is known about their underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we exemplify the woody dioecious Salix linearistipularis to investigate their morphological characteristics and potential molecular mechanisms by combining cytological, physiological, phenological, and transcriptomic datasets. First, FFB and MFB have simultaneous development dynamics and so do FLB and MLB. Interestingly, FLB and MLB show very similar expression profiles preparing for photosynthesis and stress-tolerance, whereas FFB and MFB show great similarities but also striking sexual differences. Comparing flower buds and leaf buds after their revival from dormancy shows different cold- and vernalization-responsive genes (e.g. SliVRN1, SliAGL19, and SliAGL24), implying different programming processes for dormancy breaking between the buds. Moreover, except SliAP3, the expression of ABCDE model genes is consistent with their roles in the buds, suggesting a conserved mechanism of flower development between dioecious Salix and hermaphrodite Arabidopsis. Finally, considering sex-associated genes (e.g. SliCLE25, SliTPS21, and SliARR9) on Salix chromosomes and other reports, we hypothesize a dynamic model of sex determination on chromosomes 15 and 19 in the last ancestor of Salix and Populus but evolutionarily on 15 in Salix after their divergence. Together, our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of dioecious four-type buds by showing the genes involved in their development, dormancy breaking, flowering, and sexual association.


Assuntos
Salix , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Salix/genética , Salix/metabolismo
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