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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255605, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355882

RESUMO

Abstract Combining ability analysis provides useful information for the selection of parents, also information regarding the nature and magnitude of involved gene actions. Crops improvement involves strategies for enhancing yield potentiality and quality components. Targeting the improvement of respective characters in bitter gourd, combining ability and genetic parameters for 19 characters were estimated from a 6×6 full diallel analysis technique. The results revealed that the variances due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for most of the important characters. It indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions. GCA variances were higher in magnitude than SCA variances for all the characters studied indicating the predominance of the additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parent P2 (BG 009) appeared as the best general combiner for earliness; P1 (BG 006) for number of fruits, average single fruit weight and fruit yield; P4 (BG 027) for node number of first female flower and days to seed fruit maturity; P3 (BG 011) for fruit length and thickness of the fruit flesh; P5 (BG 033) for 100-seed weight; and P6 for number of nodes per main vine. The SCA effect as well as reciprocal effect was also significant for most of the important characters in different crosses.


Resumo A análise da capacidade de combinação fornece informações úteis para a seleção dos pais, também informações sobre a natureza e a magnitude das ações dos genes envolvidos. A melhoria das safras envolve estratégias para aumentar a potencialidade da produção e os componentes de qualidade. Visando ao aprimoramento dos respectivos caracteres em cabaça-amarga, capacidade de combinação e parâmetros genéticos para 19 caracteres, foram estimados a partir de uma técnica de análise dialélica completa 6 × 6. Os resultados revelaram que as variâncias, devido à capacidade geral de combinação (GCA) e capacidade específica de combinação (SCA), foram altamente significativas para a maioria dos caracteres importantes. Indicou a importância das ações gênicas aditivas e não aditivas. As variâncias GCA foram maiores em magnitude do que as variâncias SCA para todos os caracteres estudados, indicando a predominância dos efeitos do gene aditivo em sua herança. O pai P2 (BG 009) apareceu como o melhor combinador geral para o início; P1 (BG 006) para número de frutos, peso médio de um único fruto e produção de frutos; P4 (BG 027) para número de nó da primeira flor fêmea e dias para a maturidade do fruto da semente; P3 (BG 011) para comprimento do fruto e espessura da polpa do fruto; P5 (BG 033) para peso de 100 sementes; e P6 para o número de nós por videira principal. O efeito SCA, bem como o efeito recíproco, também foi significativo para a maioria dos personagens importantes em cruzamentos diferentes.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia , Produtos Agrícolas , Flores , Melhoria de Qualidade , Frutas/genética
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115743, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152783

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge (Ranunculaceae) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat various inflammatory diseases, including upper respiratory infections, chronic tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. Recently, there has been growing research on the antiviral role of the flowers of T. chinensis Bunge. However, little is known about its anti-influenza virus effects and the underlying mechanisms. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the crude extract from the flowers of T. chinensis Bunge (CEFTC) on mice infected with influenza virus. We further explored its mechanism by detecting the expression of vital proteins (TLR3, TBK1, TAK1, IKKα, IRF3, and IFN-ß) related to TLR3 signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were infected with influenza A virus (H1N1) through the nasal cavity and were intragastrically administered CEFTC at the dose of 0.2 mg/g once daily. The therapeutic effects of CEFTC were evaluated by blood cell count, lung index, spleen index, alveolar lavage fluid testing, and HE staining. Network pharmacology analysis predicted the potential signaling pathway between the flowers of T. chinensis Bunge and pneumonia. The expression of TLR3, TBK1, TAK1, IKKα, IRF3, and IFN-ß in lung tissues were examined by Western blot assay. In addition, the immunofluorescence assay was applied to assess the effect of CEFTC on the distribution of IRF3 and IFN-ß between nuclei and cytoplasm. RESULTS: Compared with the infected group, the lung index was markedly reduced, and the pathological damage of the lungs was also attenuated in the CEFTC treatment group. The network pharmacology analysis indicated that the NF-κB pathway was a potential signaling pathway in the flowers of T. chinensis Bunge for the treatment of pneumonia, TLR3, IRF3, and TBK1 were crucial targets associated with pneumonia. Western blot assay demonstrated that in the high-dose virus infected group, CEFTC reduced the expression of TLR3, TAK1, TBK1, and IRF3. Furthermore, CEFTC could increase the nuclear distribution of IRF3 in alveolar epithelial cells after virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that different doses of influenza virus could cause varying infection symptoms in mice. Moreover, CEFTC could exert anti-influenza virus effects by regulating the expression of TLR3, IRF3, IFN-ß, TAK1, and TBK1 in the TLR3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Ranunculaceae , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Flores , Quinase I-kappa B , Interferon beta , Camundongos , NF-kappa B , Extratos Vegetais , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 3 Toll-Like
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105552, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166942

RESUMO

Slowing down responses after errors (i.e., post-error slowing [PES]) is an established finding in adults. Yet PES in young children is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated (a) whether young children show PES in tasks with different types of cognitive conflict and differing demands on executive functions, (b) whether PES is adaptive and efficient in the sense that it is associated with better task performance, and (c) whether PES correlates between tasks. We tested 4- to 6-year-old children on the Funny Fruits task (FF; n = 143), a Stroop-like task that incorporates semantic conflict and taxes children's inhibition skills, and the Hearts and Flowers task (HF; n = 170), which incorporates spatial conflict and taxes children's inhibition skills in its incongruent block and taxes both inhibition and cognitive flexibility (rule-switching) skills in its mixed block. A subgroup of children were tested on both FF and HF (n = 74). Results revealed that, first, children showed PES in FF and both blocks of HF, indicating that PES occurs in both types of conflict and under varying executive demands. Second, PES was associated with task accuracy, but only for FF and the mixed HF. Third, a between-task association in PES emerged only between FF and the mixed HF. Together, these findings indicate that PES is still a developing strategy in young children; it is present but only adaptive for, and correlates between, semantic inhibition and spatial flexibility.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Frutas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Flores
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158836, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122728

RESUMO

A shift towards earlier flowering is a widely noted consequence of climate change for the world's plants. However, whether early flowering changes the way in which plants respond to climate stress, and in turn plant yield, remains largely unexplored. Using 10 years of flowering time and yield observations (Total N = 5580) from 558 robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) farms across Vietnam we used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the drivers of flowering day anomalies and the consequent effects of this on coffee climate stress sensitivity and management responses (i.e. irrigation and fertilization). SEM allowed us to model the cascading and interacting effects of differences in flowering time, growing season length and climate stress. Warm nights were the main driver of early flowering (i.e. flowering day anomalies <0), which in turn corresponded to longer growing seasons. Early flowering was linked to greater sensitivity of yield to temperature during flowering (i.e. early in the season). In contrast, when late flowering occurred yield was most sensitive to temperature and rainfall later in the growing season, after flowering and fruit development. The positive effects of tree age and fertilizer on yield, apparent under late flowering conditions, were absent when flowering occurred early. Late flowering models predicted yields under early flowering conditions poorly (a 50 % reduction in cross-validated R2 of 0.54 to 0.27). Likewise, models based on early flowering were unable to predict yields well under late flowering conditions (a 75 % reduction in cross-validated R2, from 0.58 to 0.14). Our results show that early flowering changes the sensitivity of coffee production to climate stress and management and in turn our ability to predict yield. Our results indicate that changes in plant phenology need to be taken into account in order to more accurately assess climate risk and management impacts on plant performance and crop yield.


Assuntos
Coffea , Café , Flores , Mudança Climática , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Plantas
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115846, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280015

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hedychium flavum, an ornamental, edible, and medicinal plant, is extensively cultivated as a source of aromatic essential oils (EO). Its flower is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating inflammation-related diseases like indigestion, diarrhea, and stomach pain. In particular, H. flavum flower EO has been used in cosmetics and as an aromatic stomachic to treat chronic gastritis in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: This research aimed to analyze H. flavum flower EO's chemical composition and explore its anti-inflammatory activities and related mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EO's chemical composition was determined by GC-FID/MS analysis. For in vitro test, the anti-inflammatory activity of EO was demonstrated by measuring the LPS-induced release of NO, PGE2, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 macrophages, and then its related mechanisms were explored using qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescent staining analysis. Next, EO's in vivo anti-inflammatory potential was further evaluated using a xylene-induced ear edema model, in which ear swelling and TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß levels in serum and tissue were examined. RESULTS: The main components of EO were ß-pinene (20.2%), α-pinene (9.3%), α-phellandrene (8.3%), 1,8-cineole (7.1%), E-nerolidol (5.4%), limonene (4.4%), borneol (4.1%), and ß-caryophyllene (3.7%). For the anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, EO dramatically reduced the LPS-stimulated NO and PGE2 release by suppressing the mRNA and protein expression of iNOS and COX-2. Meanwhile, it remarkably decreased IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß production by inhibiting their mRNA levels. Related mechanism studies indicated that it not only inhibited IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, leading to blockade of NF-κB nuclear transfer but also suppressed MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Further in vivo assay showed that EO ameliorated xylene-induced ear edema in mice and reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß levels in serum and tissue. CONCLUSIONS: H. flavum EO exerted significant anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro, and its mechanism of action is related to the inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB activation. Thus, H. flavum EO could be considered a novel and promising anti-inflammatory agent and possess high potential for utilization in the pharmaceutical field.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Zingiberaceae , Animais , Camundongos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Xilenos , Zingiberaceae/metabolismo
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245862, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339337

RESUMO

Abstract Except for a few stick insects that are economically valuable, most species be considered to be forest pests, so it is extremely important to obtain plant host-use information of more stick insects. In this paper, the plant hosts of three species of stick insects were recorded for the first time. We also discovered these stick insects can feed upon the flowers or leaves of plants. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Hypericum choisianum Wall. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) attacked Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) and Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Debregeasia orientalis C. J. Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finally, we were lucky enough to also obtain photographs of them mating and feeding.


Resumo Exceto por alguns insetos-pau que são economicamente valiosos, a maioria das espécies pode ser considerada praga florestal, por isso é extremamente importante obter informações sobre o uso de hospedeiros de plantas de mais insetos-pau. Neste artigo, as plantas hospedeiras de três espécies de bicho-pau foram registradas pela primeira vez. Também descobrimos que esses bichos-pau podem se alimentar de flores ou folhas de plantas. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) atacou a parede de Hypericum choisianum. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) atacou Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) e Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae orientaled) atacou Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finalmente, tivemos a sorte de também obter fotos deles se acasalando e se alimentando.


Assuntos
Animais , Plantas , Insetos , Tibet , Folhas de Planta , Flores
7.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(3): 462-474, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931383

RESUMO

Tapetal cells comprise an anther tissue fundamental to pollen grain development. They are associated with endoreduplication events, which culminate in polyploid and multinucleated cells, high metabolic activity, and different organelle arrangements to support all the development of the pollen grains. Passiflora species present a secretory tapetum, with diversity in the number and size of nuclei. Tapetal cells undergo numerous changes in a short period of development when compared to the plant's life span. To improve our knowledge of tapetum development, tests assessing ploidy levels, anatomy, cytochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, as well as conventional and molecular cytogenetics were used in Passiflora actinia and P. elegans. The current data show striking differences in nuclear organisation during tapetal cell development, including mono to quadrinucleate cells, and ploidy levels from 2n to 32n. One of the most peculiar features was the atypical behaviour of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which accumulated in the cell border, similar to a 'cER', as well as large dictyosomes. This endomembrane configuration may be related to the tapetum nutritional network and secretion of compounds at the end of meiosis. Another atypical feature of the ER was the formation of an invagination to establish 'binucleated' polyploid cells. This membrane projection appears when the nuclei form two lobes, as well as when it organises a nucleoplasmic reticulum. These data demonstrate that there are important ultrastructural changes in tapetal cells, including organelle arrangements, ploidy levels, and nuclear activity, common to P. actinia and P. elegans, but different from the plant model A. thaliana.


Assuntos
Passiflora , Passifloraceae , Núcleo Celular , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Passiflora/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Poliploidia
8.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 669, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329059

RESUMO

Rose is one of the most important ornamental plants, accounting for one-third of the world's fresh cut flower market. The vase life refers to the period of a cut flower retaining its appearance in a vase. During this period, the rose was subjected to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, resulting in a reduction in the life of cut flowers. Numerous studies have been carried out on cut rose, which proves the effects of various plant hormones on post-harvest dehydration, petal senescence and abscission, disease and vase life of cut rose flowers. In addition, the natural or synthetic hormones or its inhibitor have been successfully used in cut flower preservatives to extend the vase life of rose. However, there is still a lack of systematic and in-depth research on the expression of rose genes related to plant hormone response. Here we analyzed the gene expression changes of the rose flower under treatment of 11 different plant hormones or its inhibitors in order to provide reference for rose studies.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Rosa , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Rosa/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18700, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333399

RESUMO

Pollinator conservation is a global priority. Efforts are taken to restore pollinators by improving flower resources, a crucial driver of pollinator diversity and population growth. It helped gardening and landscaping supply chains, which introduced lists of bee-friendly plants and bee hotels, yet, desirable results seem distant. One shortcoming of the present schemes is that they lack a cohesive planning for nesting opportunities and nesting provisions for wild solitary bees, the crucial pollinators of crop and wild plants. We tested whether the world's popular ornamental plant, rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.)-a hitherto unlisted bee-friendly plant-can aid in conserving leafcutter bees, which require fresh leaves for constructing nest cells. We surveyed 2360 rose plants in 136 sites in rural and urban places and lowlands and highlands of south (8°N-12°N) and northeastern India (26°N-27°N) for the characteristic notches the bees leave on foraged leaves. We reared brood constructed with rose and non-rose leaves to examine the brood success rate. About a quarter of all the roses surveyed had the notches of leafcutter bees on the leaves. However, the proportion of cut roses varied considerably among sites. Bees used roses much higher in urban areas and lowlands than in rural areas and highlands. The selection of plants was negatively associated with pesticide application. The brood success rate was 100% for the brood that was constructed by the leaves of rose and non-rose plants. Rose flowers do not support bees, but rose leaves indeed do. We recommend rose plants in leafcutter bee conservation and restoration schemes, particularly in urban environment.


Assuntos
Flores , Polinização , Abelhas , Animais , Plantas , Índia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18765, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335171

RESUMO

Eucommia ulmoides staminate flowers (EUF), a newly approved functional food in China, have great potential for hormonal regulation. Herein, we aim to demonstrate the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of EUF in testosterone production and hormonal regulation. EUF extract and its components, kaempferol and geniposidic acid, exhibited a strong stimulating effect by increasing testosterone secretion, reducing ROS production, or promoting viability in Leydig cells. Meanwhile, the increased testosterone production was related to the upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of the steroidogenic pathway, such as steroidogenic acute-regulatory protein (StAR), 3ß -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD3B1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1), and nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 (NR5A1). However, PKA inhibitor H89 or adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 could block their effect. The results of transgenic yeast models showed the androgenic agonistic effects of kaempferol and naringenin and the estrogenic agonistic effects of rutin. These results indicated that the testosterone promotional effect of EUF was related to the activation of the steroidogenic pathway and potential hormonal regulation. Kaempferol and geniposidic acid might be the key active ingredients.


Assuntos
Eucommiaceae , Testosterona , Testosterona/metabolismo , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Quempferóis/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Androgênios/metabolismo , Flores
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7045, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396657

RESUMO

Cryptochromes (CRYs) are evolutionarily conserved photolyase-like photoreceptors found in almost all species, including mammals. CRYs regulate transcription by modulating the activity of several transcription factors, but whether and how they affect pre-mRNA processing are unknown. Photoperiod and temperature are closely associated seasonal cues that influence reproductive timing in plants. CRYs mediate photoperiod-responsive floral initiation, but it is largely unknown whether and how they are also involved in thermosensory flowering. We establish here that blue light and CRY2 play critical roles in thermosensory flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating RNA alternative splicing (AS) to affect protein expression and development. CRY2 INTERACTING SPLICING FACTOR 1 (CIS1) interacts with CRY2 in a blue light-dependent manner and promotes CRY2-mediated thermosensory flowering. Blue light, CRYs, and CISs affect transcriptome-wide AS profiles, including those of FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM), which is critical for temperature modulation of flowering. Moreover, CIS1 binds to the FLM pre-mRNA to regulate its AS, while CRY2 regulates the RNA-binding activity of CIS1. Thus, blue light regulates thermosensory flowering via a CRY2-CIS1-FLM signaling pathway that links flowering responses to both light and ambient temperature.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Flores , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Criptocromos/genética , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética
12.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(11): 2158-2162, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325629

RESUMO

Research Highlight: Maglianesi, M. A., Maruyama, P. K., Temeles, E. J., Schleuning, M., Zanata, T. B., Sazima, M., Gutiérrez-Zamora, A., Marín-Gómez, O. H., Rosero-Lasprilla, L., Ramírez-Burbano, M. B., Ruffini, A. E., Salamanca-Reyes, J. R., Sazima, I., Nuñez-Rosas, L. E., Arizmendi, M. C., Rahbek, C., & Dalsgaard, B. (2022). Behavioural and morphological traits influence sex-specific floral resource use by hummingbirds across the Americas. Journal of Animal Ecology, 00: 00-00. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13746. In their paper on intersexual differences in niche breadth and niche overlap in floral resource use in hummingbird communities, Maglianesi et al. compiled data of plant-hummingbird interactions based on pollen loads, and territoriality and morphological traits for 31 hummingbird species, and investigated whether patterns of resource use by females and males were related to sexual dimorphism and foraging behaviour. While accounting for evolutionary relatedness among species, the authors found a high level of resource partitioning between sexes (broader and more dissimilar floral niche breadth in females) and the sex-specific resource use by hummingbird species was related to territoriality and morphological traits; niche overlap between sexes was greater for territorial than non-territorial species, and lower for species with greater sexual dimorphism in bill curvature. This paper addresses two very timely issues, on the one hand on resource partitioning by sex to reduce intersexual competition in hummingbirds, and on the other hand highlight the much needed information on foraging ecology of female hummingbirds for better understanding of intersexual variation in shaping coexistence and species diversity in hummingbird communities and the interactions between plants and their hummingbird pollinators.


Investigación Destacada: Maglianesi, M. A., Maruyama, P. K., Temeles, E. J., Schleuning, M., Zanata, T. B., Sazima, M., Gutiérrez-Zamora, A., Marín-Gómez, O. H., Rosero-Lasprilla, L., Ramírez-Burbano, M. B., Ruffini, A. E., Salamanca-Reyes, J. R., Sazima, I., Nuñez-Rosas, L. E., Arizmendi, M. C., Rahbek, C., & Dalsgaard, B. (2022). Behavioural and morphological traits influence sex-specific floral resource use by hummingbirds across the Americas. Journal of Animal Ecology, 00: 00-00. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13746. En su artículo sobre las diferencias intersexuales en la amplitud de nicho y la superposición de nicho en el uso de recursos florales en las comunidades de colibríes, Maglianesi et al. recopilaron datos de interacciones planta-colibrí basados en cargas de polen, y de territorialidad y rasgos morfológicos para 31 especies de colibríes, e investigaron si los patrones de uso de recursos por parte de hembras y machos estaban relacionados con el dimorfismo sexual y la conducta de forrajeo. Al tener en cuenta la relación evolutiva entre las especies, los autores encontraron un alto nivel de partición de recursos entre sexos (amplitud de nicho floral más amplio y diferente en las hembras) y el uso de recursos específico del sexo por parte de las especies de colibríes estaba relacionado con la territorialidad y los rasgos morfológicos; la superposición de nicho entre sexos fue mayor para las especies territoriales que para las no territoriales, y menor para las especies con mayor dimorfismo sexual en la curvatura del pico. Este artículo aborda dos temas muy oportunos, por un lado, la partición de recursos por sexo para reducir la competencia intersexual en los colibríes y, por otro lado, destaca la necesidad de información sobre la ecología de alimentación de las hembras de los colibríes para una mejor comprensión de la variación intersexual en la conformación de la coexistencia y diversidad de especies en las comunidades de colibríes y las interacciones entre las plantas y sus colibríes polinizadores.


Assuntos
Aves , Flores , Animais , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Ecologia , Pólen , Evolução Biológica , Polinização
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221279, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350210

RESUMO

Insect pests and pollinators can interact directly and indirectly to affect crop production; however, impacts of these interactions on marketable yield are little known. Thus, the evaluation of interactions between pests and pollinators are needed to best prioritize management efforts. Over 2 years, we evaluated the impact of pollinator visitation and/or beetle (Acalymma vittatum) infestation on fruit set and yield in seedless watermelon production. In 2020, we tested the main effect of pollinator visitation: two or eight honeybee visits, two wild bee visits, hand pollinated and open pollinated. In 2021, we crossed wild and managed pollinator visitation (two or four honeybee visits, two or four wild bee visits, hand pollinated and open pollinated) with varying beetle infestation levels (0, 3, 6 and 9 beetles/plant). In both years, wild bees contributed significantly to high fruit yields, and exclusive visitation from wild bees increased yield by a factor of 1.5-3 compared to honeybees. In 2021, pollination was the only significant factor for fruit set and marketable yield even when compared to the varying beetle infestation levels. These data advocate for a reprioritization of management, to conserve and protect wild bee pollination, which could be more critical than avoiding pest damage for ensuring high yields.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Besouros , Abelhas , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Polinização , Insetos , Flores
14.
Science ; 378(6619): 543-549, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378960

RESUMO

Male and female unisexual flowers evolved from hermaphroditic ancestors, and control of flower sex is useful for plant breeding. We isolated a female-to-male sex transition mutant in melon and identified the causal gene as the carpel identity gene <i>CRABS CLAW (CRC)</i>. We show that the master regulator of sex determination in cucurbits, the transcription factor <i>WIP1</i> whose expression orchestrates male flower development, recruits the corepressor TOPLESS to the <i>CRC</i> promoter to suppress its expression through histone deacetylation. Impairing TOPLESS-WIP1 physical interaction leads to <i>CRC</i> expression, carpel determination, and consequently the expression of the stamina inhibitor, the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 7 (<i>CmACS7</i>), leading to female flower development. Our findings suggest that sex genes evolved to interfere with flower meristematic function, leading to unisexual flower development.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Cucurbitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19848, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400941

RESUMO

Stickiness of vegetative tissues has evolved multiple times in different plant families but is rare and understudied in flowers. While stickiness in general is thought to function primarily as a defense against herbivores, it may compromise mutualistic interactions (such as those with pollinators) in reproductive tissues. Here, we test the hypothesis that stickiness on flower petals of the High-Andean plant, Bejaria resinosa (Ericaceae), functions as a defense against florivores. We address ecological consequences and discuss potential trade-offs associated with a repellant trait expressed in flowers that mediate mutualistic interactions. In surveys and manipulative experiments, we assess florivory and resulting fitness effects on plants with sticky and non-sticky flowers in different native populations of B. resinosa in Colombia. In addition, we analyze the volatile and non-volatile components in sticky and non-sticky flower morphs to understand the chemical information context within which stickiness is expressed. We demonstrate that fruit set is strongly affected by floral stickiness but also varies with population. While identifying floral stickiness as a major defensive function, our data also suggest that the context-dependency of chemical defense functionality likely arises from differential availability of primary pollinators and potential trade-offs between chemical defense with different modes of action.


Assuntos
Flores , Herbivoria , Simbiose , Plantas , Colômbia
16.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359848

RESUMO

Flower morphologies shape the accessibility to nectar and pollen, two major traits that determine plant-pollinator interactions and reproductive success. Melon is an economically important crop whose reproduction is completely pollinator-dependent and, as such, is a valuable model for studying crop-ecological functions. High-resolution imaging techniques, such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), have recently become popular for phenotyping in plant science. Here, we implemented micro-CT to study floral morphology and honey bees in the context of nectar-related traits without a sample preparation to improve the phenotyping precision and quality. We generated high-quality 3D models of melon male and female flowers and compared the geometric measures. Micro-CT allowed for a relatively easy and rapid generation of 3D volumetric data on nectar, nectary, flower, and honey bee body sizes. A comparative analysis of male and female flowers showed a strong positive correlation between the nectar gland volume and the volume of the secreted nectar. We modeled the nectar level inside the flower and reconstructed a 3D model of the accessibility by honey bees. By combining data on flower morphology, the honey bee size and nectar volume, this protocol can be used to assess the flower accessibility to pollinators in a high resolution, and can readily carry out genotypes comparative analysis to identify nectar-pollination-related traits.


Assuntos
Néctar de Plantas , Polinização , Abelhas , Animais , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Raios X , Flores/anatomia & histologia
17.
Planta ; 256(6): 116, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374358

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: StLFY-knockout potato plants were developed using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Inflorescences of edited plants transited to flowering, but inflorescence structures lacked flowers and were indeterminate, producing multiple shoot meristems. The tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important agricultural crop worldwide. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to inactivate the potato homolog (StLFY) of the LEAFY gene-a key regulator of the transition to flowering and floral meristem identity-in a tetraploid potato cultivar. We achieved high rates of all-allelic knockouts. Frameshift indels led to phenotypic alterations, including indeterminate inflorescence development and the replacement of flowers with the leafy-like structures.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Tetraploidia , Meristema , Inflorescência , Flores
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361603

RESUMO

Nuclear Factor Y, Subunit C (NF-YC) transcription factors are conserved in most plants, and play essential roles in plant growth and development, especially in flowering regulation. Chrysanthemums are important commercial plants, and their market value is strongly impacted by flowering time. Until now, no details regarding the NF-YC family in the Chrysanthemum genus have been available. In this study, five NF-YC genes were cloned from Chrysanthemum indicum. Multiple alignments showed that CiNF-YCs had the highly conserved characteristic regions. Phylogenetic analyses identified a pair of paralogue NF-YC proteins in chrysanthemums. Gene structure and conserved motifs were also analyzed for functional understanding. According to the results of the expression experiments, CiNF-YC1 and CiNF-YC5 were mainly expressed in leaves or flowers, and their expression levels varied greatly from the seedling to flower bud differentiation stage. Arabidopsis overexpressing CiNF-YC1 and CiNF-YC3 showed significantly delayed flowering, accompanied by other morphological alterations. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that genes associated with photoperiod, vernalization, aging, and gibberellin pathways were downregulated in CiNF-YC1-OX lines, relative to the wild type, whereas in CiNF-YC3-OX lines, only SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (AtSVP), the key factor in the ambient temperature pathway, was upregulated. Taken together, these findings suggest that CiNF-YC1 and CiNF-YC3 negatively regulate flowering in Arabidopsis via different flowering pathways.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Chrysanthemum , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Flores , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361746

RESUMO

Adequate yield and fruit quality are required in commercial plum production. The pollen source has been shown to influence fruit set and fruit characteristics. In this study, 'Siyueli', 'Fenghuangli' and 'Yinhongli' were used as pollinizers of 'Fengtangli' plum. Additionally, self-pollination, mixed pollination, and open pollination were performed. We characterized the differences in pollen tube growth, fruit set and fruit quality among pollination combinations. 'Fengtangli' flowers pollinated by 'Fenghuangli' had more pistils with pollen tubes penetrating the ovary and the highest fruit set rate, while the lowest fruit set rate was obtained from self-pollination. In self-pollinated flowers, 33% of pistils had at least one pollen tube reaching the ovary, implying that 'Fengtangli' is partially self-compatible. Pollen sources affected 'Fengtangli' fruit size, weight, pulp thickness, soluble solids, and sugar content. Transcriptome analysis of 'Siyueli'-pollinated and 'Yinhongli'-pollinated fruits revealed 2762 and 1018 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the response to different pollen sources. DEGs were enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, and MAPK signaling pathways. Our findings provide a reference for the selection of suitable pollinizers for 'Fengtangli' plum and promote future research on the metaxenia effect at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Prunus domestica , Prunus domestica/genética , Frutas , Transcriptoma , Pólen/genética , Polinização , Flores , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361817

RESUMO

Floral initiation is a major phase change in the spermatophyte, where developmental programs switch from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. It is a key phase of flowering in tea-oil trees that can affect flowering time and yield, but very little is known about the molecular mechanism of floral initiation in tea-oil trees. A 12-year-old Camellia oleifera (cultivar 'changlin53') was the source of experimental materials in the current study. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the key stage of floral initiation, and transcriptome analysis was used to reveal the transcriptional regulatory network in old leaves involved in floral initiation. We mined 5 DEGs related to energy and 55 DEGs related to plant hormone signal transduction, and we found floral initiation induction required a high level of energy metabolism, and the phytohormones signals in the old leaves regulate floral initiation, which occurred at stage I and II. Twenty-seven rhythm-related DEGs and 107 genes associated with flowering were also identified, and the circadian rhythm interacted with photoperiod pathways to induce floral initiation. Unigene0017292 (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR), Unigene0046809 (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL), Unigene0009932 (GIGANTEA), Unigene0001842 (CONSTANS), and Unigene0084708 (FLOWER LOCUS T) were the key genes in the circadian rhythm-photoperiod regulatory network. In conjunction with morphological observations and transcriptomic analysis, we concluded that the induction of floral initiation by old leaves in C. oleifera 'changlin53' mainly occurred during stages I and II, floral initiation was completed during stage III, and rhythm-photoperiod interactions may be the source of the main signals in floral initiation induced by old leaves.


Assuntos
Camellia , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Árvores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Flores/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Chá/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
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