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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1098, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321030

RESUMO

In angiosperms, the transition from floral-organ maintenance to abscission determines reproductive success and seed dispersion. For petal abscission, cell-fate decisions specifically at the petal-cell base are more important than organ-level senescence or cell death in petals. However, how this transition is regulated remains unclear. Here, we identify a jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated chromatin-state switch at the base of Arabidopsis petals that directs local cell-fate determination via autophagy. During petal maintenance, co-repressors of JA signaling accumulate at the base of petals to block MYC activity, leading to lower levels of ROS. JA acts as an airborne signaling molecule transmitted from stamens to petals, accumulating primarily in petal bases to trigger chromatin remodeling. This allows MYC transcription factors to promote chromatin accessibility for downstream targets, including NAC DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN102 (ANAC102). ANAC102 accumulates specifically at the petal base prior to abscission and triggers ROS accumulation and cell death via AUTOPHAGY-RELATED GENEs induction. Developmentally induced autophagy at the petal base causes maturation, vacuolar delivery, and breakdown of autophagosomes for terminal cell differentiation. Dynamic changes in vesicles and cytoplasmic components in the vacuole occur in many plants, suggesting JA-NAC-mediated local cell-fate determination by autophagy may be conserved in angiosperms.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Autofagia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
2.
Curr Biol ; 34(3): R94-R98, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320481

RESUMO

The femoral lobes of the orchid mantis give this fierce predator a flower-like appearance, but they also assist in gliding, showing that form can match function in more ways than one.


Assuntos
Voo Animal , Mantódeos , Animais , Locomoção , Asas de Animais , Flores
3.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113857, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309891

RESUMO

To promote the consumption of flowers and to utilize the nutritional value of proteins, the efficacy of the beneficial components of flowers has been intensively studied. Anthemis nobilis was used as the study object, and all its volatile components (VOCs) were fingerprinted using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction gas-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). GC-MS fingerprints of five parts of Anthemis nobilis were established using three proteins, bovine lactoferrin (BLF), bovine lactoglobulin (ß-Lg), and human serum albumin (HSA), as nutrient transporters. The interactions between the volatile components from different parts of the mother chrysanthemum plant and the nutrient/transport proteins were investigated. The results of fingerprinting showed that the flavor components were dominated by alkenes. In addition, this study revealed that among the three nutrient transporters, the strongest binding to the adsorbed volatile components was HSA, followed by BLF, and ß-Lg was second. In addition, a characteristic molecule, camphene, was screened. Integrated molecular simulation using fluorescence spectroscopy was used to validate the results of the interaction of the nutrient/transport proteins systems with characteristic molecule. The properties of the characteristic molecules such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity in vivo were analyzed using ADMET to provide a theoretical basis for the preparation of flower-flavored dairy products.


Assuntos
Matricaria , Humanos , Matricaria/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Flores/química , Nutrientes , Proteínas de Transporte
4.
Food Res Int ; 178: 114001, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309925

RESUMO

In recent years the consumption of edible flowers has gained new popularity, and their use seems destined to grow thanks to their potential as functional elements and their ability to impart aroma to traditional foods. In this study, the volatile profile of several edible flowers was investigated to identify characteristic compounds to be used as product markers. 85 samples belonging to four cultivars were analyzed by HS-SPME/GC-MS. A PLS-DA was used to build a model capable of differentiating the investigated classes. The resulting model correctly predicted over 95% of the validation samples, highlighting a significant difference between the four types of edible flowers. The VIP analysis highlighted 29 compounds relevant for the characterization of different flowers, many of which were biologically active. The study aims to broaden the framework of objectively measurable tools useful for enhancing the qualitative peculiarity of one product compared to another and offering growth opportunities to emerging food chains.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Quimiometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Flores/química
5.
Elife ; 122024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353667

RESUMO

Sex-biased genes offer insights into the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Sex-biased genes, especially those with male bias, show elevated evolutionary rates of protein sequences driven by positive selection and relaxed purifying selection in animals. Although rapid sequence evolution of sex-biased genes and evolutionary forces have been investigated in animals and brown algae, less is known about evolutionary forces in dioecious angiosperms. In this study, we separately compared the expression of sex-biased genes between female and male floral buds and between female and male flowers at anthesis in dioecious Trichosanthes pilosa (Cucurbitaceae). In floral buds, sex-biased gene expression was pervasive, and had significantly different roles in sexual dimorphism such as physiology. We observed higher rates of sequence evolution for male-biased genes in floral buds compared to female-biased and unbiased genes. Male-biased genes under positive selection were mainly associated with functions to abiotic stress and immune responses, suggesting that high evolutionary rates are driven by adaptive evolution. Additionally, relaxed purifying selection may contribute to accelerated evolution in male-biased genes generated by gene duplication. Our findings, for the first time in angiosperms, suggest evident rapid evolution of male-biased genes, advance our understanding of the patterns and forces driving the evolution of sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Animais , Magnoliopsida/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Flores/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Science ; 383(6683): 607-611, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330103

RESUMO

There is growing concern about sensory pollutants affecting ecological communities. Anthropogenically enhanced oxidants [ozone (O3) and nitrate radicals (NO3)] rapidly degrade floral scents, potentially reducing pollinator attraction to flowers. However, the physiological and behavioral impacts on pollinators and plant fitness are unknown. Using a nocturnal flower-moth system, we found that atmospherically relevant concentrations of NO3 eliminate flower visitation by moths, and the reaction of NO3 with a subset of monoterpenes is what reduces the scent's attractiveness. Global atmospheric models of floral scent oxidation reveal that pollinators in certain urban areas may have a reduced ability to perceive and navigate to flowers. These results illustrate the impact of anthropogenic pollutants on an animal's olfactory ability and indicate that such pollutants may be critical regulators of global pollination.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Mariposas , Nitratos , Odorantes , Oenothera , Polinização , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio , Olfato , Animais , Flores/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Feromônios , Polinização/fisiologia , Oenothera/fisiologia , Manduca/fisiologia , Poluição Ambiental
7.
Science ; 383(6683): 578, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330106

RESUMO

Nitrate radicals, a common pollutant, break down the cues nocturnal insects follow to find nectar sources.


Assuntos
Flores , Polinização , Animais , Odorantes , Néctar de Plantas , Insetos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339202

RESUMO

Vernalization plays a crucial role in the flowering and yield of Chinese cabbage, a process intricately influenced by long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Our research focused on lncFLC1, lncFLC2a, and lncFLC2b, which emerged as key players in this process. These lncRNAs exhibited an inverse expression pattern to the flowering repressor genes FLOWERING LOCUS C 1 (BrFLC1) and FLOWERING LOCUS C 2 (BrFLC2) during vernalization, suggesting a complex regulatory mechanism. Notably, their expression in the shoot apex and leaves was confirmed through in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Furthermore, when these lncRNAs were overexpressed in Arabidopsis, a noticeable acceleration in flowering was observed, unveiling functional similarities to Arabidopsis's COLD ASSISTED INTRONIC NONCODING RNA (COOLAIR). This resemblance suggests a potentially conserved regulatory mechanism across species. This study not only enhances our understanding of lncRNAs in flowering regulation, but also opens up new possibilities for their application in agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica , RNA Longo não Codificante , Arabidopsis/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Flores/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
Yi Chuan ; 46(2): 168-180, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340006

RESUMO

Histone demethylase (HDM) play crucial roles in regulating plant growth and environmental adaptation. In this study, the HDM gene family in melon was identified by bioinformatics methods and the expression patterns of the CmHDM family members in different melon tissues were analyzed using transcriptome data. The results showed that 20 CmHDM genes were identified in the melon genome, which were unevenly distributed across each chromosome. These members fall into two major categories: LSD1 and JmjC. The JmjC group could be further divided into five subgroups with different numbers. The results of collinearity analysis of intraspecific and interspecific relationships showed that there were only one pair of segmental duplication in melon HDM genes, and more collinearity in genetic relationship of HDM genes between melon and tomato. The numbers of conserved domains, exons and introns in each member vary and various cis-acting elements responding to hormones and environmental signals existed in the respective promoter regions. Expression analysis showed that the respective gene members were expressed at different levels in male flowers, female flowers, roots, stems, leaves, ovary, and mature fruits of melon. These results will contribute to the understanding on the potential functions of the HDM genes and their potential functions in regulating melon growth and environmental adaptation.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo , Cucurbitaceae , Cucumis melo/genética , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Transcriptoma , Flores/genética , Íntrons
10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(3): 66, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341387

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We used transcriptomic and proteomic association analysis to reveal the critical genes/proteins at three key flower bud differentiation stages and overexpression of CpFPA1 in Arabidopsis resulted in earlier flowering. Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox), a rare winter-flowering woody plant, is well known for its unique blooming time, fragrance and long flowering period. However, the molecular mechanism of flowering in C. praecox remains poorly unclear. In this study, we used transcriptomic and proteomic association analysis to reveal the critical genes/proteins at three key flower bud (FB) differentiation stages (FB.Apr, FB.May and FB.Nov) in C. praecox. The results showed that a total of 952 differential expressed genes (DEGs) and 40 differential expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment revealed that DEGs in FB.Apr/FB.May comparison group were mainly involved in metabolic of biological process, cell and cell part of cellular component and catalytic activity of molecular function. In the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) functional classification, DEPs were predicted mainly in the function of general function prediction only (KOG0118), post-translational modification, protein turnover and chaperones. The autonomous pathway genes play an essential role in the floral induction. Based on transcriptome and proteome correlation analysis, six candidate genes associated with the autonomous pathway were identified, including FPA1, FPA2a, FPA2b, FCA, FLK, FY. Furthermore, CpFPA1 was isolated and functionally characterized, and ectopic expression of CpFPA1 in Arabidopsis Columbia (Col-0) resulted in earlier flowering. These data could contribute to understand the function of CpFPA1 for floral induction and provide information for further research on the molecular mechanisms of flowering in wintersweet.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Transcriptoma , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 466: 133628, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301442

RESUMO

Cadmium pollution affects the global ecosystem because cadmium can be transferred up the food chain. The bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, is an important insect pollinator. Their foraging activity on flowers exposes them to harmful heavy metals, which damages their health and leads to massive population declines. However, the effects of chronic exposure to heavy metals on the flight performance of bumblebees have not yet been characterized. Here, we studied variation in the flight capacity of bumblebees induced by chronic cadmium exposure at field-realistic concentrations using behavioral, physiological, and molecular approaches. Chronic cadmium exposure caused a significant reduction in the duration, distance, and mean velocity of bumblebee flight. Transcriptome analysis showed that the impairment of carbon metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in the flight muscle were the primary causes. Physiological, biochemical, and metabolomic analyses validated disruptions in energy metabolism, and impairments in mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities. Histological analysis revealed muscle fiber damage and mitochondrial loss. Exogenous decanoic acid or citric acid partially restored sustained flight ability of bumblebees by mitigating muscle fiber damage and increasing energy generation. These findings provide insights into how long-term cadmium stress affects the flight ability of insects and will aid human muscle or exercise-related disease research.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Ecossistema , Humanos , Abelhas , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Flores , Metabolismo Energético , Músculos
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297130, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300947

RESUMO

Using wild pollinators to pollinate crops without introducing human-managed pollinators is cost-effective and friendly to native ecosystems. To maintain stable, good-quality yields in crops that mainly use wild pollinators, it is essential to determine which flower visitors are important pollinators and their degree of importance. In this study, we observed flower-visiting insects for 5 years in outdoor cultivated strawberries surrounded by a semi-natural environment in central Japan. We estimated the pollination effectiveness and efficiency of the 10 main flower-visiting insect taxa on strawberries by examining the relationship between the number of visits per flower and subsequent achene fertilization rates per berry. Finally, the pollinator importance (%) to the total pollination service was estimated for each of the 10 main taxa and for all others. Among the 10 main insect taxa, 6 were effective pollinators, i.e., they significantly increased achene fertilization rates by increasing their number of visits to a flower. Considering the 5-year mean, these six taxa accounted for the top six important pollinators. Andrena (subgenus Micrandrena) spp. were the most important and three other bee taxa, including Apis mellifera and Ceratina spp., were the next most important pollinators; one fly and one butterfly species were also important pollinators. This indicates that strawberry pollinators were diverse in the study area. The flower-visit frequency and importance of many pollinators fluctuated from year to year, implying that various pollinators pollinate strawberry flowers each year, and in field surveys of crop-pollinator communities multiyear investigations are needed to identify important pollinators and to estimate their importance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify the proportional importance of each pollinator to the total pollination service for a crop.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Humanos , Abelhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Insetos , Polinização , Flores , Produtos Agrícolas
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 102, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331761

RESUMO

Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are type-3 copper enzymes and are involved in many biological processes. However, the potential functions of PPOs in pollination are not fully understood. In this work, we have screened 13 PPO members in Nicotiana. tabacum (named NtPPO1-13, NtPPOs) to explore their characteristics and functions in pollination. The results show that NtPPOs are closely related to PPOs in Solanaceae and share conserved domains except NtPPO4. Generally, NtPPOs are diversely expressed in different tissues and are distributed in pistil and male gametes. Specifically, NtPPO9 and NtPPO10 are highly expressed in the pistil and mature anther. In addition, the expression levels and enzyme activities of NtPPOs are increased after N. tabacum self-pollination. Knockdown of NtPPOs would affect pollen growth after pollination, and the purines and flavonoid compounds are accumulated in self-pollinated pistil. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that NtPPOs potentially play a role in the pollen tube growth after pollination through purines and flavonoid compounds, and will provide new insights into the role of PPOs in plant reproduction.


Assuntos
Polinização , /genética , Polinização/genética , Tubo Polínico , Flores , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Purinas/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1237, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336937

RESUMO

Since the insights by Charles Darwin, heterostyly, a floral polymorphism with morphs bearing stigmas and anthers at reciprocal heights, has become a model system for the study of natural selection. Based on his archetypal heterostylous flower, including regular symmetry, few stamens and a tube, Darwin hypothesised that heterostyly evolved to promote outcrossing through efficient pollen transfer between morphs involving different areas of a pollinator's body, thus proposing his seminal pollination-precision hypothesis. Here we update the number of heterostylous and other style-length polymorphic taxa to 247 genera belonging to 34 families, notably expanding known cases by 20%. Using phylogenetic and comparative analyses across the angiosperms, we show numerous independent origins of style-length polymorphism associated with actinomorphic, tubular flowers with a low number of sex organs, stamens fused to the corolla, and pollination by long-tongued insects. These associations provide support for the Darwinian pollination-precision hypothesis as a basis for convergent evolution of heterostyly across angiosperms.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Polinização , Humanos , Polinização/genética , Filogenia , Magnoliopsida/genética , Pólen , Polimorfismo Genético , Flores/genética
15.
Science ; 383(6683): eadg9196, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330117

RESUMO

Plants measure daylength (photoperiod) to regulate seasonal growth and flowering. Photoperiodic flowering has been well studied, but less is known about photoperiodic growth. By using a mutant with defects in photoperiodic growth, we identified a seasonal growth regulation pathway that functions in long days in parallel to the canonical long-day photoperiod flowering mechanism. This is achieved by using distinct mechanisms to detect different photoperiods: The flowering pathway measures photoperiod as the duration of light intensity, whereas the growth pathway measures photoperiod as the duration of photosynthetic activity (photosynthetic period). Plants can then independently control expression of genes required for flowering or growth. This demonstrates that seasonal flowering and growth are dissociable, allowing them to be coordinated independently across seasons.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ritmo Circadiano , Flores , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase , Fotoperíodo , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estações do Ano , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/genética , Mio-Inositol-1-Fosfato Sintase/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia
16.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 20, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flowering plays an important role in completing the reproductive cycle of plants and obtaining next generation of plants. In case of citrus, it may take more than a year to achieve progeny. Therefore, in order to fasten the breeding processes, the juvenility period needs to be reduced. The juvenility in plants is regulated by set of various flowering genes. The citrus fruit and leaves possess various medicinal properties and are subjected to intensive breeding programs to produce hybrids with improved quality traits. In order to break juvenility in Citrus, it is important to study the role of flowering genes. The present study involved identification of genes regulating flowering in Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck via homology based approach. The structural and functional characterization of these genes would help in targeting genome editing techniques to induce mutations in these genes for producing desirable results. RESULTS: A total of 43 genes were identified which were located on all the 9 chromosomes of citrus. The in-silico analysis was performed to determine the genetic structure, conserved motifs, cis-regulatory elements (CREs) and phylogenetic relationship of the genes. A total of 10 CREs responsible for flowering were detected in 33 genes and 8 conserved motifs were identified in all the genes. The protein structure, protein-protein interaction network and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was performed to study the functioning of these genes which revealed the involvement of flowering proteins in circadian rhythm pathways. The gene ontology (GO) and gene function analysis was performed to functionally annotate the genes. The structure of the genes and proteins were also compared among other Citrus species to study the evolutionary relationship among them. The expression study revealed the expression of flowering genes in floral buds and ovaries. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the flowering genes were highly expressed in bud stage, fully grown flower and early stage of fruit development. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that the flowering genes were highly conserved in citrus species. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed the tissue specific expression of flowering genes (CsFT, CsCO, CsSOC, CsAP, CsSEP and CsLFY) which would help in easy detection and targeting of genes through various forward and reverse genetic approaches.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Citrus , Citrus sinensis/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Flores/genética
17.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(3): 73, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379012

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: PnNAC2 positively regulates saponin biosynthesis by binding the promoters of key biosynthetic genes, including PnSS, PnSE, and PnDS. PnNAC2 accelerates flowering through directly associating with the promoters of FT genes. NAC transcription factors play an important regulatory role in both terpenoid biosynthesis and flowering. Saponins with multiple pharmacological activities are recognized as the major active components of Panax notoginseng. The P. notoginseng flower is crucial for growth and used for medicinal and food purposes. However, the precise function of the P. notoginseng NAC transcription factor in the regulation of saponin biosynthesis and flowering remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted a comprehensive characterization of a specific NAC transcription factor, designated as PnNAC2, from P. notoginseng. PnNAC2 was identified as a nuclear-localized protein with transcription activator activity. The expression profile of PnNAC2 across various tissues mirrored the accumulation pattern of total saponins. Knockdown experiments of PnNAC2 in P. notoginseng calli revealed a significant reduction in saponin content and the expression level of pivotal saponin biosynthetic genes, including PnSS, PnSE, and PnDS. Subsequently, Y1H assays, dual-LUC assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated that PnNAC2 exhibits binding affinity to the promoters of PnSS, PnSE and PnDS, thereby activating their transcription. Additionally, an overexpression assay of PnNAC2 in Arabidopsis thaliana witnessed the acceleration of flowering and the induction of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene expression. Furthermore, PnNAC2 demonstrated the ability to bind to the promoters of AtFT and PnFT genes, further activating their transcription. In summary, these results revealed that PnNAC2 acts as a multifunctional regulator, intricately involved in the modulation of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis and flowering processes.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Panax notoginseng/genética , Panax notoginseng/química , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
PeerJ ; 12: e16996, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406283

RESUMO

Background: Urban gardens, despite their transformed nature, serve as invaluable microcosms for a quantitative examination of floral resource provision to urban pollinators, considering the plant's origin. Thus, knowledge has increased, emphasizing the importance of these green areas for hosting and conserving pollinator communities. However, there is a significant knowledge gap concerning the changing availability of these native and exotic floral resources over time and their impact on structuring interaction networks with specific pollinators. Methods: Over a year-long period, monthly surveys were conducted to record both native and exotic plant species visited by hummingbirds in an urban garden at Tlaxcala, Mexico. Flower visits were recorded, and the total flowers on each plant visited were tallied. Additionally, all observed hummingbirds were recorded during the transect walks, regardless of plant visits, to determine hummingbird abundance. The interactions were summarized using matrices, and network descriptors like connectance, specializacion, nestedness, and modularity were computed. Plant and hummingbird species in the core and periphery of the network were also identified. Lastly, simulations were performed to assess the network's resilience to the extinction of highly connected native and exotic plant species, including those previously situated in the network's core. Results: We recorded 4,674 interactions between 28 plant species, and eight hummingbird species. The majority of plants showed an ornithophilic syndrome, with 20 species considered exotic. Despite asynchronous flowering, there was overlap observed across different plant species throughout the year. Exotic plants like Jacaranda mimosifolia and Nicotiana glauca produced more flowers annually than native species. The abundance of hummingbirds varied throughout the study, with Saucerottia berillyna being the most abundant species. The plant-hummingbird network displayed high connectance, indicating generalization in their interaction. Significant nestedness was observed, mainly influenced by exotic plant species. The core of the network was enriched with exotic plants, while Basilinna leucotis and Cynanthus latirostris played central roles among hummingbirds. Network resilience to species extinction remained generally high. Conclusions: Our findings provide valuable insights into the dynamics and structure of plant-hummingbird interactions in urban gardens, emphasizing the influence of exotic plant species and the network's resilience to perturbations. Understanding and managing the impact of exotic plants on such networks is crucial for the conservation and sustainable functioning of urban ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Polinização , Animais , Parques Recreativos , Flores , Plantas , Aves
19.
PeerJ ; 12: e16914, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406281

RESUMO

Background: Paphiopedilum armeniacum (P. armeniacum), an ornamental plant native to China, is known for its distinctive yellow blossoms. However, the mechanisms underlying P. armeniacum flower coloration remain unclear. Methods: We selected P. armeniacum samples from different flowering stages and conducted rigorous physicochemical analyses. The specimens were differentiated based on their chemical properties, specifically their solubilities in polar solvents. This key step enabled us to identify the main metabolite of flower color development of P. armeniacum, and to complete the identification by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based on the results. Additionally, we employed a combined approach, integrating both third-generation full-length transcriptome sequencing and second-generation high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, to comprehensively explore the molecular components involved. Results: We combined physical and chemical analysis with transcriptome sequencing to reveal that carotenoid is the main pigment of P. armeniacum flower color. Extraction colorimetric method and HPLC were used to explore the characteristics of carotenoid accumulation during flowering. We identified 28 differentially expressed carotenoid biosynthesis genes throughout the flowering process, validated their expression through fluorescence quantification, and discovered 19 potential positive regulators involved in carotenoid synthesis. Among these candidates, three RCP2 genes showed a strong potential for governing the PDS and ZDS gene families. In summary, our study elucidates the fundamental mechanisms governing carotenoid synthesis during P. armeniacum flowering, enhancing our understanding of this process and providing a foundation for future research on the molecular mechanisms driving P. armeniacum flowering.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Transcriptoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Flores/genética , China
20.
Food Res Int ; 180: 114095, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395569

RESUMO

This research aimed to evaluate the effect of different cooking methods (boiling, stir-frying, and steaming) on the microstructure, moisture, fat, protein, and glucose-derived carbohydrate contents, and the bioactive compounds (total carotenoids: CAR, total chlorophyll: CHLO, and total phenolic compounds: TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of squash blossoms. Furthermore, we characterized polyphenolic compounds using HPLC and evaluated their bioaccessibility via in vitro digestions. Our results show that steaming and boiling do not affect moisture content. Only stir-frying decreased (p < 0.05) this parameter by 8 %. Additionally, the cooking methods increased (p < 0.05) protein and glucose-derived carbohydrate contents. All cooking methods changed the microstructure of the blossoms, probably due to the thermal and mechanical variations that result in moisture loss and degradation of cell wall components. As for the functional properties, boiling caused a greater loss of TPC (up to 96 %) and AC (up to 91 %). Stir-frying caused the greatest loss of CAR (up to 81 %) and CHLO (up to 84 %). The in vitro digestion assays showed changes in the bioaccessibility of CAR, CHLO, TPC, and AC in the cooked flowers compared to the fresh ones. Finally, kaempferol and gallic acid were the most resistant polyphenols to the cooking methods and in vitro digestion.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Culinária , Antioxidantes/análise , Culinária/métodos , Carboidratos , Proteínas , Flores/química , Glucose
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