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1.
Cancer Med ; 13(7): e7107, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term anti-EGFR antibody treatment increases the risk of severe dermatologic toxicities. This single-arm, phase II trial aimed to investigate the strategy of switching from cetuximab to bevacizumab in combination with FOLFIRI based on early tumor shrinkage (ETS) in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: Radiologic assessment was performed to evaluate ETS, defined as ≥20% reduction in the sum of the largest diameters of target lesions 8 weeks after the introduction of FOLFIRI plus cetuximab. ETS-negative patients switched to FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab, whereas ETS-positive patients continued FOLFIRI plus cetuximab for eight more weeks, with a switch to FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab thereafter. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. RESULTS: This trial was prematurely terminated due to poor accrual after a total enrollment of 30 patients. In 29 eligible patients, 7 were ETS-negative and 22 were ETS-positive. Two ETS-negative patients and 17 ETS-positive patients switched to FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab 8 weeks and 16 weeks after initial FOLFIRI plus cetuximab, respectively. Median progression-free and overall survival durations were 13.4 and 34.7 months, respectively. Six (20%) patients experienced grade ≥3 paronychia, which improved to grade ≤2 by 18 weeks. Grade ≥3 acneiform rash, dry skin, and pruritus were not observed in any patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel treatment strategy delivered acceptable survival outcomes and reduced severe dermatologic toxicities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 9(1): 79, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565886

RESUMO

Fluoropyrimidine-based combination chemotherapy plus targeted therapy is the standard initial treatment for unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but the prognosis remains poor. This phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03950154) assessed the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of the combination of PD-1 blockade-activated DC-CIK (PD1-T) cells with XELOX plus bevacizumab as a first-line therapy in patients with mCRC. A total of 202 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either first-line XELOX plus bevacizumab (the control group, n = 102) or the same regimen plus autologous PD1-T cell immunotherapy (the immunotherapy group, n = 100) every 21 days for up to 6 cycles, followed by maintenance treatment with capecitabine and bevacizumab. The main endpoint of the trial was progression-free survival (PFS). The median follow-up was 19.5 months. Median PFS was 14.8 months (95% CI, 11.6-18.0) for the immunotherapy group compared with 9.9 months (8.0-11.8) for the control group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60 [95% CI, 0.40-0.88]; p = 0.009). Median overall survival (OS) was not reached for the immunotherapy group and 25.6 months (95% CI, 18.3-32.8) for the control group (HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.33-0.98]; p = 0.043). Grade 3 or higher AEs occurred in 20.0% of patients in the immunotherapy group and 23.5% in the control groups, with no toxicity-associated deaths reported. The addition of PD1-T cells to first-line XELOX plus bevacizumab demonstrates significant clinical improvement of PFS and OS with well tolerability in patients with previously untreated mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Oxaloacetatos , Humanos , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2538-2549, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the protective effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Benidipine, and Lacidipine on potential kidney damage induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were investigated in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totally 48 rats were divided into 8 groups: healthy (HG), 5-FU (FUG), ATP+5-FU (AFU), Benidipine+5-FU (BFU), Lacidipine+5-FU (LFU), ATP+Benidipine+5-FU (ABFU), ATP+Lacidipine+5-FU (ALFU) and Benidipine+Lacidipine+5-FU (BLFU). In a 10-day period, ATP (4 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally, and Benidipine (4 mg/kg) and Lacidipine (4 mg/kg) were administered orally once a day. On days 1, 3, and 5, 5-FU (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally one hour after the drug was administered. Afterward, the rats were euthanized, and kidney tissues were removed. An analysis of malondialdehyde, total glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase was performed on tissues, as well as a histopathological examination. A creatinine and blood urea nitrogen analysis were performed on blood samples. RESULTS: It was revealed that 5-FU decreased the amount of total glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in rat kidney tissues and increased malondialdehyde. Further, increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, as well as histopathological examination of kidney tissues, were found in the 5-FU group. ATP+Benidipine and ATP treatments were the most effective in preventing both biochemical and histopathological changes induced by 5-FU. A treatment with Benidipine improved biochemical and histopathologic data, but not to the same extent as a treatment with ATP+Benidipine and ATP. As a result of Lacidipine+ATP combination, 5-FU-induced biochemical changes in kidney tissue were partially inhibited, but the degree of histopathologic damage remained unchanged. Neither Benidipine+Lacidipine nor Lacidipine showed a protective effect on both biochemical changes and histopathologic damage. CONCLUSIONS: It may be possible to prevent nephrotoxicity by adding ATP + Benidipine or ATP to 5-FU treatment.


Assuntos
Di-Hidropiridinas , Fluoruracila , Nefropatias , Ratos , Animais , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Rim/patologia , Catalase , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Glutationa , Superóxido Dismutase , Malondialdeído
4.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 100, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is inefficiently converted to the active anti-cancer metabolite, fluorodeoxyuridine-monophosphate (FUDR-MP), is associated with dose-limiting toxicities and challenging administration schedules. NUC-3373 is a phosphoramidate nucleotide analog of fluorodeoxyuridine (FUDR) designed to overcome these limitations and replace fluoropyrimidines such as 5-FU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NUC-3373 was administered as monotherapy to patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy via intravenous infusion either on Days 1, 8, 15 and 22 (Part 1) or on Days 1 and 15 (Part 2) of 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary objectives were maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) and schedule of NUC-3373. Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics (PK), and anti-tumor activity. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients received weekly NUC-3373 in 9 cohorts in Part 1 (n = 43) and 3 alternate-weekly dosing cohorts in Part 2 (n = 16). They had received a median of 3 prior lines of treatment (range: 0-11) and 74% were exposed to prior fluoropyrimidines. Four experienced dose-limiting toxicities: two Grade (G) 3 transaminitis; one G2 headache; and one G3 transient hypotension. Commonest treatment-related G3 adverse event of raised transaminases occurred in < 10% of patients. NUC-3373 showed a favorable PK profile, with dose-proportionality and a prolonged half-life compared to 5-FU. A best overall response of stable disease was observed, with prolonged progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: NUC-3373 was well-tolerated in a heavily pre-treated solid tumor patient population, including those who had relapsed on prior 5-FU. The MTD and RP2D was defined as 2500 mg/m2 NUC-3373 weekly. NUC-3373 is currently in combination treatment studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registry number NCT02723240. Trial registered on 8th December 2015. https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT02723240 .


Assuntos
Floxuridina , Neoplasias , Humanos , Floxuridina/uso terapêutico , Timidilato Sintase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/patologia , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos
5.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 199-203, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data with regard to the use of modified 5-fluoroural-leucovorin-irinotecan-oxaliplatin (mFOLFIRINOX) in terms of tolerance and enabling total mesorectal excision (TME) of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas (LARC) with high-risk characteristics (T4b status, signet ring histology etc) post standard neoadjuvant long course chemoradiation (NACTRT) or short course radiation (SCRT) and chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with LARC from January 2018 to December 2020 receiving mFOLFIRINOX post NACTRT/SCRT to facilitate TME were evaluated. The primary endpoint was assessment of grade 3 and grade 4 treatment related toxicity and TME rates. Event free survival (EFS), where event was defined as disease progression or recurrence post resection after mFOLFIRINOX, was calculated by Kaplan Meier method. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were evaluated with a median age of 33 years (Range:18-59), 45% T4b status, 96% radiological circumferential margin (CRM) involved (79% CRM positive post NACTRT/SCRT), 43% extramural venous invasion (n=33) and 36% signet ring histology. 62% had received prior NACTRT and 38% had received SCRT with chemotherapy before receiving mFOLFIRINOX. The most common grade 3 and grade 4 treatment related side effects included diarrhoea (7%), anaemia (4%) and infections (4%). Intended duration of mFOLFIRINOX or beyond was completed in 94% of patients. 60% of patients underwent curative local resection with R0 resection rates of 100% (n=28) and pathological complete response rates of 21%. The most common surgeries done were exenterations and abdominoperineal in 22% and 17% patients respectively. With a median follow up of 19 months, 24 patients had recurred or progressed for a median EFS of 20 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 15-24]. CONCLUSIONS: Locally advanced rectal cancers with high-risk characteristics are a niche group of cancers with less-than-optimal outcomes post standard neoadjuvant strategies. mFOLFIRINOX appears to be well tolerated and enables TME in a significant proportion of these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia , Irinotecano , Oxaliplatina
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 25(4): 518-528, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modified docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (mDCF) regimen has shown efficacy and safety as first-line treatment for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, making it a standard regimen. Inhibitors of programmed cell death protein 1 and its ligand, such as pembrolizumab, nivolumab, retifanlimab, avelumab, and atezolizumab, have shown some antitumour activity as monotherapy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anus that is refractory to chemotherapy. This phase 2 study evaluated the combination of mDCF and atezolizumab as first-line treatment in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, non-comparative, phase 2 study, participants from 21 centres (academic, private, and community hospitals and cancer research centres) across France with chemo-naive, metastatic, or unresectable locally advanced recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, aged 18 years or older, and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, were randomly allocated (2:1) to receive either atezolizumab (800 mg intravenously every 2 weeks up to 1 year) plus mDCF (eight cycles of 40 mg per m2 docetaxel and 40 mg per m2 cisplatin on day 1 and 1200 mg per m2 per day of fluorouracil for 2 days, every 2 weeks intravenously; group A) or mDCF alone (group B). Randomisation was done centrally using a minimisation technique and was stratified by age (<65 years vs ≥65 years) and disease status. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed 12-month progression-free survival in the modified intention-to-treat population in group A (35% for the null hypothesis and 50% for the alternative hypothesis). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03519295, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS: 97 evaluable participants (64 in group A and 33 in group B) were enrolled between July 3, 2018, and Aug 19, 2020. The median follow-up was 26·5 months (95% CI 24·8-28·4). The median age of participants was 64·1 years (IQR 56·2-71·6), and 71 (73%) were female. 12-month progression-free survival was 45% (90% CI 35-55) in group A and 43% (29-58) in group B. In participants with a PD-L1 combined positive score of 5 or greater, 12-month progression-free survival was 70% (95% CI 47-100) in group A and 40% (19-85) in group B (interaction p=0·051) Both groups showed high compliance. Adverse events of grade 3 or higher were observed in 39 (61%) participants in group A and 14 (42%) in group B. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (nine [14%] participants in group A vs five [15%] in group B), anaemia (nine [14%] vs one [3%]), fatigue (three [5%] vs four [12%]), and diarrhoea (seven [11%] vs one [3%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 16 (25%) participants in group A and four (12%) in group B, and these were mDCF-related in seven (11%) participants in group A and four (12%) in group B. Atezolizumab-related serious adverse events occurred in nine (14%) participants in group A, including grade 2 infusion-related reaction in three (5%), grade 3 infection in two (3%), and grade 2 colitis, grade 3 acute kidney injury, grade 3 sarcoidosis, and a grade 4 platelet count decrease each in one participant (2%). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Despite a higher incidence of adverse events, combining atezolizumab with mDCF is feasible, with similar dose intensity in both groups, although the primary efficacy endpoint was not met. The predictive value of a PD-L1 combined positive score of 5 or greater now needs to be confirmed in future studies. FUNDING: GERCOR, Roche.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Neoplasias do Ânus , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Docetaxel , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Ânus/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(9): e37259, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428877

RESUMO

The prognosis of metastatic gastric cancer (GC) is poor, with a median survival time of less than a year. Capecitabine is a prodrug, metabolized by thymidine phosphorylase to its cytotoxic metabolite (5-FU). Few studies have compared capecitabine and 5-FU in mGC. In this retrospective study, we compared the efficacy and safety of modified DCF (mDCF) (docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU) and modified DCX (mDCX) (docetaxel, cisplatin, and capecitabine) regimens for first-line treatment in patients with mGC. The study included 112 mGC patients treated with either mDCF (n = 69) or mDCX (n = 43) between 2010 and 2021. Demographic data, response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events were evaluated. The complete response rate in the mDCF group was 10.1%, whereas the complete response rate in the mDCX group was 2.3%. The partial response rate for mDCF and mDCX were 29% and 37%, respectively. The 2 treatment arms of the study had the same objective rate of response and disease control rate (DCR). PFS and OS rates were comparable between the 2 groups. The median PFS in the mDCF and mDCX arms were 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.87-7.14) and 5.0 months (95% CI, 4.10-5.90) respectively (P = .08). The median OS in the mDCF and mDCX arms were 9.0 months (95% CI, 7.53-10.47) and 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.87-11.11) respectively (P = .07). Neutropenia, asthenia, stomatitis, and nausea/vomiting were the most frequently reported grade 3 to 4 adverse events (AEs). The rates of grade 3/4 AEs and dose reduction were comparable between the 2 groups. There was no treatment discontinuation due to grade 3 to 4 AE. As a first-line treatment for patients with mGC, mDCX and mDCF regimens have comparable efficacy and tolerability profiles.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMC Med Genomics ; 17(1): 78, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of pyrimidines. Deleterious variants in the DPYD gene cause DPD deficiency, a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The clinical spectrum of affected individuals is wide ranging from asymptomatic to severely affected patients presenting with intellectual disability, motor retardation, developmental delay and seizures. DPD is also important as the main enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) which is extensively used as a chemotherapeutic agent. Even in the absence of clinical symptoms, individuals with either complete or partial DPD deficiency face a high risk of severe and even fatal fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity. The identification of causative genetic variants in DPYD is therefore gaining increasing attention due to their potential use as predictive markers of fluoropyrimidine toxicity. METHODS: A male infant patient displaying biochemical features of DPD deficiency was investigated by clinical exome sequencing. Bioinformatics tools were used for data analysis and results were confirmed by MLPA and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A novel intragenic deletion of 71.2 kb in the DPYD gene was identified in homozygosity. The deletion, DPYD(NM_000110.4):c.850 + 23455_1128 + 8811del, eliminates exons 9 and 10 and may have resulted from a non-homologous end-joining event, as suggested by in silico analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The study expands the spectrum of DPYD variants associated with DPD deficiency. Furthermore, it raises the concern that patients at risk for fluoropyrimidine toxicity due to DPYD deletions could be missed during pre-treatment genetic testing for the currently recommended single nucleotide polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase , Lactente , Humanos , Masculino , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase/genética , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase/complicações , Deficiência da Di-Hidropirimidina Desidrogenase/tratamento farmacológico , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/metabolismo , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Testes Genéticos
9.
Pancreas ; 53(3): e268-e273, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the efficacy and toxicity of palliative chemotherapy in elderly patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with those in younger patients. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with locally advanced or metastatic PDAC who received FOLFIRINOX or nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine at our institution from January 2014 to December 2021 were analyzed. Patients 70 years or older were classified into an elderly group. RESULTS: The elderly group included 16 patients (26.7%). In the elderly group, nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine was used more than FOLFIRINOX compared with the young group (75.0% and 25.0% vs 34.1% and 64.9%, respectively; P = 0.008). The overall survival was not significantly different between the 2 groups (15.6 vs 13.4 months, P = 0.259). However, the elderly group showed better progression-free survival (11.4 vs 7.4 months, P = 0.034). The incidence of adverse events including neutropenia (75.0% vs 81.8%, P = 0.716), thrombocytopenia (25.0% vs 31.3%, P = 0.743), and anemia (50.0% vs 43.2%, P = 0.771) was not different between the 2 groups. Peripheral neuropathy was more common in the elderly group (18.3% vs 2.3%, P = 0.054), though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy in elderly patients with advanced PDAC were comparable with those in younger patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Gencitabina , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Humanos , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Gencitabina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 24(2): 184-198, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324115

RESUMO

Advancements in cancer treatments have improved survival rates but have also led to increased cardiotoxicities, which can cause adverse cardiovascular events or worsen pre-existing conditions. Herein, cardiotoxicity is a severe adverse effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy in cancer patients, with reported incidence rates ranging from 1 to 20%. Some studies have also suggested subclinical effects and there are reports which have documented instances of cardiac arrest or sudden death during 5-FU treatment, highlighting the importance of timely management of cardiovascular symptoms. However, despite being treated with conventional medical approaches for this cardiotoxicity, a subset of patients has demonstrated suboptimal or insufficient responses. The frequent use of 5-FU in chemotherapy and its association with significant morbidity and mortality indicates the need for a greater understanding of 5-FU-associated cardiotoxicity. It is essential to reduce the adverse effects of anti-tumor medications while preserving their efficacy, which can be achieved through drugs that mitigate toxicity associated with these drugs. Underpinning cardiotoxicity associated with 5-FU therapy also has the potential to offer valuable guidance in pinpointing pharmacological approaches that can be employed to prevent or ameliorate these effects. The present study provides an overview of management strategies for cardiac events induced by fluoropyrimidine-based cancer treatments. The review encompasses the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiotoxicity, associated risk factors, and diagnostic methods. Additionally, we provide information on several available treatments and drug choices for angina resulting from 5-FU exposure, including nicorandil, ranolazine, trimetazidine, ivabradine, and sacubitril-valsartan, which have demonstrated potential in mitigating or protecting against chemotherapy-induced adverse cardiac effects.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Neoplasias , Humanos , Cardiotoxicidade , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Coração , Cardiopatias/patologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Anticancer Res ; 44(3): 1143-1147, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment induces intestinal mucositis, with diarrhea as the primary symptom. Mucositis significantly reduces patients' quality of life (QOL). Amino acids such as glutamate are beneficial for treating gastrointestinal disorders; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the role of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in 5-FU-induced intestinal injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was used to evaluate whether the EAAT inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (L-trans-PDC) affects 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity. Mice with 5-FU-induced mucositis were used to determine the effects of glutamate on EAATs expression levels. RESULTS: Treatment with L-trans-PDC suppressed IEC-6 cell growth. It also exacerbated the 5-FU-induced cell growth suppression and increased inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, mice treated with 5-FU+Glutamate showed higher EAAT1,3 expression than 5-FU only-treated mice. CONCLUSION: Decreased EAAT levels worsen intestinal cell damage caused by 5-FU, suppress cell growth, and induce inflammation. This study contributes to the understanding EAAT and its relationship with intestinal mucositis, which can aid in the development of novel preventive strategies for cancer chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Fluoruracila , Mucosite , Ratos , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Mucosite/induzido quimicamente , Mucosite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Glutâmico , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Apoptose , Células Epiteliais
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 150(2): 92, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraoperative chemotherapy (IOC) with intraoperative intraperitoneal implantation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: In this study, 165 patients who underwent colorectal radical surgery were selected, of whom 111 in the experimental group received surgical treatment with an intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) implantation. Fifty-four patients who did not undergo intraperitoneal implantation of 5-FU were matched to compare the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with the former. RESULTS: We also studied the differences in the changes of different biochemical indicators between the two groups before and after surgery, and there were significant differences in leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes before and after (P < 0.05), while for sodium ions, potassium ions, platelets, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, creatinine, urea, and albumin, there were no significant differences. This may be related to the intraperitoneal chemotherapy implant entering the blood circulation. For 5-year OS, there were 85/111 (76.58%) in the 5-FU group (P = 0.013) and 35/54 (64.81%) in the control group; for 5-year PFS, there were 84/111 (75.68%) in the 5-FU group and 29/54 (53.70%) in the control group (P = 0.02). All the experimental groups were better than the control group with a significant difference in the experimental results. CONCLUSION: For CRC surgery patients, intraperitoneal implantation of slow-release 5-FU drugs, which is a safe and simple procedure, can improve the prognosis of the patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: No clinical trials were performed in the study.


Assuntos
Albuminas , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Íons , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia
13.
In Vivo ; 38(2): 761-766, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Definitive chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) plus 5-fluorouracil is the standard treatment for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (LA-ESCC); however, CDDP is unsuitable for patients with cardiac and/or renal dysfunction. Based on the results of the PRODIGE5/ACCORD17 trial, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin with oxaliplatin plus radiotherapy (FOLFOX-RT) has been recognized as a treatment option. However, the efficacy and safety of FOLFOX-RT is still unclear in Japan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for patients with LA-ESCC who received FOLFOX-RT between April 2019 and July 2021 at our institution. We evaluated complete response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were analyzed and median age was 72.5 years (range=51-83 years). All patients completed three courses of FOLFOX and the planned radiotherapy. The complete response rate was 40.0%. With a median follow-up of 10.6 months, the 6-month PFS rate was 63.0% (95%CI=32.3-82.8%), and the 6-month OS rate was 85.7% (95%CI=53.9-96.2%). Common adverse events were esophagitis (80.0%), leukopenia (53.3%), fatigue (53.3%), and neutropenia (46.7%). Only one patient had grade 4 esophageal perforation. CONCLUSION: FOLFOX-RT for LA-ESCC was well tolerated and could be a treatment option for CDDP-intolerant patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Humanos , Idoso , Cisplatino , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos
15.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 16, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) after the second line is still controversial. Regorafenib has been the standard of care in this setting as it improved overall survival (OS) compared to placebo. In real-world practice chemotherapy rechallenge is also a preferred option even though supporting evidence is not enough. We aim to compare the efficacy of regorafenib and 5-fluorouracil-based (5-FU) rechallenge treatment in the third line setting of mCRC. METHODS: In this retrospective multi-institutional trial, mCRC patients from 21 oncology centers who progressed after 2 lines of chemotherapy were analyzed. Patients who were treated with regorafenib or rechallenge therapy in the third-line setting were eligible. Rechallenge chemotherapy was identified as the re-use of the 5-FU based regimen which was administered in one of the previous treatment lines. OS, disease control rate (DCR), progression free survival (PFS) and toxicity were analyzed. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety-four mCRC patients were included in the study. 128 (32.5%) were in the rechallenge, and 266 (67.5%) were in the regorafenib group. Median PFS was 5.82 months in rechallenge and 4 months in regorafenib arms (hazard ratio:1.45,95% CI, p = 0.167). DCR was higher in the rechallenge group than regorafenib (77% vs 49.5%, respectively, p = < 0.001). Median OS after the third-line treatment was 11.99 (95% CI, 9.49-14.49) and 8.08 months (95% CI, 6.88-9.29) for rechallenge and regorafenib groups, respectively (hazard ratio:1.51, 95% CI, p < 0.001). More adverse effects and discontinuation were seen with regorafenib treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that higher disease control and OS rates were achieved with rechallenge treatment compared to regorafenib, especially in patients who achieved disease control in one of the first two lines of therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 36, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of the active metabolite 5-fluorouracil, which has been used effectively in human colorectal, head and neck, and mammary carcinomas. Capecitabine has several properties that make it an attractive treatment option for dogs: (i) it is relatively inexpensive, (ii) it has a short half-life in humans, allowing for rapid plasma concentration changes to be achieved with dosage adjustments, (iii) it is effective for treating carcinomas in humans, for which there are no widely-effective oral chemotherapy options in dogs, and (iv) it is thought to preferentially target cancer cells due to different expression of thymidine phosphorylase, thereby decreasing the risk of off-target side effects. However, capecitabine has not been widely explored as a chemotherapy agent for dogs. The goal of this study was to determine the plasma disposition of capecitabine in dogs following a single oral dose and to document any adverse events associated with capecitabine administration over the course of 5 weeks. RESULTS: Capecitabine was well tolerated throughout the 5-week study period when administered to 5 dogs with naturally occurring carcinomas at 750 mg/m[Formula: see text] by mouth once daily for 14 consecutive days in a 3-week cycle. No dogs withdrew from the study due to adverse events or other causes. The median AUC[Formula: see text] was 890 h[Formula: see text]ng/ml (range 750-1100 h[Formula: see text]ng/ml); however, the maximum blood concentration and time to reach that concentration of capecitabine was highly variable after a single dose. CONCLUSIONS: Capecitabine appears well-tolerated as an oral chemotherapy agent for dogs with carcinomas, although individualized dosing may be necessary, and further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Humanos , Animais , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma/veterinária , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Doenças do Cão/etiologia
17.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(1): 311-317, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281766

RESUMO

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), an effective chemotherapeutic agent for many solid tumors, has long been reported to cause pigmentation in patients treated intravenously, which occurs with increasing frequency of administration and decreases the QOL of the patients. Although melanin accumulation is thought to be the cause, the mechanism of pigmentation induced by 5-FU administration remains unclear, and there is no effective treatment for this problem. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of pigmentation induced by continuous 5-FU administration in 9-week-old male HRM-2 hairless mice for 8 weeks by focusing on the blood vessels for basic verification. In the auricular skin of 5-FU-administered mice, hyperpigmentation caused by melanin accumulation was observed macroscopically and by Fontana-Masson Staining. In addition, the expression of tyrosinase, melanin synthase, and blood vessel markers in the auricular skin was increased by 5-FU-administration in mice auricular skin. Other anticancer agents, cytarabine (Ara-C) and irinotecan (CPT-11), were also administered, and the differences between them and 5-FU were investigated; these changes were not observed in the auricles of these mice. These results suggest that tyrosinase is associated with 5-FU-induced melanin production and that an increase in blood vessels may be involved. Furthermore, pigmentation with melanin accumulation in the basal epidermal layer is a characteristic finding of 5-FU compared with Ara-C and CPT-11. In conclusion, this study indicates that 5-FU causes hyperpigmentation by melanin accumulation in a characteristic manner, including an increase in blood vessels.


Assuntos
Hiperpigmentação , Melaninas , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Melaninas/metabolismo , Camundongos Pelados , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Pigmentação da Pele , Hiperpigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Citarabina/uso terapêutico
18.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 24(1): 1, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216550

RESUMO

Variability in genes involved in drug pharmacokinetics or drug response can be responsible for suboptimal treatment efficacy or predispose to adverse drug reactions. In addition to common genetic variations, large-scale sequencing studies have uncovered multiple rare genetic variants predicted to cause functional alterations in genes encoding proteins implicated in drug metabolism, transport and response. To understand the functional importance of rare genetic variants in DPYD, a pharmacogene whose alterations can cause severe toxicity in patients exposed to fluoropyrimidine-based regimens, massively parallel sequencing of the exonic regions and flanking splice junctions of the DPYD gene was performed in a series of nearly 3000 patients categorized according to pre-emptive DPD enzyme activity using the dihydrouracil/uracil ([UH2]/[U]) plasma ratio as a surrogate marker of DPD activity. Our results underscore the importance of integrating next-generation sequencing-based pharmacogenomic interpretation into clinical decision making to minimize fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy toxicity without altering treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP) , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Humanos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Farmacogenética/métodos , Testes Farmacogenômicos/métodos
19.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 326(2): C606-C621, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189130

RESUMO

Immune cell-driven pathways are linked to cancer cachexia. Tumor presence is associated with immune cell infiltration whereas cytotoxic chemotherapies reduce immune cell counts. Despite these paradoxical effects, both cancer and chemotherapy can cause cachexia; however, our understanding of immune responses in the cachexia condition with cancer and chemotherapy is largely unknown. We sought to advance our understanding of the immunology underlying cancer and cancer with chemotherapy-induced cachexia. CD2F1 mice were given 106 C26 cells, followed by five doses of 5-fluorouracil (5FU; 30 mg/kg LM, ip) or PBS. Indices of cachexia and tumor (TUM), skeletal muscle (SKM), and adipose tissue (AT) immune cell populations were examined using high-parameter flow cytometry. Although 5FU was able to stunt tumor growth, % body weight loss and muscle mass were not different between C26 and C26 + 5FU. C26 increased CD11b+Ly6g+ and CD11b+Ly6cInt inflammatory myeloid cells in SKM and AT; however, both populations were reduced with C26 + 5FU. tSNE analysis revealed 24 SKM macrophage subsets wherein 8 were changed with C26 or C26 + 5FU. C26 + 5FU increased SKM CD11b-CD11c+ dendritic cells, CD11b-NK1.1+ NK-cells, and CD11b-B220+ B-cells, and reduced Ly6cHiCX3CR1+CD206+CD163IntCD11c-MHCII- infiltrated macrophages and other CD11b+Ly6cHi myeloid cells compared with C26. Both C26 and C26 + 5FU had elevated CD11b+F480+CD206+MHCII- or more specifically Ly6cLoCX3CR1+CD206+CD163IntCD11c-MHCII- profibrotic macrophages. 5FU suppressed tumor growth and decreased SKM and AT inflammatory immune cells without protecting against cachexia suggesting that these cells are not required for wasting. However, profibrotic cells and muscle inflammatory/atrophic signaling appear consistent with cancer- and cancer with chemotherapy-induced wasting and remain potential therapeutic targets.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Despite being an immune-driven condition, our understanding of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue immune cells with cachexia is limited. Here, we identified immune cell populations in tumors, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue in C26 tumor-bearing mice with/without 5-fluorouracil (5FU). C26 and C26 + 5FU had increased skeletal muscle profibrotic macrophages, but 5FU reduced inflammatory myeloid cells without sparing mass. Tumor presence and chemotherapy have contrasting effects on certain immune cells, which appeared not necessary for wasting.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Fluoruracila , Camundongos , Animais , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Caquexia/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia
20.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 9(3): 205-217, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing resection for pancreatic cancer, adjuvant modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) improves overall survival compared with alternative chemotherapy regimens. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX with the standard strategy of upfront surgery in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: NORPACT-1 was a multicentre, randomised, phase 2 trial done in 12 hospitals in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with a WHO performance status of 0 or 1, and had a resectable tumour of the pancreatic head radiologically strongly suspected to be pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Participants were randomly assigned (3:2 before October, 2018, and 1:1 after) to the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group or upfront surgery group. Patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group received four neoadjuvant cycles of FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, irinotecan 180 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 bolus then 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h on day 1 of each 14-day cycle), followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients in the upfront surgery group underwent surgery and then received adjuvant chemotherapy. Initially, adjuvant chemotherapy was gemcitabine plus capecitabine (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 over 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle and capecitabine 830 mg/m2 twice daily for 3 weeks with 1 week of rest in each 28-day cycle; four cycles in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group, six cycles in the upfront surgery group). A protocol amendment was subsequently made to permit use of adjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, irinotecan 150 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h on day 1 of each 14-day cycle; eight cycles in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group, 12 cycles in the upfront surgery group). Randomisation was performed with a computerised algorithm that stratified for each participating centre and used a concealed block size of two to six. Patients, investigators, and study team members were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival at 18 months. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol populations. Safety was assessed in all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one cycle of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02919787, and EudraCT, 2015-001635-21, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Feb 8, 2017, and April 21, 2021, 77 patients were randomly assigned to receive neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX and 63 to undergo upfront surgery. All patients were included in the ITT analysis. For the per-protocol analysis, 17 (22%) patients were excluded from the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group (ten did not receive neoadjuvant therapy, four did not have pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and three received another neoadjuvant regimen), and eight (13%) were excluded from the upfront surgery group (seven did not have pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and one did not undergo surgical exploration). 61 (79%) of 77 patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group received neoadjuvant therapy. The proportion of patients alive at 18 months by ITT was 60% (95% CI 49-71) in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group versus 73% (62-84) in the upfront surgery group (p=0·032), and median overall survival by ITT was 25·1 months (95% CI 17·2-34·9) versus 38·5 months (27·6-not reached; hazard ratio [HR] 1·52 [95% CI 1·00-2·33], log-rank p=0·050). The proportion of patients alive at 18 months in per-protocol analysis was 57% (95% CI 46-67) in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group versus 70% (55-83) in the upfront surgery group (p=0·14), and median overall survival in per-protocol population was 23·0 months (95% CI 16·2-34·9) versus 34·4 months (19·4-not reached; HR 1·46 [95% CI 0·99-2·17], log-rank p=0·058). In the safety population, 42 (58%) of 73 patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 19 (40%) of 47 patients in the upfront surgery group had at least one grade 3 or worse adverse event. 63 (82%) of 77 patients in the neoadjuvant group and 56 (89%) of 63 patients in the upfront surgery group had resection (p=0·24). One sudden death of unknown cause and one COVID-19-related death occurred after the first cycle of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX. Adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated in 51 (86%) of 59 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 44 (90%) of 49 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the upfront surgery group (p=0·56). Adjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX was given to 13 (25%) patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and 19 (43%) patients in the upfront surgery group. During adjuvant chemotherapy, neutropenia (11 [22%] patients in the neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX group and five [11%] in the upfront surgery group) was the most common grade 3 or worse adverse event. INTERPRETATION: This phase 2 trial did not show a survival benefit from neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared with upfront surgery. Implementation of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX was challenging. Future trials on treatment sequencing in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma should be biomarker driven. FUNDING: Norwegian Cancer Society, South Eastern Norwegian Health Authority, The Sjöberg Foundation, and Helsinki University Hospital Research Grants.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina , Gencitabina , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia
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