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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 371, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724940

RESUMO

Variations in functional traits serve as measures of plants' ability to adapt to environment. Exploring the patterns of functional traits of desert plants along elevational gradients is helpful to understand the responses and adaptation strategies of species to changing environments. However, it is unknown whether the relationship between functional traits and elevation is affected by differences in the species' elevational distributions (elevation preference and species' range). Importantly, most researches have concerned with differences in mean trait values and ignored intraspecific trait variation. Here, we measured functional traits of desert plants along a wide elevational gradient in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas and explored functional trait patterns over elevation in species with different elevational distributions. We decomposed trait variation and further investigated characterizations of intraspecific variation. Ultimately, the main drivers of trait variation were identified using redundancy analysis. We found that species' elevational distributions significantly influenced the relationship of functional traits such as plant height, leaf dry matter content, leaf thickness, leaf nitrogen and carbon content with elevation. Species with a lower elevational preference showed greater trait variation than species with a higher elevational preference, suggesting that species that prefer high elevation are more conservative facing environmental changes. We provide evidence that interspecific trait variation in leaf thickness and leaf carbon content decreased with increasing species' range, indicating that increased variations in resistance traits within species make greater responsiveness to environmental changes, enabling species a wider range. Elevation, temperature and precipitation were the main drivers of trait variation in species with a low elevational preference, while the effect of precipitation on trait variation in species with a high elevational preference was not significant. This study sheds new insights on how plants with different elevational distributions regulate their ecological strategies to cope with changing environments.


Assuntos
Altitude , Clima Desértico , Tibet , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(2): e20230207, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747833

RESUMO

Glicophyllum is well supported, presenting four homoplasies, easily differentiated from the other genera of the clade due to characteristics related to the reproductive organs, which can make the identification of their species difficult when they are not in the reproductive phase. Therefore, there are provided the leaf anatomical and morphological description of the leaf glands of seven species of Glicophyllum to assist in the identification of their species. The samples for the study were obtained from several national and international herbaria, sectioned freehand, stained with basic fuchsin - astra blue and compared through a binary matrix using the Sorensen's coefficient in the MVSP software. Among the leaf anatomical characters found, the following stand out: presence/absence of trichomes; petiole contour; contour of the main vein; organization of the mesophyll, presence/absence of bundle sheath extension and the surface of the glands. In this study, an identification key with leaf anatomical data is presented for the first time, demonstrating the applicability of leaf anatomy for the taxonomy of Glicophyllum. In the multivariate analysis, it is observed that the characteristics of leaf venation and topology of the glands are more representative to differentiate the taxa. Therefore, the data obtained can support future taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of the genus.


Assuntos
Malpighiaceae , Folhas de Planta , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brasil , Malpighiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Malpighiaceae/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Physiol Plant ; 176(3): e14334, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705836

RESUMO

European beech is negatively affected by climate change and a further growth decline is predicted for large parts of its distribution range. Despite the importance of this species, little is known about its genetic adaptation and especially the genetic basis of its physiological traits. Here, we used genotyping by sequencing to identify SNPs in 43 German European beech populations growing under different environmental conditions. In total, 28 of these populations were located along a precipitation and temperature gradient in northern Germany, and single tree-based hydraulic and morphological traits were available. We obtained a set of 13,493 high-quality SNPs that were used for environmental and SNP-trait association analysis. In total, 22 SNPs were identified that were significantly associated with environmental variables or specific leaf area (SLA). Several SNPs were located in genes related to stress response. The majority of the significant SNPs were located in non-coding (intergenic and intronic) regions. These may be in linkage disequilibrium with the causative coding or regulatory regions. Our study gives insights into the genetic basis of abiotic adaptation in European beech, and provides genetic resources that can be used in future studies on this species. Besides clear patterns of local adaptation to environmental conditions of the investigated populations, the analyzed morphological and hydraulic traits explained most of the explainable genetic variation. Thus, they could successfully be altered in tree breeding programs, which may help to increase the adaptation of European beech to changing environmental conditions in the future.


Assuntos
Fagus , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Folhas de Planta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fagus/genética , Fagus/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Meio Ambiente , Fenótipo , Genótipo , Alemanha
4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(6): 121, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709317

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This study precisely mapped and validated a quantitative trait locus (QTL) located on chromosome 4B for flag leaf angle in wheat. Flag leaf angle (FLANG) is closely related to crop architecture and yield. We previously identified the quantitative trait locus (QTL) QFLANG-4B for FLANG on chromosome 4B, located within a 14-cM interval flanked by the markers Xbarc20 and Xzyh357, using a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Nongda3331 (ND3331) and Zang1817. In this study, we fine-mapped QFLANG-4B and validated its associated genetic effect. We developed a BC3F3 population using ND3331 as the recurrent parent through marker-assisted selection, as well as near-isogenic lines (NILs) by selfing BC3F3 plants carrying different heterozygous segments for the QFLANG-4B region. We obtained eight recombinant types for QFLANG-4B, narrowing its location down to a 5.3-Mb region. This region contained 76 predicted genes, 7 of which we considered to be likely candidate genes for QFLANG-4B. Marker and phenotypic analyses of individual plants from the secondary mapping populations and their progeny revealed that the FLANG of the ND3331 allele is significantly higher than that of the Zang1817 allele in multiple environments. These results not only provide a basis for the map-based cloning of QFLANG-4B, but also indicate that QFLANG-4B has great potential for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs designed to improve plant architecture and yield.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcadores Genéticos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ligação Genética , Genes de Plantas
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(3): 597-605, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38646746

RESUMO

We investigated the inter- and intra-species differences of leaf vein traits of three dominant Quercus species, Q. wutaishanica, Q. aliena var. acutiserrata, and Q. variabilis of Niubeiling (subtropical humid climate) and Taohuagou (warm temperate semi-humid climate), located in the eastern and western Qinling Mountains. The nine examined leaf vein traits included primary leaf vein width, secondary leaf vein width, mean fine vein width, primary vein density, fine vein density, vein areole diameter, areole density, 3D fine vein surface area, and fine vein volume. We further elucidated the influencing mechanisms and regulatory pathways of biotic and abiotic factors on leaf vein traits. The results showed that species identity had significant effects on eight out of nine leaf vein traits except 3D fine vein surface area, while habitat had significant effects on primary leaf vein width, secondary leaf vein width, vein areole diameter, fine vein density, and areole density. Altitude had significant effects on primary vein density, mean fine vein width, vein areole diameter, fine vein density and areole density. Habitat, tree species identity, and altitude had significantly interactive effects on primary leaf vein density, 3D fine vein surface area, and fine vein volume. There were significant differences in primary leaf vein width, mean fine vein width, areole density, 3D fine vein surface area, fine vein volume, primary vein density of Q. wutaishanica between the two studied habitats, but the differences were only found in secondary leaf vein width and areole density of Q. aliena var. acutiserrata and Q. variabilis. The examined leaf vein traits were influenced both by biotic and abiotic factors, with varying effect sizes. Among the biotic factors, petiole length, leaf length and width ratio had strong effect on leaf vein traits. Among the abiotic factors, climatic and soil factors had high effect size on vein traits, with the former being higher than the latter. Leaf vein traits were affected directly by biotic factors, but indirectly by abiotic factors (soil and climatic factors) via regulating biotic factors (leaf stoichiometry and leaf phenotypic traits).


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta , Quercus , Quercus/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , China , Especificidade da Espécie , Altitude
7.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 19(3)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621389

RESUMO

In nature, leaves and their laminae vary in shape, appearance and unfolding behaviour. We investigated peltate leaves of two model species with peltate leaves and highly different morphology (Syngonium podophyllumandPilea peperomioides) and two distinct unfolding patterns via time-lapse recordings: we observed successive unfolding of leaf halves inS. podophyllumand simultaneous unfolding inP. peperomioides.Furthermore, we gathered relevant morphological and biomechanical data in juvenile (unfolding) and adult (fully unfolded) leaves of both species by measuring the thickness and the tensile modulus of both lamina and veins as a measure of their stiffness. InS. podophyllum, lamina and veins stiffen after unfolding, which may facilitate unfolding in the less stiff juvenile lamina. Secondary venation highly contributes to stiffness in the adult lamina ofS. podophyllum, while the lamina itself withstands tensile loads best in direction parallel to secondary veins. In contrast, the leaf ofP. peperomioideshas a higher lamina thickness and small, non-prominent venation and is equally stiff in every region and direction, although, as is the case inS. podophyllum, thickness and stiffness increase during ontogeny of leaves from juvenile to adult. It could be shown that (changes in) lamina thickness and stiffness can be well correlated with the unfolding processes of both model plants, so that we conclude that functional lamina morphology in juvenile and adult leaf stages and the ontogenetic transition while unfolding is highly dependent on biomechanical characteristics, though other factors are also taken into consideration and discussed.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Resistência à Tração/fisiologia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 325, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the dramatic uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and the increase in altitude in the Pliocene, the environment became dry and cold, thermophilous plants that originally inhabited ancient subtropical forest essentially disappeared. However, Quercus sect. Heterobalanus (QSH) have gradually become dominant or constructive species distributed on harsh sites in the Hengduan Mountains range in southeastern QTP, Southwest China. Ecological stoichiometry reveals the survival strategies plants adopt to adapt to changing environment by quantifying the proportions and relationships of elements in plants. Simultaneously, as the most sensitive organs of plants to their environment, the structure of leaves reflects of the long-term adaptability of plants to their surrounding environments. Therefore, ecological adaptation mechanisms related to ecological stoichiometry and leaf anatomical structure of QSH were explored. In this study, stoichiometric characteristics were determined by measuring leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents, and morphological adaptations were determined by examining leaf anatomical traits with microscopy. RESULTS: Different QSH life forms and species had different nutrient allocation strategies. Leaves of QSH plants had higher C and P and lower N contents and higher N and lower P utilization efficiencies. According to an N: P ratio threshold, the growth of QSH species was limited by N, except that of Q. aquifolioides and Q. longispica, which was limited by both N and P. Although stoichiometric homeostasis of C, N, and P and C: N, C: P, and N: P ratios differed slightly across life forms and species, the overall degree of homeostasis was strong, with strictly homeostatic, homeostatic, and weakly homeostatic regulation. In addition, QSH leaves had compound epidermis, thick cuticle, developed palisade tissue and spongy tissue. However, leaves were relatively thin overall, possibly due to leaf leathering and lignification, which is strategy to resist stress from UV radiation, drought, and frost. Furthermore, contents of C, N, and P and stoichiometric ratios were significantly correlated with leaf anatomical traits. CONCLUSIONS: QSH adapt to the plateau environment by adjusting the content and utilization efficiencies of C, N, and P elements. Strong stoichiometric homeostasis of QSH was likely a strategy to mitigate nutrient limitation. The unique leaf structure of the compound epidermis, thick cuticle, well-developed palisade tissue and spongy tissue is another adaptive mechanism for QSH to survive in the plateau environment. The anatomical adaptations and nutrient utilization strategies of QSH may have coevolved during long-term succession over millions of years.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Folhas de Planta , Quercus , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Quercus/anatomia & histologia , Quercus/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Tibet , Carbono/metabolismo , China , Ecossistema
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 323, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water stress seriously affects the survival of plants in natural ecosystems. Plant resistance to water stress relies on adaptive strategies, which are mainly based on plant anatomy with following relevant functions: (1) increase in water uptake and storage; (2) reduction of water loss; and (3) mechanical reinforcement of tissues. We measured 15 leaf-stem anatomical traits of five dominant shrub species from 12 community plots in the eastern Qaidam Basin to explore adaptive strategies based on plant leaf-stem anatomy at species and community levels. and their relationship with environmental stresses were tested. RESULTS: Results showed that the combination of leaf-stem anatomical traits formed three types of adaptive strategies with the drought tolerance of leaf and stem taken as two coordinate axes. Three types of water stress were caused by environmental factors in the eastern Qaidam Basin, and the established adaptive strategy triangle could be well explained by these environmental stresses. The interpretation of the strategic triangle was as follows: (1) exploitative plant strategy, in which leaf and stem adopt the hydraulic efficiency strategy and safety strategy, respectively. This strategy is mostly applied to plants in sandy desert (i.e., Nitraria tangutorum, and Artemisia sphaerocephala) which is mainly influenced by drought stress; (2) stable plant strategy, in which both leaf/assimilation branches and stem adopt hydraulic safety strategy. This strategy is mostly applied to plants in salty desert (i.e., Kalidium foliatum and Haloxylon ammodendron) which aridity has little effect on them; and (3) opportunistic plant strategy, in which leaf and stem adopt hydraulic safety strategy and water transport efficiency strategy. This strategy is mostly applied to plants in multiple habitats (i.e., Sympegma regelii) which is mainly affected by coldness stress. CONCLUSION: The proposed adaptive strategy system could provide a basis for elucidating the ecological adaptation mechanism of desert woody plants and the scientific management of natural vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Folhas de Planta , Caules de Planta , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , Secas , Água/metabolismo , China , Ecossistema , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 43, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600505

RESUMO

Leaf traits were affected by soil factors and displayed varietal differences in forest. However, few examples have been reported on the Island ecosystems. We comprehensively investigated 9 leaf traits (leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, SLA, leaf fresh weight, leaf C content, leaf N content, leaf K content, leaf C:N ratio) of 54 main subtropical woody species and soil parameters (soil pH, total C content, total N content, total K content, available N content, available P content, available K content and soil moisture) in Neilingding Island, Shenzhen, southern China. Intra-and interspecific variation of leaf traits were measured and their correlations with soil parameters were explored. The interspecific variations of leaf C:N ratio, leaf N content and leaf fresh weight were higher than their intraspecific variations. The intraspecific variation of leaf K content was larger than that of interspecific one, accounting for 80.69% of the total variance. Positive correlations were found among intraspecific coefficients of variations in leaf morphological traits. The correlation analysis between the variation of intraspecific traits and the variation of soil parameters showed that changes in soil factors affected leaf morphology and stoichiometry. The interaction between soil moisture and soil available P content was the key factor on intraspecific variations of leaf traits including leaf area, leaf fresh weight, leaf C and leaf K content. We concluded that leaf traits of plants in the island were tightly related to soil parameters. Soil parameters, especially soil moisture and available P content, affected plant leaf morphology and stoichiometry at the local scale.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Solo/química , Florestas , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , China
11.
Ann Bot ; 133(4): 605-620, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Variation in architectural traits related to the spatial and angular distribution of leaf area can have considerable impacts on canopy-scale fluxes contributing to water-use efficiency (WUE). These architectural traits are frequent targets for crop improvement and for improving the understanding and predictions of net ecosystem carbon and water fluxes. METHODS: A three-dimensional, leaf-resolving model along with a range of virtually generated hypothetical canopies were used to quantify interactions between canopy structure and WUE by examining its response to variation of leaf inclination independent of leaf azimuth, canopy heterogeneity, vegetation density and physiological parameters. KEY RESULTS: Overall, increasing leaf area index (LAI), increasing the daily-averaged fraction of leaf area projected in the sun direction (Gavg) via the leaf inclination or azimuth distribution and increasing homogeneity had a similar effect on canopy-scale daily fluxes contributing to WUE. Increasing any of these parameters tended to increase daily light interception, increase daily net photosynthesis at low LAI and decrease it at high LAI, increase daily transpiration and decrease WUE. Isolated spherical crowns could decrease photosynthesis by ~60 % but increase daily WUE ≤130 % relative to a homogeneous canopy with equivalent leaf area density. There was no observed optimum in daily canopy WUE as LAI, leaf angle distribution or heterogeneity was varied. However, when the canopy was dense, a more vertical leaf angle distribution could increase both photosynthesis and WUE simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in leaf angle and density distributions can have a substantial impact on canopy-level carbon and water fluxes, with potential trade-offs between the two. These traits might therefore be viable target traits for increasing or maintaining crop productivity while using less water, and for improvement of simplified models. Increasing canopy density or decreasing canopy heterogeneity increases the impact of leaf angle on WUE and its dependent processes.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Água , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Água/metabolismo , Água/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ecossistema , Luz
12.
Ann Bot ; 133(4): 621-642, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Extrafloral nectaries are nectar-secreting structures present on vegetative parts of plants which provide indirect defences against herbivore attack. Extrafloral nectaries in Clerodendrum chinense are patelliform-shaped specialized trichomatous structures. However, a complete understanding of patelliform extrafloral nectaries in general, and of C. chinense in particular, has not yet been established to provide fundamental insight into the cellular physiological machinery involved in nectar biosynthesis and secretory processes. METHODS: We studied temporal changes in the morphological, anatomical and ultrastructural features in the architectures of extrafloral nectaries. We also compared metabolite profiles of extrafloral nectar, nectary tissue, non-nectary tissue and phloem sap. Further, both in situ histolocalization and normal in vitro activities of enzymes related to sugar metabolism were examined. KEY RESULTS: Four distinct tissue regions in the nectar gland were revealed from histochemical characterization, among which the middle nectariferous tissue was found to be the metabolically active region, while the intermediate layer was found to be lipid-rich. Ultrastructural study showed the presence of a large number of mitochondria along with starch-bearing chloroplasts in the nectariferous region. However, starch depletion was noted with progressive maturation of nectaries. Metabolite analysis revealed compositional differences among nectar, phloem sap, nectary and non-nectary tissue. Invertase activity was higher in secretory stages and localized in nectariferous tissue and adjacent region. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests extrafloral nectar secretion in C. chinense to be both eccrine and merocrine in nature. A distinct intermediate lipid-rich layer that separates the epidermis from nectary parenchyma was revealed, which possibly acts as a barrier to water flow in nectar. This study also revealed a distinction between nectar and phloem sap, and starch could act as a nectar precursor, as evidenced from enzymatic and ultrastructural studies. Thus, our findings on changing architecture of extrafloral nectaries with temporal secretion revealed a cell physiological process involved in nectar biosynthesis and secretion.


Assuntos
Clerodendrum , Folhas de Planta , Néctar de Plantas , Néctar de Plantas/metabolismo , Clerodendrum/metabolismo , Clerodendrum/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e278994, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422275

RESUMO

The Loranthaceae Juss. family includes parasitic species that invade important trees such as fruit trees. In Saudi Arabia, Loranthaceae comprises four genera, which include six species that grow in the western, southwestern, and northern regions: Tapinanthus globifer (A.Rich.) Tiegh, Oncocalyx glabratus (Engl.) M. G. Gilbert, Loranthella deflersii (Tiegh.) S. Blanco & C. E. Wetze, Phragmanthera austroarabica A. G. Mill. & J. Nyberg, Plicosepalus curviflorus (Benth.ex Oliv.) Tiegh. and Plicosepalus acaciae (Zucc.). The species present in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have not been the subject of enough studies. This work aims to screen and evaluate the taxonomic importance of the micromorphological traits of leaves and fruits in Loranthaceae species native to Saudi Arabia (SA) using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this study, cluster dendrogram (CD), principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the ability to discriminate Loranthaceae species using micromorphological characteristics. Most of the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf and fruit surfaces used reflected significant variation between the species of Loranthaceae. The type of stomata, trichome, lenticels, fine relief of the cell wall and wax form were the most taxonomically important characteristics. In addition, the cluster dendrogram of morphological characteristics showed species distribution within branches based on affiliation to subtribes Tapinanthinae and Emelianthinae. To the best of our knowledge, the fruit and leaves of the species under study have never been described using electron microscopy, and this study is considered the first of its kind. It also contributes to solving the classification problems of the family Loranthaceae in general and confirms the importance of the characteristics and methods used as tools for characterizing parasitic species that infect trees and helps to verify their identities. This will help to improve resistance efforts and put effective control plans in place.


Assuntos
Loranthaceae , Elétrons , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Frutas
14.
New Phytol ; 242(3): 1113-1130, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418427

RESUMO

Leaf development is a multifaceted and dynamic process orchestrated by a myriad of genes to shape the proper size and morphology. The dynamic genetic network underlying leaf development remains largely unknown. Utilizing a synergistic genetic approach encompassing dynamic genome-wide association study (GWAS), time-ordered gene co-expression network (TO-GCN) analyses and gene manipulation, we explored the temporal genetic architecture and regulatory network governing leaf development in Populus. We identified 42 time-specific and 18 consecutive genes that displayed different patterns of expression at various time points. We then constructed eight TO-GCNs that covered the cell proliferation, transition, and cell expansion stages of leaf development. Integrating GWAS and TO-GCN, we postulated the functions of 27 causative genes for GWAS and identified PtoGRF9 as a key player in leaf development. Genetic manipulation via overexpression and suppression of PtoGRF9 revealed its primary influence on leaf development by modulating cell proliferation. Furthermore, we elucidated that PtoGRF9 governs leaf development by activating PtoHB21 during the cell proliferation stage and attenuating PtoLD during the transition stage. Our study provides insights into the dynamic genetic underpinnings of leaf development and understanding the regulatory mechanism of PtoGRF9 in this dynamic process.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Populus , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(2): e1011845, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315720

RESUMO

Leaves are often described in language that evokes a single shape. However, embedded in that descriptor is a multitude of latent shapes arising from evolutionary, developmental, environmental, and other effects. These confounded effects manifest at distinct developmental time points and evolve at different tempos. Here, revisiting datasets comprised of thousands of leaves of vining grapevine (Vitaceae) and maracuyá (Passifloraceae) species, we apply a technique from the mathematical field of topological data analysis to comparatively visualize the structure of heteroblastic and ontogenetic effects on leaf shape in each group. Consistent with a morphologically closer relationship, members of the grapevine dataset possess strong core heteroblasty and ontogenetic programs with little deviation between species. Remarkably, we found that most members of the maracuyá family also share core heteroblasty and ontogenetic programs despite dramatic species-to-species leaf shape differences. This conservation was not initially detected using traditional analyses such as principal component analysis or linear discriminant analysis. We also identify two morphotypes of maracuyá that deviate from the core structure, suggesting the evolution of new developmental properties in this phylogenetically distinct sub-group. Our findings illustrate how topological data analysis can be used to disentangle previously confounded developmental and evolutionary effects to visualize latent shapes and hidden relationships, even ones embedded in complex, high-dimensional datasets.


Assuntos
Passifloraceae , Vitaceae , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Dados
16.
Plant Cell Environ ; 47(5): 1471-1485, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235913

RESUMO

Photosynthesis under oblique illumination has not been studied extensively despite being the prevailing light regime under natural conditions. We studied how photosynthetic rate (An) is affected by the geometrical arrangement between leaf lamina and light rays, in conjunction with key anatomical features; studied plant species selected based on the absence (homobaric) or the occurrence of bundle sheath extensions (BSEs; heterobaric) and the arrangement of these structures, that is, parallel (monocots) or reticulated (dicots). The direction of light ray affected leaf absorptance (Abs) and An; both were maximal when the angle of incidence of light on leaf surface (polar angle, θ) was 90°. For any lower θ, both Abs and An were higher when the angle between the leaf axis and the light rays (azimuthal angle, φ) was zero. The dependence of Abs and An from φ was only evident in monocots and, especially, in heterobaric compared to homobaric leaves. In some species, An was substantially higher than predicted from calculated photon flux density of oblique light. The occurrence of BSEs, especially in monocots, significantly alters leaf optical properties, resulting in more efficient photosynthesis under oblique illumination conditions.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
17.
J Plant Res ; 137(2): 203-213, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281225

RESUMO

A newly found leaf arrangement to reduce self-shading was observed in a Japanese warm-temperate forest. For monoaxial trees that deploy leaves directly on a single stem, leaf arrangements involving progressive elongation of the petiole and progressive increase in deflection angle (the angle between stem and petiole) from the uppermost to the lowermost leaves act to reduce self-shading. However, the progressive reduction in petiole length and deflection angle from the uppermost to the lowermost leaves should also result in the reduction of self-shading. Nevertheless, the latter leaf arrangement has not been reported previously for any tree species. Four Araliaceae species, namely, Gamblea innovans, Chengiopanax sciadophylloides, Dendropanax trifidus and Fatsia japonica, which are typical monoaxial tree species in Japan, were studied. We examined the crown structure of saplings growing in the light-limited understorey in a Japanese warm-temperate forest. Two evergreen species, Dendropanax trifidus and F. japonica showed progressive petiole elongation and progressive increase in the deflection angle from the uppermost to the lowermost leaves. In contrast, saplings of deciduous species, G. innovans and C. sciadophylloides had a leaf arrangement involving progressive reduction in petiole length and deflection angle from the uppermost to the lowermost leaves. The leaf arrangement has diversified among members of the same family, but all four studied species develop a crown with little self-shading that is adapted for growth in the light-limited understorey. Although trees are likely to be under the same selective pressure to reduce self-shading, this study revealed that there is flexibility in its morphological realisation, which has been poorly appreciated previously.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Árvores , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Japão , Florestas , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
18.
Microsc Res Tech ; 87(5): 1063-1075, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230567

RESUMO

This study addresses the morphological similarities and taxonomic complexity of the genus Tarenaya Raf. of the family Cleomaceae Bercht. & J. Presl as well as the medicinal use of their species. The research compares potential anatomical diagnostic characters of the vegetative organs of species Tarenaya aculeata, Tarenaya diffusa, and Tarenaya spinosa to determine authenticity parameters. The study also carried out histochemical and phytochemical analyses of leaf blades to explore the medicinal use of these species. Semipermanent slides containing cross sections of the stems, petioles, and leaf blades, as well as paradermal sections of leaf blades, were prepared. The analyses were carried out in light and polarized optical microscopy. The histochemical analysis included different reagents depending on the target metabolite, which were analyzed by optical and fluorescence microscopy. Phytochemical tests of the methanolic extracts of the leaves were performed using thin layer chromatography. Anatomical characterization showed the characters of general occurrence in the family Cleomaceae and those that allow the differentiation of T. aculeata, T. diffusa, and T. spinosa. Histochemistry revealed the synthesis and/or storage sites of the metabolites and phytochemical tests; it was possible to observe the presence of different metabolites. The results bring comparative data on the anatomical and histochemical characterization of the species, thus increasing the taxonomic knowledge of the genus Tarenaya. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: The comparative anatomy of three Tarenaya from Brazil was studied. Anatomical differences in different vegetative organs differ species. Differences in histochemistry and phytochemistry.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Folhas de Planta , Anatomia Comparada , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
19.
New Phytol ; 242(5): 2369-2379, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186378

RESUMO

Evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBLFs) are dominated by a monsoon climate and form a distinct biome in East Asia with notably high biodiversity. However, the origin and evolution of East Asian EBLFs (EAEBLFs) remain elusive despite the estimation of divergence times for various representative lineages. Using 72 selected generic-level characteristic lineages, we constructed an integrated lineage accumulation rate (LAR) curve based on their crown ages. According to the crown-based LAR, the EAEBLF origin was identified at least as the early Oligocene (c. 31.8 million years ago (Ma)). The accumulation rate of the characteristic genera peaked at 25.2 and 6.4 Ma, coinciding with the two intensification periods of the Asian monsoon at the Oligocene - Miocene and the Miocene - Pliocene boundaries, respectively. Moreover, the LAR was highly correlated with precipitation in the EAEBLF region and negatively to global temperature, as revealed through time-lag cross-correlation analyses. An early Oligocene origin is suggested for EAEBLFs, bridging the gap between paleobotanical and molecular dating studies and solving conflicts among previous estimates based on individual representative lineages. The strong correlation between the crown-based LAR and the precipitation brought about by the Asian monsoon emphasizes its irreplaceable role in the origin and development of EAEBLFs.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Florestas , Ásia Oriental , Filogenia , Árvores/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , População do Leste Asiático
20.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0293596, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166118

RESUMO

Shape is an objective characteristic of an object. A boundary separates a physical object from its surroundings. It defines the shape and regulates energy flux into and from an object. Visual perception of a definite shape (geometry) of physical objects is an abstraction. While the perceived geometry at an object's sharp interface (macro) creates a Euclidian illusion of actual shape, the notion of diffuse interfaces (micro) allows an understanding of the realistic form of objects. Here, we formulate a dimensionless geometric entropy of plant leaves (SL) by a 2-D description of a phase-field function. We applied this method to 112 tropical plant leaf images. SL was estimated from the leaf perimeter (P) and leaf area (A). It correlates positively with a fractal dimensional measure of leaf complexity, viz., segmental fractal complexity. Leaves with a higher P: A ratio have higher SL and possess complex morphology. The univariate cluster analysis of SL reveals the taxonomic relationship among the leaf shapes at the genus level. An increase in SL of plant leaves could be an evolutionary strategy. The results of morphological complexity presented in this paper will trigger discussion on the causal links between leaf adaptive stability/efficiency and complexity. We present SL as a derived plant trait to describe plant leaf complexity and adaptive stability. Integrating SL into other leaf physiological measures will help to understand the dynamics of energy flow between plants and their environment.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Plantas , Entropia , Fenômenos Físicos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
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