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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 456, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf shape is an important agronomic trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala). Although some leaf shape-related genes have been reported in ornamental kale, the detailed mechanism underlying leaf shape formation is still unclear. Here, we report a lobed-leaf trait in ornamental kale, aiming to analyze its inheritance and identify the strong candidate gene. RESULTS: Genetic analysis of F2 and BC1 populations demonstrate that the lobed-leaf trait in ornamental kale is controlled by a single dominant gene, termed BoLl-1 (Brassica oleracea lobed-leaf). By performing whole-genome resequencing and linkage analyses, the BoLl-1 gene was finely mapped to a 127-kb interval on chromosome C09 flanked by SNP markers SL4 and SL6, with genetic distances of 0.6 cM and 0.6 cM, respectively. Based on annotations of the genes within this interval, Bo9g181710, an orthologous gene of LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY 1 (LMI1) in Arabidopsis, was predicted as the candidate for BoLl-1, and was renamed BoLMI1a. The expression level of BoLMI1a in lobed-leaf parent 18Q2513 was significantly higher compared with unlobed-leaf parent 18Q2515. Sequence analysis of the parental alleles revealed no sequence variations in the coding sequence of BoLMI1a, whereas a 1737-bp deletion, a 92-bp insertion and an SNP were identified within the BoLMI1a promoter region of parent 18Q2513. Verification analyses with BoLMI1a-specific markers corresponding to the promoter variations revealed that the variations were present only in the lobed-leaf ornamental kale inbred lines. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a lobed-leaf gene BoLMI1a, which was fine-mapped to a 127-kb fragment. Three variations were identified in the promoter region of BoLMI1a. The transcription level of BoLMI1a between the two parents exhibited great difference, providing new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying leaf shape formation in ornamental kale.


Assuntos
Brassica/anatomia & histologia , Brassica/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634063

RESUMO

Current knowledge on responses of aquatic clonal plants to resource availability is largely based on studies manipulating limited resource levels, which may have failed to capture the "big picture" for aquatic clonal plants in response to resource availability. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew the floating clonal plant Spirodela polyrhiza under ten nutrient levels (i.e., 1/64×, 1/32×, 1/16×, 1/8×, 1/4×, 1/2×, 1×, 2×, 4× and 8×full-strength Hoagland solution) and examined their responses in terms of clonal growth, morphology and biomass allocations. The responses of total biomass and number of ramets to nutrient availability were unimodal. A similar pattern was found for frond mass, frond length and frond width, even though area per frond and specific frond area fluctuated greatly in response to nutrient availability. In contrast, the responses of root mass and root length to nutrient availability were U-shaped. Moreover, S. polyrhiza invested more to roots under lower nutrient concentrations. These results suggest that nutrient availability may have distinct influences on roots and fronds of the aquatic clonal plant S. polyrhiza, resulting in a great influence on the whole S. polyrhiza population.


Assuntos
Araceae/fisiologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Araceae/anatomia & histologia , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Células Clonais , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695146

RESUMO

Plant stomata are essential structures (pores) that control the exchange of gases between plant leaves and the atmosphere, and also they influence plant adaptation to climate through photosynthesis and transpiration stream. Many works in literature aim for a better understanding of these structures and their role in the evolution process and the behavior of plants. Although stomata studies in dicots species have advanced considerably in the past years, even there is not much knowledge about the stomata of cereal grasses. Due to the high morphological variation of stomata traits intra- and inter-species, detecting and classifying stomata automatically becomes challenging. For this reason, in this work, we propose a new system for automatic stomata classification and detection in microscope images for maize cultivars based on transfer learning strategy of different deep convolution neural netwoks (DCNN). Our performed experiments show that our system achieves an approximated accuracy of 97.1% in identifying stomata regions using classifiers based on deep learning features, which figures out as a nearly perfect classification system. As the stomata are responsible for several plant functionalities, this work represents an important advance for maize research, providing an accurate system in replacing the current manual task of categorizing these pores on microscope images. Furthermore, this system can also be a reference for studies using images from different cereal grasses.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Fotossíntese , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Estômatos de Plantas/classificação , Transpiração Vegetal , Zea mays/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Zea mays/anatomia & histologia
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 485, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs), a type of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in regulating plant growth and development. Although GRF gene family has been identified in various plant species, a genome-wide analysis of this family in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) has not been reported yet. RESULTS: Here we identified 15 GRF genes in lettuce and performed comprehensive analysis of them, including chromosomal locations, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Through phylogenic analysis, we divided LsaGRFs into six groups. Transactivation assays and subcellular localization of LsaGRF5 showed that this protein is likely to act as a transcriptional factor in the cell nucleus. Furthermore, transgenic lettuce lines overexpressing LsaGRF5 exhibited larger leaves, while smaller leaves were observed in LsaMIR396a overexpression lines, in which LsaGRF5 was down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS: These results in lettuce provide insight into the molecular mechanism of GRF gene family in regulating leaf growth and development and foundational information for genetic improvement of the lettuce variations specialized in leaf character.


Assuntos
Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 430, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional trait-based ecological research has been instrumental in advancing our understanding of environmental changes. It is still, however, unclear how the functional traits of urban plants respond to atmospheric particulate matter, and which trade-off strategies are shown. In order to explore the variation of plant functional traits with the gradient of urban atmospheric particulate matter, we divided atmospheric particulate matter into three levels according to road distance, and measured the variation of six essential leaf functional traits and their trade-off strategies. RESULTS: Here, we show that the functional traits of plants can be used as predictors of plant response to urban atmospheric particulate matter. Within the study, leaf thickness, leaf dry matter content, leaf tissue density, stomatal density were positively correlated with atmospheric particulate matter. On the contrary, chlorophyll content index and specific leaf area were negatively correlated with atmospheric particulate matter. Plants can improve the efficiency of gas exchange by optimizing the spatial distribution of leaf stomata. Under the atmospheric particulate matter environment, urban plants show a trade-off relationship of economics spectrum traits at the intraspecific level. CONCLUSION: Under the influence of urban atmospheric particulate matter, urban plant shows a "slow investment-return" type in the leaf economics spectrum at the intraspecific level, with lower specific leaf area, lower chlorophyll content index, ticker leaves, higher leaf dry matter content, higher leaf tissue density and higher stomatal density. This finding provides a new perspective for understanding the resource trades-off strategy of plants adapting to atmospheric particulate matter.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Euonymus/anatomia & histologia , Euonymus/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , China , Cidades
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 432, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MYB transcription factors, comprising one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, play many roles in secondary metabolism, especially in anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the functions of the PdeMYB transcription factor in colored-leaf poplar remain elusive. RESULTS: In the present study, genome-wide characterization of the PdeMYB genes in colored-leaf poplar (Populus deltoids) was conducted. A total of 302 PdeMYB transcription factors were identified, including 183 R2R3-MYB, five R1R2R3-MYB, one 4R-MYB, and 113 1R-MYB transcription factor genes. Genomic localization and paralogs of PdeMYB genes mapped 289 genes on 19 chromosomes, with collinearity relationships among genes. The conserved domain, gene structure, and evolutionary relationships of the PdeMYB genes were also established and analyzed. The expression levels of PdeMYB genes were obtained from previous data in green leaf poplar (L2025) and colored leaf poplar (QHP) as well as our own qRT-PCR analysis data in green leaf poplar (L2025) and colored leaf poplar (CHP), which provide valuable clues for further functional characterization of PdeMYB genes. CONCLUSIONS: The above results provide not only comprehensive insights into the structure and functions of PdeMYB genes but also provide candidate genes for the future improvement of leaf colorization in Populus deltoids.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Populus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Genótipo , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 416, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf color variation is a common trait in plants and widely distributed in many plants. In this study, a leaf color mutation in Camellia japonica (cultivar named as Maguxianzi, M) was used as material, and the mechanism of leaf color variation was revealed by physiological, cytological, transcriptome and microbiome analyses. RESULTS: The yellowing C. japonica (M) exhibits lower pigment content than its parent (cultivar named as Huafurong, H), especially chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid, and leaves of M have weaker photosynthesis. Subsequently, the results of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) exhibited that M chloroplast was accompanied by broken thylakoid membrane, degraded thylakoid grana, and filled with many vesicles. Furthermore, comparative transcriptome sequencing identified 3,298 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). KEGG annotation analysis results showed that 69 significantly enriched DEGs were involved in Chl biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. On this basis, we sequenced the microbial diversity of the H and M leaves. The sequencing results suggested that the abundance of Didymella in the M leaves was significantly higher than that in the H leaves, which meant that M leaves might be infected by Didymella. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we speculated that Didymella infected M leaves while reduced Chl and carotenoid content by damaging chloroplast structures, and altered the intensity of photosynthesis, thereby causing the leaf yellowing phenomenon of C. japonica (M). This research will provide new insights into the leaf color variation mechanism and lay a theoretical foundation for plant breeding and molecular markers.


Assuntos
Camellia/anatomia & histologia , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Cor , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , China , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma
8.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359895

RESUMO

The combined response of exclusion of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-A+B and UV-B) and static magnetic field (SMF) pre-treatment of 200 mT for 1 h were studied on soybean (Glycine max) leaves using synchrotron imaging. The seeds of soybean with and without SMF pre-treatment were sown in nursery bags kept in iron meshes where UV-A+B (280-400 nm) and UV-B (280-315 nm) from solar radiation were filtered through a polyester filters. Two controls were planned, one with polythene filter controls (FC)- which allows all the UV (280-400 nm); the other control had no filter used (open control-OC). Midrib regions of the intact third trifoliate leaves were imaged using the phase-contrast imaging technique at BL-4, Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source. The solar UV exclusion results suggest that ambient UV caused a reduction in leaf growth which ultimately reduced the photosynthesis in soybean seedlings, while SMF treatment caused enhancement of leaf growth along with photosynthesis even under the presence of ambient UV-B stress. The width of midrib and second-order veins, length of the second-order veins, leaf vein density, and the density of third-order veins obtained from the quantitative image analysis showed an enhancement in the leaves of plants that emerged from SMF pre-treated seeds as compared to untreated ones grown in open control and filter control conditions (in the presence of ambient UV stress). SMF pre-treated seeds along with UV-A+B and UV-B exclusion also showed significant enhancements in leaf parameters as compared to the UV excluded untreated leaves. Our results suggested that SMF-pretreatment of seeds diminishes the ambient UV-induced adverse effects on soybean.


Assuntos
Campos Magnéticos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Soja/efeitos da radiação , Síncrotrons , Raios Ultravioleta , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Estômatos de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360554

RESUMO

Leaf angle and grain size are important agronomic traits affecting rice productivity directly and/or indirectly through modulating crop architecture. OsBC1, as a typical bHLH transcription factor, is one of the components comprising a complex formed with LO9-177 and OsBUL1 contributing to modulation of rice leaf inclination and grain size. In the current study, two homologues of OsBC1, OsBCL1 and OsBCL2 were functionally characterized by expressing them under the control of OsBUL1 promoter, which is preferentially expressed in the lamina joint and the spikelet of rice. Increased leaf angle and grain length with elongated cells in the lamina joint and the grain hull were observed in transgenic rice containing much greater gibberellin A3 (GA3) levels than WT, demonstrating that both OsBCL1 and OsBCL2 are positive regulators of cell elongation at least partially through increased GA biosynthesis. Moreover, the cell elongation was likely due to cell expansion rather than cell division based on the related gene expression and, the cell elongation-promoting activities of OsBCL1 and OsBCL2 were functional in a dicot species, Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 387, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plant body in duckweed species has undergone reduction and simplification from the ancient Spirodela species towards more derived Wolffia species. Among the five duckweed genera, Wolffia members are rootless and represent the smallest and most reduced species. A better understanding of Wolffia frond architecture is necessary to fully explore duckweed evolution. RESULTS: We conducted a comprehensive study of the morphology and anatomy of Wolffia globosa, the only Wolffia species in China. We first used X-ray microtomography imaging to reveal the three-dimensional and internal structure of the W. globosa frond. This showed that new fronds rapidly budded from the hollow reproductive pocket of the mother fronds and that several generations at various developmental stages could coexist in a single W. globosa frond. Using light microscopy, we observed that the meristem area of the W. globosa frond was located at the base of the reproductive pocket and composed of undifferentiated cells that continued to produce new buds. A single epidermal layer surrounded the W. globosa frond, and the mesophyll cells varied from small and dense palisade-like parenchyma cells to large, vacuolated cells from the ventral to the dorsal part. Furthermore, W. globosa fronds contained all the same organelles as other angiosperms; the most prominent organelles were chloroplasts with abundant starch grains. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that the reproductive strategy of W. globosa plants enables the rapid accumulation of biomass and the wide distribution of this species in various habitats. The reduced body plan and size of Wolffia are consistent with our observation that relatively few cell types are present in these plants. We also propose that W. globosa plants are not only suitable for the study of structural reduction in higher plants, but also an ideal system to explore fundamental developmental processes of higher plants that cannot be addressed using other model plants.


Assuntos
Lilianae/anatomia & histologia , Lilianae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lilianae/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Evolução Biológica , China , Lilianae/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14115, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239000

RESUMO

Excessive ingestion of fluorides might adversely affect the health of humans. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the concentrations of infusible fluoride in five different types of tea and herbal products; additionally, the probabilistic health risks associated with the ingestion of fluoride in drinking tea and herbal products were estimated. The highest and lowest concentrations of infusible fluoride were detected in black and white tea, respectively. On average, the highest amount of infusible fluoride was extracted following a short brewing time of 5 min in the case of black tea (2.54 mg/L), herbal tea (0.40 mg/L), and white tea (0.21 mg/L). The level of infusible fluoride during brewing was inversely associated with the leaf size of the tea and herbal products. Furthermore, the type of water used influenced the release of infusible fluoride; purified water yielded lower amounts of infused fluoride. The findings of the probabilistic health risk assessment indicated that the consumption of black tea can increase the fluoride intake leading to chronic exposure. Thus, the health risk posed by fluoride intake from drinking tea needs to be evaluated in more details in the future. Appropriate measures for health risk mitigation need to be implemented to minimize the total body burden of fluorides in humans.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/análise , Probabilidade , Medição de Risco , Chá/química , Chás de Ervas/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza , Água
12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(10): 3459-3472, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247253

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Twelve QTL for flowering and leaf number were detected. The ZmWRKY14Hap4 could increase leaf number, flowering time and biomass yield which are promising for silage maize breeding. Silage maize, one of the most important feedstock for ruminants, is widely grown from temperate regions to the tropics. Flowering time and leaf number are two significantly correlated traits and important for the quality, adaptation and biomass yield of silage maize. In this study, a recombinant inbred line population consisting of 215 individuals and an association panel of 369 inbred lines were analysed in field conditions in three locations for 2 consecutive years, and five, four and three quantitative trait loci for the total leaf number, days to anthesis (DTA) and silking (DTS) were detected, which could explain 48.55, 35.37 and 34.22% of total phenotypic variation, respectively. Association analysis of qLN10 on chromosome 10 found that ZmWRKY14 was the candidate gene for leaf number, whose expression level was negatively correlated with the leaf number. There are five haplotypes for ZmWRKY14, and haplotype 4 could significantly increase flowering time, leaf number and biomass yield, but has no obvious influence on ear weight. The optimal allelic combination of ZmWRKY14 and ZCN8 could further increase leaf number and biomass yield. The results will provide important genetic information for silage maize breeding.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Flores/genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 352, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) leaves, flowers, especially seeds are used in traditional medicine to prevent or cure various diseases. Its seed's market is expanding. However, the other tissues are still underexploited due to the lack of information related to metabolites distribution and variability in the plant. Herein, the metabolite profiles of five sesame tissues (leaves, fresh seeds, white and purple flowers, and fresh carpels) have been investigated using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based widely targeted metabolomics analysis platform. RESULTS: In total, 776 metabolites belonging to diverse classes were qualitatively and quantitatively identified. The different tissues exhibited obvious differences in metabolites composition. The majority of flavonoids predominantly accumulated in flowers. Amino acids and derivatives, and lipids were identified predominantly in fresh seeds followed by flowers. Many metabolites, including quinones, coumarins, tannins, vitamins, terpenoids and some bioactive phenolic acids (acteoside, isoacteoside, verbascoside, plantamajoside, etc.) accumulated mostly in leaves. Lignans were principally detected in seeds. 238 key significantly differential metabolites were filtered out. KEGG annotation and enrichment analyses of the differential metabolites revealed that flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acids biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were the main differently regulated pathways. In addition to the tissue-specific accumulation of metabolites, we noticed a cooperative relationship between leaves, fresh carpels, and developing seeds in terms of metabolites transfer. Delphinidin-3-O-(6"-O-p-coumaroyl)glucoside and most of the flavonols were up-regulated in the purple flowers indicating they might be responsible for the purple coloration. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the metabolic processes in the sesame tissues are differently regulated. It offers valuable resources for investigating gene-metabolites interactions in sesame tissues and examining metabolic transports during seed development in sesame. Furthermore, our findings provide crucial knowledge that will facilitate sesame biomass valorization.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Sesamum/genética , Sesamum/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética , Sesamum/anatomia & histologia
14.
Nat Plants ; 7(9): 1264-1275, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312497

RESUMO

Angiosperm leaves show extensive shape diversity and are broadly divided into two forms; simple leaves with intact lamina and compound leaves with lamina dissected into leaflets. The mechanistic basis of margin dissection and leaflet initiation has been inferred primarily by analysing compound-leaf architecture, and thus whether the intact lamina of simple leaves has the potential to initiate leaflets upon endogenous gene inactivation remains unclear. Here, we show that the CINCINNATA-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (CIN-TCP) transcription factors activate the class II KNOTTED1-LIKE (KNOX-II) genes and the CIN-TCP and KNOX-II proteins together redundantly suppress leaflet initiation in simple leaves. Simultaneous downregulation of CIN-TCP and KNOX-II in Arabidopsis leads to the reactivation of the stemness genes KNOX-I and CUPSHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) and triggers ectopic organogenesis, eventually converting the simple lamina to a super-compound form that appears to initiate leaflets indefinitely. Thus, a conserved developmental mechanism promotes simple leaf architecture in which CIN-TCP-KNOX-II forms a strong differentiation module that suppresses the KNOX-I-CUC network and leaflet initiation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0243954, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264949

RESUMO

Light spectra of sunlight transmittance can generate an interactive effect with deposited nitrogen (N) on regenerated plants across varied shading conditions. Total N content in understory plants can be accounted for by both exogeneous and endogenous sources of derived N, but knowledge about the response of inner N cycling to interactive light and N input effects is unclear. We conducted a bioassay on Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis Blume) seedlings subjected to five-month N pulsing with 15NH4Cl (10.39 atom %) at 120 mg 15N plant-1 under the blue (48.5% blue, 33.7% green, and 17.8% red), red (14.6% blue, 71.7% red, 13.7% green), and green (17.4% blue, 26.2% red, 56.4% green) lighting-spectra. Half of the seedlings were fed twice a week using a 250 ppm N solution with micro-nutrients, while the other half just received distilled water. Two factors showed no interaction and neither affected growth and morphology. Compared to the red-light spectrum, that in blue light increased chlorophyll and soluble protein contents and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, root N concentration, and N derived from the pulses. The green-light spectrum induced more biomass allocation to roots and a higher percentage of N derived from internal reserves compared to the red-light spectrum. The 15N pulses reduced the reliance on N remobilization from acorns but strengthened shoot biomass, chlorophyll content, GS activity, and N concentration. In conclusion, light spectrum imposed an independent force from external N pulse to modify the proportion of N derived from internal sources in total N content in juvenile Q. variabilis.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Luz Solar , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Quercus/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercus/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14023, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234170

RESUMO

The clumped isotope composition (Δ47, the anomaly of the mass 47 isotopologue relative to the abundance expected from a random isotope distribution) of CO2 has been suggested as an additional tracer for gross CO2 fluxes. However, the effect of photosynthetic gas exchange on Δ47 has not been directly determined and two indirect/conceptual studies reported contradicting results. In this study, we quantify the effect of photosynthetic gas exchange on Δ47 of CO2 using leaf cuvette experiments with one C4 and two C3 plants. The experimental results are supported by calculations with a leaf cuvette model. Our results demonstrate the important roles of the Δ47 value of CO2 entering the leaf, kinetic fractionation as CO2 diffuses into, and out of the leaf and CO2-H2O isotope exchange with leaf water. We experimentally confirm the previously suggested dependence of Δ47 of CO2 in the air surrounding a leaf on the stomatal conductance and back-diffusion flux. Gas exchange can enrich or deplete the Δ47 of CO2 depending on the Δ47 of CO2 entering the leaf and the fraction of CO2 exchanged with leaf water and diffused back to the atmosphere, but under typical ambient conditions, it will lead to a decrease in Δ47.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Isótopos de Carbono , Modelos Teóricos , Isótopos de Oxigênio , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 367-385, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349509

RESUMO

Araujia odorata is a sub-shrub native from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, whose latex, roots and leaves are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this work is to study the foliar morpho-anatomy of six populations in an altitudinal gradient (359-2155 m.a.s.l.) of Northwestern Argentine and to determine the nature of the compounds present in the laticiferous of the stems and fruits using conventional techniques for plant anatomy. The populations under study did not show significant morpho-anatomical differences. They presented simple leaves, pinnated brochydodromous venation, amphiestomatic isolateral lamina, brachy, anomo and amphicyclocytic stomata, eglandular trichomes, midvein with bicolateral vascular bundle and non-articulated laticifers continuous in the petiole, stem and fruits. Differences in the quantified foliar parameters are observed, however, only the density of trichomes, stomata and the thickness of the cuticle are positively correlated with the altitudinal gradient, indicating phenotypic plasticity. Histochemical analysis of laticifers and other stem idioblasts of A. odoratawas performed for the first time.


Araujia odorata, es un subarbusto nativo de Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay, cuyo látex, raíces y hojas son utilizados en medicina popular. Se plantea como objetivo realizar un estudio morfo-anatómico foliar de seis poblaciones del Noroeste Argentino en un gradiente altitudinal (359-2155 m.s.n.m) y determinar la naturaleza de los compuestos presentes en laticíferos de tallos y frutos mediante técnicas convencionales de anatomía vegetal. Las poblaciones estudiadas no evidenciaron diferencias morfo-anatómicas significativas. Presentan hojas simples, venación pinnada broquidódroma, lámina isolateral anfiestomática, estomas braqui, anomo y anficiclocíticos, tricomas eglandulares, nervio medio con haz bicolateral y laticíferos no-articulados continuos en pecíolo, tallo y frutos. Se observan diferencias en los parámetros foliares cuantificados, sin embargo, solo la de densidad de tricomas, estomas y el espesor de cutícula se correlacionan positivamente con el gradiente altitudinal indicando plasticidad fenotípica. Se realiza por primera vez un análisis histoquímico de los laticíferos y otros idioblastos del tallo A. odorata.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Apocynaceae/anatomia & histologia , Argentina , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Altitude , Frutas/anatomia & histologia
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 386-393, jul. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352337

RESUMO

Leaves of Monteverdia ilicifolia ("espinheira-santa") are considered a medicinal tea by the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency (Anvisa), by their anti-dyspeptic, anti-acid and protective of the gastric mucosa properties. Their spiny margins are similar to those of other botanical species, which may lead to misidentifications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the authenticity of 32 samples of herbal drugs commercialized as "espinheira-santa" in the formal trade in Brazil, by macro and microscopic morphological studies of the leaves. The evaluation of the botanical authenticity was based on leaf venation patterns, shape and anatomy of the petiole and midrib region in cross section, vascular system arrangement and epidermal characters. Analysis of these characters compared to literature data suggests that 34% of the samples are M. ilicifolia and the remaining 66% are Sorocea bonplandii, a species with no clinical studies assuring its effective and safe use, representing thus a potential risk to public health.


Las hojas de Monteverdia ilicifolia ("espinheira-santa") son consideradas tés medicinales por la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (Anvisa), Brasil, por las indicaciones terapéuticas como antidispépticos, antiácidos y protectores de la mucosa gástrica. Sus márgenes foliares espinescentes se parecen a los de otras especies, conduciendo a identificaciones erróneas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la autenticidad de 32 muestras de drogas vegetales vendidas como "espinheira-santa" en el comercio legal de Brasil, realizando un estudio morfológico de las hojas. Esta evaluación se ha basado en observar de la hoja, sus patrones de nerviación, su forma y anatomía (pecíolo y nervadura central en corte transversal), disposición del sistema vascular y caracteres epidérmicos. El análisis de la morfología, comparado con los datos de literatura, sugiere que el 34% de las muestras son M. ilicifoliay el 66% son Sorocea bonplandii, una especie que no cuenta con los estudios clínicos que garantizan su uso efectivo y seguro, representando un riesgo para la salud pública.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Maytenus/anatomia & histologia , Fraude , Controle de Qualidade , Brasil , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Celastraceae/anatomia & histologia
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 290, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is an important leafy vegetable crop, and leaf-related traits including leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length, are important commercial traits. However, the underlying genes remain unclear. The objective of the study was to conduct QTL mapping of leaf-related traits in spinach. RESULTS: A BC1 population was used to construct the linkage map and for QTL mapping of leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, and the ratio of leaf length to width in 2015 and 2019. Two genetic linkage maps were constructed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) technology, respectively using BC1 population in 2015. Based on the results of 2015, the specific linkage groups (LG) detected QTLs were generated using BC1 population in 2019. A total of 13 QTLs were detected for leaf-related traits, only five QTLs being repeatedly detected in multiple years or linkage maps. Interestingly, the major QTLs of leaf length, petiole length, and the ratio of leaf length to width were highly associated with the same SNP markers (KM3102838, KM1360385 and KM2191098). A major QTL of leaf width was mapped on chromosome 1 from 41.470-42.045 Mb. And 44 genes were identified within the region. Based on the GO analysis, these genes were significantly enriched on ribonuclease, lyase activity, phosphodiester bond hydrolysis process, and cell wall component, thus it might change cell size to determine leaves shape. CONCLUSIONS: Five QTLs for leaf-related traits were repeatedly detected at least two years or linkage maps. The major QTLs of leaf length, petiole length, and the ratio of leaf length to width were mapped on the same loci. And three genes (Spo10792, Spo21018, and Spo21019) were identified as important candidate genes for leaf width.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Spinacia oleracea/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Spinacia oleracea/anatomia & histologia
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 301, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mustard (Brassica juncea) is an important economic vegetable, and some cultivars have purple leaves and accumulate more anthocyanins than the green. The genetic and evolution of purple trait in mustard has not been well studied. RESULT: In this study, free-hand sections and metabolomics showed that the purple leaves of mustard accumulated more anthocyanins than green ones. The gene controlling purple leaves in mustard, Mustard Purple Leaves (MPL), was genetically mapped and a MYB113-like homolog was identified as the candidate gene. We identified three alleles of the MYB113-like gene, BjMYB113a from a purple cultivar, BjMYB113b and BjMYB113c from green cultivars. A total of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8 InDels were found between the promoter sequences of the purple allele BjMYB113a and the green allele BjMYB113b. On the other hand, the only sequence variation between the purple allele BjMYB113a and the green allele BjMYB113c is an insertion of 1,033-bp fragment in the 3'region of BjMYB113c. Transgenic assay and promoter activity studies showed that the polymorphism in the promoter region was responsible for the up-regulation of the purple allele BjMYB113a and high accumulation of anthocyanin in the purple cultivar. The up-regulation of BjMYB113a increased the expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway including BjCHS, BjF3H, BjF3'H, BjDFR, BjANS and BjUGFT, and consequently led to high accumulation of anthocyanin. However, the up-regulation of BjMYB113 was compromised by the insertion of 1,033-bp in 3'region of the allele BjMYB113c. CONCLUSIONS: Our results contribute to a better understanding of the genetics and evolution of the BjMYB113 gene controlling purple leaves and provide useful information for further breeding programs of mustard.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Mostardeira/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Clonagem Molecular , Cor , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Mostardeira/anatomia & histologia , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
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