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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

RESUMO

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Assuntos
Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Estresse Fisiológico , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5525, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130948

RESUMO

Leaf functional traits are important indicators of plant growth and ecosystem dynamics. Despite a wealth of knowledge about leaf trait relationships, a mechanistic understanding of how biotic and abiotic factors quantitatively influence leaf trait variation and scaling is still incomplete. We propose that leaf water content (LWC) inherently affects other leaf traits, although its role has been largely neglected. Here, we present a modification of a previously validated model based on metabolic theory and use an extensive global leaf trait dataset to test it. Analyses show that mass-based photosynthetic capacity and specific leaf area increase nonlinearly with LWC, as predicted by the model. When the effects of temperature and LWC are controlled, the numerical values for the leaf area-mass scaling exponents converge onto 1.0 across plant functional groups, ecosystem types, and latitudinal zones. The data also indicate that leaf water mass is a better predictor of whole-leaf photosynthesis and leaf area than whole-leaf nitrogen and phosphorus masses. Our findings highlight a comprehensive theory that can quantitatively predict some global patterns from the leaf economics spectrum.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0265134, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048873

RESUMO

Chloroplast metabolism is very sensitive to environmental fluctuations and is intimately related to plant leaf development. Characterization of the chloroplast proteome dynamics can contribute to a better understanding on plant adaptation to different climate scenarios and leaf development processes. Herein, we carried out a discovery-driven analysis of the Eucalyptus grandis chloroplast proteome during leaf maturation and throughout different seasons of the year. The chloroplast proteome from young leaves differed the most from all assessed samples. Most upregulated proteins identified in mature and young leaves were those related to catabolic-redox signaling and biogenesis processes, respectively. Seasonal dynamics revealed unique proteome features in the fall and spring periods. The most abundant chloroplast protein in humid (wet) seasons (spring and summer) was a small subunit of RuBisCO, while in the dry periods (fall and winter) the proteins that showed the most pronounced accumulation were associated with photo-oxidative damage, Calvin cycle, shikimate pathway, and detoxification. Our investigation of the chloroplast proteome dynamics during leaf development revealed significant alterations in relation to the maturation event. Our findings also suggest that transition seasons induced the most pronounced chloroplast proteome changes over the year. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding on the subcellular mechanisms that lead to plant leaf adaptation and ultimately gives more insights into Eucalyptus grandis phenology.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077287

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most abundant internal modifications of mRNA, which plays important roles in gene expression regulation, and plant growth and development. Vir-like m6A methyltransferase associated (VIRMA) serves as a scaffold for bridging the catalytic core components of the m6A methyltransferase complex. The role of VIRMA in regulating leaf development and its related mechanisms have not been reported. Here, we identified and characterized two upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) VIRMA genes, named as GhVIR-A and GhVIR-D, which share 98.5% identity with each other. GhVIR-A and GhVIR-D were ubiquitously expressed in different tissues and relatively higher expressed in leaves and main stem apexes (MSA). Knocking down the expression of GhVIR genes by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system influences leaf cell size, cell shape, and total cell numbers, thereby determining cotton leaf morphogenesis. The dot-blot assay and colorimetric experiment showed the ratio of m6A to A in mRNA is lower in leaves of GhVIR-VIGS plants compared with control plants. Messenger RNA (mRNA) high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) and a qRT-PCR experiment showed that GhVIRs regulate leaf development through influencing expression of some transcription factor genes, tubulin genes, and chloroplast genes including photosystem, carbon fixation, and ribosome assembly. Chloroplast structure, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic efficiency were changed and unsuitable for leaf growth and development in GhVIR-VIGS plants compared with control plants. Taken together, our results demonstrate GhVIRs function in cotton leaf development by chloroplast dependent and independent pathways.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Metilação , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(37): 11823-11831, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089735

RESUMO

A wide range of secondary metabolites has been described for various Hydrangea species, including the sweet-tasting phenyldihydroisocoumarin phyllodulcin, which is found in the leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla ssp. serrata. This work aims at the development and validation of an analytical workflow for comprehensive semi-polar metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-IMS-QToF-MS) to complement existing analytical studies. The unsupervised analysis of this data set demonstrates the capability of this analytical workflow to distinguish different H. macrophylla ssp. serrata cultivars. In combination with supervised analysis, a list of metabolites responsible for the differentiation of the cultivars studied has been obtained. Suspect screening of phenyldihydroisocoumarins provides comprehensive information, which could help in the search for key enzymes related to the biosynthesis of phyllodulcin.


Assuntos
Hydrangea , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Hydrangea/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(9): 2431-2440, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131659

RESUMO

To understand the development mechanism of the epiphyllous bud of waterlily, we examined the morphological anatomy of the leaf-navel epiphyllous bud by paraffin section technique at four stages, and compared the differences of carbohydrate metabolism between viviparous and non-viviparous waterlily leaves. Three tropical waterlily cultivars of Brachyceras were used, including two viviparous cultivars Nymphaea 'Margaret Mary', Nymphaea 'Ruby', and a non-viviparous cultivar Nymphaea 'Pink Star'. The results showed that parenchyma cells below the epidermis of leaf-navel divided and grew continuously after the leaf unfolded, forming a closely arranged cell cluster in viviparous waterlily and raised upward to a spherical shape. In contrast, no change was observed in leaf-navel of non-viviparous waterlily with the expansion of leaves. With the development of leaves, the contents of all physiological variables except sucrose and enzyme activities in the leaves of viviparous waterlily showed a first increase and then a decrease, which was significantly higher than those of non-viviparous waterlily. The carbohydrate contents in different parts showed the order of leaf > leaf-navel > petiole (except for starch content, which was highest in the leaf-navel). The activities of sucrose synthase (SS) and acid invertase (AI) were higher than those of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and neutral invertase (NI). The activities of SPS and NI in different tissues of viviparous waterlily were significantly higher than those in non-viviparous one, but SS and AI did not show pronounced cultivar advantage in viviparous cultivars. AI activity varied greatly among cultivars, whereas NI activity varied less and was at a low level in different tissues. The sucrose of Nymphaea 'Ruby' leaves was positively correlated with the SPS and AI, and significantly associated with NI. The accumulation of sucrose content increased the activities of SS and NI of waterlily leaves, which was conducive to promoting the formation of epiphyllous buds.


Assuntos
Nymphaea , beta-Frutofuranosidase , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Nymphaea/metabolismo , Parafina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(15): 4048-4054, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046894

RESUMO

Light is the main source for plants to obtain energy.Asarum forbesii is a typical shade medicinal plant, which generally grows in the shady and wet place under the bushes or beside the ditches.It can grow and develop without too much light intensity.This experiment explores the effects of shading on the growth, physiological characteristics and energy metabolism of A.forbesii, which can provide reference and guidance for its artificial planting.In this experiment, A.forbesii was planted under 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and no shade.During the vigorous growth period, the photosynthetic physiological characteristics such as fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic parameters, photosynthetic pigment content and ultrastructure, as well as the content of mitochondrial electron transport chain(ETC) synthase and nutrients were measured.The results showed that the photosynthetic pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and net photosynthesis rate(P_n) decreased with the decrease of shading.Under 20%-40% shading treatment, the plants had damaged ultrastructure, expanded and disintegrated chloroplast, disordered stroma lamella and grana lamella, and increased osmiophi-lic granules and starch granules.The activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase(NADH), succinate dehydrogenase(SDH), cytochrome C oxidoreductase(CCO) and adenosine triphosphate(ATP) synthasewere positively related to light intensity.With the reduction of shading, the content of total sugar and protein in nutrients increased first and then decreased, and the content was the highest under 60% shade.In conclusion, under 60%-80% shading treatment, the chloroplast and mitochondria had more complete structure, faster energy metabolism, higher light energy-conversion efficiency, better absorption and utilization of light energy and more nutrient synthesis, which was more suitable for the growth and development of A.forbesii.


Assuntos
Asarum , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos , Metabolismo Energético , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 234: 112549, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049286

RESUMO

The wheat lines affected by a decrease in the leaf chlorophyll content typically experience a biomass loss. A known major problem of the chlorophyll-deficient wheat mutants is their limited prevention of Photosystem I (PSI) over-reduction brought about by an insufficient cyclic electron flow, potentially exposing them to a higher sensitivity to light fluctuations. However, the resistance of some mutant lines against fluctuating light suggests the occurrence of regulatory processes compensating for the defect in cyclic electron flow. In this study, a phenotyping approach based on fast chlorophyll a fluorescence induction (OJIP transient), corroborated by P700 redox kinetics, was applied to a collection of chlorophyll-deficient wheat lines, grown under continuous or fluctuating light. Quantitative parameters calculated from the OJIP transient are considered informative about Photosystem II (PSII) functional antenna size and photochemistry, as well as the functioning of the entire photosynthetic electron transport chain. The mutants tended to recover a wild-type-like chlorophyll content, and mature plants could hardly be distinguished based on their effective PSII antenna size. Nevertheless, specific OJIP-derived parameters were strongly correlated with the phenotype severity, in particular the amplitude of the I-P phase and the I-P/J-P amplitude ratio, which are indicative of a more capacitive pool of PSI final electron acceptors (ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase, FNR). We propose that the enlargement of such pool of electron carriers is a compensatory response operating at the acceptor side of PSI to alleviate potentially harmful over-reduced states of PSI. Our results also suggest that, in chlorophyll-deficient mutants, higher FV /FM cannot prove a superior PSII photochemistry and wider I-P phase is not indicative of a higher relative content of PSI.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I , Clorofila A , Transporte de Elétrons , Elétrons , Ferredoxinas , Fluorescência , Luz , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(7): 1901-1910, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052794

RESUMO

To determine the mitigating effects of exogenous melatonin on salt-alkali stress in cucumber, we mea-sured photosynthetic characteristics and osmoregulatory substance content of cucumber leaves under salt-alkali stress, using 'Xinchun 4' cucumber as the test material and a salt-alkali complex (NaCl:Na2SO4:Na2CO3:NaHCO3 = 1:9:1:9) to simulate stress. The results showed that compared with the normal seedlings, the exogenous application of 10 µmol·L-1 melatonin significantly increased the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, and soluble protein, as well as net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, photosystem Ⅱ maximum photochemical efficiency, actual photochemical efficiency, apparent photosynthetic electron transfer rate, and photochemical burst coefficient of cucumber seedlings under 40 mmol·L-1 salt-alkali stress, but decreased intercellular CO2 concentration, non-photochemical burst coefficient, and sucrose, fructose, starch, and proline contents by 11.1%, 13.8%, 12.7%, 27.5%, 1.3% and 32.8%, respectively. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes for carbon assimilation (including ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate esterase) were significantly increased, whereas the mRNA expression levels of Rubisco subunits (CsrbcS and CsrbcL), CsFBA, CsRCA, CsFBPase and CsTK were downregulated. In conclusion, exogenous melatonin could increase the contents of chlorophyll and osmoregulatory substance, photosynthetic chemical efficiency, and key carbon assimilation enzyme activities of cucumber seedlings under salt-alkali stress, thereby enhance photosynthetic capacity and reduce the stress-induced plant damage. The results would provide theoretical basis for anti-saline plant cultivation.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Melatonina , Álcalis , Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Frutose/farmacologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15027, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056140

RESUMO

Date palm is an important staple crop in Saudi Arabia, and about 400 different date palm cultivars grown here, only 50-60 of them are used commercially. The most popular and commercially consumed cultivars of these are Khalas, Reziz, and Sheshi, which are also widely cultivated across the country. Date palm is high water-demanding crop in oasis agriculture, with an inherent ability to tolerate drought stress. However, the mechanisms by which it tolerates drought stress, especially at the transcriptomic level, are still elusive. This study appraised the physiological and molecular response of three commercial date palm cultivars Khalas, Reziz, and Sheshi at two different field capacities (FC; 100% and 25%) levels. At 25% FC (drought stress), leaf relative water content, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were significantly reduced. However, leaf intercellular CO2 concentration and water use efficiency increased under drought stress. In comparison to cvs. Khalas and Reziz, date palm cv. Sheshi showed less tolerance to drought stress. A total of 1118 drought-responsive expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced, 345 from Khalas, 391 from Reziz, and 382 from Sheshi and subjected to functional characterization, gene ontology classification, KEGG pathways elucidation, and enzyme codes dissemination. Three date palm cultivars deployed a multivariate approach to ameliorate drought stress by leveraging common and indigenous molecular, cellular, biological, structural, transcriptional and reproductive mechanisms. Approximately 50% of the annotated ESTs were related to photosynthesis regulation, photosynthetic structure, signal transduction, auxin biosynthesis, osmoregulation, stomatal conductance, protein synthesis/turnover, active transport of solutes, and cell structure modulation. Along with the annotated ESTs, ca. 45% of ESTs were novel. Conclusively, the study provides novel clues and opens the myriads of genetic resources to understand the fine-tuned drought amelioration mechanisms in date palm.


Assuntos
Secas , Phoeniceae , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Phoeniceae/genética , Phoeniceae/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Água/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077099

RESUMO

Industrial hemp is a fast-growing, short-day plant, characterized by high biomass yields and low demands for cultivation. To manipulate growth, hemp is usually cultivated under prolonged photoperiods or continuous light that could cause photooxidative damage and adjustments of photosynthetic reactions. To determine the extent of changes in photosynthetic response caused by prolonged light exposure, we employed chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements accompanied with level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and FT-IR spectroscopy on two Cannabis cultivars. Plants were grown under white (W) and purple (P) light at different photoperiods (16/8, 20/4, and 24/0). Our results showed diverse photosynthetic reactions induced by the different light type and by the duration of light exposure in two cultivars. The most beneficial condition was the 16/8 photoperiod, regardless of the light type since it brought the most efficient physiological response and the lowest TBARS contents suggesting the lowest level of thylakoid membrane damage. These findings indicate that different efficient adaptation strategies were employed based on the type of light and the duration of photoperiod. White light, at both photoperiods, caused higher dissipation of excess light causing reduced pressure on PSI. Efficient dissipation of excess energy and formation of cyclic electron transport around PSI suggests that P20/4 initiated an efficient repair system. The P24/0 maintained functional electron transport between two photosystems suggesting a positive effect on the photosynthetic reaction despite the damage to thylakoid membranes.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fotoperíodo , Cannabis/metabolismo , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A/análise , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077339

RESUMO

Block of proliferation 1 (BOP1) is a key protein that helps in the maturation of ribosomes and promotes the progression of the cell cycle. However, its role in the leaf morphogenesis of cotton remains unknown. Herein, we report and study the function of GhBOP1 isolated from Gossypium hirsutum. The sequence alignment revealed that BOP1 protein was highly conserved among different species. The yeast two-hybrid experiments, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and luciferase complementation techniques revealed that GhBOP1 interact with GhPES and GhWDR12. Subcellular localization experiments revealed that GhBOP1, GhPES and GhWDR12 were localized at the nucleolus. Suppression of GhBOP1 transcripts resulted in the uneven bending of leaf margins and the presence of young wrinkled leaves by virus-induced gene silencing assay. Abnormal palisade arrangements and the presence of large upper epidermal cells were observed in the paraffin sections of the wrinkled leaves. Meanwhile, a jasmonic acid-related gene, GhOPR3, expression was increased. In addition, a negative effect was exerted on the cell cycle and the downregulation of the auxin-related genes was also observed. These results suggest that GhBOP1 plays a critical role in the development of wrinkled cotton leaves, and the process is potentially modulated through phytohormone signaling.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Folhas de Planta , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077563

RESUMO

Poplar is an important fast-growing tree, and its photosynthetic capacity directly affects its vegetative growth. Stomatal density is closely related to photosynthetic capacity and growth characteristics in plants. Here, we isolated PagSTOMAGEN from the hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) clone 84K and investigated its biological function in vegetative growth. PagSTOMAGEN was expressed predominantly in young tissues and localized in the plasma membrane. Compared with wild-type 84K poplars, PagSTOMAGEN-overexpressing plants displayed an increased plant height, leaf area, internode number, basal diameter, biomass, IAA content, IPR content, and stomatal density. Higher stomatal density improved the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate in transgenic poplar. The differential expression of genes related to stomatal development showed a diverged influence of PagSTOMAGEN at different stages of stomatal development. Finally, transcriptomic analysis showed that PagSTOMAGEN affected vegetative growth by affecting the expression of photosynthesis and plant hormone-related genes (such as SAUR75, PQL2, PSBX, ERF1, GNC, GRF5, and ARF11). Taken together, our data indicate that PagSTOMAGEN could positively regulate stomatal density and increase the photosynthetic rate and plant hormone content, thereby promoting vegetative growth in poplar. Our study is of great significance for understanding the relationship between stoma, photosynthesis, and yield breeding in poplar.


Assuntos
Populus , Fotossíntese/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/metabolismo
14.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080201

RESUMO

Liquidambar formosana Hance has a highly ornamental value as an important urban greening tree species with bright and beautiful leaf color. To gain insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of L. formosana leaf color change, the leaves of three different clones were sampled every ten days from October 13, 2019, five times in total, which are S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5. Transcriptome sequencing was performed at S1 and S4. The chlorophyll content of the three clones decreased significantly, while the anthocyanins content of the three clones increased significantly in the coloring stage. The anthocyanins content of clone 2 was far more than that of the other two clones throughout the period of leaf color change. The transcriptome analysis showed that six DEGs related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, including CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), F3'H (flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase), DFR (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase), ANS (anthocyanidin synthase) and FLS (flavonol synthase), were found in three clones. Clone 2 has another three DEGs related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, including PAL (Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), F3'5'H (flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase) and UFGT (flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase). We lay a foundation for understanding the molecular regulation mechanism of the formation of leaf color by exploring valuable genes, which is helpful for L. formosana breeding.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Liquidambar , Antocianinas/genética , Cor , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Liquidambar/genética , Liquidambar/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080390

RESUMO

Current antineoplastic agents present multiple disadvantages, driving an ongoing search for new and better compounds. Four lupane-type triterpenes, 3α,24-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (1), 3α,23-dihydroxy-30-oxo-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (2), 3α,23-O-isopropylidenyl-3α,23-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (3), and 3α,23-dihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (4), previously isolated from Phoradendron wattii, were evaluated on two cell lines of chronic (K562) and acute (HL60) myeloid leukemia. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 decreased cell viability and inhibit proliferation, mainly in K562, and exhibited an apoptotic effect from 24 h of treatment. Of particular interest is compound 2, which caused arrest in active phases (G2/M) of the cell cycle, as shown by in silico study of the CDK1/Cyclin B/Csk2 complex by molecular docking. This compound [3α,23-dihydroxy-30-oxo-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid] s a promising candidate for incorporation into cancer treatments and deserves further study.


Assuntos
Leucemia , Phoradendron , Triterpenos , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Phoradendron/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 1-13, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030618

RESUMO

Sugar synthesis from photosynthesis and its utilization through sugar metabolism jointly determine leaf sugar content, and in contrast, excess sugar represses leaf photosynthesis. Although plant photosynthesis is affected by leaf sugar metabolism, the relationship between sugar metabolism and photosynthetic capacity of different grape genotypes remains unclear. In this study, two grape (Vitis vinifera L.) genotypes 'Riesling' (RI, high sugar content in leaf) and 'Petit Manseng' (PM, low sugar content in leaf) were used to evaluate the relationship between sugar metabolism and photosynthesis. Sugar content, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, enzyme activity, and gene expression related to sucrose metabolism in leaves were measured, and the correlations between photosynthesis and sugar metabolism were assessed. The contents of sucrose and glucose were significantly higher in RI leaves than in PM leaves, while the fructose content pattern was reversed. Cell wall invertase activity for sucrose hydrolysis and the transcript levels of VvCWINV, VvHTs, VvTMT1, VvFKs, and VvHXK2 were also higher in RI leaves than in PM leaves, whereas that of VvHXK1 mediating glucose phosphorylation, was lower in RI leaves than in PM leaves. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and chlorophyll content were lower in RI leaves than in PM leaves and negatively correlated with glucose content, and the transcript levels of VvCWINV, VvHTs, VvTMT1, and VvHXK2. In conclusion, this study indicates that leaf sugar metabolism and transport are related to photosynthesis in Vitis vinifera L., which provides a theoretical basis for improving grape photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Vitis , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 24-34, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041365

RESUMO

The current study aimed to scale up the favorable bio-stimulants for enhancing the growth and breeding strategies of Stevia rebaudiana to increase sugar productivity. Inoculation of 45-day-old S. rebaudiana plantlets with Bacillus cereus and Azospirillum brasilense alone or in combination for 30 days allowed comparisons among their effects on enhancement and improvement of plant growth, production of bioactive compounds and expression of steviol glycoside genes. B. cereus SrAM1 isolated from surface-sterilized Stevia rebaudiana leaves was molecularly identified using 16s rRNA and tested for its ability to promote plant growth. Beneficial endophytic B. cereus SrAM1 induced all plant growth-promoting traits, except solubilization of phosphate, therefore it showed high effectiveness in the promotion of growth and production of bioactive compounds. Treatment of plants with B. cereus SrAM1 alone revealed carbohydrates content of 278.99 mg/g, total soluble sugar of 114.17 mg/g, total phenolics content of 34.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight) and total antioxidants activity of 32.33 mg (A.A)/g dry weight). Thus, plantlets inoculated with B. cereus SrAM1 alone exhibited the greatest responses in physiological and morphological parameters, but plantlets inoculated with B. cereus SrAM1 + A. brasilense showed a maximal upregulation of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of steviol glycosides (Kaurene oxidase, ent-KO; UDP-dependent glycosyl transferases of UGT85C2, UGT74G1, UGT76G1). Taken together, the used bacterial strains, particularly B. cereus SrAM1 could significantly improve the growth of S. rebaudiana via dynamic interactions in plants.


Assuntos
Azospirillum brasilense , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Stevia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Azospirillum brasilense/genética , Azospirillum brasilense/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/genética , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Biologia Molecular , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Stevia/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Transferases/genética , Difosfato de Uridina/metabolismo
18.
Trends Plant Sci ; 27(10): 968-970, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961917

RESUMO

Endophytes, both bacterial and fungal, constitute an integral component of the leaf ecosystem. Here we argue that the respiratory metabolism of endophytes in the intercellular spaces of leaves could have a significant role in enhancing leaf photosynthesis by enriching the internal CO2 concentration, especially in C3 plants.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Endófitos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
19.
Science ; 377(6608): 851-854, 2022 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981033

RESUMO

Crop leaves in full sunlight dissipate damaging excess absorbed light energy as heat. This protective dissipation continues after the leaf transitions to shade, reducing crop photosynthesis. A bioengineered acceleration of this adjustment increased photosynthetic efficiency and biomass in tobacco in the field. But could that also translate to increased yield in a food crop? Here we bioengineered the same change into soybean. In replicated field trials, photosynthetic efficiency in fluctuating light was higher and seed yield in five independent transformation events increased by up to 33%. Despite increased seed quantity, seed protein and oil content were unaltered. This validates increasing photosynthetic efficiency as a much needed strategy toward sustainably increasing crop yield in support of future global food security.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Fotossíntese , Soja , Bioengenharia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Luz Solar , Tabaco/metabolismo
20.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954172

RESUMO

WRKY transcription factors play critical roles in the modulation of transcriptional changes during leaf senescence, but the underlying mechanisms controlled by them in this progress still remain enigmatic. In this study, Gossypium hirsutum WRKY DNA-binding protein 33 (GhWRKY33) was characterized as a negative regulator of both ageing and JA-mediated leaf senescence. The overexpression of GhWRKY33 in Arabidopsis greatly delayed leaf senescence, as determined by elevated chlorophyll content, lower H2O2 content, and reduced expression of several senescence-associated genes (SAGs). An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and transient dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that GhWRKY33 could bind to the promoters of both AtSAG12 and Ghcysp and suppress their expression. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and firefly luciferase complementation imaging (LUC) assays showed that GhWRKY33 could interact with GhTIFY10A. Similarly, the overexpression of GhTIFY10A in Arabidopsis also dramatically delayed leaf senescence. Furthermore, both GhWRKY33 and GhTIFY10A negatively regulate JA-mediated leaf senescence. In addition, a transientdual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that GhWRKY33 and GhTIFY10A could function synergistically to inhibit the expression of both AtSAG12 and Ghcysp. Thus, our work suggested that GhWRKY33 may function as a negative regulator to modulate both ageing and JA-mediated leaf senescence and also contributes to a basis for further functional studies on cotton leaf senescence.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Senescência Vegetal
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