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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 487-515, jul. 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538020

RESUMO

Myrtus communis L., commonly known as true myrtle, is a medicinal plant native to the Mediterranean area. Since ancient times, the inhabitant s of this area have been using it for its cultural and medicinal properties. Because of the vast diversity of biomolecules in its aerial parts, it exhibits several biological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. This review retrospect the research on the source, biological activities with empirical evidence, chemical composition, applications, and cellular targets of extracts and essential oils obtained from M. communis leaves, which provides a perspective for further studies on the applications and formulations of extract and EO of M. communis leaves. The efficacy of constituents' individually, in association with other bioactive constituents, or in combination with available commercial drugs would provide insights in to the development of these bio - actives as future drugs and their evolving future potential applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and aroma industries.


Myrtus communis L., comúnmente conocido como arrayán verdadero, es una planta medicinal originaria de la zona mediterránea. Desde la antigüedad, los habitantes de esta zona lo utilizan por sus propiedades culturales y medicinales. Debido a la gran div ersidad de biomoléculas en sus partes aéreas, exhibe varias propiedades biológicas, incluidas propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y anticancerígenas. Esta revisión retrospectiva de la investigación sobre la fuente, las actividades biológicas con evi dencia empírica, la composición química, las aplicaciones y los objetivos celulares de los extractos y aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas de M. communis , lo que brinda una perspectiva para futuros estudios sobre las aplicaciones y formulaciones de l os extractos y EO de M. communis . La eficacia de los componentes individualmente, en asociación con otros componentes bioactivos o en combinación con medicamentos comerciales disponibles proporcionaría información sobre el desarrollo de estos bioactivos co mo medicamentos futuros y sus futuras aplicaciones potenciales en las industrias farmacéutica, alimentaria y aromática


Assuntos
Myrtus communis/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Antioxidantes
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 523-533, jul. 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538056

RESUMO

Leaves of Croton stipulaceuswere extracted (EHex, ECHCl3and EEtOH extracts) to assesstheir antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory activity in murine models and acute toxicity. EEtOH showed the highest effect in DPPH (37.80% inhibition), FRAP (1065.00 ± 55.30 µmolFe2+) and total polyphenols (231.24 ± 9.05 meq AG/gM). EHex was the most active, ~ 50% inhibition of TPA-induced ear edema; while EEtOH (dose of 2 mg/ear) showed the highest inhibition in the chronic model (97% inhibition), and inhibited MPO activity (48%). In carrageenan-induced edema, ECHCl3(dose 500 mg/kg) was the most active. None of the extracts showed acute toxicity (LD50) at 2 g/kg (p.o.). This work is the first report that supports the traditional use of C. stipulaceusas an anti-inflammatory.


De las hojas de Croton stipulaceusse obtuvieron diferentes extractos (EHex, ECHCl3y EEtOH) evaluando el potencial antioxidante y la actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos y la toxicidad aguda. El EEtOH mostró mayor efecto en DPPH (37.80% inhibición), FRAP (1065.00 ± 55.30 µmolFe2+) y polifenolestotales (231.24 ± 9.05 meq AG/gM). El EHex fue el más activo, cercano al 50% de inhibición del edema auricular inducido con TPA; mientras que el EEtOH (dosis de 2 mg/oreja) mostró la mayor inhibición en el modelo crónico (97% inhibición), e inhibió la actividad de la MPO (48%). En el edema inducido con carragenina, el ECHCl3(dosis 500 mg/kg) fue el más activo. Ninguno de los extractos mostró una toxicidad aguda (DL50) mayor a 2 g/kg (p.o). Este trabajo es el primer reporte que sustenta el uso tradicional de C. stipulaceuscomo antiinflamatorio.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/química , Croton/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Croton/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105834, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582576

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors cause insect death by preventing the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which overstimulates the nervous system. In this study, isorhapontin, isolated from E. globulus leaves, was evaluated as a natural insecticide with AChE inhibition at 12.5 µM. Using kinetic analyses, we found that isorhapontin acted as a competitive inhibitor that binds to the active site of AChE. The inhibition constant (Ki) was 6.1 µM. Furthermore, isorhapontin and resveratrol, which have basic skeletons, were predicted to bind to the active site of AChE via molecular docking. A comparison of the hydrogen bonding between the two stilbenes revealed characteristic differences in their interactions with amino acids. In isorhapontin, Trp83, Gly149, Tyr162, Tyr324, and Tyr370 interacted with the sugar moiety. These results suggest that with further development, isorhapontin can be used as an insecticide alternative.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Inseticidas , Estilbenos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 242, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morphological plasticity is one of the capacities of plants to modify their morphological appearance in response to external stimuli. A plant's morphology and physiology are constantly tuned to its variable surroundings by complex interactions between environmental stimuli and internal signals. In most of plant species,, such phenotypic and physiological expression varies among different varieties based on their levels of particular environmental stress conditions. However, the morphological and yield responses of common bean varieties to different environmental conditions are not well known. The purpose of the study was to evaluate morphological and yield response of common bean to soil moisture stress and to investigate the morphological mechanism by which common bean varieties tolerate fluctuations in moisture stress. METHODS: A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different moisture levels on the phenotypic and yield responses of common bean varieties. A factorial combination of five common bean varieties (Hirna, kufanzik, Awash-1, Ado, and Chercher) and three moisture levels (control, waterlogging stress, and moisture deficit stress) was used in three replications. Moisture stress treatments were started 20 days after planting, at the trifoliate growth stage. To evaluate the response of each variety, morphological and yield data were collected at week intervals. MAIN RESULTS: The results indicated that moisture levels and varieties had a significant influence on all growth parameters. Crop phenology was significantly influenced by the interaction effect of moisture level and variety. Exposing Hirna variety to moisture stress led to extended flowering and pod setting by 23 and 24 days, respectively, compared to the other treatments. The results showed that the phenotypic responses to moisture deficit and waterlogging stress varied between varieties. Waterlogging stress had a stronger reduction effect on the fresh weight, dry weight and leaf area of common bean varieties than moisture deficit and the control. Pods per plant, seeds per plant, grain yield per plant, and harvest index were significantly influenced by the varieties, moisture stress levels and their interaction. Except for Chercher and Hirna. However, varieties Ado, kufanzik and Awasha-1 did not show significant differences on the time of flower initiation due to moisture level. Biomass and growth in leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, leaf area, leaf number and plant height were significantly influenced by moisture level. When moisture deficit and waterlogging stress occurred, Ado and Awash-1 were more responsive to moisture stress than Hirna, Chercher, and Kufanzik. CONCLUSION: Hence, Hirna and Kufanzik varieties were found to be tolerant because they produced higher yields than the Chercher, Awash-1, and Ado varieties.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Phaseolus/genética , Solo , Biomassa , Sementes , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2795: 25-35, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594524

RESUMO

High ambient temperature affects various plant developmental and physiological processes, including senescence. Here, we present a protocol for assaying light-dependent high ambient temperature-induced senescence using whole seedlings. The protocol covers all steps, from inducing senescence by darkness at high ambient temperature to determining the degree of senescence, and includes experimental tips and notes. The onset of senescence is established by quantifying the increased expression of senescence marker genes by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The degree of senescence is determined by measuring the loss of chlorophyll and the increase of ion leakage. This protocol can be adapted to study light-dependent high ambient temperature-induced senescence in other plant species by adjusting the temperature and duration of darkness.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/genética , Temperatura , Escuridão , Clorofila/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2795: 65-73, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594528

RESUMO

The production of stomata, the epidermal pores of plants, is influenced by diverse environmental signals including high temperature. To assess its impact on stomatal formation, researchers need to grow plants in a carefully designed regime under controlled conditions and capture clear, microscopic views of the epidermis. Here, we describe a procedure to study the effect of high temperature on stomatal formation. This method can generate high-quality epidermal images of cotyledons, leaves, and hypocotyl of young Arabidopsis seedlings, which allow the determination of the pattern, density, and index of stomata on these tissues. Besides temperature, the protocol can serve as a general approach to examine stomatal phenotype and the effect of other external signals on stomatal formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Temperatura , Arabidopsis/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 250, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580919

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS), a pivotal post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, profoundly amplifies diversity and complexity of transcriptome and proteome. Liriodendron chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg., an excellent ornamental tree species renowned for its distinctive leaf shape, which resembles the mandarin jacket. Despite the documented potential genes related to leaf development of L. chinense, the underlying post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms remain veiled. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome to clarify the genome-wide landscape of the AS pattern and the spectrum of spliced isoforms during leaf developmental stages in L. chinense. Our investigation unveiled 50,259 AS events, involving 10,685 genes (32.9%), with intron retention as the most prevalent events. Notably, the initial stage of leaf development witnessed the detection of 804 differentially AS events affiliated with 548 genes. Although both differentially alternative splicing genes (DASGs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched into morphogenetic related pathways during the transition from fishhook (P2) to lobed (P7) leaves, there was only a modest degree of overlap between DASGs and DEGs. Furthermore, we conducted a comprehensively AS analysis on homologous genes involved in leaf morphogenesis, and most of which are subject to post-transcriptional regulation of AS. Among them, the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE transcript factor LcAIL5 was characterization in detailed, which experiences skipping exon (SE), and two transcripts displayed disparate expression patterns across multiple stages. Overall, these findings yield a comprehensive understanding of leaf development regulation via AS, offering a novel perspective for further deciphering the mechanism of plant leaf morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Liriodendron , Liriodendron/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Transcriptoma , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2988, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582884

RESUMO

Class I KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOXI) genes are parts of the regulatory network that control the evolutionary diversification of leaf morphology. Their specific spatiotemporal expression patterns in developing leaves correlate with the degrees of leaf complexity between simple-leafed and compound-leafed species. However, KNOXI genes are not involved in compound leaf formation in several legume species. Here, we identify a pathway for dual repression of MtKNOXI function in Medicago truncatula. PINNATE-LIKE PENTAFOLIATA1 (PINNA1) represses the expression of MtKNOXI, while PINNA1 interacts with MtKNOXI and sequesters it to the cytoplasm. Further investigations reveal that UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (MtUFO) is the direct target of MtKNOXI, and mediates the transition from trifoliate to pinnate-like pentafoliate leaves. These data suggest a new layer of regulation for morphological diversity in compound-leafed species, in which the conserved regulators of floral development, MtUFO, and leaf development, MtKNOXI, are involved in variation of pinnate-like compound leaves in M. truncatula.


Assuntos
Medicago truncatula , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14274, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566272

RESUMO

AIMS: Phorbol esters (PE) are toxic diterpenoids accumulated in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seed tissues. Their biosynthetic pathway remains unknown, and the participation of roots in this process may be possible. Thus, we set out to study the deposition pattern of PE and other terpenoids in roots and leaves of genotypes with detected (DPE) and not detected (NPE) phorbol esters based on previous studies. OUTLINE OF DATA RESOURCES: We analyzed physic nut leaf and root organic extracts using LC-HRMS. By an untargeted metabolomics approach, it was possible to annotate 496 and 146 metabolites in the positive and negative electrospray ionization modes, respectively. KEY RESULTS: PE were detected only in samples of the DPE genotype. Remarkably, PE were found in both leaves and roots, making this study the first report of PE in J. curcas roots. Furthermore, untargeted metabolomic analysis revealed that diterpenoids and apocarotenoids are preferentially accumulated in the DPE genotype in comparison with NPE, which may be linked to the divergence between the genotypes concerning PE biosynthesis, since sesquiterpenoids showed greater abundance in the NPE. UTILITY OF THE RESOURCE: The LC-HRMS files, publicly available in the MassIVE database (identifier MSV000092920), are valuable as they expand our understanding of PE biosynthesis, which can assist in the development of molecular strategies to reduce PE levels in toxic genotypes, making possible the food use of the seedcake, as well as its potential to contain high-quality spectral information about several other metabolites that may possess biological activity.


Assuntos
Jatropha , Jatropha/genética , Jatropha/metabolismo , Ésteres de Forbol/análise , Ésteres de Forbol/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/genética
10.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474629

RESUMO

Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. (C. obtusa) belongs to the Cupressaceae family and is native to East Asian regions. Essential oils extracted from the leaves, bark, branches, and roots of C. obtusa have both aesthetic and medicinal properties and are thus widely used. However, detailed analyses of the active ingredients of C. obtusa extract are lacking. In this study, the sabinene content in the hydro-distillation of C. obtusa leaf essential oil (COD) was analyzed using GC-MS, and the anti-inflammatory effect of COD was compared with that of pure sabinene. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, and nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using Griess reagent. Relative mRNA and protein levels were analyzed using RT-qPCR and western blot, and secreted cytokines were analyzed using a cytokine array kit. The results showed that both COD and sabinene inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. COD and sabinene also reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-27, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of COD and sabinene partially overlap, as COD was shown to inhibit MAPKs and the JAK/STAT axis, and sabinene inhibited MAPKs, thereby preventing LPS-induced macrophage activation.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Chamaecyparis , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Chamaecyparis/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(5)2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475037

RESUMO

To reveal the impact of cadmium stress on the physiological mechanism of lettuce, simultaneous determination and correlation analyses of chlorophyll content and photosynthetic function were conducted using lettuce seedlings as the research subject. The changes in relative chlorophyll content, rapid chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics curve, and related chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of lettuce seedling leaves under cadmium stress were detected and analyzed. Furthermore, a model for estimating relative chlorophyll content was established. The results showed that cadmium stress at 1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg had a promoting effect on the relative chlorophyll content, while cadmium stress at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had an inhibitory effect on the relative chlorophyll content. Moreover, with the extension of time, the inhibitory effect became more pronounced. Cadmium stress affects both the donor and acceptor sides of photosystem II in lettuce seedling leaves, damaging the electron transfer chain and reducing energy transfer in the photosynthetic system. It also inhibits water photolysis and decreases electron transfer efficiency, leading to a decline in photosynthesis. However, lettuce seedling leaves can mitigate photosystem II damage caused by cadmium stress through increased thermal dissipation. The model established based on the energy captured by a reaction center for electron transfer can effectively estimate the relative chlorophyll content of leaves. This study demonstrates that chlorophyll fluorescence techniques have great potential in elucidating the physiological mechanism of cadmium stress in lettuce, as well as in achieving synchronized determination and correlation analyses of chlorophyll content and photosynthetic function.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Fotossíntese , Clorofila , Plântula , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473951

RESUMO

Plant growth exhibits rhythmic characteristics, and gibberellins (GAs) are involved in regulating cell growth, but it is still unclear how GAs crosstalk with circadian rhythm to regulate cell elongation. The study analyzed growth characteristics of wild-type (WT), zmga3ox and zmga3ox with GA3 seedlings. We integrated metabolomes and transcriptomes to study the interaction between GAs and circadian rhythm in mediating leaf elongation. The rates of leaf growth were higher in WT than zmga3ox, and zmga3ox cell length was shorter when proliferated in darkness than light, and GA3 restored zmga3ox leaf growth. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between WT and zmga3ox were mainly enriched in hormone signaling and cell wall synthesis, while DEGs in zmga3ox were restored to WT by GA3. Moreover, the number of circadian DEGs that reached the peak expression in darkness was more than light, and the upregulated circadian DEGs were mainly enriched in cell wall synthesis. The differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were mainly attributed to flavonoids and phenolic acid. Twenty-two DAMs showed rhythmic accumulation, especially enriched in lignin synthesis. The circadian DEGs ZmMYBr41/87 and ZmHB34/70 were identified as regulators of ZmHCT8 and ZmBM1, which were enzymes in lignin synthesis. Furthermore, GAs regulated ZmMYBr41/87 and ZmHB34/70 to modulate lignin biosynthesis for mediating leaf rhythmic growth.


Assuntos
Giberelinas , Zea mays , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
13.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14235, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472162

RESUMO

N2 -fixing legumes can strongly affect ecosystem functions by supplying nitrogen (N) and improving the carbon-fixing capacity of vegetation. Still, the question of how their leaf-level N status and carbon metabolism are coordinated along leaf ageing remains unexplored. Leaf tissue carbon isotopic composition (δ13 C) provides a useful indicator of time-integrated intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). Here, we quantified the seasonal changes of leaf δ13 C, N content on a mass and area basis (Nmass , Narea , respectively), Δ18 O (leaf 18 O enrichment above source water, a proxy of time-integrated stomatal conductance) and morphological traits in an emblematic N2 -fixing legume tree, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), at a subtropical site in Southwest China. We also measured xylem, soil and rainwater isotopes (δ18 O, δ2 H) to characterize tree water uptake patterns. Xylem water isotopic data reveal that black locust primarily used shallow soil water in this humid habitat. Black locust exhibited a decreasing δ13 C along leaf ageing, which was largely driven by decreasing leaf Nmass , despite roughly constant Narea . In contrast, the decreasing δ13 C along leaf ageing was largely uncoupled from parallel increases in Δ18 O and leaf thickness. Leaf N content is used as a proxy of leaf photosynthetic capacity; thus, it plays a key role in determining the seasonality in δ13 C, whereas the roles of stomatal conductance and leaf morphology are minor. Black locust leaves can effectively adjust to changing environmental conditions along leaf ageing through LMA increases and moderate stomatal conductance reduction while maintaining constant Narea to optimize photosynthesis and carbon assimilation, despite declining leaf Nmass and δ13 C.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Robinia , Árvores/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Solo , Água/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297892, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451974

RESUMO

Graphene has promising applications in agriculture and forestry. In the current study, six different concentrations of graphene (0mg/L, 0.01mg/L, 0.10mg/L, 1.00mg/L, 10.00mg/L, and 100.00mg/L) were used to investigate its effect on the growth and development of V. angularis plants in soil culture. The results showed that the group treated with 1.00mg/L graphene (G-1) had significantly increased plant height (19.86%), stem diameter (24.33%), and leaf area (13.69%), compared to the control group (CK). Moreover, all concentrations of graphene had positive effects on the total root length, total root surface area, and the number of root tips of V. angularis. Compared to the CK group, the G-1 group had significantly increased leaf water potential (37.89%), leaf conductivity (2.25%), and SOD, POD, and CAT activities (47.67%, 35.22%, and 199.3%, respectively). The G-1 group also showed improved leaf net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, and soluble sugar content (51.28%, 24.25%, and 38.35%, respectively), compared to the CK group. Additionally, 1.00mg/L graphene led to a 23.88% increase in the podding rate and a 17.04% increase in the yield of V. angularis plants. The rhizosphere soil of V. angularis treated with 1.00mg/L graphene had a 25.14% increase in hydrolyzable nitrogen content and a 66.67% increase in available phosphorus content. RNA-seq data indicated that 1.00mg/L graphene induced the expression of photosynthesis and nitrogen transmembrane transport genes, including ATP synthase subunit b, photosystem I reaction center subunit XI, photosystem I reaction center subunit IV A, ferredoxin, and psbP-like protein 1, as well as genes for photosynthesis antenna proteins, glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase 1, cyanate hydratase, protein fluG-like, and NRT1/PTR family, suggesting that graphene promoted the growth and development of V. angularis by enhancing the photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism processes in V. angularis plants. Our results indicated that a suitable concentration of graphene could significantly promote the growth of V. angularis plants in soil.


Assuntos
Grafite , Vigna , Vigna/metabolismo , Grafite/farmacologia , Grafite/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo
15.
Planta ; 259(4): 89, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467941

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Taiwan oil millet has two types of epicuticular wax: platelet wax composed primarily of octacosanol and filament wax constituted essentially by the singular compound of octacosanoic acid. Taiwan oil millet (TOM-Eccoilopus formosanus) is an orphan crop cultivated by the Taiwan indigenous people. It has conspicuous white powder covering its leaf sheath indicating abundant epicuticular waxes, that may contribute to its resilience. Here, we characterized the epicuticular wax secretion in TOM leaf blade and leaf sheath using various microscopy techniques, as well as gas chromatography to determine its composition. Two kinds of waxes, platelet and filaments, were secreted in both the leaf blades and sheaths. The platelet wax is secreted ubiquitously by epidermal cells, whereas the filament wax is secreted by a specific cell called epidermal cork cells. The newly developed filament waxes were markedly re-synthesized by the epidermal cork cells through papillae protrusions on the external periclinal cell wall. Ultrastructural images of cork cell revealed the presence of cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules along the periphery of plasma membrane (PM) and ER-PM contact sites (EPCS). The predominant wax component was a C28 primary alcohol in leaf blade, and a C28 free fatty acid in the leaf sheath, pseudopetiole and midrib. The wax morphology present in distinct plant organs corresponds to the specific chemical composition: platelet wax composed of alcohols exists mainly in the leaf blade, whereas filament wax constituted mainly by the singular compound C28 free fatty acids is present abundantly in leaf sheath. Our study clarifies the filament wax composition in relation to a previous study in sorghum. Both platelet and filament waxes comprise a protection barrier for TOM.


Assuntos
Milhetes , Sorghum , Humanos , Taiwan , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Sorghum/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo
16.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 26(3): 467-475, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466186

RESUMO

Ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +-N) is essential for fruit tree growth, but the impact of excess NH4 +-N from fertilizer on evergreen citrus trees is unclear. In a climate chamber, 8-month-old citrus plants were exposed to five different hydroponic NH4 +-N concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm) for 1 month to study effects of NH4 +-N on growth characteristics, N uptake, metabolism, antioxidant enzymes and osmotic regulatory substances. Application of 10 mm NH4 +-N adversely affected root plasma membrane integrity, root physiological functions, and plant biomass. MDA, CAT, POD, APX and SOD content were significantly correlated with leaf N metabolic enzyme activity (GOGAT, GDH, GS and NR). GDH was the primary enzyme involved in NH4 +-N assimilation in leaves, while the primary pathway involved in roots was GS-GOGAT. Under comparatively high NH4 + addition, roots were the main organs involved in NH4 + utilization in citrus seedlings. Our results demonstrated that variations in NH4 + concentration and enzyme activity in various organs are associated with more effective N metabolism in roots than in leaves to prevent NH4 + toxicity in evergreen woody citrus plants. These results provide insight into the N forms used by citrus plants that are important for N fertilizer management.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Citrus , Poncirus , Plântula , Poncirus/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
17.
Bull Math Biol ; 86(5): 45, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519704

RESUMO

Rooted binary galled trees generalize rooted binary trees to allow a restricted class of cycles, known as galls. We build upon the Wedderburn-Etherington enumeration of rooted binary unlabeled trees with n leaves to enumerate rooted binary unlabeled galled trees with n leaves, also enumerating rooted binary unlabeled galled trees with n leaves and g galls, 0 ⩽ g ⩽ ⌊ n - 1 2 ⌋ . The enumerations rely on a recursive decomposition that considers subtrees descended from the nodes of a gall, adopting a restriction on galls that amounts to considering only the rooted binary normal unlabeled galled trees in our enumeration. We write an implicit expression for the generating function encoding the numbers of trees for all n. We show that the number of rooted binary unlabeled galled trees grows with 0.0779 ( 4 . 8230 n ) n - 3 2 , exceeding the growth 0.3188 ( 2 . 4833 n ) n - 3 2 of the number of rooted binary unlabeled trees without galls. However, the growth of the number of galled trees with only one gall has the same exponential order 2.4833 as the number with no galls, exceeding it only in the subexponential term, 0.3910 n 1 2 compared to 0.3188 n - 3 2 . For a fixed number of leaves n, the number of galls g that produces the largest number of rooted binary unlabeled galled trees lies intermediate between the minimum of g = 0 and the maximum of g = ⌊ n - 1 2 ⌋ . We discuss implications in mathematical phylogenetics.


Assuntos
Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6678, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509214

RESUMO

Failure in irrigation management of grapevines grown in the Brazilian semiarid region can affect bud fertility. Adequate irrigation, considering both the development of bunches in the current cycle and the formation of fertile buds for subsequent cycles, can bring significant advances to viticulture. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of different irrigation levels during flowering on the formation of buds and potential bunches of 'Arra 15' grapevine and its relationship with metabolic processes. A field experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil, during the 2021 and 2022 seasons. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and five irrigation levels (70; 85; 100; 115 and 130% of crop evapotranspiration - ETc) during three production cycles. The variables fertile bud, vegetative bud, dead bud, potential fertility of the basal, median, and apical regions of the branches, number of potential bunches, reducing sugar, total soluble sugar, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, and relative chlorophyll index were evaluated. The 115% ETc irrigation level improved the number of fertile buds and number of potential bunches. Irrigation level above 115% ETc increased gas exchange and relative chlorophyll index, while 70% ETc increased leaf sugar content. The most appropriate irrigation strategy is the application of 115% ETc during the flowering stage, for the increase of fertile buds and potential bunches of the next cycle, without influencing the vine metabolism. Total soluble sugars are a promising indicator of water deficit during flowering and as an indicator of vegetative bud formation for the next cycle.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vitis/metabolismo , Brasil , Inflorescência/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Açúcares/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 203, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quinoa leaves demonstrate a diverse array of colors, offering a potential enhancement to landscape aesthetics and the development of leisure-oriented sightseeing agriculture in semi-arid regions. This study utilized integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to investigate the mechanisms underlying anthocyanin synthesis in both emerald green and pink quinoa leaves. RESULTS: Integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that both flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (ko00941) and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (ko00942) were significantly associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were analyzed between the two germplasms during different developmental periods. Ten DEGs were verified using qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with those of the transcriptomic sequencing. The elevated expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), 4-coumarate CoA ligase (4CL) and Hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT), as well as the reduced expression of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and Flavonol synthase (FLS), likely cause pink leaf formation. In addition, bHLH14, WRKY46, and TGA indirectly affected the activities of CHS and 4CL, collectively regulating the levels of cyanidin 3-O-(3'', 6''-O-dimalonyl) glucoside and naringenin. The diminished expression of PAL, 4CL, and HCT decreased the formation of cyanidin-3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-2"-O-glucuronyl) glucoside, leading to the emergence of emerald green leaves. Moreover, the lowered expression of TGA and WRKY46 indirectly regulated 4CL activity, serving as another important factor in maintaining the emerald green hue in leaves N1, N2, and N3. CONCLUSION: These findings establish a foundation for elucidating the molecular regulatory mechanisms governing anthocyanin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves, and also provide some theoretical basis for the development of leisure and sightseeing agriculture.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Chenopodium quinoa , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transcriptoma , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Glucosídeos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
20.
Planta ; 259(5): 93, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509429

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: dnal7, a novel allelic variant of the OsHSP40, affects rice plant architecture and grain yield by coordinating auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellic acids. Plant height and leaf morphology are the most important traits of the ideal plant architecture (IPA), and discovering related genes is critical for breeding high-yield rice. Here, a dwarf and narrow leaf 7 (dnal7) mutant was identified from a γ-ray treated mutant population, which exhibits pleiotropic effects, including dwarfing, narrow leaves, small seeds, and low grain yield per plant compared to the wild type (WT). Histological analysis showed that the number of veins and the distance between adjacent small veins (SVs) were significantly reduced compared to the WT, indicating that DNAL7 controls leaf size by regulating the formation of veins. Map-based cloning and transgenic complementation revealed that DNAL7 is allelic to NAL11, which encodes OsHSP40, and the deletion of 2 codons in dnal7 destroyed the His-Pro-Asp (HPD) motif of OsHSP40. In addition, expression of DNAL7 in both WT and dnal7 gradually increased with the increase of temperature in the range of 27-31 °C. Heat stress significantly affected the seedling height and leaf width of the dnal7 mutant. A comparative transcriptome analysis of WT and dnal7 revealed that DNAL7 influenced multiple metabolic pathways, including plant hormone signal transduction, carbon metabolism, and biosynthesis of amino acids. Furthermore, the contents of the cytokinins in leaf blades were much higher in dnal7 than in the WT, whereas the contents of auxins were lower in dnal7. The contents of bioactive gibberellic acids (GAs) including GA1, GA3, and GA4 in shoots were decreased in dnal7. Thus, DNAL7 regulates rice plant architecture by coordinating the balance of auxins, cytokinins, and GAs. These results indicate that OsHSP40 is a pleiotropic gene, which plays an important role in improving rice yield and plant architecture.


Assuntos
Giberelinas , Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Alelos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Citocininas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
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