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1.
Food Chem ; 372: 131272, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628121

RESUMO

Bioactive compounds from strawberries have been associated with multiple healthy benefits. The present study aimed to assess chemical characterization of a methanolic extract of the Romina strawberry variety in terms of antioxidant capacity, polyphenols profile and chemical elements content. Additionally, potential toxicity, the effect on amyloid-ß production and oxidative stress of the extract was in vivo evaluated in the experimental model Caenorhabditis elegans. Results revealed an important content in phenolic compounds (mainly ellagic acid and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) and minerals (K, Mg, P and Ca). The treatment with 100, 500 or 1000 µg/mL of strawberry extract did not show toxicity. On the contrary, the extract was able to delay amyloid ß-protein induced paralysis, reduced amyloid-ß aggregation and prevented oxidative stress. The potential molecular mechanisms present behind the observed results explored by RNAi technology revealed that DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/NRF2 signaling pathways were, at least partially, involved.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Fragaria , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Antioxidantes , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Metanol , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
2.
Talanta ; 236: 122825, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635215

RESUMO

Relative matrix effects between an ambient mass spectrometric technique known as coated blade spray (CBS) and liquid chromatographic separation approach when applied to multiresidue pesticide analysis in strawberry samples are explored. Acceptable slope relative standard deviations (RSD <15 %) were observed for the 9 compounds under study for both CBS-MS/MS (2.2-12.6 %) and LC-MS/MS (2.8-12.9 %) approaches. The findings signify both the elimination of relative matrix effects with the sample preparation and matrix match calibration with internal standard correction methods employed along with no matrix effect compromise made when using the direct-to-MS approach. Similarly, slopes of pesticides spiked from commercially available formulations (containing one or two pesticides) were found to not differ significantly from slopes generated with multiresidue pesticide standards (containing 24 additional pesticides besides the target 9 analytes) with either technique, highlighting the resistance of the employed methods to the excipients present in pesticide formulations in large amounts.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Excipientes , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130743, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384982

RESUMO

Berry fruits consumption has increased in recent years because they are rich sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. The aim of the present work was to develop a new comprehensive and fast HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of 36 phenolic compounds (7 anthocyanins, 9 flavonols, 4 flavan-3-ols, 2 dihydrochalcones, 2 flavanones and 12 phenolic acids) present in blueberry, strawberry, and their fruit jam. Blueberry fruits showed higher contents of anthocyanins, flavonols and phenolic acids, while strawberry fruits exhibited higher contents of flavan-3-ols, dihydrochalcones and flavanones. Anthocyanins were the main phenolic constituents in both berries. Furthermore, the higher total phenolic content in the blueberry fruit and jam justified their greater antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH free radical assay, compared to strawberry. In conclusion, this new HPLC-MS/MS method is useful and reliable for quality control and authentication analyses of blueberry and strawberry fruits and their commercial food products, such as jams.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Fragaria , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Polifenóis , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Food Chem ; 366: 130566, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303208

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of LED illumination on the inactivation of Rhizopus stolonifer and Botrytis cinerea on strawberries and physicochemical properties of the strawberries. Twelve days of illumination resulted in an antifungal effect of 3.4 and 1.9 log CFU/g on R. stolonifer and B. cinerea respectively. The illumination caused no significant effect (P ≥ 0.05) on the mass, color and texture of strawberries. Furthermore, total phenolic content, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content of the illuminated strawberries significantly increased (P < 0.05). Vitamin C content of illuminated strawberries was only significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control starting from Day 9. These results show that 405 nm LED illumination can potentially complement temperature and humidity control in preventing mold spoilage and preserving physicochemical quality of strawberries during refrigerated storage.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Botrytis , Frutas , Rhizopus , Tecnologia
5.
Food Chem ; 368: 130776, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425344

RESUMO

The soon spoiled strawberries need to be classified from healthy fruits in an early stage. In this research, a machine vision system is proposed for inspecting the quality of strawberries using ultraviolet (UV) light based on the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) results. Among the 100 fruits which were harvested and stored under 10 °C condition for 7 days, 7 fruits were confirmed to be spoiled by using a firmness meter. The EEM results show the fluorescence compound contributes to a whitish surface on the spoiled fruits. Based on the EEM results, UV fluorescence images from the bottom view of strawberries were used to classify the spoiled fruits and healthy fruits within 1 day after harvest. These results demonstrate the UV fluorescence imaging can be a fast, non-destructive, and low-cost method for inspecting the soon spoiled fruits. The proposed index related to the spoiling time can be a new indicator for qualifying strawberry.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fluorescência , Frutas , Raios Ultravioleta
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2809-2817, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664454

RESUMO

With the development of strawberry cultivated area in China, the demands for high-quality strawberry seedlings are increasing year by year. The research on the evaluation index of strawberry seedlings is needed to ensure the quality of the seedlings. This study aimed to establish an optimal index model of strawberry seedlings to improve the accuracy of seedlings evaluation. In this study, 320 seedlings of 'Benihoppe' strawberry seedlings growing for 40 days were taken as the materials. Based on the determination of 16 individual indicators including the growth of aboveground and underground parts, fresh weight, and dry weight, we firstly conducted the membership function corresponding to single indicator. Then the comprehensive evaluation index of strawberry seedlings was calculated using weighted fuzzy evaluation method. Furthermore, the key indicators out of the 16 indicators which were filtered out by means of the principal component analysis method were combined into different index models of strawberry seedlings. The correlation analysis between the comprehensive evaluation index and seedling index models was done and finally the optimal seedling index model was selected and verified. The results showed that there were significant differences in 16 indices of 320 randomly selected strawberry seedlings. The comprehensive evaluation index of strawberry seedlings was in the range of 0.165-0.817, indicating that the comprehensive evaluation index could totally reflect the quality of seedlings and could be used as the evaluation basis. The 16 individual indices of strawberry seedlings were classified into three principal components, including aboveground related indicators, underground related indicators, and the pigment indicators. The cumulative contribution rate of three principal components was 79.7%. Twenty-seven seedlings index models were combined by randomly selecting three indices with a large contribution value from each principal component. Five strawberry seedlings index mo-dels were selected from 27 models due to the highest correlation with the comprehensive evaluation index. Among them, the model "aboveground dry weight×root surface area×chlorophyll a" was identified as the optimal one to evaluate the quality of strawberry seedlings, due to the highest correlation with the comprehensive evaluation index. The correlation coefficient of between strong seedling index and comprehensive evaluation index in three strawberry variety 'Benihoppe', 'Kantoseika' and 'Sweet Charlie' were 0.879, 0.924, and 0.975, respectively. According to the comprehensive evaluation index, the quality of strawberry seedlings were classified into three grades: grade Ⅰ (comprehensive evaluation index ≥0.5, seedling index ≥4.0) with high-quality seedlings; grade Ⅱ (comprehensive evaluation index 0.3-0.5, seedling index 0.5-4.0) with qualified seedlings; grade Ⅲ (comprehensive evaluation index ≤0.3, seedling index ≤0.5) with weak seedlings. The results provided a theoretical basis and scientific method for the evaluation of the health status of strawberry seedlings or other fruits and vegetable seedlings.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Plântula , China , Clorofila A
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(42): 12424-12432, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649430

RESUMO

Many natural compounds can activate the plant immunity, and for this reason, they have attracted special interest in crop disease management. Previously, we isolated from strawberry leaves an ellagitannin (HeT), which elicits plant defense responses. In this research, we investigated bioactive compounds from field-collected strawberry leaves capable of inducing defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana against a bacterial pathogen. Methanolic extracts of strawberry leaves sampled at different months were obtained and compared. The highest content of total soluble phenolic compounds was found in the methanolic extracts of leaves sampled in December (DME). The defense response induced in A. thaliana by DME was attributed to two ellagitannins, the HeT and galloyl-HHDP-glucose. Both compounds exhibited phytoprotective effects against Pseudomonas viridiflava and induced the expression of PDF1.2 and PR1 genes. These results provide an economic value to strawberry leaves, normally discarded at the end of the harvest stage of the crop, as a raw material for plant health enhancer bioinputs.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fragaria/genética , Taninos Hidrolisáveis , Folhas de Planta , Pseudomonas , Estações do Ano
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638834

RESUMO

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit ripening is regulated by a complex of cellular signal transduction networks, in which protein kinases are key components. Here, we report a relatively simple method for assaying protein kinase activity in vivo and specifically its application to study the kinase, FaMPK6, signaling in strawberry fruit. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged FaMPK6 was transiently expressed in strawberry fruit and after stimuli were applied to the fruit it was precipitated using an anti-GFP antibody. The precipitated kinase activity was measured in vitro using 32P-ATP and myelin basic protein (MBP) as substrates. We also report that FaMPK6 is not involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling cascade, which is closely associated with FaMPK6 signaling in other plant species. However, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), low temperature, and high salt treatments were all found to activate FaMPK6. Transient manipulation of FaMPK6 expression was observed to cause significant changes in the expression patterns of 2749 genes, of which 264 were associated with MeJA signaling. The data also suggest a role for FaMPK6 in modulating cell wall metabolism during fruit ripening. Taken together, the presented method is powerful and its use will contribute to a profound exploration to the signaling mechanism of strawberry fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640893

RESUMO

Plant diseases must be identified at the earliest stage for pursuing appropriate treatment procedures and reducing economic and quality losses. There is an indispensable need for low-cost and highly accurate approaches for diagnosing plant diseases. Deep neural networks have achieved state-of-the-art performance in numerous aspects of human life including the agriculture sector. The current state of the literature indicates that there are a limited number of datasets available for autonomous strawberry disease and pest detection that allow fine-grained instance segmentation. To this end, we introduce a novel dataset comprised of 2500 images of seven kinds of strawberry diseases, which allows developing deep learning-based autonomous detection systems to segment strawberry diseases under complex background conditions. As a baseline for future works, we propose a model based on the Mask R-CNN architecture that effectively performs instance segmentation for these seven diseases. We use a ResNet backbone along with following a systematic approach to data augmentation that allows for segmentation of the target diseases under complex environmental conditions, achieving a final mean average precision of 82.43%.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Doenças das Plantas
10.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684796

RESUMO

The unique fruity aroma of strawberries, a popular fruit of high economic value, is closely related to all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained within them. Despite extensive studies on the identification of VOCs in strawberries, systematic studies on fruit-aroma-related VOCs are few, resulting in a lack of effective standards for accurately distinguishing aroma types. In the present study, solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze and identify VOCs in the ripe fruit of each of the 16 strawberry varieties at home and abroad and to explore their characteristic aroma components and the classification of such varieties by aroma type. The results suggested remarkable variations in the types and contents of VOCs in different strawberry varieties, of which esters were dominant. The principal volatile components, consisting of four esters, three alcohols, one aldehyde, and one ketone, in 16 strawberry varieties were detected based on the absolute and relative contents of VOCs in the fruit. The characteristic aroma components in strawberries, containing nine esters, six aldehydes, and one alcohol, were determined based on the aroma values of different VOCs, and the characteristic aroma components were divided into five types further based on aroma descriptions. Sixteen strawberry varieties were finally divided into four aroma types, namely, peachy, pineapple, fruity, and floral, based on the contributions of different types. The results provided a basis and standard for classifying strawberries by aroma type, studying the hereditary regularity of the fruity aroma of strawberries, and improving aroma quality.


Assuntos
Fragaria/química , Fragaria/classificação , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Cetonas/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Especificidade da Espécie , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 359: 109427, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655922

RESUMO

In recent years, photodynamic inactivation (PDI) has emerged as a promising preservation method to complement refrigeration in the fresh produce supply chain. However, due to infrastructural limitations in the supply chain, fresh produce is often exposed to environmental conditions rather than recommended storage conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the influence of two important environmental variables in the fresh produce supply chain - temperature and relative humidity (RH), on the PDI of fruit spoilage molds. It also aimed to demonstrate proof-of-concept of their inactivation on fruit surfaces. In the in vitro stage, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, the two molds selected for this study, were illuminated with 405 nm LEDs on Dichloran Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar at three levels of temperature (7, 16 and 25 °C) and relative humidity (40, 60 and 80%). Illumination under these conditions caused reductions greater than 94% in the mold populations, at all temperatures and relative humidities. Even so, a temperature of 25 °C was observed to be marginally better for the inactivation as compared to 7 and 16 °C, as it necessitated the lowest dose (6-7 kJ) for the first log reduction of both the molds. Similarly, an RH of 40% worked slightly better for the inactivation of B. cinerea, as it induced inactivation without any lag phase and required the lowest dose (8.03 kJ) for the first log reduction. When the antifungal effect was investigated on fruit surfaces, it was discovered that the illumination reduced the populations of B. cinerea and R. stolonifer on strawberries by 67% and 19%, whereas on tomatoes, the respective inactivations were 79% and 70% respectively. These results demonstrate further promise of PDI as a postharvest technology for reducing the risk of fruit spoilage. This study is also the first to demonstrate the potential of PDI to add value to supply chains where compliance to ideal storage conditions is not feasible.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Lycopersicon esculentum , Antifúngicos , Botrytis , Frutas , Umidade , Rhizopus , Temperatura
12.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2825-2835, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472300

RESUMO

Biosynthesis of nanomaterials has attracted much attention for its excellent characteristics such as low energy consumption, high safety, and environmental friendliness. As we all know, the toxic selenite can be transformed into higher-value nanomaterials by using bacteria. In this study, nano-selenium was synthesized by halophilic Bacillus subtilis subspecies stercoris strain XP in LB medium supplemented with selenite (electron acceptor). The physicochemical characteristics of nano-selenium were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectral analysis (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Meanwhile, the antifungal activity of nano-selenium to strawberry pathogens (fusarium wilt, erythema, and purple spot fungi) was determined. The products from reduction of selenite by strain XP was amorphous spherical selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with a diameter range of 135-165 nm. The production of SeNPs was positively correlated with time (0-48 h) and no changes were observed on cell morphology. Selenium was dominant in the surface of SeNPs where the organic elements (C, O, N, and S) existed at the same time. SeNPs were coated with biomolecules containing functional groups (such as -OH, C=O, N-H, and C-H) which were associated with the stability and bioactivity of particles. Although the highest concentration of SeNPs had significant (P<0.05) inhibitory effects on three strains of strawberry pathogens, antifungal activity to erythema and fusarium wilt pathogenic fungi was higher than that to purple spot pathogenic fungi from strawberry. In conclusion, strain XP not only has strong tolerance to high salt stress, but can be also used to synthesize biological SeNPs with good stability and biological activity. Thus, the strain XP has bright perspectives and great potential advantage in pathogens control and green selenium-rich strawberry planting as well as other fields.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Nanopartículas , Selênio , Bacillus subtilis , Ácido Selenioso
13.
Plant Sci ; 311: 111010, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482914

RESUMO

The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is an octoploid species (2n = 8x = 56), appreciated widely for its fruit. There have been very few studies on fruit quality traits, which are known to be mostly polygenic and environmentally dependent. To identify higher genetic variability, two non-related populations were genotyped: an F1 population cross between 'FC50' and 'FD54' and an F2 population cross between 'Camarosa' and 'Dover', hybridizing both with IStraw35k and IStraw90k SNP arrays, respectively. The F1 genetic map was constructed with 14595 SNPs and the F2 map with 7977 SNPs. High collinearity was observed when comparing one genetic map with the other and on comparing both with the octoploid genome. To assess fruit variability, both populations were phenotyped for shape, firmness, taste and other fruit traits over the 2016-2019 period. With QTL analyses, 33 stable QTLs were mapped in the 'FC50xFD54' population, and three hotspot regions were found for shape traits in LG3A, LG4D and LG6D. In the '21AF' population, only eight stable QTLs were detected. Despite that, two major and stable QTLs were mapped in the same interval of confidence for both populations. A shared fruit shape ratio QTL which explained around 25 % of trait variance was mapped in LG3A, and a shared firmness QTL explaining 26.9 % of trait variance in LG7C. For the first time, two QTLs were discovered in LG3A and LG4A for a phenotype neck without achenes. When analysing two different mapping populations, in addition to finding specific QTL regions for the studied traits, a narrowing down of the interval of confidence for the shared QTLs is achieved. As a result of this study, a new set of SNPs for fruit firmness and shape is now available for use in MAS in strawberry breeding programs.


Assuntos
Fragaria/anatomia & histologia , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0245180, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587178

RESUMO

With the constant surge of strawberry cultivation and human demand, widespread concern has been expressed about the severe soil and plant health problems caused by continuous strawberry cropping, particularly monocropping in greenhouses. Effective microorganisms (EM) and Bacillus subtilis (BS) have been extensively commercialized as biological control agents (BCAs) to promote plant growth and yield enhancement. However, their effects on soil microbes are obscure. To regulate the microbial community in continuous cropping strawberry soils, we developed four soil amendments based on these two BCAs by adding low and high contents of compost. The amplicon sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers was applied to study the response of the soil microbiome structure. We noticed a sharp increase in bacterial diversity after adding EM-treated high compost and BS-treated low compost, while there was no significant change in fungal diversity among treatments. Through taxonomic classification and FUNGuild analysis, we found that the application of soil amendments resulted in a significant decline in the relative abundance of fungal plant pathogens (Rhizopus, Penicillium and Fusarium) in the soils; accordingly, the metabolic functions of a range of detrimental fungi were inhibited. Correlation analysis indicated that soil microbial community was indirectly driven by soil physicochemical properties. Co-occurrence networks revealed that soil amendments contributed to the connectivity of bacterial network, and EM-treated with high compost was the most complex and balanced. Collectively, EM-treated high compost and BS-treated low compost can well regulate the microbial community structure and thus maintain soil health.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Solo , Biodiversidade , Carvão Vegetal , Compostagem , Microbiota
15.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4611-4627, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533217

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to develop a green and safe chitosan-based preservative which can be applied in strawberry preservation. Chitosan (CS) was treated by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine oxygen radical/laccase oxidation system (TEMPO/laccase oxidation system), which was mainly used to prepare TEMPO/laccase chitosan (TLCS). Furthermore, on this basis, the structure and performance of TLCS were also studied. The results showed that compared with CS, the solubility of TLCS improved, and the kinetic viscosity reduced significantly. Next, a cinnamaldehyde-TEMPO/laccase chitosan (CIN-TLCS) antibacterial agent was prepared by covalently combining the aldehyde group in cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and the amino group in CS. It was found that CIN combined with TLCS through covalent bonds, which changed the structure and crystallinity of TLCS. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity of CIN-TLCS also improved, which was necessary for the application of CIN-TLCS in extending shelf life. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that CIN-TLCS had no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, strawberries were used to explore the actual bacteriostatic and fresh-keeping effects of CIN-TLCS. The experiment found that CIN-TLCS could maintain the freshness of strawberries at room temperature (23 ± 1°C) for 5 days and had positive effects on strawberry color, loss-weight rate, hardness and pH. These results showed that CIN-TLCS could be used as a potential preserving agent for fruit storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: To obtain a green, safe and effective food preservative, chitosan (CS) was modified by a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine oxygen radical/laccase oxidation system (TEMPO/laccase oxidation system) to get TEMPO/laccase chitosan (TLCS) and cinnamic aldehyde-TEMPO/laccase chitosan (CIN-TLCS). At the same time, the structure and antibacterial properties of TLCS and CIN-TLCS were analyzed, and their possibility as a new green and safe strawberry preservative was studied. Compared with oxazolidine, imidazole and triazole commercial drugs, CIN-TLCS has the advantages of low price, no pollution, no cytotoxicity and no drug resistance.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Conservação de Alimentos , Fragaria , Frutas , Quitosana/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576171

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays several physiological roles in plants. Despite the evidence, the role of H2S on cell wall disassembly and its implications on fleshy fruit firmness remains unknown. In this work, the effect of H2S treatment on the shelf-life, cell wall polymers and cell wall modifying-related gene expression of Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) fruit was tested during postharvest storage. The treatment with H2S prolonged the shelf-life of fruit by an effect of optimal dose. Fruit treated with 0.2 mM H2S maintained significantly higher fruit firmness than non-treated fruit, reducing its decay and tripling its shelf-life. Additionally, H2S treatment delays pectin degradation throughout the storage period and significantly downregulated the expression of genes encoding for pectinases, such as polygalacturonase, pectate lyase, and expansin. This evidence suggests that H2S as a gasotransmitter prolongs the post-harvest shelf-life of the fruit and prevents its fast softening rate by a downregulation of the expression of key pectinase genes, which leads to a decreased pectin degradation.


Assuntos
Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Gasotransmissores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Polissacarídeo-Liases/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492053

RESUMO

Cross-pollination affects the fruit characteristics of many crops but the effects of cross-pollination on fruit quality of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) are poorly known. This study determined how cross-pollination affects fruit quality of the strawberry cultivar, Redlands Joy, under controlled environment conditions. Plants were allocated to one of four treatments, with all flowers on each plant receiving either: (1) unassisted self-pollination (Autogamy); (2) hand-pollination with Redlands Joy pollen (Self); (3) hand-pollination with cross-pollen from a small-fruited cultivar (Sugarbaby); or (4) hand-pollination with cross-pollen from a large-fruited cultivar (Rubygem). Cross-pollination did not significantly affect plant yield or fruit mass, size, shape, firmness or shelf life. However, cross-pollination affected fruit colour and taste attributes. Cross-pollinated fruit were 3%-5% darker than self-pollinated fruit. They also had 26%-34% lower acidity and 43%-58% higher Brix:acid ratio. Cross-pollination by Sugarbaby increased fruit P, K, Ca, Fe and Mn, but decreased B, Cu and Zn, concentrations. Cross-pollination by Rubygem increased fruit Mn, but decreased K and Na, concentrations and reduced shelf life. Fruit mass, length, diameter and firmness within all treatments increased with increasing numbers of fertilized seeds per fruit. Hand self-pollinated fruit had a higher percentage of fertilized seeds than fruit arising from autogamy and they were also darker, redder, firmer, and had a longer shelf life, higher protein concentration, and lower Al and Na concentrations. The results indicate that strawberry fruit quality can be affected by both the source of pollen and the number of stigmas pollinated.


Assuntos
Fertilização/genética , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Reprodução/genética , Ácidos/química , Cor , Produtos Agrícolas , Fertilização/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/genética , Polinização/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576935

RESUMO

The drying of fruit juices has advantages such as easy handling of powders, reduction in volume, and preservation of the characteristics of the fruit. Thus, in this work, the effect of the spray drying conditions of strawberry juice (SJ) with maltodextrin (MX) as a carrying agent on the microencapsulation of bioactive compounds and physicochemical properties was studied. The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity showed higher values at low concentrations of MX, while the effect of drying temperature was negligible. The thermal characterization showed that the low molecular weight sugars in the juice decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg). The morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that at low concentrations of MX, the particles agglomerated, while at intermediate and high concentrations, the particles were observed as well separated. Through microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the presence of amorphous state was confirmed in all the samples, which is beneficial for preventing chemical and biochemical reactions, and promoting the conservation of the microencapsulated bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Fragaria/química , Pós/química , Antioxidantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Secagem por Atomização , Temperatura , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10678-10687, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468130

RESUMO

Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of tea tree oil, markedly increases the disease resistance of postharvest strawberry fruit. To understand the mechanism underlying the enhancement of disease resistance, a high-throughput RNA-seq was used to analyze gene transcription in terpinen-4-ol-treated and untreated fruit. The results show that terpinen-4-ol induces the expression of genes in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis pathway, secondary metabolic pathways such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and pathways involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Terpinen-4-ol treatment reduced disease incidence and lesion diameter in strawberry fruit inoculated with Botrytis cinerea. Terpinen-4-ol treatment enhanced the expression of genes involved in JA synthesis (FaLOX, FaAOC, and FaOPR3) and signaling (FaCOI1), as well as genes related to disease defense (FaPAL, FaCHI, and FaGLU). In contrast, treatment with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) accelerated disease development and inhibited the induction of gene expressions by terpinen-4-ol. We conclude that the JA pathway participates in the induction of disease resistance by terpinen-4-ol in strawberry fruit. More generally, the results illuminate the mechanisms by which disease resistance is enhanced by essential oils.


Assuntos
Botrytis , Fragaria , Ciclopentanos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Oxilipinas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Terpenos
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 413, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values. RESULTS: In this study, 62 bZIP genes were comprehensively identified from Chinese Pear, and 54 genes were distributed among 17 chromosomes. Frequent whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the major driving forces underlying the bZIP gene family in Chinese white pear. bZIP-TFs are classified into 13 subfamilies according to the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, purifying selection plays an important role in the evolution process of PbbZIPs. Synteny analysis of bZIP genes revealed that 196 orthologous gene pairs were identified between Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Prunus persica. Moreover, cis-elements that respond to various stresses and hormones were found on the promoter regions of PbbZIP, which were induced by stimuli. Gene structure (intron/exon) and different compositions of motifs revealed that functional divergence among subfamilies. Expression pattern of PbbZIP genes differential expressed under hormonal treatment abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate  in pear fruits by real-time qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, a systematic analysis of gene structure, motif composition, subcellular localization, synteny analysis, and calculation of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) was performed in Chinese white pear. Sixty-two bZIP-TFs in Chinese pear were identified, and their expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed under ABA, SA, and MeJa hormones, which respond to multiple abiotic stresses and fruit growth and development. PbbZIP gene occurred through Whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. These results provide a basic framework for further elucidating the biological function characterizations under multiple developmental stages and abiotic stress responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas , Éxons , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sintenia
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