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1.
Fungal Biol ; 128(2): 1705-1713, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575244

RESUMO

The effects of acoustic waves on growth inhibition of food spoilage fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Botrytis cinerea) on the medium and strawberry surfaces were investigated. Firstly, single-frequency sound waves (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000, 12,000 and 16,000 Hz) were induced on inoculated medium with fungi spores for 24 h and growth diameter of each mold was evaluated during the incubation period. In the second stage, the sound waves with two frequencies of 250 Hz and 16,000 Hz were induced on inoculated strawberries with fungi spores at 5 °C for different times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days). The results from the first stage indicated that the sound waves inhibited the growth of A. niger (20.02%) at 250 Hz and B. cinerea (4/64%) at 4000 Hz on potato dextrose agar (PDA) surface. Also, comparison of the growth diameter of some species of Aspergillus revealed various responses in presence of 250 Hz frequency. In the second stage, applying a frequency of 250 Hz over a period of 10 days proved to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of A. niger and B. cinerea on strawberries inoculated with fungal spores. Consequently, the shelf lives of the strawberries significantly increased to 26 days and 18 days, respectively, under this treatment. Based on the findings, it is concluded that sounding with acoustic waves can be used as a green and cheap technology along with other technologies to improve food safety.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Aspergillus niger , Som
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 252, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores the impact of various light spectra on the photosynthetic performance of strawberry plants subjected to salinity, alkalinity, and combined salinity/alkalinity stress. We employed supplemental lighting through Light-emitting Diodes (LEDs) with specific wavelengths: monochromatic blue (460 nm), monochromatic red (660 nm), dichromatic blue/red (1:3 ratio), and white/yellow (400-700 nm), all at an intensity of 200 µmol m-2 S-1. Additionally, a control group (ambient light) without LED treatment was included in the study. The tested experimental variants were: optimal growth conditions (control), alkalinity (40 mM NaHCO3), salinity (80 mM NaCl), and a combination of salinity/alkalinity. RESULTS: The results revealed a notable decrease in photosynthetic efficiency under both salinity and alkalinity stresses, especially when these stresses were combined, in comparison to the no-stress condition. However, the application of supplemental lighting, particularly with the red and blue/red spectra, mitigated the adverse effects of stress. The imposed stress conditions had a detrimental impact on both gas exchange parameters and photosynthetic efficiency of the plants. In contrast, treatments involving blue, red, and blue/red light exhibited a beneficial effect on photosynthetic efficiency compared to other lighting conditions. Further analysis of JIP-test parameters confirmed that these specific light treatments significantly ameliorated the stress impacts. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the utilization of blue, red, and blue/red light spectra has the potential to enhance plant resilience in the face of salinity and alkalinity stresses. This discovery presents a promising strategy for cultivating plants in anticipation of future challenging environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Resiliência Psicológica , Iluminação/métodos , Salinidade , Luz
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536071

RESUMO

Five bacterial isolates were isolated from Fragaria × ananassa in 1976 in Rydalmere, Australia, during routine biosecurity surveillance. Initially, the results of biochemical characterisation indicated that these isolates represented members of the genus Xanthomonas. To determine their species, further analysis was conducted using both phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Phenotypic analysis involved using MALDI-TOF MS and BIOLOG GEN III microplates, which confirmed that the isolates represented members of the genus Xanthomonas but did not allow them to be classified with respect to species. Genome relatedness indices and the results of extensive phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the isolates were members of the genus Xanthomonas and represented a novel species. On the basis the minimal presence of virulence-associated factors typically found in genomes of members of the genus Xanthomonas, we suggest that these isolates are non-pathogenic. This conclusion was supported by the results of a pathogenicity assay. On the basis of these findings, we propose the name Xanthomonas rydalmerensis, with DAR 34855T = ICMP 24941 as the type strain.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Xanthomonas , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/química
4.
Talanta ; 273: 125883, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521023

RESUMO

Quercetin (QUE) is a powerful antioxidant and one of the common phenolic compounds found in plants, vegetables, and fruits, which has shown many pharmacological activities. The complex nature of the matrix in which QUE is found and its importance and potential uses in diverse applications force the researchers to develop selective and sensitive sensors. In the present work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based electrochemical sensor was fabricated for the selective and sensitive determination of the QUE in plant extracts and food supplements. Tryptophan methacrylate (TrpMA) was chosen as the functional monomer, whereas the photopolymerization (PP) method was applied using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electrochemical and morphological characterizations of the developed sensor (TrpMA@QUE/MIP-GCE) were performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The linear range of the developed sensor was determined to be in the range of 1.0-25 pM, while the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 0.235 pM. In conclusion, The TrpMA@QUE/MIP-GCE sensor might be classified as a promising platform for selective and sensitive determination of QUE not only in plant extracts but also in commercial food supplements because of its reliability, reproducibility, repeatability, stability, and fast response time.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Impressão Molecular , Rubus , Polímeros/química , Quercetina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Metanol , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Carbono/química , Limite de Detecção , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Eletrodos , Extratos Vegetais
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2468, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504104

RESUMO

The annual production of strawberry has increased by one million tonnes in the US and 8.4 million tonnes worldwide since 1960. Here we show that the US expansion was driven by genetic gains from Green Revolution breeding and production advances that increased yields by 2,755%. Using a California population with a century-long breeding history and phenotypes of hybrids observed in coastal California environments, we estimate that breeding has increased fruit yields by 2,974-6,636%, counts by 1,454-3,940%, weights by 228-504%, and firmness by 239-769%. Using genomic prediction approaches, we pinpoint the origin of the Green Revolution to the early 1950s and uncover significant increases in additive genetic variation caused by transgressive segregation and phenotypic diversification. Lastly, we show that the most consequential Green Revolution breeding breakthrough was the introduction of photoperiod-insensitive, PERPETUAL FLOWERING hybrids in the 1970s that doubled yields and drove the dramatic expansion of strawberry production in California.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fragaria/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenótipo , Meio Ambiente , Genômica
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2491, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509076

RESUMO

Subgenome dominance has been reported in diverse allopolyploid species, where genes from one subgenome are preferentially retained and are more highly expressed than those from other subgenome(s). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for subgenome dominance remain poorly understood. Here, we develop genome-wide map of accessible chromatin regions (ACRs) in cultivated strawberry (2n = 8x = 56, with A, B, C, D subgenomes). Each ACR is identified as an MNase hypersensitive site (MHS). We discover that the dominant subgenome A contains a greater number of total MHSs and MHS per gene than the submissive B/C/D subgenomes. Subgenome A suffers fewer losses of MHS-related DNA sequences and fewer MHS fragmentations caused by insertions of transposable elements. We also discover that genes and MHSs related to stress response have been preferentially retained in subgenome A. We conclude that preservation of genes and their cognate ACRs, especially those related to stress responses, play a major role in the establishment of subgenome dominance in octoploid strawberry.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Genoma de Planta , Genoma de Planta/genética , Fragaria/genética , Cromatina/genética , Poliploidia , Mapeamento Cromossômico
7.
Arch Virol ; 169(3): 60, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430446

RESUMO

A novel partitivirus, Fusarium commune partitivirus 1 (FcoPV1), was identified in Fusarium commune strain CP-SX-3 isolated from diseased roots of strawberry with symptoms of root rot. The complete genome of FcoPV1 comprises three double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs): dsRNA1 (1,825 nt), dsRNA2 (1,592 nt), and dsRNA3 (1,421 nt). dsRNA1 contains a single open reading frame (ORF1) encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA2 contains a single ORF (ORF2) encoding a coat protein (CP). dsRNA3 is a possible satellite RNA that does not appear to encode a known protein. BLASTp analysis revealed that RdRp (86.59%) and CP (74.13%) encoded by the two ORFs (ORF1 and ORF2) had the highest sequence similarity to their counterparts in Fusarium equiseti partitivirus 1 (FePV1). Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete amino acid sequence of RdRp suggested that FcoPV1 should be considered a member of a new species in the proposed genus "Zetapartitivirus" within the family Partitiviridae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a zetapartitivirus infecting phytopathogenic F. commune.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fusarium , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 179, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454341

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the effects of different supplemental light spectra on the growth, nutrient uptake, and fruit quality of four strawberry cultivars. The plants were grown under natural light and treated with blue (460 nm), red (660 nm), and red/blue (3:1) lights. Results showed that the "Parous" and "Camarosa" had higher fresh and dry mass of leaves, roots, and crowns compared to the "Sabrina" and "Albion". The use of artificial LED lights improved the vegetative growth of strawberry plants. All three supplemental light spectra significantly increased the early fruit yield of cultivars except for "Parous". The red/blue supplemental light spectrum also increased the fruit mass and length of the "Albion". Supplemental light increased the total chlorophyll in "Camarosa" and "Albion", as well as the total soluble solids in fruits. The "Albion" had the highest concentration of fruit anthocyanin, while the "Sabrina" had the lowest. The use of supplemental light spectra significantly increased the fruit anthocyanin concentration in all cultivars. Without supplemental light, the "Camarosa" had the lowest concentration of K and Mg, which increased to the highest concentration with the use of supplemental light spectra. All three spectra increased Fe concentration to the highest value in the "Sabrina", while only the red/blue light spectrum was effective on the "Camarosa". In conclusion, the use of supplemental light can increase the yield and fruit quality of strawberries by elevating nutrients, chlorophyll, and anthocyanin concentrations in plants.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Fragaria , Frutas , Luz , Clorofila
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 2): 130572, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447825

RESUMO

To effectively extend the shelf life of fruits meanwhile facilitating consumers to judge their freshness, in this work, a double-layer multifunctional film combining CO2 sensitivity and antibacterial properties was successfully prepared by adding methyl red (MR), bromothymol blue (BTB) into gellan gum (GG) as the sensing inner layer, and doping tannic acid (TA) into sodium alginate with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the antimicrobial outer layer, which was applied to the freshness indication of strawberries. Microscopic morphology and spectral analysis demonstrated that the bi-layer films were fabricated successfully. The mechanical characteristics, thermal stability, water vapor resistance, and antibacterial capabilities of the bilayer films improved as TA concentration rose. They exhibited noticeable color changes at pH = 2-10 and different concentrations of CO2. Application of the prepared films to strawberries revealed that the GG-MB@SC-6%TA film performed most favorably under 4 °C storage conditions, not only monitoring strawberry freshness but also retaining high soluble solids and titratable acidity, resulting in a slight decrease in hardness and weight loss. Therefore, taking into account all of the physical-functional characteristics, the GG-MB@6%TA film has a broad application prospect for intelligent food packaging.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fragaria , Polifenóis , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Dióxido de Carbono , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Alginatos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Sódio
10.
Food Chem ; 447: 138971, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461718

RESUMO

This study introduces an innovative approach for the valorization and protection of anthocyanins from 'Benihoppe' strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) based on acidified natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES). Choline chloride-citric acid (ChCl-CA, 1:1) was selected and acidified to enhance the valorization and protection of anthocyanins through hydrogen bond. The optimal conditions (ultrasonic power of 318 W, extraction temperature of 61 °C, liquid-to-solid ratio of 33 mL/g, ultrasonic time of 19 min), yielded the highest anthocyanins of 1428.34 µg CGE/g DW. UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS identified six anthocyanins in acidified ChCl-CA extract. Stability tests indicated that acidified ChCl-CA significantly increased storage stability of anthocyanins in high temperature and light treatments. Molecular dynamics results showed that acidified ChCl-CA system possessed a larger diffusion coefficient (0.05 m2/s), hydrogen bond number (145) and hydrogen bond lifetime (4.38 ps) with a reduced intermolecular interaction energy (-1329.74 kcal/mol), thereby efficiently valorizing and protecting anthocyanins from strawberries.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Fragaria , Solventes/química , Antocianinas/química , Fragaria/química , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 2): 130672, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462095

RESUMO

The long-term application of plant essential oils in food preservation coatings is limited by their poor water solubility and high volatility, despite their recognized synergistic antimicrobial effects in postharvest fruit preservation. To overcome these limitations, a Pickering emulsion loaded with thyme essential oil (TEO) was developed by utilizing hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions to induce cross-linking of chitosan particles. This novel emulsion was subsequently applied in the postharvest storage of strawberries. The shear-thinning behavior (flow index <1) and elastic gel-like characteristics of the emulsion made it highly suitable for spray application. Regarding TEO release, the headspace concentration of TEO increased from 0.21 g/L for pure TEO to 1.86 g/L after two instances of gas release due to the stabilizing effect of the chitosan particles at the oil-water interface. Notably, no phase separation was observed during the 10-day storage of the emulsion. Consequently, the emulsion was successfully employed for the postharvest storage of strawberries, effectively preventing undesirable phenomena such as weight loss, a decrease in firmness, an increase in pH, and microbial growth. In conclusion, the developed Pickering emulsion coating exhibits significant potential for fruit preservation applications, particularly for extending the shelf life of strawberries.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Fragaria , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos de Plantas , Timol , Thymus (Planta) , Quitosana/farmacologia , Emulsões , Conservação de Alimentos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Água
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(2): 32, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512490

RESUMO

Salinity is a pivotal abiotic stress factor with far-reaching consequences on global crop growth, yield, and quality and which includes strawberries. R2R3-MYB transcription factors encompass a range of roles in plant development and responses to abiotic stress. In this study, we identified that strawberry transcription factor FaMYB63 exhibited a significant upregulation in its expression under salt stress conditions. An analysis using yeast assay demonstrated that FaMYB63 exhibited the ability to activate transcriptional activity. Compared with those in the wild-type (WT) plants, the seed germination rate, root length, contents of chlorophyll and proline, and antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, and POD) were significantly higher in FaMYB63-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants exposed to salt stress. Conversely, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were considerably lower. Additionally, the FaMYB63-overexpressed Arabidopsis plants displayed a substantially improved capacity to scavenge active oxygen. Furthermore, the activation of stress-related genes by FaMYB63 bolstered the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to salt stress. It was also established that FaMYB63 binds directly to the promoter of the salt overly sensitive gene SOS1, thereby activating its expression. These findings identified FaMYB63 as a possible and important regulator of salt stress tolerance in strawberries.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tolerância ao Sal , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio , Fatores de Transcrição , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474012

RESUMO

Strawberry plants require light for growth, but the frequent occurrence of low-light weather in winter can lead to a decrease in the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of strawberry plants. Light-emitting diode (LED) systems could be used to increase Pn. However, the changes in the phytohormones and transcriptomic reprogramming in strawberry leaves under different light qualities are still unclear. In this study, we treated strawberry plants with sunlight, sunlight covered with a 50% sunshade net, no light, blue light (460 nm), red light (660 nm), and a 50% red/50% blue LED light combination for 3 days and 7 days. Our results revealed that the light quality has an effect on the contents of Chl a and Chl b, the minimal fluorescence (F0), and the Pn of strawberry plants. The light quality also affected the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (IAA), trans-zeatin-riboside (tZ), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA). RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are significantly enriched in photosynthesis antenna proteins, photosynthesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolisms, carotenoid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, zeatin biosynthesis, and linolenic acid metabolism. We then selected the key DEGs based on the results of a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and drew nine metabolic heatmaps and protein-protein interaction networks to map light regulation.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Zeatina , Luz , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0285912, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527020

RESUMO

Remote sensing of spectral reflectance is a crucial parameter in precision agriculture. In particular, the visual color produced from reflected light can be used to determine plant health (VIS-IR) or attract pollinators (Near-UV). However, the UV spectral reflectance studies largely focus on non-crop plants, even though they provide essential information for plant-pollinator interactions. This literature review presents an overview of UV-reflectance in crops, identifies gaps in the literature, and contributes new data based on strawberry cultivars. The study found that most crop spectral reflectance studies relied on lab-based methodologies and examined a wide spectral range (Near UV to IR). Moreover, the plant family distribution largely mirrored global food market trends. Through a spectral comparison of white flowering strawberry cultivars, this study discovered visual differences for pollinators in the Near UV and Blue ranges. The variation in pollinator visibility within strawberry cultivars underscores the importance of considering UV spectral reflectance when developing new crop breeding lines and managing pollinator preferences in agricultural fields.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Melhoramento Vegetal , Produtos Agrícolas
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542376

RESUMO

MYB (myoblast) protein comes in large quantities and a wide variety of types and plays a role in most eukaryotes in the form of transcription factors (TFs). One of its important functions is to regulate plant responses to various stresses. However, the role of MYB TFs in regulating stress tolerance in strawberries is not yet well understood. Therefore, in order to investigate the response of MYB family members to abiotic stress in strawberries, a new MYB TF gene was cloned from Fragaria vesca (a diploid strawberry) and named FvMYB108 based on its structural characteristics and evolutionary relationships. After a bioinformatics analysis, it was determined that the gene belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily, and its conserved domain, phylogenetic relationships, predicted protein structure and physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, etc. were analyzed. After qPCR analysis of the expression level of FvMYB108 in organs, such as the roots, stems, and leaves of strawberries, it was found that this gene is more easily expressed in young leaves and roots. After multiple stress treatments, it was found that the target gene in young leaves and roots is more sensitive to low temperatures and salt stimulation. After these two stress treatments, various physiological and biochemical indicators related to stress in transgenic Arabidopsis showed corresponding changes, indicating that FvMYB108 may be involved in regulating the plant's ability to cope with cold and high-salt stress. Further research has found that the overexpression of this gene can upregulate the expression of AtCBF1, AtCOR47, AtERD10, and AtDREB1A related to low-temperature stress, as well as AtCCA1, AtRD29a, AtP5CS1, and AtSnRK2.4 related to salt stress, enhancing the ability of overexpressed plants to cope with stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Fragaria , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Filogenia , Genes myb , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
16.
Nutrients ; 16(6)2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542735

RESUMO

I read with interest the paper by Krikorian et al [...].


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Fragaria , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais
18.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 228, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins play important roles in plant growth and development, as well as stresses responsiveness. Nowadays, it has been found that LEAs also have function in fruit ripening. However, the comprehensive analysis on a genome-wide basis of LEA family remains limited, and the role of LEA in fruit ripening has not been fully explored yet, especially in strawberry, an economic important plant and ideal material for studying fruit ripening. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 266 putative LEA proteins were identified and characterized in strawberry genome. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that they were mostly localized in chloroplast, cytoplasm and nucleus. Duplication events detection revealed that whole genome duplication or segmental was the main driver for the expansion of LEA family in strawberry. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that FaLEAs were classified into eight groups, among which, LEA2 was the largest subgroup with 179 members, followed by LEA3, dehydrin (DHN), LEA4 and SMP (seed maturation protein). The LEA1 and DHN groups were speculated to play dominant roles in strawberry fruit development and ripening, according to their larger proportion of members detected as differentially expressed genes during such process. Notably, the expression of FaLEA167 belonging to LEA1 group was altered by strawberry maturation, and inhibited by overexpression of negative regulators of ripening (a cytosolic/plastid glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, FaGAPC2 and a cytosolic pyruvate kinase, FaPKc2.2). Subsequently, overexpression of FaLEA167 significantly increased the percentage of fruit at green stage, while reduced the full red fruit proportion. In consistent, the anthocyanins content and the fruit skin color variable reflecting a range from greenness to redness (a* value) were significantly reduced. Whereas, FaLEA167 overexpression apparently up-regulated citric acid, soluble protein and malondialdehyde content, but had no obvious effects on total soluble solids, sugar, flavonoids, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings not only provided basic information of FaLEA family for further functional research, but also revealed the involvement of FaLEA167 in negatively regulating strawberry fruit ripening, giving new insights into understanding of FaLEA functions.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 149, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consecutive droughts and quantitative and qualitative reduction of surface and underground water resources have caused an increase in greenhouse and hydroponic cultivation for most garden crops, including strawberries, in Iran. On the other hand, most of the inputs of greenhouse crops in Iran are imported. To possibility of replacing vermicompost with peat moss under hydroponic cultivation, an experiment was done in a split plot based on randomized complete blocks design in three replications in Isfahan (Iran) Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in 2019. The main treatment was substrate at four levels included different levels of vermicompost (30 and 50%) and peat moss (30 and 50%) in combination with perlite and sub-treatment were Selva and Camarosa cultivars. RESULTS: The results showed that Camarosa cultivar and Selva cultivar in (perlite/ peat moss 50:50) and Selva cultivar in (perlite / vermicompost 70:30) had maximum yield. Leaf number and chlorophyll index were maximum in Camarosa cultivar in peat moss substrates. Strawberry cultivars had the highest root fresh weight, the content of vitamin C and total soluble solids (TSS) in substrates containing vermicompost. Camarosa cultivar in (perlite / peat moss50:50) and Selva cultivar in (perlite /vermicompost 50:50) had maximum root dry weight. Also, the highest number of inflorescences was related to substrates containing peat moss and (perlite /vermicompost 70:30). Maximum amount of fresh and dry weight of shoots were observed in (perlite/ peat moss70:30). Selva cultivar had more inflorescences (16.5%) than Camarosa cultivar and Camarosa cultivar produced more fresh and dry weight of shoots (16.5%, 23.01%) than Selva cultivar. CONCLUSION: Expriment results highlighted the importance of considering both main and sub-treatments in agricultural research, as they interacted to influence various growth and yield parameters. 50% vermicompost treatment combined with perlite had a positive impact on plant growth and in quality index such as vitamin C content and TSS was highest. while the choice of cultivar affected different aspects of plant development. Selva cultivar was known to be more tolerant to salinity caused by vermicompost. Vermicompost is local and more economical, also salt resistant cultivars are recommended in a controlled (30%) amount of vermicompost.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio , Fragaria , Dióxido de Silício , Sphagnopsida , Solo , Ácido Ascórbico
20.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297130, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300947

RESUMO

Using wild pollinators to pollinate crops without introducing human-managed pollinators is cost-effective and friendly to native ecosystems. To maintain stable, good-quality yields in crops that mainly use wild pollinators, it is essential to determine which flower visitors are important pollinators and their degree of importance. In this study, we observed flower-visiting insects for 5 years in outdoor cultivated strawberries surrounded by a semi-natural environment in central Japan. We estimated the pollination effectiveness and efficiency of the 10 main flower-visiting insect taxa on strawberries by examining the relationship between the number of visits per flower and subsequent achene fertilization rates per berry. Finally, the pollinator importance (%) to the total pollination service was estimated for each of the 10 main taxa and for all others. Among the 10 main insect taxa, 6 were effective pollinators, i.e., they significantly increased achene fertilization rates by increasing their number of visits to a flower. Considering the 5-year mean, these six taxa accounted for the top six important pollinators. Andrena (subgenus Micrandrena) spp. were the most important and three other bee taxa, including Apis mellifera and Ceratina spp., were the next most important pollinators; one fly and one butterfly species were also important pollinators. This indicates that strawberry pollinators were diverse in the study area. The flower-visit frequency and importance of many pollinators fluctuated from year to year, implying that various pollinators pollinate strawberry flowers each year, and in field surveys of crop-pollinator communities multiyear investigations are needed to identify important pollinators and to estimate their importance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify the proportional importance of each pollinator to the total pollination service for a crop.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Humanos , Abelhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Insetos , Polinização , Flores , Produtos Agrícolas
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