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1.
Food Chem ; 400: 134049, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067689

RESUMO

Novel insecticide cyetpyrafen is frequently used in various crops, however, knowledge of its fate in crops and environments is largely unexplored. In this study, an effective method was firstly established for simultaneous determination of cyetpyrafen and its metabolites (M-309 and M-391) in 13 matrices (e.g., plants and soils) to explore their fate. Mean recoveries of the three compounds ranged from 73.1 % to 118.7 % with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 17.9 %. Further, after 28 days of exposure in a field soil-strawberry system, cyetpyrafen and M-309 exhibited great accumulations in strawberry leaves by foliar spray while both compounds were predominately accumulated in roots by root irrigation, where cyetpyrafen was poorly translocated within plant. An equal amount of M-309 was measured in both strawberry plants and soils indicates the extensive transformation of cyetpyrafen in soil-strawberry system. Therefore, metabolism of cyetpyrafen in foods need to be considered for its better risk assessment.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Fragaria , Praguicidas/análise , Solo/química , Água/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133853, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988412

RESUMO

Plant-based phenolic extracts have gained significant attention in the food industry due to their antimicrobial and health-promoting effects. However, their usage is limited because of poor water solubility and instability during processing. Therefore, encapsulation of phenolics with a suitable carrier system is essential for overcoming these problems and increasing their application in food products. In this study, encapsulated phenolic extracts were used for the first time in vacuum impregnation (VI). For this purpose, different phenolic extracts (cinnamon, turmeric, pomegranate peel) were obtained from the plant source. PPE was selected because it has the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity against Botrytis cinerea. Then, PPE was encapsulated with different emulsifiers (T80, GMO, IN, WPI, and LEC). After the characterization and stability studies were performed, PPE encapsulated with T80 was used to produce a functional strawberry snack by VI technology. The results showed that the diffusion rate of EPPE was significantly increased compared to the control and PPE-VI group. EPPE-enriched strawberries were the preferred snack with high-quality characteristics.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Antioxidantes , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Tecnologia , Vácuo
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 384: 109979, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260958

RESUMO

Strawberry fruit is highly susceptible to decay by fungi. The objective of this study was to determine if essential oils (EOs) or nano-emulsions (Nano-EM) of EOs from Thymus vulgaris (Th), Matricaria chamomilla (Mc), Pistacia atlantica (Pa), or Mentha longifolia (Me) could inhibit growth of strawberry spoilage fungi Botrytis cinerea and their effect, if any, on strawberry quality parameters. An In vitro study showed that Th and Me EOs had the same minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 0.021 % while the MICs for Mc and Pa EOs were 0.9 % and 1.5 %, respectively. Th and Me EOs were used for subsequent experiments. In the second experiment, the application of Th and Me EOs and their nano-EM at 0.021, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 % were studied to control B. cinerea growth on the fruit surface. Nano-EM of EOs had higher antifungal activity in the control of B. cinerea than EOs on fruit surface. Generally, antifungal activity was increased at higher concentrations of Nano-EM, but in the case of EOs, their antifungal activity was not increased by increasing concentration. Nano-EM of EOs with 0.5 % was selected for further study. Finally, the quality changes and postharvest losses of fruit treated with Nano-EM of EOs of Th and Me at 4 °C were studied. The results of third experiment showed that Nano-EM of both EOs reduced microbial load, decay index, weight loss and induced greater firmness, vitamin C, total flavonoid and antioxidant activity in strawberry during storage. NanoEM-ThEO 0.5 % was more effective than NanoEM-MeEO 0.5 % to retain strawberry firmness, vitamin C and total flavonoid.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Óleos Voláteis , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
4.
Food Chem ; 401: 134058, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095998

RESUMO

Sodium dehydroacetate (SDA) is one of the most common additives and preservatives in food, especially for strawberries, due to its fungicidal and antibacterial effects. Therefore, an innovative electrochemical sensor, depending on carbon paste electrode (CPE) modulated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and molecularly imprinted polymers, was constructed for in situ detection of SDA. Based on density functional theory calculations, the polymer film was imprinted on the modified CPE surface via electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of SDA. The morphology and electrochemical behavior of the synthesized sensors were characterized using different techniques. Under optimal conditions,a wide linear range (4.1 × 10-6 -1.2 mM)with a detection limit of 0.13 nM was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The proposed sensor displayed superb selectivity for SDA, good precision (RSD = 2.7%), and high stability (˃4 weeks). Thus, it was successfully applied to determine SDA in strawberry samples with excellent recoveries (96.7%-100%).


Assuntos
Fragaria , Impressão Molecular , Nanotubos de Carbono , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Pirróis , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Eletrodos , Polímeros/química , Antibacterianos , Limite de Detecção
5.
Food Chem ; 401: 134099, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099818

RESUMO

Different technologies commonly employed by the fruit processing industry affect the phenolic content. This study aimed to establish the extent to which different processing techniques and conditions, tested at an industrial scale, affect phenolics, color, and sensory attributes of fresh strawberries and apples. The effects of freezing, thermal treatments, and high-pressure processing were investigated. In strawberries, mild and standard thermal treatments showed similar patterns for most phenolic groups; an increase in proanthocyanidins, no change in ellagic acid conjugates, and a major decrease in flavonols and anthocyanins. In apples, mild treatments and high-pressure processing had similar effects in all phenolic groups, with increases in dihydrochalcones, hydroxycinnamics, and proanthocyanidins and decreases in flavonols. However, the standard thermal treatment increased flavonols and dihydrochalcones concentrations. This study shows that each fruit behaves differently, and both technology and processing conditions should be customized accordingly to preserve or even increase the phenolic content.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Malus , Proantocianidinas , Antocianinas , Ácido Elágico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis , Flavonóis
6.
Food Chem ; 400: 134066, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075170

RESUMO

The paper outlines a procedure based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and QuEChERS pretreatment for the determination of patulin in selected berries and stone fruits. The mycotoxin was determined in the positive electrospray ionization mode utilizing the formation of its methanol adduct. The method was validated for 4 fruit matrices: strawberry (Rosaceae, Fragaria), raspberry (Rosaceae, Rubus), redcurrant (Rosaceae, Prunus) and sour cherry (Grossulariaceae, Ribes). The fruits were characterized by total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanin contents and obtained results were within the ranges of 2.65-11.22 mg GAE/g, 1.06-4.67 mg CE/g, 0.05-1.44 mg cyd-3-glu/g, respectively. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.65 µg/kg to 3.01 µg/kg depending on the fruit type. The method was applied to 71 fruit samples collected in Poland. Analysis of moldy fruit samples has shown a high incidence of patulin contamination.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Patulina , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Frutas/química , Metanol/análise , Patulina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365823

RESUMO

We present automatically parameterised Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) for encrypted neural network inference and exemplify our inference over FHE-compatible neural networks with our own open-source framework and reproducible examples. We use the fourth generation Cheon, Kim, Kim, and Song (CKKS) FHE scheme over fixed points provided by the Microsoft Simple Encrypted Arithmetic Library (MS-SEAL). We significantly enhance the usability and applicability of FHE in deep learning contexts, with a focus on the constituent graphs, traversal, and optimisation. We find that FHE is not a panacea for all privacy-preserving machine learning (PPML) problems and that certain limitations still remain, such as model training. However, we also find that in certain contexts FHE is well-suited for computing completely private predictions with neural networks. The ability to privately compute sensitive problems more easily while lowering the barriers to entry can allow otherwise too-sensitive fields to begin advantaging themselves of performant third-party neural networks. Lastly, we show how encrypted deep learning can be applied to a sensitive real-world problem in agri-food, i.e., strawberry yield forecasting, demonstrating competitive performance. We argue that the adoption of encrypted deep learning methods at scale could allow for a greater adoption of deep learning methodologies where privacy concerns exist, hence having a large positive potential impact within the agri-food sector and its journey to net zero.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Fragaria , Privacidade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Aprendizado de Máquina
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365901

RESUMO

The growth models of total bacterial count in freshly squeezed strawberry juice were established by gas and taste sensors in this paper. By selecting the optimal sensors and fusing the response values, the Modified Gompertz, Logistic, Huang and Baranyi models were used to predict and simulate the growth of bacteria. The results showed that the R2 values for fitting the growth model of total bacterial count of the sensor S7 (an electronic nose sensor), of sweetness and of the principal components scores were 0.890-0.944, 0.861-0.885 and 0.954-0.964, respectively. The correlation coefficients, or R-values, between models fitted by the response values and total bacterial count ranged from 0.815 to 0.999. A single system of electronic nose (E-nose) or electronic tongue (E-tongue) sensors could be used to predict the total bacterial count in freshly squeezed strawberry juice during cold storage, while the higher rate was gained by the combination of these two systems. The fusion of E-nose and E-tongue had the best fitting-precision in predicting the total bacterial count in freshly squeezed strawberry juice during cold storage. This study proved that it was feasible to predict the growth of bacteria in freshly squeezed strawberry juice using E-nose and E-tongue sensors.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico , Fragaria , Carga Bacteriana , Paladar , Língua
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366257

RESUMO

The Strawberry Advisory System (SAS) is a tool developed to help Florida strawberry growers determine the risk of common fungal diseases and the need for fungicide applications. Leaf wetness duration (LWD) is one of the important parameters in SAS disease risk modeling. By accurately measuring the LWD, disease risk can be better assessed, leading to less fungicide use and more economic benefits to the farmers. This research aimed to develop and test a more accurate leaf wetness detection system than traditional leaf wetness sensors. In this research, a leaf wetness detection system was developed and tested using color imaging of a reference surface and a convolutional neural network (CNN), which is one of the artificial-intelligence-based learning methods. The system was placed at two separate field locations during the 2021-2022 strawberry-growing season. The results from the developed system were compared against manual observation to determine the accuracy of the system. It was found that the AI- and imaging-based system had high accuracy in detecting wetness on a reference surface. The developed system can be used in SAS for determining accurate disease risks and fungicide recommendations for strawberry production and allows the expansion of the system to multiple locations.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Fragaria , Fungicidas Industriais , Água , Folhas de Planta
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361867

RESUMO

C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (C2H2-ZFPs) play a key role in various plant biological processes and responses to environmental stresses. In Arabidopsisthaliana, C2H2-ZFP members with two zinc finger domains have been well-characterized in response to abiotic stresses. To date, the functions of these genes in strawberries are still uncharacterized. Here, 126 C2H2-ZFPs in cultivated strawberry were firstly identified using the recently sequenced Fragaria × ananassa genome. Among these C2H2-ZFPs, 46 members containing two zinc finger domains in cultivated strawberry were further identified as the C1-2i subclass. These genes were unevenly distributed on 21 chromosomes and classified into five groups according to the phylogenetic relationship, with similar physicochemical properties and motif compositions in the same group. Analyses of conserved domains and gene structures indicated the evolutionary conservation of the C1-2i subclass. A Ka/Ks analysis indicated that the C1-2i members were subjected to purifying selection during evolution. Furthermore, FaZAT10, a typical C2H2-ZFP, was isolated. FaZAT10 was expressed the highest in roots, and it was induced by drought, salt, low-temperature, ABA, and MeJA treatments. It was localized in the nucleus and showed no transactivation activity in yeast cells. Overall, these results provide useful information for enriching the analysis of the ZFPs gene family in strawberry, and they provide support for revealing the mechanism of FaZAT10 in the regulatory network of abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Filogenia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Secas , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361997

RESUMO

Secondary cell wall thickening plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. Diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an excellent model for studying fruit development, but its molecular control of secondary wall thickening is largely unknown. Previous studies have shown that Arabidopsis NAC secondary wall thickening promoting factor1 (AtNST1) and related proteins are master regulators of xylem fiber cell differentiation in multiple plant species. In this study, a NST1-like gene, FvNST1b, was isolated and characterized from strawberry. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the FvNST1b protein contains a highly conserved NAC domain, and it belongs to the same family as AtNST1. Overexpression of FvNST1b in wild-type Arabidopsis caused extreme dwarfism, induced ectopic thickening of secondary walls in various tissues, and upregulated the expression of genes related to secondary cell wall synthesis. In addition, transient overexpression of FvNST1b in wild-type Fragaria vesca fruit produced cells resembling tracheary elements. These results suggest that FvNST1b positively regulates secondary cell wall formation as orthologous genes from other species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Fragaria , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364102

RESUMO

In general, food processing and its conditions affect nutrients, bioactive compounds, and sensory characteristics of food products. This research aims to use a non-targeted metabolomics approach based on UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS to determine how fruit processing can affect the metabolic profile of fruits and, through a comprehensive metabolic analysis, identify possible markers to assess their degree of processing. The present study uses a real case from the food industry to evaluate markers of the processing of strawberry and apple purees industrially elaborated with different processing techniques and conditions. The results from the multivariate analysis revealed that samples were grouped according to the type of processing, evidencing changes in their metabolic profiles and an apparent temperature-dependent effect. These metabolic profiles showed changes according to the relevance of thermal conditions but also according to the exclusively cold treatment, in the case of strawberry puree, and the pressure treatment, in the case of apple puree. After data analysis, seven metabolites were identified and proposed as processing markers: pyroglutamic acid, pteroyl-D-glutamic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzoic acid, and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid ß-d-glucoside in strawberry and di-hydroxycinnamic acid glucuronide, caffeic acid and lysoPE(18:3(9Z,12Z,15Z)/0:0) in apple purees. The use of these markers may potentially help to objectively measure the degree of food processing and help to clarify the controversial narrative on ultra-processed foods.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Malus , Fragaria/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/metabolismo , Metabolômica
13.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(12): 365, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253613

RESUMO

Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV) is a latent virus that severely affects the yield and quality of strawberry fruit. The technology suitable for rapid and accurate detection of SMYEV on site is important to effectively control its spread. In this study, a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral flow strip (SMYEV-RT-RPA-LF), targeting the conserved genome of Beijing SMYEV isolate, was established to diagnose SMYEV in strawberries. The SMYEV-RT-RPA-LF assay showed no cross-reaction with other strawberry viruses. The sensitivity of SMYEV-RT-RPA-L assay was 100 times higher than that of RT-PCR (10 pg/µL). In addition, through the detection of suspected samples in the field, it was found that the accuracy of SMYEV-RT-RPA-L assay was consistent with the RT-PCR results. However, compared with RT-PCR, SMYEV-RT-RPA-LF assay has the advantages of simple operation, time savings, and high specificity and sensitivity, indicating the potential application of SMYEV-RT-RPA-LF in the rapid field diagnosis of SMYEV.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Transcrição Reversa , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Recombinases/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 476, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strawberries are an important economic fruit crop world-wide. In strawberry cultivation, continuous cropping (CC) can seriously threaten yield and quality. However, our understanding of the gene expression changes in response to CC and during subsequent defense processes is limited. In this study, we analyzed the impact of CC on the transcriptome of strawberry roots using RNA-Seq technology to elucidate the effect of CC and the subsequent molecular changes. RESULTS: We found that CC significantly affects the growth of strawberry plants. The transcriptome analysis identified 136 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 49 up-regulated and 87 down-regulated DEGs. A Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the up-regulated DEGs were mainly assigned to defense-related GO terms, and most down-regulated DEGs were assigned to nutrient-related GO terms. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that the responsive DEGs were classified in a large number of important biological pathways, such as phenylalanine metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism and plant-pathogen interaction. We also found that four WRKY transcription factors and three peroxidase genes involved in plant defense pathways were up-regulated in the roots of strawberry plants subjected to CC. CONCLUSION: Several unigenes involved in plant defense processes, such as CNGCs, WRKY transcription factors, PR1, and peroxidase genes with highly variable expression levels between non-CC and CC treatments may be involved in the regulation of CC in strawberry. These results indicate that strawberry roots reallocate development resources to defense mechanisms in response to CC. This study will further deepen our understanding of the fundamental regulatory mechanisms of strawberry resource reallocation in response to CC.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fragaria/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/genética , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 297: 120037, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184146

RESUMO

In this study, lemongrass essential oil (LEO) was wrapped in ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) using a co-precipitation method to prepare an inclusion complex (LEO/ß-CD). A biological multifunctional preservation card was prepared by 3D printing and mixing the inclusion complex with sodium alginate (SA). The moisture generated by strawberry respiration melted the popping candy (PPC) and stimulated the release of CO2, a synergistic antibacterial compound formed with LEO. Hence, antibacterial activity and air regulation were achieved, and the fruit remained fresh. The results indicated that LEO was successfully encapsulated in ß-CD, and that LEO/ß-CD had a strong bacteriostatic effect on Aspergillus niger and Botrytis cinerea, with a high resistance to oxidation. The PPC could release CO2 and extend the shelf life of strawberries by reducing their respiration and inhibiting mold.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Óleos Voláteis , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Alginatos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos , Atmosfera , Doces , Dióxido de Carbono , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Impressão Tridimensional
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 298: 120101, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241324

RESUMO

Polysaccharide materials, including bagasse cellulose nanocrystals (BCNCs), chitosan nanofibers (ChNFs), and sodium alginate (SA), were blended with oregano essential oil (OEO) to make single- and multi-polysaccharide edible coating suspensions. The prepared suspensions were spray-coated on strawberry surface to form thin films with thickness varying from about 570 to 790 nm for single-polysaccharide coatings and 690-930 nm for multi-polysaccharide coatings. The coatings made with multi-polysaccharide were more effective in inhibiting fungal growth compared with single-polysaccharide coatings. Strawberry treated with SA/BCNC/ChNF/OEO formulation had only 10.8 % weight loss after nine days of storage. In contrast, uncoated and single-polysaccharide coated strawberries had >37.0 % and 28.6 % weight loss, respectively. In addition, the SA/BCNC/ChNF/OEO coating retained desired moisture, respiration rate, stiffness, firmness, and appearance properties of strawberry due to its gas barrier properties resulting from the entangled matrix structure. These results suggest that the multi-polysaccharide suspensions with OEO have a high potential for application as edible coatings for retarding senescence of strawberries.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Fragaria , Nanoestruturas , Óleos Voláteis , Alginatos , Celulose/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Redução de Peso
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233267

RESUMO

Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) play important roles in plant growth and development and in responses to abiotic stress. However, TLPs in strawberry remain poorly studied. In this study, eight TLPs were identified in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca subspecies vesca 'Ruegen'). Protein structure analysis revealed that the structure of FvTLPs is highly conserved, but evolutionary and gene structure analyses revealed that the evolutionary pattern of FvTLP family members differs from that of their orthologous genes in Arabidopsis, poplar, and apple. Subcellular localization assays revealed that FvTLPs were localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane. FvTLPs showed no transcriptional activity. Yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that FvTLPs interact with specific FvSKP1s. The expression patterns of FvTLPs in different tissues and under various abiotic stresses (salt, drought, cold, and heat) and hormone treatments (ABA (abscisic acid) and MeJA (methyl jasmonate)) were determined. The expression patterns of FvTLPs indicated that they play a role in regulating growth and development and responses to abiotic stress in F. vesca. The GUS (beta-glucuronidase) activity of FvTLP1pro::GUS plants in GUS activity assays increased under salt and drought stress and abscisic acid treatment. The results of this study provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of TLPs.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Fragaria , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235135

RESUMO

'Seolhyang' strawberry is harvested before it is fully ripened and treated with CO2 to extend the shelf-life. However, the volatile changes in the 'Seolhyang' strawberry after short-term CO2 treatment have not been investigated, although the volatile profile is an important quality attribute. Herein, we investigated the effect of short-term high CO2 treatment on the changes in the composition of volatile compounds in 'Seolhyang' strawberries at two ripening stages (i.e., half-red and bright-red) during cold storage using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the effect of CO2 treatment on fruit quality with respect to the aroma was investigated. A total of 30 volatile compounds were identified. Storage increased the volatile compound concentrations, and the total concentration of volatiles in the CO2-treated strawberries was lower than that of the untreated strawberries during storage. The production of some characteristic strawberry volatiles (e.g., 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) was inhibited in CO2-treated strawberries. However, CO2 treatment helped maintain the concentrations of hexanal and 2-hexenal, which are responsible for the fresh odor in strawberries. Interestingly, CO2 treatment suppressed the production of off-odor volatiles, acetaldehyde, and hexanoic acid during strawberry storage. Thus, short-term CO2 treatment may help maintain the fresh aroma of strawberries during cold storage.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Acetaldeído/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276020, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228005

RESUMO

Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is one of the richest sources containing a wide variety of nutritive compounds. Anti-inflammatory activities of fermented rice cake made of strawberry powder as well as rice powder were evaluated. The fermented rice cake containing strawberry powder (SRC) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without cytotoxicity. Also, SRC effectively suppressed inflammatory gene expression, including iNOS, COX-2, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. In addition, the production of PGE2, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of SRC was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema of ICR mice. It was demonstrated that pre-orally administration of SRC at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg BW significantly inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan. This study suggested that the anti-inflammation activities of strawberry rice cake give the potential for increasing the commercialization of rice cake and rice products.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Oryza , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Alimentos Fermentados , Fragaria/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Oryza/metabolismo , Pós/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Genet Res (Camb) ; 2022: 9249561, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36299683

RESUMO

Background: DNA barcoding is a useful technique for the identification, conservation, and diversity estimation at the species level in plants. The current research work was carried out to characterize selected Fragaria species from northern Pakistan using DNA barcode markers. Methodology. Initially, the efficacy of eight DNA barcode markers was analyzed based on the amplification and sequencing of the genome of selected Fragaria species. The resultant sequences were analyzed using BLAST, MEGA 7.0, and Bio Edit software. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by using Fragaria current species sequences and reference sequences through the neighbor-joining method or maximum likelihood method. Results: Among eight DNA barcode markers, only two (ITS2 and rbclC) were amplified, and sequences were obtained. ITS2 sequence was BLAST in NCBI for related reference species which ranged from 89.79% to 90.05% along with Fragaria vesca (AF163517.1) which have 99.05% identity. Similarly, the rbclC sequence of Fragaria species was ranged from 96% to 99.58% along with Fragaria × ananassa (KY358226.1) which had 99.58% identity. Conclusion: It is recommended that DNA barcode markers are a useful tool to identify the genetic diversity of a species. Moreover, this study could be helpful for the identification of the Fragaria species cultivated in other regions of the world.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Fragaria/genética , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Marcadores Genéticos/genética
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