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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 651, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures impose significant costs on society. The objective of this study was to estimate the direct costs of the hip, vertebral, and forearm fractures in the first year after fracture incidence in Iran. METHODS: We surveyed a sample of 300 patients aged over 50 years with osteoporotic fractures (hip, vertebral, and forearm) admitted to four hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2017 and were alive six months after the fracture. Inpatient cost data were obtained from the hospital patient records. Using a questionnaire, the data regarding outpatient costs were collected through a phone interview with patients at least six months after the fracture incidence. Direct medical and non-medical costs were estimated from a societal perspective. All costs were converted to the US dollar using the average exchange rate in 2017 (1USD = IRR 34,214) RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of the patient was 69.83 ± 11.25 years, and 68% were female. One hundred and seventeen (39%) patients had hip fractures, 56 (18.67%) patients had vertebral fractures, and 127 (42.33%) ones had forearm fractures. The mean direct cost (medical and non-medical) during the year after hip, vertebral and forearm fractures were estimated at USD5,381, USD2,981, and USD1,209, respectively. CONCLUSION: The direct cost of osteoporotic fracture in Iran is high. Our findings might be useful for the economic evaluation of preventive and treatment interventions for osteoporotic fractures as well as estimating the economic burden of osteoporotic fractures in Iran.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Antebraço , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/terapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/terapia
2.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 117, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337687

RESUMO

We evaluated the association of bone fracture with mortality among persons with HIV, controlling for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors. Incident fracture was associated with 48% greater risk of all-cause mortality, underscoring the need for bone mineral density screening and fracture prevention. PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture are more common among persons with HIV (PWH) than those without HIV infection. We evaluated the association of bone fracture with mortality among PWH, controlling for sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors. METHODS: We analyzed data from HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants seen at nine US HIV clinics during January 1, 2000, through September 30, 2017. Incident fracture rates and post-fracture mortality were compared across four calendar periods. Cox proportional hazards analyses determined factors associated with all-cause mortality among all participants and those with incident fracture. RESULTS: Among 6763 HOPS participants, 504 (7.5%) had incident fracture (median age = 47 years) and 719 (10.6%) died. Of fractures, 135 (26.8%) were major osteoporotic (hip/pelvis, wrist, spine, arm/shoulder). During observation, 27 participants with major osteoporotic fractures died (crude mortality 2.97/100 person-years [PY]), and 48 with other site fractures died (crude mortality 2.51/100 PY). Post-fracture, age- and sex-adjusted all-cause mortality rates per 100 PY decreased from 8.5 during 2000-2004 to 1.9 during 2013-2017 (P<0.001 for trend). In multivariable analysis, incident fracture was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.91). Among 504 participants followed post-fracture, pulmonary, kidney, and cardiovascular disease, hepatitis C virus co-infection, and non-AIDS cancer, remained independently associated with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Incident fracture was associated with 48% greater risk of all-cause mortality among US PWH in care, underscoring the need for BMD screening and fracture prevention. Although fracture rates among PWH increased during follow-up, post-fracture death rates decreased, likely reflecting advances in HIV care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco
3.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 118, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338927

RESUMO

Annual osteoporotic fractures is projected to increase by 135% from 6.9 M (2020) to 16.2 M (2040), increasing the economic burden by 121% from $29.9B (2020) to $65.9B (2040). INTRODUCTION: Globally, aging populations drive significant increases in osteoporosis prevalence. In China, the number of women aged ≥ 65 years is expected to more than double from 2020 (91.5 M) to 2040 (183.6 M). Using a microsimulation model, impact of increased diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal women (PMW) with osteoporosis on anticipated reduction in fractures and associated costs in China from 2020 to 2040 was projected. METHODS: A microsimulation model was developed to project annual incidence and costs of osteoporotic fractures among PMW in China from 2020 to 2040. Fracture risk was estimated using the simplified Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX). Fractures estimates were based on annualized FRAX risk and impact of treatment. Published literature informed inputs for direct and indirect fracture costs, DXA screening costs, and treatment costs and efficacy. China's current screening and treatment rates were compared against 50% increases to (i) case finding (screening rate and subsequent treatment rate) and (ii) treatment rate among those at highest fracture risk. RESULTS: From 2020 to 2040, 241.7 M osteoporotic fractures are projected to cost $997B. Increased treatment scenario prevented 24.6 M fractures and saved $56B. Increased case finding scenario prevented 26 M fractures and saved $61.7B. CONCLUSION: Osteoporosis underdiagnosis and undertreatment among the aging Chinese population will considerably burden patients, caregivers, and society. Policy changes to increase screening and treatment rates may result in significant cost savings and clinical benefits.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco
4.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 119, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342724

RESUMO

In this study, we assess the association between the occurrence of new fractures and vitamin D deficiency in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis using our large IORRA cohort. The results suggest that vitamin D deficiency is a significant risk factor for new fractures in Japanese female patients over the age of 50 years with rheumatoid arthritis. PURPOSE: Both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and menopause are known risk factors for the onset of osteoporosis. The occurrence of new clinical fractures in patients with RA can significantly lower quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency in Japanese women with RA could be a risk factor for new fractures. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2017, a total of 2567 female patients with RA over the age of 50 years (mean age, 65.9 years) were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Self-reported occurrences of new fractures were verified using patient medical records. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/mL. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the independent contributions of various risk factors to the occurrence of a new fracture. RESULTS: New clinical fractures were sustained by 205 patients in the included cases. Among them, new osteoporotic fractures were sustained by 139 patients (63 vertebral fractures and 76 non-vertebral fractures). Among all patients, the mean (SD) serum 25(OH)D level was 16.9 (5.89) ng/mL and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 72.6%. A Cox proportional hazards model revealed that vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with all new clinical fractures (hazard ratio, 1.44 [95% confidence interval 1.02‒2.05]; p = 0.0365) and all new osteoporotic fractures (hazard ratio, 1.75 [95% confidence interval 1.14‒2.69]; p = 0.0109). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for new fractures in Japanese female patients over the age of 50 years with RA. Screening these patients for serum 25(OH)D could potentially be seminal to reducing their risk of fractures.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
5.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 108, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347188

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a common condition associated with increased risk for fracture. Many patients receive suboptimal care. We created a novel GIOP clinic model which successfully fills a gap in osteoporosis care by providing multidisciplinary intervention in key components of GIOP preventive care to an underserved patient population. INTRODUCTION: This study characterizes the patient population referred to our novel glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) clinic and evaluates how well the clinic performed in addressing key components of GIOP preventive care. METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort study derives data from patients reviewed at the University of Alberta Multidisciplinary Bone Health Clinic from January 2017 to September 2019. To create our clinic model, key components of GIOP preventive care were summarized based on current guidelines, and clear responsibilities were delegated to each multidisciplinary team member. A REDCap database was constructed, and each patient's multidisciplinary assessment was entered at each visit. Demographic and treatment data was extracted from our database. RESULTS: The clinic was able to achieve optimal GIOP preventive care in 60.1% of patients and in 78.7% of patients when excluding wait time. Of the 245 GIOP patients assessed, over half were females (56.7%) and the mean age was 56.7 years (range 16-95 years). Referrals were primarily made by specialists. Low-trauma fractures were reported in 24.9% of patients and 95.5% of patients had a baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The mean current daily prednisone-equivalent dose was 14.1 mg. All patients received a recommendation for pharmacotherapy (100%) and the majority received counseling on vitamin D (98.8%), calcium (97.8%), smoking cessation (98.8%), alcohol reduction (98.4%), falls prevention (88.6%), and exercise (85.3%). CONCLUSION: Our novel GIOP clinic model successfully fills a gap in osteoporosis care by providing multidisciplinary intervention in key components of GIOP preventive care to an underserved patient population. Further studies are required to assess the real-world long-term outcomes of our model.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371899

RESUMO

Introduction: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) can lead to malnutrition, an established risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. This study aims to determine the prevalence of low BMD, assess fracture incidence and explore risk factors for fractures in patients with CP. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients treated for CP at Karolinska University Hospital between January 1999 and December 2020. Electronic medical records were retrieved to assess demographic, laboratory and clinical data. Patients subjected to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were categorised as either low BMD or normal BMD. We investigated whether the rate of fractures, defined by chart review, differed between these groups using Cox regression, adjusting the model for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Additional within-group survival analysis was conducted to identify potential risk factors. Results: DXA was performed in 23% of patients with definite CP. Some 118 patients were included in the final analysis. Low BMD was present in 63 (53.4%) patients. Mean age at CP diagnosis in the total cohort was 53.1 years and was significantly lower in patients with normal BMD than in patients with low BMD (45.5 vs. 59.8, p < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in smoking status and disease aetiology, i.e., a higher proportion of patients with low BMD were current or former smokers, with nicotine or alcohol being a more common cause of CP (p < 0.05). Total follow-up time was 898 person-years. Fractures were found in 33 (28.0%) patients: in 5 of 55 patients (16.7%) with normal DXA and in 28 of 63 patients (44.4%) with low BMD (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-9.6). Patients with at least 3 months of consecutive pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) or vitamin D treatment had a longer median time to fracture after CP diagnosis. Conclusion: DXA was only performed in 23% of patients with definite CP in this study, indicating a low adherence to current European guidelines. A low BMD was found in 53.4% of patients with CP, and 44% of the patients with a low BMD experienced a fracture during follow-up. Moreover, the fracture rate in patients with low BMD increased compared to those with normal BMD.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite Crônica/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 690, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to describe specific characteristics of patients suffering from pelvic fragility fractures and evaluate factors that might influence treatment decisions which may optimize treatment pathways and patient mobility in the future. METHODS: A prospective study with patients suffering from fractures of the pelvis and aged 60 years or above was performed between 2012 and 2016. Data acquisition took place at admission, every day during hospitalization and at discharge. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-four patients (mean age of 79.93 (± 7.67) years), predominantly female (84%), were included. Eighty-six patients were treated non-operatively. Forty-eight patients underwent a surgical procedure. The main fracture types were B2 fractures (52.24%) and FFP IIb fractures (39.55%). At the time of discharge, pain level (NRS) could be significantly reduced (p <  0.001). Patients who underwent a surgical procedure had a significantly higher pain level on day three and four compared to the non-operative group (p = 0.032 and p = 0.023, respectively). Significant differences were found in the mobility level: patients treated operatively on day four or later were not able to stand or walk on day three as compared to non-operatively treated patients. Regarding B2 fractures, a significantly higher mobility level difference between time of admission and discharge was found in patients treated with a surgical procedure compared to patients treated non-operatively (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Fracture type, mobility level and pain level influence the decision to proceed with surgical treatment. Especially patients suffering from B2 fractures benefitted in terms of mobility level at discharge when treated operatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Ossos Pélvicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Pelve , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(8): 497-500, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of fragility hip fractures, intracapsular and extracapsular, has been increasing worldwide. Fracture stability is important for treatment decision-making and is related to the expected rate of complications. It is unclear whether metabolic therapy explains the increased incidence of unstable fractures. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible association between treatment with bisphosphonates and the various patterns encountered with intertrochanteric hip fractures. METHODS: Patients with fragility hip fractures who were treated in our department between 2013 and 2014 were included in this study. They were classified into three groups: group 1 had a stable extracapsular fracture, group 2 had an unstable extracapsular fracture, and group 3 had an intracapsular fracture. Collated data included: osteoporosis preventive therapy and duration, fracture-type, history of previous fractures, and vitamin D levels. RESULTS: Of 370 patients, 87 were previously treated with bisphosphonates (18.3% prior to fracture in group 1, 38.3% in group 2, and 13.8% in group 3). Of those treated with bisphosphonates, 56.3% had an unstable fracture, 21.8% had a stable fracture, and the rest an intracapsular fracture. In contrast, only 27.9% of patients who were not treated with bisphosphonates had an unstable fracture and 30.0% had stable fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a higher proportion of complex and unstable fractures among patients with fragility hip-fractures who were treated with bisphosphonates than among those who did not receive this treatment. The risk for complex and unstable fracture may affect the preferred surgical treatment, its complexity, length of surgery, and rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas do Quadril , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/epidemiologia , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/classificação , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/sangue , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
9.
Eur J Radiol ; 141: 109827, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225250

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this case-control study, we evaluated different quantitative parameters derived from routine multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans with respect to their ability to predict incident osteoporotic vertebral fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. METHODS: 16 patients who received baseline and follow-up contrast-enhanced MDCT and were diagnosed with an incident osteoporotic vertebral fracture at follow-up, and 16 age-, sex-, and follow-up-time-matched controls were included in the study. Vertebrae were labelled and segmented using a fully automated pipeline. Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), finite element analysis (FEA)-based failure load (FL) and failure displacement (FD), as well as 24 texture features were extracted from L1 - L3 and averaged. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), expressed per standard deviation decrease, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC), as well as logistic regression models, including all analyzed parameters as independent variables, were used to assess the prediction of incident vertebral fractures. RESULTS: The texture feature Correlation (AUC = 0.754, p = 0.014; OR = 2.76, CI = 1.16-6.58) and vBMD (AUC = 0.750, p = 0.016; OR = 2.67, CI = 1.12-6.37) classified incident vertebral fractures best, while the best FEA-based parameter FL showed an AUC = 0.719 (p = 0.035). Correlation was the only significant predictor of incident fractures in the logistic regression analysis of all parameters (p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: MDCT-derived FEA parameters and texture features, averaged from L1 - L3, showed only a moderate, but no statistically significant improvement of incident vertebral fracture prediction beyond BMD, supporting the hypothesis that vertebral-specific parameters may be superior for fracture risk assessment.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
10.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 115, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318372

RESUMO

Using a microsimulation model, the impact of increased diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis on anticipated reduction in fractures and associated costs in South Korea from 2020 to 2040 was projected. INTRODUCTION: The economic burden of osteoporosis was US $5.1B in 2011 in South Korea. Osteoporosis is expected to strain resources in South Korea as the population most susceptible to osteoporotic fracture, females > 50 years old, is projected to increase by 32% from 2020 to 2040. METHODS: A microsimulation model was developed to project annual incidence and costs of osteoporotic fractures among postmenopausal women from 2020 to 2040. Fracture risk was estimated using the simplified Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX). The fracture estimates were based on annualized FRAX risk and impact of treatment. Korean National Health Insurance data informed treatment and case-finding rates in the reference case. Two scenarios were evaluated: 50% increases to (i) case finding (screening rate and subsequent treatment rate) and (ii) treatment rate among those at highest risk. RESULTS: Among individuals modeled in the reference case from 2020 to 2040, 41.2 M fractures at a cost of US $263.6B were projected. Increased treatment scenario prevented 4.4 M fractures and saved US $13.5B. Increased case-finding scenario prevented 4.0 M fractures and saved US $11.1B. CONCLUSION: Implementation of policies to enable increasing case finding or treatment may result in fewer fractures and substantial cost savings across the healthcare system. These results highlight the importance of early screening, diagnosis, and preventive treatment.


Assuntos
Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/diagnóstico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/terapia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
11.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 107, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231060

RESUMO

Site-specific X-ray procedure codes are a useful ancillary source of information for identifying fractures in healthcare administrative and claims data. INTRODUCTION: Real-world evaluation of fracture epidemiology at the population level from electronic healthcare information, such as administrative data, requires comprehensive data sources and validated case definitions. Only hip fractures are routinely hospitalized, and the identification of most osteoporosis-related fractures which are non-hospitalized fractures remains challenging. Plain X-rays (radiographs) are first-line tests for fracture diagnosis and are frequently repeated to monitor fracture healing, and claims data related to radiologic procedures are available in many healthcare systems. We hypothesized that temporal clustering in plain X-ray procedure codes might be an ancillary source of fracture data. METHODS: We identified individuals age 40 years and older in Manitoba Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Registry with a fracture diagnosis (hip, forearm, humerus, clinical vertebral) before or following a BMD test. A subset underwent detailed review of X-rays to verify an acute fracture. We examined the association between fracture diagnosis and numbers of site-specific X-ray procedures. RESULTS: The registry cohort included 7793 individuals with a fracture in the previous 5 years and 8417 incident fractures. The X-ray review cohort included 167 radiologically-verified fractures. The number of site-specific X-ray codes was greater in those with vs without fracture (all P < 0.001). The number of days with site-specific X-rays was strongly associated with a fracture diagnosis (area under the curve 0.90 to 0.99 for all non-vertebral fractures, 0.66 to 0.75 for clinical vertebral fractures). There was good agreement between the date of fracture diagnosis and the first X-ray at all non-vertebral fracture sites (Spearman correlation range 0.65 to 0.99), but this was lower for clinical vertebral fractures (range 0.29 to 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal clustering in site-specific X-ray procedures was associated with a corresponding fracture diagnosis in administrative medical records. Non-vertebral fracture sites were more strongly associated with X-ray procedures than clinical vertebral fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Osteoporose , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Raios X
12.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 110, 2021 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245374

RESUMO

Fall is the major risk factor of fracture that has not been included in FRAX®. Whether different age may determine the effect of falls on FRAX® is still uncertain. This epidemiological cohort study reveals that history of fall is a significant predictor of incident fracture independent of FRAX probability, especially in subjects < 75 years old. INTRODUCTION: The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) calculates 10-year fracture risk using 11 clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD); however, it does not include fall history in its risk assessment. Here, we investigated whether fall history is an independent risk factor on fracture prediction after adjustment of FRAX scores in two age subgroups (40-75 and ≥ 75 years). METHODS: Beginning in 2009 to 2010, 1975 people (914 men) from Taiwan were followed for 6.8 ± 1.1 years by matching them with their records in the 2008-2016 National Health Insurance databank. We validated FRAX predictive accuracy with or without fall history by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: After adjusting for FRAX risk, a history of falling was still a significant predictor of major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) (using BMD, hazard ratio [HR], 1.47; p = 0.03; without using BMD, HR, 1.54; p = 0.01). A history of recurrent falls was also a significant predictor of both incident MOFs and hip fractures. However, when the subjects were stratified based on age group, a history of falling and recurrent falls were strong predictors of MOFs and hip fractures in the younger but not the older subgroup. CONCLUSION: A fall history can predict incident fracture independently of FRAX probability, particularly in subjects younger than 75 years old.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Coortes , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E711-E717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Canada, decisions regarding osteoporosis pharmacotherapy are based on estimated 10-year risk of osteoporotic fracture. We aimed to determine how frequently 2 common approaches (Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada [CAROC] tool and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool [FRAX]) produced different estimates and to seek possible explanations for differences. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional chart review at a tertiary osteoporosis centre (Dr. David Hanley Osteoporosis Centre in Calgary). Included patients were women referred for consideration of osteoporosis pharmacotherapy who attended a consultation between 2016 and 2019 and whose charts contained 10-year osteoporotic fracture risk estimates using both the CAROC tool (based on bone mineral density [BMD] results) and FRAX (based on BMD results and clinically assessed fracture risk factors). Risk estimates provided on BMD reports (calculated with CAROC) and generated through osteoporosis clinic consultation (calculated with FRAX, including BMD) were categorized as low (< 10.0%), moderate (10.0%-19.9%) or high (≥ 20.0%). Estimates were considered discordant when they placed the patient in different risk categories. RESULTS: Of 190 patients evaluated, 99 (52.1%) had discordant risk estimates. Although a similar proportion were considered high risk by BMD reports using the CAROC tool (17.9%) and clinic charts using FRAX (19.5%), the 2 methods identified different patients as being high risk. Around the crucial high-risk (20.0%) treatment threshold, discordance was present in 37 patients (19.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.5%-25.7%); discordance around the moderate-risk (10.0%) threshold was present in 69 (36.3%, 95% CI 29.5%-43.2%) patients. Disagreement regarding fracture history between BMD reports and clinic charts was observed in 19.8% of patients. INTERPRETATION: Fracture risk estimates on BMD reports (using the CAROC tool) and those calculated in the clinical setting (using FRAX) frequently result in different risk classification. Osteoporosis treatment decisions may differ in up to half of patients depending on which estimate is used, highlighting the need for a consistent and accurate assessment process for fracture risk.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Alberta/epidemiologia , Densidade Óssea , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 579, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The economic burden of vertebral compression fractures (VCF) caused by osteoporosis was estimated at 37 billion euros in the European Union in 2010. In addition, the incidence is expected to increase by 25% in 2025. The recommendations for the therapy of VCFs (conservative treatment versus cement augmentation procedures) are controversial, what could be partly explained by the lack of standardized outcomes for measuring the success of both treatments. Consensus on outcome parameters may improve the relevance of a study and for further comparisons in meta-analyses. The aim of this study was to analyze outcome measures from frequently cited randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about VCF treatments in order to provide guidance for future studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a systematic search of all implemented databases from 1973 to 2019 using the Web of Science database. The terms "spine" and "random" were used for the search. We included: Level I RCTs, conservative treatment or cement augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral fractures, cited ≥50 times. The outcome parameters of each study were extracted and sorted according to the frequency of use. RESULTS: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. In total, 23 different outcome parameters were used in the nine analyzed studies. Overall, the five most frequently used outcome parameters (≥ 4 times used) were the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain (n = 9), European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D; n = 4) and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ, n = 4). CONCLUSION: With our study, we demonstrated that a large inconsistency exists between outcome measures in highly cited Level I studies of VCF treatment. Pain (VAS), followed by HrQoL (EQ-5D) and disability and function (RMDQ), opioid use, and radiological outcome (kyphotic angle, VBH, and new VCFs) were the most commonly used outcome parameters.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão , Cifoplastia , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Vertebroplastia , Fraturas por Compressão/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Compressão/cirurgia , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vertebroplastia/efeitos adversos
15.
J Clin Neurosci ; 89: 237-242, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119274

RESUMO

The SpineJack implant system was recently FDA approved for treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCF), however United States-based outcomes data is lacking. We sought to examine the safety and clinical outcomes following vertebral augmentation using the SpineJack implant for treatment of VCF in a U.S. patient population. An IRB-approved, retrospective study of SpineJack implants used in vertebral augmentation was performed from 11/2018 to 2/2020. Outcome objectives included pain improvement, vertebral body height (VH) restoration, improvement in local kyphotic angle (LKA), and incidence of adjacent level fractures (ALF). Complications were reviewed to assess safety of the procedure. Thirty patients with VCF (60% female; mean [SD] age of 62.7 [±12.8] years) underwent a total of 53 vertebral augmentations with 106 SpineJack implants. Worst pain scores decreased significantly from 8.7 to 4.3 (95%CI of the change [Δ]: 4.3-4.4; p < 0.001). Middle and anterior VH significantly increased from 13.1 ± 0.2 to 15.9 ± 0.2 mm (95%CI Δ: 2.6-2.9 mm; p < 0.001) and 15.6 ± 0.2 to 16.8 ± 0.2 mm (95%CI Δ: 1.1-1.4 mm; p < 0.001), respectively. LKA was significantly decreased from 10.0 ± 2.1 to 7.4 ± 2.1 degrees (95%CI Δ: 2.4-2.8 degrees; p < 0.001). Four patients (13%) sustained ten ALF over a median (IQR) follow up period of 94 (17.5-203) days. There were no major adverse events during the follow up period. To summarize, vertebral augmentation with SpineJack implants of patients with VCF resulted in significantly decreased pain, restored VH, and improved LKA, without major adverse events. However, 13% of patients sustained ALF during a median follow up period of 3 months.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Compressão/cirurgia , Fixadores Internos/tendências , Vigilância da População , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas por Compressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Dor/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/cirurgia , Próteses e Implantes/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Endocrine ; 73(1): 209-216, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932202

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the predictive power of adjusted FRAX and standard FRAX models based on the actual prevalence of osteoporosis in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) postmenopausal women, and to explore the optimal strategy to better predicted fracture risk in postmenopausal women with diabetes in China. METHODS: We recruited 434 patients from community-medical centers, 217 with T2DM and 217 without T2DM (non-T2DM). All participants completed self-reported questionnaires detailing their characteristics and risk factors. Bone mineral density (BMD) and spinal radiographs were evaluated. The China FRAX model calculated all scores. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for predicting 10-year risk for major (MOF) and hip (OHF) osteoporotic fractures in T2DM patients. RESULTS: T2DM patients had higher BMD but lower average FRAX values than non-T2DM patients. The unadjusted FRAX ROC-AUC was 0.774, significantly smaller than that for 0.5-unit femoral neck T-score-adjusted FRAX (0.800; p = 0.004). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA; AUC = 0.810, p = 0.033) and T-score (AUC = 0.816, p = 0.002) adjustments significantly improved fracture prediction in T2DM patients. CONCLUSIONS: Femoral neck T-score adjustment might be the preferred method for predicting MOF and OHF in Chinese diabetic postmenopausal women, while RA adjustment only effectively predicted HF risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Absorciometria de Fóton , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Adv Ther ; 38(7): 3872-3887, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One in two women and one in four men experience an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime. Related morbidity and mortality rates are higher in men versus women. Current guidelines are inconsistent in the screening recommendations for osteoporosis in men. Examination of gender disparities in the management of osteoporosis-related fractures among Medicare enrollees is currently lacking. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study using 5% National Medicare claims data from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2016, eligible patients who were at least 65 years of age on the date of a new fracture episode were classified into two mutually exclusive cohorts on the basis of whether they received testing and/or treatment for osteoporosis in the 6-month period after the new fracture episode. The cohorts were defined on the basis of the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) quality measure "osteoporosis management in women who had a fracture." Patients were followed to identify the occurrence of subsequent fracture, all-cause mortality, and a composite outcome-defined as the first occurrence of either subsequent fracture or mortality. Logistic regression models were carried out to identify predictors of testing and/or treatment and time-varying survival analysis to identify the relationship between the presence of testing and/or treatment and patient outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 35,774 eligible patients, only 10.2% (12.1% women and 5.7% men) received osteoporosis testing and/or treatment within 6 months after a fracture. The interaction between gender and fragility fracture was significant (P < 0.0001). Fragility fracture had greater adjusted odds of testing and/or treatment among men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.47; 95% CI 2.94-4.10) than women (AOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.53-1.79). Of patients who were eligible for the outcome assessment, 27.5% experienced a subsequent fracture, 23.2% died, and 44.3% experienced a composite outcome during follow-up. Patients who received testing and/or treatment had a significantly lower hazard of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.57; 95% CI 0.50-0.65; P < 0.0001) and the composite outcome (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.39-0.45; P < 0.0001), but no difference in the risk of subsequent fracture (HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.94-1.11; P = 0.6083). Men were found to have a significantly lower hazard of subsequent fracture (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.64-0.73; P < 0.0001), all-cause mortality (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.61-0.72; P < 0.0001), and the composite outcome (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.65-0.73; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Testing and/or treatment for osteoporosis among older adults with a fracture is poor in the Medicare fee-for-service population overall and worse for men compared to women. Receiving appropriate testing and/or treatment was associated with reduced mortality and the risk of composite outcome. Improving osteoporosis testing and/or treatment and reducing health disparities are essential for managing the clinical and economic burden of osteoporosis in the USA.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Medicare , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Maturitas ; 148: 1-6, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and the trabecular bone score (TBS) in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, to analyze its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD), and serum concentrations of 25OHD, PTH, and bone turnover markers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study nested in a population-based cohort of 1,367 postmenopausal women aged 44-94 years. Participants were classified according to TBS values (<1.230, between 1.230-1.310 and >1.310) and regarding a widely accepted cut-off point of ≥0.11 for AIP. We analyzed TBS, BMD, serum levels of 25OHD, PTH, P1NP, CTX, and clinical covariates. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess the adjusted association between AIP and TBS. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 63±10 years. Women with TBS values <1.230 were older, had greater BMI, greater prevalence of fractures after the age of 40 years, more years since menopause, higher values of AIP, and significantly lower levels of HDL-C, serum phosphate, and 25OHD. AIP values ≥0.11 were not associated with the presence of densitometric osteoporosis (OR=0.83, 95%CI 0.58-1.18; p = 0.30) but, in multivariate analysis, AIP values ≥0.11 were related to a degraded microarchitecture after controlling for age, BMI, smoking, diabetes status, ischemic heart disease, statin use, GFR, a fragility fracture at over 40 years of age and lumbar osteoporosis by DXA, with an adjusted OR=1.61 (95%CI 1.06-2.46; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: AIP is significantly and independently associated with a degraded bone microarchitecture as measured by TBS. In this sense, AIP might be a useful tool in the overall assessment of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/patologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25606, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis (OP) is an age-related disease characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility. It is more common in older people and postmenopausal women. As a new type of exercise training for OP, whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been proved to have a good effect on postmenopausal women with OP. It can increase bone density and improve strength and balance in postmenopausal population, which has certain clinical value, but lacks evidence-based medicine evidence. This study aims to systematically study the effectiveness of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP. METHODS: The English databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library) and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Network, Wanfang, Weipu, China Biomedical Database) were searched by computer. From the establishment of the database to February 2021, the randomized controlled clinical studies on WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP were conducted. The quality of the included studies was independently extracted by 2 researchers and literature quality was evaluated. Meta-analysis of the included studies was performed using RevMan5.3 software. RESULTS: In this study, the efficacy and safety of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP were evaluated by lumbar spine bone density, femoral neck bone density, pain, incidence of falls, incidence of fractures, and quality of life scale score, etc. CONCLUSION: This study will provide reliable evidences for the clinical application of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also does not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval will not be required. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated at relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/WPYT9.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/terapia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/complicações , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
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