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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10352-10360, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503479

RESUMO

The potential for apple peels to mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in mice was investigated here. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with apple powders from three apple varieties or a commercial apple polyphenol. Polyphenols were characterized using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were tested for standard metabolic parameters. There was a dose response to dietary apple peels, with the higher intake leading to reduced weight gain and adipose tissue mass relative to the lower intake, but none of the treatments were statistically different from the control. The gene expression of liver enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd-1) was correlated with adipose weight, and liver enzyme cytochrome P51 (Cyp51) was downregulated by the apple diets. The feces from a subset of mice were analyzed for polyphenols and for bacteria taxa by next-generation sequencing. The results revealed that the makeup of the fecal microbiota was related to the metabolism of dietary polyphenols.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fezes/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/química , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121851, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374416

RESUMO

Thermotolerant cellulolytic consortium for improvement biogas production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) by prehydrolysis and bioaugmentation strategies was investigated via solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). The prehydrolysis EFB with Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae rich consortium have maximum methane yield of 252 and 349 ml CH4 g-1 VS with total EFB degradation efficiency of 62% and 86%, respectively. Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae rich consortium augmentation in biogas reactor have maximum methane yield of 217 and 85.2 ml CH4 g-1 VS with degradation efficiency of 42% and 16%, respectively. The best improvement of biogas production was achieved by prehydrolysis EFB with Lachnospiraceae rich consortium with maximum methane production of 113 m3 CH4 tonne-1 EFB. While, Clostridiaceae rich consortium was suitable for augmentation in biogas reactor with maximum methane production of 70.6 m3 CH4 tonne-1 EFB. Application of thermotolerant cellulolytic consortium into the SS-AD systems could enhance biogas production of 3-11 times.


Assuntos
Clostridiaceae/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Celulose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Metano/biossíntese , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9432-9440, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368703

RESUMO

Potassium fertilization is commonly practiced in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations to increase yield. However, its effects on fruit oil content and composition are not well documented. Here, we conducted bunch, metabolomics, and oil composition analyses in two contrasting crosses (Deli × La Mé and Deli × Yangambi) grown under different K fertilization conditions. K availability impacted bunch oil content, resulting in lower water content and higher oil proportion in fruit mesocarp, in Deli × La Mé only, thus showing differential responses of crosses to K. Oil composition at maturity did not significantly change under low K conditions despite clear alterations in fruit metabolism associated with lipid production during maturation, demonstrating the resilience of oil biosynthetic metabolism. However, the analysis of variance in oil content (across K treatments and crosses) demonstrates that sugar availability, lipid synthesis rates, and metabolic recycling are all important in determining the oil content.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Lipídeos/química , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Potássio/metabolismo , Arecaceae/química , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9958-9966, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419123

RESUMO

Chilling injury (CI) is a physiological disorder induced by cold, which heavily limit crop production and postharvest preservation worldwide. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can alleviate CI in various fruit species, including peach; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, changes in contents of phenolics, lipids, and jasmonic acid (JA) and gene expressions are compared between MeJA and control fruit. Exogenous MeJA inhibited expressions of PpPAL1, PpPPO1, and PpPOD1/2 but did not affect the phenolic content. Furthermore, MeJA fruit showed lower relative electrolyte leakage, indicating less membrane damage. Meanwhile, the enrichment of linoleic acid in the potential lipid biomarkers, especially phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol, coincided with lower expressions of PpFAD8.1 but higher PpLOX3.1 and JA content. In the JA signaling pathway, MeJA significantly upregulated expressions of PpMYC2.2 and PpCBF3 but downregulated PpMYC2.1. In conclusion, adjustments of fatty acids in phospholipids contribute to MeJA-induced alleviation of CI in peach fruit via induction of the JA-mediated C-repeat-binding factor pathway.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Food Chem ; 298: 125020, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260965

RESUMO

Bioactive amines are found in food and can be relevant for the assessment of fruits shelf life and nutritional quality. The pulp and peel of 20 banana and plantain were analyzed and the bioactive amine content varied according to the genotype, ripening stage, fruit tissue and thermal processing. In most of the analyzed genotypes, tyramine, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, spermidine, and spermine were decreased during the ripening process in the pulps. By contrast, there was an increase in putrescine level. In many genotypes of plantains, the serotonin and dopamine contents in pulp decreased until stage 5 and increased at stage 7. Peels contain higher levels of serotonin, dopamine, histamine and tyramine than pulps. Additionally, thermal processing affects the content of amines present in fruit. Boiling with the peel should be preferred in domestic preparations, regardless of the genotype used.


Assuntos
Aminas/análise , Frutas/metabolismo , Musa/metabolismo , Plantago/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Dopamina/análise , Frutas/química , Genótipo , Histamina/análise , Musa/química , Musa/genética , Plantago/química , Plantago/genética , Putrescina/análise , Serotonina/análise , Espermidina/análise , Espermina/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Tiramina/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 298: 125017, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260967

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate an elevated (3.0 °C) and low (1.0 °C) storage temperature combined with dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respiratory quotient (DCA-RQ) and chlorophyll fluorescence (DCA-CF) on anaerobic metabolism, physiological storage disorders and overall quality of 'Nicoter' ('Kanzi®') apples after 5.5 and 8.0 months of storage plus 7d shelf-life. Fruit stored under DCA-RQ 2.0 accumulated the highest amounts of anaerobic metabolites (acetaldehyde, ethanol and ethyl acetate), regardless of storage temperature and timing of storage outturn evaluation, but it did not result in higher electrolyte leakage. Flesh breakdown, core breakdown and cavity formation were reduced at 3 °C. Storage at 3 °C combined with DCA maintained higher flesh firmness after 8.0 months storage plus 7d shelf-life. 'Nicoter' apples can be stored at 3 °C using a DCA system, based either on CF or on RQ, to save electrical energy.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Atmosfera , Clorofila/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Food Chem ; 298: 125013, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260999

RESUMO

The determination of cocoa shell content (Theobroma cacao L.) in cocoa products using a metabolomics approach was accomplished via high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS). The developed method was used to separately analyze the polar and non-polar metabolome of the cocoa testa (cocoa shell) and the cocoa cotyledons (cocoa nibs) of cocoa samples from 15 different geographic origins, harvest years, and varieties in positive and negative ion mode. Potential key metabolites were selected which are exclusively contained in the cocoa shell or with significant higher concentration in the cocoa shell than in the cocoa nibs. The pool of potential key metabolites was filtered by established selection criteria, such as temperature stability, fermentations stability, and independence from the geographic origin. Based on these key metabolites an inverse sparse partial least square regression (SPLS) was used for the prediction of the cocoa shell content.


Assuntos
Cacau/metabolismo , Chocolate/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Frutas/metabolismo , Geografia , Metabolômica , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8919-8925, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334658

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) performs important functions in plant growth and development, including fruit ripening. As a complex biological process, fruit ripening involves the histone acetylation modification of ripening-associated genes. Histone deacetylase genes (HDACs) have been well studied in Arabidopsis and rice, but the biological functions of HDACs in papaya are poorly understood. In the present work, three CpHDACs, belonging to the RPD3/HDA1 subfamily, were identified from papaya and named as CpHDA1, CpHDA2, and CpHDA3. CpHDA1 and CpHDA2 were induced by propylene, while CpHDA3 was propylene-repressed. Moreover, CpHDA3 protein could physically interact with CpERF9 and enhance the transcriptional repression activities of CpERF9 to downstream genes CpPME1, CpPME2 and CpPG5. Histone acetylation levels of CpPME1 and CpPG5 were increased during fruit ripening. Taken together, these results suggested that CpERF9 recruits CpHDA3 to form a histone deacetylase repressor complex to mediate pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase genes expression during papaya fruit ripening and softening.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Carica/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Carica/genética , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8783-8793, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310107

RESUMO

Red-fleshed apples are popular as a result of their high anthocyanin content. MdMYB10 and its homologues are known to be important regulators of anthocyanin synthesis in apple, but the roles of other transcription factors are not well-understood. Here, we explored the role of MdWRKY11 in regulating anthocyanin synthesis in apple flesh. Overexpression of MdWRKY11 in apple callus could significantly promote anthocyanin accumulation, and the expression of some MYB transcription factors and structural genes increased significantly. In binding analyses, MdWRKY11 bound to W-box cis-elements in the promoters of MdMYB10, MdMYB11, and MdUFGT. However, MdWRKY11 did not interact with MdMYB10, MdbHLH3, or MdWD40 proteins, the members of the MBW complex. Sequence analyses revealed that another W-box cis-element was present in the promoter of MdHY5 (encoding a photoresponse factor), and MdWRKY11 was able to bind to the promoter of MdHY5 and promote its activity. Our findings clarify the role of MdWRKY11 in anthocyanin synthesis in red-fleshed apple and imply that other novel genes may be involved in anthocyanin synthesis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8312-8318, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287303

RESUMO

The role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in nitric oxide (NO)-reduced chilling injury (CI) in peach fruit was investigated. The fruit were immersed in sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (NO donor) and neomycin (IP3 inhibitor). Results showed that chilling tolerance was enhanced upon exogenous SNP in postharvest peach fruit. Further, GABA accumulation was stimulated by SNP. The increase in protein expression and activity for enzymes in GABA biosynthesis, including glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), polyamine oxidase (PAO), and amino aldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH), upon SNP treatment was also observed. Also, the up-regulation of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and ornithine d-aminotransferase (OAT) and the down-regulation of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) were induced by SNP treatment, thereby accelating proline production. Additionally, SNP treatment elevated protein expression and activity of alternative oxidase (AOX). The above effects induced upon SNP were partly weakened by neomycin. Therefore, IP3 mediated NO-activated GABA and proline accumulation as well as AOX, thus inducing chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prunus persica/química , Prunus persica/enzimologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8319-8331, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287308

RESUMO

The layer of cuticular wax covering fruits plays important roles in protecting against disease, preventing non-stomatal water loss, and extending shelf life. However, the molecular basis of cuticular wax biosynthesis in pear (Pyrus) fruits remains elusive. Our study thoroughly investigates cuticular wax biosynthesis during pear fruit development from morphologic, transcriptomic, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic perspectives. Our results showed that cuticular wax concentrations increased during the early stage [20-80 days after full bloom (DAFB)] from 0.64 mg/cm2 (50 DAFB) to 1.75 mg/cm2 (80 DAFB) and then slightly decreased to 1.22 mg/cm2 during the fruit ripening period (80-140 DAFB). Scanning electron microscopy imaging indicated that wax plate crystals increased and wax structures varied during the pear fruit development. The combined transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling analysis revealed 27 genes, including 12 genes encoding transcription factors and a new structural gene (Pbr028523) encoding ß-amyrin synthase, participating in the biosynthesis, transport, and regulation of cuticular wax according to their expression patterns in pear fruit. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments of 18 differentially expressed genes were performed and confirmed the accuracy of the RNA-Seq-derived transcript expression. A model of VLCFAs and cuticular wax synthesis and transport in pear fruit is proposed, providing a mechanistic framework for understanding cuticular wax biosynthesis in pear fruit. These results and data sets provide a foundation for the molecular events related to cuticular wax in 'Yuluxiang' pear fruit and may also help guide the functional analyses of candidate genes important for improving the cuticular wax of pear fruit in the future.


Assuntos
Epiderme/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pyrus/genética , Ceras/metabolismo , Epiderme/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metabolômica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pyrus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9265-9276, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361479

RESUMO

Fungal infections significantly alter the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by plants, but the mechanisms for VOCs affecting fungal infections of plants remain largely unknown. Here, we found that infection by Botrytis cinerea upregulated linalool production by strawberries and fumigation with linalool was able to inhibit the infection of fruits by the fungus. Linalool treatment downregulated the expression of rate-limiting enzymes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, and this reduced the ergosterol content in the fungi cell membrane and impaired membrane integrity. Linalool treatment also caused damage to mitochondrial membranes by collapsing mitochondrial membrane potential and also downregulated genes involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in a significant decrease in the ATP content. Linalool treatment increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in response to which the treated fungal cells produced more of the ROS scavenger pyruvate. RNA-Seq and proteomic analysis data showed that linalool treatment slowed the rates of transcription and translation.


Assuntos
Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Membranas Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
13.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111545, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326847

RESUMO

Proper waste utilization in order to promote value added product is a promising scientific practice in recent era. Inspiring from the recurring trend, we propose a single step oxidative pyrolysis derived fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) from Allium sativum peel, which is a natural, nontoxic, and waste raw material. Because of its excellent optical properties, and photostability this C-dots have been used in versatile area of applications. Due to its immediate water dispersing character, C-dots reinforced Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) films revealed improvement in uniaxial stretching behavior and can be used as transparent sunlight conversion film. The nanocomposite film has been tested against rigorous simulated sunlight which proved almost identical sunlight conversion behavior with no photo-bleachable character which is definitely added an extra quality of transparent polymer films. Moreover, the C-dots dispersion has been used as in vitro biomarker for living cells owing to its ease in solubility, biocompatibility, non-cytotoxicity and bright fluorescence even in subcutaneous environment. For this case, adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have been chosen and injected to rabbit ear skin to perform two-photon imaging experiment. The present work opens a new avenue towards the large-scale synthesis of bio-waste based fluorescent C-dots, paving the way for their versatile applications.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Nitrogênio/química , Fotodegradação/efeitos da radiação , Pontos Quânticos/química , Enxofre/química , Luz Solar , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Allium/metabolismo , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Carbono/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Coelhos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Solubilidade
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins, which are colored pigments, have long been used as food and pharmaceutical ingredients due to their potential health benefits, but the intermediate signals through which environmental or developmental cues regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis remains poorly understood. Fleshy fruits have become a good system for studying the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and exploring the mechanism underlying pigment metabolism is valuable for controlling fruit ripening. RESULTS: The present study revealed that ABA accumulated during Lycium fruit ripening, and this accumulation was positively correlated with the anthocyanin contents and the LbNCED1 transcript levels. The application of exogenous ABA and of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridon increased and decreased the content of anthocyanins in Lycium fruit, respectively. This is the first report to show that ABA promotes the accumulation of anthocyanins in Lycium fruits. The variations in the anthocyanin content were consistent with the variations in the expression of the genes encoding the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex or anthocyanin biosynthesis-related enzymes. Virus-induced LbNCED1 gene silencing significantly slowed fruit coloration and decreased both anthocyanin and ABA accumulation during Lycium fruit ripening. An qRT-PCR analysis showed that LbNCED1 gene silencing clearly reduced the transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, a model of ABA-mediated development-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration during Lycium fruit maturation was proposed. In this model, the developmental cues transcriptionally activates LbNCED1 and thus enhances accumulation of the phytohormone ABA, and the accumulated ABA stimulates transcription of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex to upregulate the expression of structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and thereby promoting anthocyanin production and fruit coloration. Our results provide a valuable strategy that could be used in practice to regulate the ripening and quality of fresh fruit in medicinal and edible plants by modifying the phytohormone ABA.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycium/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Lycium/genética , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Food Chem ; 298: 125093, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260960

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ozonation process on the level of oxidative stress markers in raspberries stored at room temperature. Raspberry fruit was ozonated with an ozone concentration of 8-10 ppm for 30 min, every 12 h, for 72 h of storage at room temperature. Research showed that ozonated raspberries were characterized by higher activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. In turn, the ability to generate superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide by ozone-treated fruit was significantly lower than in the control sample due to higher activities of ROS detoxification systems.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Food Chem ; 299: 125116, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295637

RESUMO

The effects of exogenous melatonin treatment on the enzymatic browning and nutritional quality of fresh-cut pear fruit were investigated. Fresh-cut fruit soaked with 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mM melatonin were stored at 4 °C. Our results showed that 0.1 mM melatonin treatment was optimal for reducing the surface browning and maintaining the titratable acidity of the fresh-cut fruit, which significantly decreased MDA and H2O2 contents and the growth of microorganism, enhanced total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, and delayed the reduction of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, melatonin treatment at 0.1 mM decreased the expression of genes involving in enzymatic browning pathway including POD, PPO1, PPO5 and LOX1, and reduced PPO activity. Moreover, this treatment increased the expression of PAL and CHS, and enhanced PAL and CHS activities. These results showed that melatonin treatment might be a promising strategy to alleviate browning and improve the nutritional quality of fresh-cut pear fruit.


Assuntos
Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Valor Nutritivo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 298: 125061, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260983

RESUMO

Buriti fruit, with high content in carotenoids and antioxidant compounds, is well appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics. However, its shell, an agroindustrial residue, is mostly discarded. Therefore, to verify the technological potential of the buriti shells, the aim of this this study was to evaluated the antioxidant potential of the extracts from buriti shell obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with ethanol/water mixtures. PLE optimization was performed by response surface methodology, with all results maximized at the conditions of 71.21 °C and with 91.58% of ethanol. The yields values varied from 16.82 to 25.16%, total carotenoids from 23.38 to 1056.59 µg ß-carotene equivalent g-1, total phenolic content from 143.37 to 172.02 mg Gallic acid equivalent g-1, DPPH from 31.04 to 48.62 µg.mL-1, and ABTS from 1.87 to 2.70 mmol TEAC. g-1. Therefore, considering the lack of studies about buriti shell, the present work provides valuable results that confirm the PLE relevance to enhance the value of this neglected material.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Arecaceae/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
18.
Food Chem ; 298: 125067, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260989

RESUMO

An ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-photodiode array detection-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS) method for quality control of Piper longum L. has been developed and optimized. Hexane/isopropanol (70/30, v/v) was determined as the final injection solvent and methanol as the organic modifier. A design-of-experimental (DoE) approach was used to optimize column temperature, back-pressure and the gradient slope simultaneously using Trefoil CEL1 column. The back-pressure, temperature, flow rate were set at 130 bar, 32.5 °C and 1.0 mL/min, respectively. Positive electrospray ionization was used in the single ion monitoring mode. The 12 analytes were analyzed within 8 min using the optimized conditions. The linearities of the standard calibrations were satisfactory with coefficients of determination (R2) > 0.995. The recovery measured varied from 96.34% to 105.00% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 4.68%. The method was sensitive, reliable and effective, and successfully applied to simultaneous determination of 12 compounds in 28 batches of P. longum.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Piper/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Benzodioxóis/química , Benzodioxóis/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/normas , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas , Metanol/química , Piper/metabolismo , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/isolamento & purificação , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Controle de Qualidade , Solventes/química , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Food Chem ; 298: 125069, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260991

RESUMO

The effects of ethanol treatment on quality characteristics of cherry tomatoes were investigated over 11 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C). Results showed that sensory quality was improved after ethanol treatment, with redder, softer fruits at the edible stage (11 days) compared with control fruit. In addition, the contents of ascorbic acid, sucrose and fructose were elevated after ethanol treatment as well as the concentration of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Conversely, decreased levels of methyl salicylate (MeSA), guaiacol, (Z)-3-hexenal and (E)-2-hexenal were observed. Selected consumers showed a preference for ethanol-treated cherry tomato fruits compared with controls. Taken together, 0.1% ethanol application has the potential to improve the quality characteristics of cherry tomatoes stored at room temperature.


Assuntos
Etanol/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeídos/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Salicilatos/química , Açúcares/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
20.
Food Chem ; 298: 125062, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280088

RESUMO

The industrial transformation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) produces processed foods, such as dried tomatoes. In this study two varieties (SaAb and PerBruzzo), grown in three cropping systems (one conventional and two organic ones), were processed by two types of small-scale drying (oven or sun drying), over two years of production. The dried samples were analyzed for their non-volatile and volatile composition, relating the results with sensory analysis. The multivariate analysis performed on collected data allowed a detailed comparison of the effects of processing, year-to year variation and cropping systems. Results indicated that drying methods mainly influenced the composition and flavor profile, also affected by the production year. The cropping system significantly influenced some quality indices, such as the acid and sugar amounts, and the aldehydes, respectively higher and lower in organic samples. The comprehensive PCA analysis allowed discrimination of drying methods and, to a lesser extent, cropping systems.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Agricultura Orgânica , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
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