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1.
Food Chem ; 399: 133997, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037687

RESUMO

The effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on softening, cell wall components and cell wall metabolic genes in okras after harvest was studied. The results showed that HRW treatment could maintain fruit firmness and delay softening, thereby prolonging shelf life in okras during storage. The treated okras displayed significantly lower levels water- and chelate-soluble pectins while higher contents of Na2CO3-soluble pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. The cell wall biosynthesis was maintained by HRW treatment via up-regulating genes involved in biosynthesis of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose at the beginning of storage. On the contrary, the treatment could inhibit the cell wall disassembly due to the down-regulation of numerous cell wall degradative genes including AePME, AeGAL and AeCX at the end of storage. Taken together, our results suggested that HRW treatment delayed softening and extended shelf life in postharvest okras through modifying cell wall biosynthesis and disassembly at different times of storage.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus , Frutas , Abelmoschus/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Pectinas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 399: 133999, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037688

RESUMO

Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. (MDL) extracts have shown potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, suggesting MDL might be a good source of α-glucosidase inhibitors. The aim of the study was to identify compounds in MDL extracts with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and evaluate their effect on postprandial blood glucose as well as elucidating the underlying mechanisms of inhibition. A total of 34 polyphenols were identified in MDL fruits, among which 10 anthocyanins and three proanthocyanidin derivatives were discovered for the first time. Dosing mice with MDL extracts (100 mg/kg body weight, by gavage) was associated with a significantly decrease in postprandial blood glucose concentrations after oral administration of maltose. The most potent α-glucosidase inhibitor was identified as casuarictin (IC50 of 0.21 µg/mL). Casuarictin bound competitively to α-glucosidase, occupying not only the catalytic site but also forming strong hydrogen bonds with α-glucosidase residues. Therefore, casuarictin derived from MDL fruits might be used as novel α-glucosidase inhibitor in functional foods or other dietary products.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Melastomataceae , Animais , Antocianinas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Melastomataceae/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 400: 133996, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055140

RESUMO

24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) may act as a modulator for chilling injury in peach fruit during cold storage. In this study, we screened a EBR-induced GATA-type zinc finger protein PpGATA12. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential roles of EBR treatment and transcriptional regulation of PpGATA12 in regulating chilling resistance of peaches. In the current study, we found that EBR treatment promoted the activities and transcriptions of energy and sucrose metabolism-related enzymes, maintained higher ATP content and energy status, improved the accumulation of sucrose and hexose. Furthermore, molecular biology assays suggested that PpGATA12 up-regulated transcriptions of sucrose metabolism-related genes including PpSS and PpNI, and energy metabolism-related genes including PpCCO, PpSDH and PpH+-ATPase. These results provided a new insight that the enhancement of chilling resistance in peach fruit by EBR treatment might be closely related to the regulatory role of PpGATA12 on sucrose and energy metabolisms.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides , Temperatura Baixa , Metabolismo Energético , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos , Sacarose/metabolismo
4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 7065845, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092164

RESUMO

Acetaminophen, also known as N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (NAPAP), is a traditional antipyretic and analgesic that is used extensively around the world to treat colds and fevers. However, a NAPAP excess causes rapid, severe liver and kidney damage. The goal of the study was to examine the protective effects and determine the mechanisms of action of MPHE, hesperidin, and quercetin in NAPAP-induced hepatorenal damage in Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats received a 0.5 g/kg oral supplement of NAPAP every other day for a period of four weeks. During the same period of NAPAP supplementation, MPHE (50 mg/kg), quercetin (20 mg/kg), and hesperidin (20 mg/kg) were administered to rats receiving NAPAP. MPHE, quercetin, and hesperidin treatments significantly improved liver function in NAPAP-supplemented rats. The high serum levels of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and γ-glutamyl transferase as well as total bilirubin were significantly reduced, while the levels of suppressed serum albumin were significantly increased, demonstrating this improvement. Treatments utilizing these natural substances significantly enhanced kidney function as seen by a considerable decline in the increased blood levels of urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Additionally, the injection of MPHE, hesperidin, and quercetin resulted in a decrease in the quantity of lipid peroxides while increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase in the liver and kidneys. The treatments markedly abated the NAPAP-induced liver and kidney histological perturbations and reduced the NAPAP-induced serum tumor necrosis factor-α level and liver and kidney proapoptotic protein 53 and caspase 3 expressions. Otherwise, serum interleukin-4 level significantly increased by treatments. The MPHE, hesperidin, and quercetin treatments resulted in marked decrease in liver and kidney histopathological scores including inflammation, necrosis, apoptosis, and congestion. In conclusion, the MPHE, quercetin, and hesperidin may induce hepatonephropreventive impacts in NAPAP-supplemented rats via enhancing the antioxidant defense system, anti-inflammatory activity, and antiapoptotic action.


Assuntos
Hesperidina , Quercetina , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Animais , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 139-152, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087439

RESUMO

The role of calcium in fruit ripening has been established, however knowledge regarding the molecular analysis at fruit tissue-level is still lacking. To address this, we examined the impact of foliar-applied calcium (0.5% CaCl2) in the ripening metabolism in skin and flesh tissues of the sweet cherry 'Tragana Edessis' fruit at the harvest stage. Exogenously applied calcium increased endogenous calcium level in flesh tissue and reduced fruit respiration rate and cracking traits. Fruit metabolomic along with transcriptomic analysis unraveled common and tissue-specific metabolic pathways associated with calcium feeding. Treatment with calcium diminished several alcohols (arabitol, sorbitol), sugars (fructose, maltose), acids (glyceric acid, threonic acid) and increased ribose and proline in both fruit tissues. Moreover, numerous primary metabolites, such as proline and galacturonic acid, were differentially accumulated in calcium-exposed tissues. Calcium-affected genes that involved in ubiquitin/ubl conjugation and cell wall biogenesis/degradation were differentially expressed between skin and flesh samples. Notably, skin and flesh tissues shared common calcium-responsive genes and exhibited substantial similarity in their expression patterns. In both tissues, calcium activated gene expression, most strongly those involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signaling and MAPK signaling pathway, thus affecting related metabolic processes. By contrast, calcium depressed the expression of genes related to TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and starch/sucrose metabolism in both tissues. This work established both calcium-driven common and specialized metabolic suites in skin and flesh cherry tissues, demonstrating the utility of this approach to characterize fundamental aspects of calcium in fruit physiology.


Assuntos
Prunus avium , Álcoois/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio , Frutose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Ácidos Glicéricos/metabolismo , Maltose/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Ribose/metabolismo , Sorbitol/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
6.
J Adv Res ; 40: 59-68, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100334

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cell wall degradation and remodeling is the key factor causing fruit softening during ripening. OBJECTIVES: To explore the mechanism underlying postharvest cell wall metabolism, a transcriptome analysis method for more precious prediction on functional genes was needed. METHODS: Kiwifruits treated by ethylene (a conventional and effective phytohormone to accelerate climacteric fruit ripening and softening as kiwifruits) or air were taken as materials. Here, Consensus Coexpression Network Analysis (CCNA), a procedure evolved from Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) package in R, was applied and generated 85 consensus clusters from twelve transcriptome libraries. Advanced and comprehensive modifications were achieved by combination of CCNA and WGCNA with introduction of physiological traits, including firmness, cell wall materials, cellulose, hemicellulose, water soluble pectin, covalent binding pectin and ionic soluble pectin. RESULTS: As a result, six cell wall metabolisms related structural genes AdGAL1, AdMAN1, AdPL1, AdPL5, Adß-Gal5, AdPME1 and four transcription factors AdZAT5, AdDOF3, AdNAC083, AdMYBR4 were identified as hub candidate genes for pectin degradation. Dual-luciferase system and electrophoretic mobility shift assays validated that promoters of AdPL5 and Adß-Gal5 were recognized and trans-activated by transcription factor AdZAT5. The relatively higher enzyme activities of PL and ß-Gal were observed in ethylene treated kiwifruit, further emphasized the critical roles of these two pectin related genes for fruit softening. Moreover, stable transient overexpression AdZAT5 in kiwifruit significantly enhanced AdPL5 and Adß-Gal5 expression, which confirmed the in vivo regulations between transcription factor and pectin related genes. CONCLUSION: Thus, modification and application of CCNA would be powerful for the precious phishing the unknown regulators. It revealed that AdZAT5 is a key factor for pectin degradation by binding and regulating effector genes AdPL5 and Adß-Gal5.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Frutas , Actinidia/genética , Actinidia/metabolismo , Consenso , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15507, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109663

RESUMO

Oil palm harvesting is normally determined by fruit exocarp color. To detect expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in oil palm hybrid populations, de novo transcriptomic profiling of Nigeria black and Suratthani 1 (Deli × Calabar) plants was performed. More than 46 million high-quality clean reads with a mean length of 1117 bp were generated. Functional annotation and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the genes were involved in fruit color development and pigment synthesis. Comparison of immature/mature DEGs indicated that nigrescent fruit color was driven by the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (ABP); however, the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway (CBP) was involved in the color development of both fruit types. The transcripts of both unique and different genes involved in the ABP and CBP in higher plants were highlighted for further study, especially 3GT, downstream genes in the ABP, and DEARF27 in the CBP. Additionally, SSR primer motifs, namely, 9949, discovered from the DEGs upregulated in the virescent type that encode vacuolar iron transporter (VIT), could separate the nigrescence and virescence traits of Nigeria hybrids. This novel primer has potential to be used as a molecular for further selection in breeding programs especially involving the specific genetic backgrounds described in this study.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Frutas , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ferro/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077205

RESUMO

Ripened oriental melon (Cucumis melo) with orange-colored flesh is rich in ß-carotene. Lycopene ß-cyclase (LCYB) is the synthetic enzyme that directly controls the massive accumulation of ß-carotene. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying the CmLCYB-mediated ß-carotene accumulation in oriental melon is fairly unknown. Here, we screened and identified a transcription factor, CmNAC34, by combining bioinformatics analysis and yeast one-hybrid screen with CmLCYB promoter. CmNAC34 was located in the nucleus and acted as a transcriptional activator. The expression profile of CmNAC34 was consistent with that of CmLCYB during the fruit ripening. Additionally, the transient overexpression of CmNAC34 in oriental melon fruit promoted the expression of CmLCYB and enhanced ß-carotene concentration, while transient silence of CmNAC34 in fruit was an opposite trend, which indicated CmNAC34 could modulate CmLCYB-mediated ß-carotene biosynthesis in oriental melon. Finally, the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), ß-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis assay, and luciferase reporter (LUC) assay indicated that CmNAC34 could bind to the promoter of CmLCYB and positively regulated the CmLCYB transcription level. These findings suggested that CmNAC34 acted as an activator to regulate ß-carotene accumulation by directly binding the promoter of CmLCYB, which provides new insight into the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid metabolism during the development and ripening of oriental melon.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo , Cucumis melo/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077369

RESUMO

Fruit shape, an important agronomic trait of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), is tightly controlled by a series of genes such as CsSUN, a homologue of SlSUN that is responsible for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit shape via the modulation of cell division. However, the direct genetic evidence about the CsSUN-mediated regulation of fruit shape is still scarce, limiting our mechanistic understanding of the biological functions of CsSUN. Here, we introduced CsSUN into the round-fruited tomato inbred line 'SN1' (wild type, WT) via the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. The high and constitutive expression of CsSUN was revealed by real-time PCR in all the tested tissues of the transgenic plants, especially in the fruits and ovaries. Phenotypic analyses showed that the ectopic expression of CsSUN increased fruit length while it decreased fruit diameter, thus leading to the enhanced fruit shape index in the transgenic tomato lines relative to the WT. Additionally, the reduction in the seed size and seed-setting rate and the stimulation of seed germination were observed in the CsSUN-expressed tomato. A histological survey demonstrated that the elongated fruits were mainly derived from the significant increasing of the longitudinal cell number, which compensated for the negative effects of decreased cell area in the central columellae. These observations are different from action mode of SlSUN, thus shedding new insights into the SUN-mediated regulation of fruit shape.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Lycopersicon esculentum , Divisão Celular/genética , Cucumis sativus/genética , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077446

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a gaseous signalling molecule and is considered to be a key regulator in the postharvest storage of fruits. Postharvest senescence is one of the most serious threats affecting the usage and economic value of fruits. Most recent studies have found that exogenous NO application can effectively improve the quality and prolong the shelf life of fruit postharvest by inhibiting postharvest diseases and alleviating chilling injury. Understanding the roles of NO is essential to elucidating how NO activates the appropriate set of responses to postharvest senescence. Here, we concluded that exogenous NO treatment alleviated senescence in postharvest fruit and attributed this to the following factors: (1) ethylene biosynthesis, (2) the antioxidant system, (3) polyamine metabolism and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunting, (4) cell wall metabolism, (5) sugar metabolism, (6) energy metabolism, (7) the CRT/DRE-binding factor (CBF) pathway and (8) S-nitrosylation. Moreover, crosstalk between NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), oxalic acid (OA), arginine (Arg), GATA or plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), melatonin (MT), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), along with the regulation of key genes, were found to be very important in responses to postharvest senescence. In this study, we focus on the recent knowledge concerning the alleviative effect of NO on postharvest senescence, covering ethylene biosynthesis, the antioxidant system and related gene and protein expression.


Assuntos
Frutas , Óxido Nítrico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111478, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076369

RESUMO

To optimize vineyard management practices to adapt viticulture to climate change, knowledge of the regulation mechanism of metabolite accumulation under carbon source limitation and abscisic acid (ABA) application in grapes should be deepened. Here, carbon source limitations were imposed by reducing leaf area from 12 to 2 leaves per vine (at pea sized stage, - 2L-P; or one week prior to veraison - 2L-V) and phloem girdling between the second and third leaf from bottom to top (one week prior to veraison - 12L-girdling) were compared for their effects on berry composition. All three modalities significantly reduced sugar, anthocyanin and ABA content in comparison with berries under sufficient carbon supply (12 leaves per vine - 12L), with 2L-V being the greatest. Allowing leaf area to partially recover (2L-R) or berry ABA application (400 mg. L-1) one week before veraison increased the ratio of anthocyanin to sugar under source limitation. Combined with the analysis of berry metabolites and transcript abundances, our results indicate that source limitation and exogenous ABA co-regulated anthocyanins content through differential gene expression.


Assuntos
Vitis , Ácido Abscísico , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Carbono/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
12.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111696, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076399

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most severe neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, there is no effective treatment drug for AD. Morus nigra (M. nigra) is a black mulberry and widely distributed fruit in the Moraceae family with various undiscovered biological activities. The study aimed to investigate the potential anti-AD effect of M. nigra. Mulberry fruit extract (MF) was obtained from M. nigra and treated up to 1.00 mg/mL on transgenic AD Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) models. MF inhibited Amyloid-ß (Aß)-induced paralysis symptoms by about 55.65 %, reduced Aß accumulation more than 50 % via immunoblotting, and suppressed over-sensitivity to exogenous serotonin in C. elegans. Furthermore, MF decreased the Aß oligomeric depositions in worm CL2006. MF activated the DAF-16 nuclear translocation and its downstream SOD-3 and GST-4. AD is a major age-related disorder. Therefore, MF treated for an aging test and proved to be expanded the lifespan of the worms up to 34.7 %. Besides, we have evaluated the MF in vivo antioxidative properties, where MF reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generations in C. elegans and remitted the activation of HSP-16.2 induced by the oxidative action of Juglone. Gene knockout and extended the lifespan of AD worms. However, RNA interference (RNAi) successfully silenced the daf-16 on the Aß phenotypic paralysis proved by MF effect. Our results indicate that MF alleviates AD-Like symptoms by activating the DAF-16 insulin signal pathway in C. elegans. Therefore, this MF study may provide new insights for mulberry application in safe AD treatment and clinical study.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Morus , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/farmacologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Morus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Paralisia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111724, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076415

RESUMO

Fruit softening is enzyme mediated degradation process determined by the action of cell wall modifying enzymes. Present study evaluated the combined effects of chitosan (CH) and salicylic acid (SA) coatings in modulation of fruit softening enzymes in Punjab Beauty pear (Pyrus pyrifolia × Pyrus communis) fruit stored under cold (0-1 °C and 90-95 % RH) and supermarket (20-22 °C and 80-85 % RH) conditions. Composite CH + SA coatings reduced mass loss and retained fruit firmness throughout the 67 and 20 days storage period. In addition, CH + SA prevented membrane damage by suppressing the electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation as compared to CH or SA alone. CH 2.0 % + SA 2.0 mM coating efficiently delayed the cell wall degrading enzymatic activities including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulase associated with fruit softening up to 60 and 15 days storage period in cold and supermarket conditions, respectively.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Pyrus , Quitosana/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Pyrus/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico , Supermercados
14.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111732, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076420

RESUMO

The liver-protective activity of phenolics has been consistently reported, but the underlying protective mechanism of phenolic extract from noni fruit (NFE) against high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear. Mice were fed with HFD or combination of HFD and NFE for 10 weeks, and then the gut microbiota and liver metabolites were compared. In this study, NFE supplementation alleviated HFD-induced liver injury and metabolic comorbidities, as evidenced by reduced liver function markers, decreased lipid profile levels, and improved obesity and insulin resistance. NFE supplementation restored the composition of gut microbiota with a remarkable elevation in the relative abundance of Parabacteroides, Lactobacillus, Roseburia, Akkermansia and a significant reduction in Helicobacter, norank_f_Desulfovibrionaceae, Desulfovibrio, Mucispirillum at the genus level. Liver metabolomics demonstrated that NFE supplementation favorably regulated the metabolic pathways involved in oxidative stress and inflammation, including purine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, galactose metabolism etc. Furthermore, NFE supplementation inhibited the HFD-induced activation of the liver endotoxin - TLR4 - NF-κB pathway, and alleviated liver inflammation. In conclusion, the findings of this study provide new evidences supporting that NFE can be used as a therapeutic approach for HFD-induced NAFLD via modulating the gut microbiota composition, liver metabolite profile and suppressing inflammatory reaction.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resistência à Insulina , Morinda , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/metabolismo , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111741, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076423

RESUMO

Apples (cv. Golden Delicious) were used as the materials to investigate methyl jasmonate (MeJA) dipping on quality parameters, organic acids metabolism and GABA shunt during storage at 21 ± 1 °C and 75 ± 5 % relative humidity. Results demonstrated that MeJA treatment reduced mass loss, respiratory intensity and ethylene release, and maintained higher flesh firmness and soluble solid content of apples. MeJA also decreased malic acid content, increased succinic and tartaric acids contents, and inhibited cytoplasmic aconitase (Cyt-ACO), NADP-malate (NADP-ME), phosphoenolpyruvate dehydrogenase (PEPC), mitochondrial citrate synthase (Mit-CS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GAD), and GABA transferase (GABA-T) activities in apples. NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH), mitochondrial cis-aconitase (Mit-ACO), and cytoplasmic NAD-malate dehydrogenase (CytNAD-MDH) activities in apples were also enhanced by MeJA dipping. Moreover, MeJA dipping enhanced MdCytNAD-MDH and MdNADP-IDH expressions, and down-regulated MdGAD, MdGABA-T, MdNADP-ME, MdPEPC, MdCyt-ACO and MdMit-CS expressions in apples. These results suggest that MeJA dipping can maintain storage quality of "Golden Delicious" apples by regulating organic acids metabolism and GABA shunt.


Assuntos
Malus , Acetatos , Aconitato Hidratase/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Oxilipinas , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
16.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111718, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076459

RESUMO

The type and content of amino acids in pepper are important indicators to reflect its nutritional value, largely affecting the purchasing behavior of consumers. Understanding the biosynthesis of amino acids in pepper fruit is beneficial to the development of pepper functional food. Widely targeted metabolomics, transcriptome analysis, correlation analysis, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) were used to evaluate the quality characteristics of green and red pepper amino acids. The results showed 78 kinds of amino acids and their derivatives in the fruit of pepper. The essential amino acids were comprehensive and abundant. Especially, the contents of lysine and tryptophan were high. However, significant differences were found in the ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acids in green and red pepper. The ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acids in red pepper was up to 28.88%, while that in green pepper was up to 17.69%. WGCNA and CCA analyses were performed in combination with amino acid metabolism profiling and transcriptome analysis to further identify the main contributors to amino acid synthesis in green and red pepper. The results showed PK and PFK were the genes in the backbone of the amino acid biosynthesis pathway, which had a direct impact on the synthesis of various amino acids, and were the main genes for amino acid synthesis in pepper fruit. In this study, the amino acid biosynthesis rules for two kinds of pepper were analyzed by amino acid metabolism profiling and transcriptome analysis, which provided the basis for the development of amino acid nutritional supplements and pepper functional food.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais , Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
17.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079860

RESUMO

The fruit of Hippophae rhamnoides has been widely used for medicinal purposes because of its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiplatelet, and antimicrobial effects. Since there are no clear reports on the therapeutic efficacy of H. rhamnoides in osteoporosis, this study aimed to confirm the potential use of H. rhamnoides for the treatment of osteoporosis through its osteogenic differentiation-promoting effect in ovariectomized mice. Through an in vitro study, we compared the effects of the EtOH extract of H. rhamnoides fruits (EHRF) on the differentiation of C3H10T1/2, a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line, into osteoblasts based on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and the relative expression of osteogenesis-related mRNAs. The EHRF significantly stimulated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and showed 7.5 times (* p < 0.05) higher osteogenesis than in the untreated control. A solvent fractionation process of EHRF showed that the hexane-soluble fraction (HRH) showed 10.4 times (** p < 0.01) higher osteogenesis than in the untreated control. Among the subfractions derived from the active HRH by preparative HPLC fractionation, HRHF4 showed 7.5 times (* p < 0.05) higher osteogenesis than in the untreated naïve cells, and HRH and HRHF4 fractions showed 22.6 times (*** p < 0.001) stronger osteogenesis activity than in the negative control. Osteoporosis was induced by excision of both ovaries in 9-week-old female ICR mice for in vivo analysis, and two active fractions, HRH and HRHF4, were administered orally for three months. During the oral administration period, body weight was measured weekly, and bone mineral density (BMD) and body fat density were measured simultaneously using a DEXA machine once a month. In particular, during the in vivo study, the average BMD of the ovariectomized group decreased by 0.0009 g/cm2, whereas the average BMD of the HRH intake group increased by 0.0033 g/cm2 (* p < 0.05) and that of the HRHF4 intake group increased by 0.0059 g/cm2 (** p < 0.01). The HRH and HRHF4 intake groups significantly recovered the mRNA and protein expression of osteogenic genes, including ALP, Osteopontin, Runx2, and Osterix, in the osteoporosis mouse tibia. These findings suggest that the active fractions of H. rhamnoides fruit significantly promoted osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells and increased osteogenic gene expression, resulting in an improvement in bone mineral density in the osteoporosis mouse model. Taken together, H. rhamnoides fruits are promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Hippophae , Osteoporose , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Osteogênese , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(9): e202200041, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36026548

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cell metabolism have a duplex role in oxidation and inflammation reactions which involve cell damage or repair responses. Excess ROS production has detrimental effects on the survival of cells. We examined the protective effect of a semi-natural compound NF2 (deacetylepoxyazadiradione), for its protective activity against free radical-mediated stress and inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using zebrafish larvae. Preliminary antioxidant assays indicated an increase in scavenging of free radicals from NF2 than NF1 (Epoxyazadiradione) in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell cytotoxicity was determined using rat myoblast cell lines (L6), and more than 95 % of cell viability was obtained. Zebrafish developmental toxicity test indicated that NF2 is not toxic even at 150 µM. The percentage of ROS, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and apoptosis were reduced significantly in NF2 treated LPS-stressed zebrafish larvae. The reduced number of employed macrophages on NF2 treatment was observed in neutral red dye-marked macrophage localization images. Relative expression of antioxidant genes in zebrafish larvae after treatment with NF2 is significantly increased. The RT-PCR quantification of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory gene expression indicated decreased relative folds of pro-inflammatory cytokines, iNOS and increased relative folds of mitochondrial antioxidant genes (GR, GST and GPx) in LPS stressed zebrafish larvae after treatment with NF2. From the overall obtained results, it can be concluded that NF2 reduced the oxidative stress and inflammatory response by scavenging free radicals caused by LPS.


Assuntos
Azadirachta , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Larva , Limoninas , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Vermelho Neutro/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
19.
Methods Enzymol ; 674: 329-341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008011

RESUMO

Carotenoids are lipophilic isoprenoids with roles in photosynthesis and signaling. Dietary carotenoids are nutritionally relevant as precursors of retinoids (including vitamin A). These pigments also provide health benefits as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory or anti-tumor agents, among other biological functions. Such health-related advantages have spurred a strong interest in the biofortification of food products with carotenoids. Most biotechnological approaches have been carried out in plants because dietary carotenoids are primarily obtained from fruits and vegetables. Successful examples abound in the literature but in most cases a critical aspect is neglected: bioaccessibility. A higher content of carotenoids in a given plant product does not necessarily mean an improved dietary intake because these lipophilic compounds must be released from the food and incorporated into intestinal micelles to reach the sites of action in the human body. Bioaccessibility refers to the percentage of the carotenoid that is released from the food matrix during digestion and incorporated into micelles in the gastrointestinal tract. Bioaccessibility substantially changes depending on the physicochemical context and subcellular environment where carotenoids accumulate within plant cells. Here, we present a fast, simplified, inexpensive and efficient in vitro method to estimate bioaccessibility that has been adapted to the requirements and equipment of typical plant molecular biology labs. The availability of this protocol should improve biotechnological efforts aimed at carotenoid biofortification by complementing compositional improvements with bioaccessibility data to better estimate the nutritional value of the newly generated functional food.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Micelas , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Digestão , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos
20.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic stress can hinder wound healing as it suppresses both the cellular and innate immune responses. OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess the effectiveness of the administration of topical and oral Cucurbita pepo L. (CP) ethanolic extract in prompting excisional wound healing in rats exposed to chronic stress, and to explain how it works. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty albino rats assigned to five groups (n = 10) were utilized in this study. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model was used for 4 weeks to induce depressive-like behavior in rats, and a forced swim test and corticosterone were assessed to confirm its occurrence. During the experiment, an excisional wound was induced in the rats and followed. Oxidant/antioxidants status and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were measured in the serum and wound area. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also assessed using RT-PCR. Wound closure histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of CD68, CD3, and CD4 at the wound area was assessed. RESULTS: The administration of CP, both orally and topically, significantly reduced (p < 0.001) the depressive-like behavior and corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels, while it significantly up-regulated the antioxidant activity compared to the untreated and topically CP-treated groups. Both topically CP-treated and combined CP-treated groups showed complete re-epithelialization, reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen fibers deposition, and significantly increased CD3, CD4 positive T cells count, with a superior effect in the combined CP-treated groups. CONCLUSION: Cucurbita pepo L., administrated both topically and orally, can enhance the wound healing process in rats with depressive-like behavior mostly through the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant activities observed in this study.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cucurbita , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Corticosterona , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização
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