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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0224056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813718

RESUMO

Many recent studies assessing fruit productivity of plants in the boreal forest focus on interannual variability across a forested region, rather than on environmental variability within the forest. Frequency and severity of wildfires in the boreal forest affect soil moisture, canopy, and community structure at the landscape level, all of which may influence overall fruit production at a site directly or indirectly. We evaluated how fruit production in two boreal shrubs, Vaccinium uliginosum (blueberry) and V. vitis-idaea (lingonberry), was explained by factors associated with resource availability (such as canopy cover and soil conditions) and pollen limitation (such as floral resources for pollinators and pollen deposition) across boreal forest sites of Interior Alaska in 2017. We classified our study sites into upland and lowland sites, which differed in elevation, soil moisture, and active layer. We found that resource and pollen limitation differed between the two species and between uplands and lowlands. Lingonberry was more pollen limited than blueberry, and plants in lowland sites were more pollen limited relative to other sites while plants in upland sites were relatively more resource limited. Additionally, canopy cover had a significant negative effect in upland sites on a ramet's investment in reproductive tissues and leaves versus structural growth, but little effect in lowland sites. These results point to importance of including pollinator service as well as resource availability in predictions for changes in berry abundance.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/metabolismo , Alaska , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Frutas/química , Pólen/química , Pólen/metabolismo , Polinização , Reprodução , Taiga
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841235

RESUMO

The morphology and physiology of diaspores play crucial roles in determining the fate of seeds in unpredictable habitats. In some genera of the Brassicaceae different types of diaspores can be found. Lepidium appelianum produces non-dormant seeds within indehiscent fruits while in L. campestre dormant seeds are released from dehiscent fruits. We investigated whether the allocation of relevant defence compounds into different tissues in different Lepidium species may be related to the diverse dispersal strategy (indehiscent and dehiscent) and seed physiology (non-dormant and dormant). Total glucosinolate concentration and composition were analysed in immature and mature seeds and pericarps of L. appelianum and L. campestre using high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, for comparison, transgenic RNAi L. campestre lines were used that produce indehiscent fruits due to silencing of LcINDEHISCENCE, the INDEHISCENCE ortholog of L. campestre. Total glucosinolate concentrations were lower in immature compared to mature seeds in all studied Lepidium species and transgenic lines. In contrast, indehiscent fruits of L. appelianum maintained their total glucosinolate concentration in mature pericarps compared to immature ones, while in dehiscent L. campestre and in indehiscent RNAi-LcIND L. campestre a significant decrease in total glucosinolate concentrations from immature to mature pericarps could be detected. Indole glucosinolates were detected in lower abundance than the other glucosinolate classes (aliphatic and aromatic). Relatively high concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate were found in mature seeds of L. appelianum compared to other tissues, while no indole glucosinolates were detected in mature diaspores of L. campestre. The diaspores of the latter species may rather depend on aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates for long-term protection. The allocation patterns of glucosinolates correlate with the morpho-physiologically distinct fruits of L. appelianum and L. campestre and may be explained by the distinct dispersal strategies and the dormancy status of both species.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Lepidium/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ecossistema , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Lepidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes/fisiologia , Água
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0237045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735576

RESUMO

The dead organs enclosing embryos (DOEEs) emerge as central components of the dispersal unit (DU) capable for long-term storage of active proteins and other substances that affect seed performance and fate. We studied the effect of maternal environment (salt and salt+heat) on progeny DU (dry indehiscent fruit) focusing on pericarp properties of Anastatica hierochuntica. Stressed plants displayed increased seed abortion and low level and rate of germination. Hydrated pericarps released antimicrobial factors and allelopathic substances that inhibit germination of heterologous species. Proteome analysis of dead pericarps revealed hundreds of proteins, among them nucleases, chitinases and proteins involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification and cell wall modification. Salt treatment altered the composition and level of proteins stored in the pericarp. We observed changes in protein profile released from seeds of salt-treated plants with a notable increase in a small anti-fungal protein, defensin. The levels of phytohormones including IAA, ABA and salicylic acid were reduced in dead pericarps of stressed plants. The data presented here highlighted the predominant effects of maternal environment on progeny DUs of the desert plant A. hierochuntica, particularly on pericarp properties, which in turn might affect seed performance and fate, soil fertility and consequently plant biodiversity.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Frutas , Brassicaceae/embriologia , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Defensinas/metabolismo , Frutas/embriologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1443-1457, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700103

RESUMO

The apple is a highly perishable fruit after harvesting and, therefore, several storage technologies have been studied to provide the consumer market with a quality product with a longer shelf life. However, little is known about the apple genome that is submitted to the storage, and even less with the application of ripening inhibitors. Due to these factors, this study sought to elucidate the transcriptional profile of apple cultivate Gala stored in a controlled atmosphere (AC) treated and not treated with 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP). Through the genetic mapping of the apple, applying the microarray technique, it was possible to verify the action of treatments on transcripts related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, response to hormonal stimuli, nucleic acid metabolism, reduction of oxidation, regulation of transcription and metabolism of cell wall and lipids. The results showed that the transcriptional profile in the entire genome of the fruit showed significant differences in the relative expression of the gene, this in response to CA in the presence and absence of 1-MCP. It should be noted that the transcription genes involved in the anabolic pathway were only maintained after six months in fruits treated with 1-MCP. The data in this work suggests that the apple in the absence of 1-MCP begins to prepare its metabolism to mature, even during the storage period in AC. Meanwhile, in the presence of the inhibitor, the transcriptional profile of the fruit is similar to that at the time of harvest. It was also found that a set of genes that code for ethylene receptors, auxin homeostasis, MADS Box, and NAC transcription factors may be involved in the regulation of post-harvest ripening after storage and in the absence of 1-MCP.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Food Chem ; 333: 127515, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683260

RESUMO

The nutritional and commercial value of the sweet cherry provides it a great economic importance in Italy. The aim of this study was to characterize 35 sweet cherry cultivars and one of sour cherry, by analyzing values of different pomological and nutraceutical traits, identifying cultivars with antioxidant activity and total anthocyanins content closest to those present in literature for Ferrovia (largely diffused in Italy). To this goal, a multivariate metric index through the Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy analyzing an artificial dataset and testing a real one, two hierarchical clustering and a principal component analysis, were performed. The multivariate analyses result simultaneously investigated all the variables highlighting cvs. Sylvia, Graffione nero Col di Mosso, Ferrovia, Mora della Punta, Bianchetta Nuchis and Sandra to be more similar to literature data of Ferrovia. This matrix index was a useful tool, to select the most commercial promising varieties.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Prunus avium/classificação , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Itália , Molibdênio/química , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Prunus avium/química , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Compostos de Tungstênio/química
6.
Food Chem ; 332: 127382, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619943

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries have high biological value as a rich source of phenolic compounds, fatty acids and vitamins A, C, E. Due to the high organic acid content and sour taste, the fruits are rarely used in juice production. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the metabolic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis and Oenococcus oeni strains along with the dynamics of changes in organic acids, sugars, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during 72-h fermentation of 100% sea buckthorn and mixed with apple (1:1) juices. The strongest malolactic conversion was in mixed juices (to 75.0%). The most efficient strains were L. plantarum DSM 10492, 20174 and 6872. L. plantarum strains caused an increase in flavonols and antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn-apple juices. The results can be used to select conditions and strains in industrial-scale fermentation, to produce novel sea buckthorn products and increase their consumption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/química , Hippophae/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Oenococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oenococcus/metabolismo , Fenóis/química
7.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 690: 108471, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622788

RESUMO

Stilbenes, an active substances closely related to resistance and quality of grapes, are rarely found in natural resources. However its cumulative amount is affected by ultraviolet radiation (UV). The purpose of this study is to screen key genes in biosynthesis of stilbenes Trans-scripusin A and explore its synthetic pathway. We tested content of stilbenes with UHPLC-QQQ-MS2, results revealed that stilbenes accumulation is positively correlated with UV-B exposure time. Then, we performed transcriptome high-throughput sequencing of grapes under treatments. Results shown that 13,906 differentially expressed genes were obtained, which were mainly enriched in three major regions (ribosome, plant-pathogen interaction and biosynthesis of flavonoid). Three genes of trans-scripusin A synthesis pathway key got by combining KEGG annotation and reference gene HsCYP1B1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SAH genes had high homology with other hydroxylase genes, and distributed in two subgroups. Gene structure analysis showed that SAH genes contained four exons, indicating that gene has low genetic diversity. Chromosome localization revealed that SAH genes were distributed on different chromosomes, in addition, the number of gene pairs between Vitis vinifera and other species was not related to genome size of other species. The expression profiles of SAH genes in different parts of Vitis vinifera L. were analyzed using qRT-PCR analysis, results indicated that expression of SAH genes be specific to fruit part. These paper provide theoretical basis for further study of polyphenols biosynthesis pathway in grape fruits. The study provides novel insights for further understanding quality of grapes response to UV radiation.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos da radiação , Vitis/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/efeitos da radiação
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127406, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615387

RESUMO

Hot peppers are sensitive to low temperature, and seed browning significantly reduces the fruit quality. This study aims to clarify the mechanisms of seed browning in terms of metabolite changes. Metabolites were analysed during a 30-day-storage period at 2 °C and 10 °C. Gamma-aminobutyric acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and isoleucine concentrations were significantly higher at 2 °C storage than at 10 °C. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was associated with seed browning. Transcription of jasmonic acid synthesis and ROS scavenging genes were higher in hot peppers stored at 2 °C than those stored at 10 °C. This study elucidated the mechanisms underlying seed browning and chill damage in hot peppers during storage at low temperatures and our findings may help improve hot peppers' quality following harvesting.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 332: 127437, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645670

RESUMO

In 'Crimson Seedless' grapes, the appearance of senescence caused by abnormal dark red color, the loss of crisp taste caused by the decrease in firmness, and the fading of sweetness caused by the decrease in total soluble sugar (TSS) are the main problems affecting its edible qualities after storage. In the mesocarp, burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) restricted sucrose export; therefore, more carbohydrates were retained directly leading to higher TSS and sweetness, and cell osmotic pressure and firmness were retained indirectly. In the exocarp, BFO restricted sucrose import; therefore, the signal molecule sucrose was reduced and the senescence-related processes were inhibited. The downregulation of SUC12 and SUC27 by BFO may play an important role in restricting sucrose transportation. The opposing effects exhibited by exogenous sucrose treatments compared to those of BFO further verified these mechanisms. Based on the above mechanisms, sucrose transportation mediates the fresh-keeping effects of BFO in 'Crimson Seedless' grapes.


Assuntos
Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Sacarose/análise , Vitis/química
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461228, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540070

RESUMO

Processing of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can enhance the efficacy and/or reduce the toxicity. Currently available approaches regarding TCM processing generally focus on a few markers, rendering a one-sided strategy that fail to unveil the involved global chemical transformation. We herein present a strategy, by integrating enhanced multicomponent characterization, untargeted metabolomics, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), to visualize the chemical transformation and identify the markers associated with the wine steaming of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus (LLF), as a case. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry-based polarity-switching (between the negative and positive modes), precursor ions list-including data-dependent acquisition approach was developed, which enabled the simultaneous targeted/untargeted characterization of 158 components from LLF via one injection analysis. Holistic, continuous, and time-dependent chemical variation trajectory, among different processing time (0-12 h) for LLF, was depicted by principle component analysis. Pattern recognition chemometrics could unveil 20 markers, among which the peak area ratios of eight components to oleuropein aglycone, used as an internal standard, were diagnostic to identify the processed (both the commercial and in-house prepared) from the raw LLF. Four markers (10-hydroxyoleoside dimethylester, 8-demethyl-7-ketoliganin, elenolic acid, and salidroside) showed an increasing trend, while another four (neonuezhenide/isomer, verbascoside/isomer, luteoline, and nuzhenal A) decreased in LLF after processing. MSI visualized the spatial distribution in the fruit and indicated consistent variation trends for four major markers deduced by the untargeted metabolomics approach. This integral strategy, in contrast to the conventional approaches, gives more convincing data supporting the processing mechanism investigations of TCM from a macroscopic perspective.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ligustrum/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Ligustrum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal , Vapor , Vinho
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589636

RESUMO

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is divided into yellow- and white-fleshed based on the difference in fruit color, and the variations in carotenoids accumulation are considered as the main reasons for this difference. Using RNA-seq technology, a transcriptome analysis was carried out on the flesh and peel of 'Baiyu' fruit during four different fruit development stages. A total of 172.53 Gb clean reads with an average of 6.33 Gb reads were detected for each library, and the percentage of Q30 was higher than 90.84%. We identified 16 carotenogenic and 13 plastid-lipid-associated protein (PAP) genes through RNA-seq. Of these, five carotenogenic and four PAP related genes exhibited remarkable differences in the expression patterns. Carotenoids biosynthetic genes, including DXS, PSY1 and VDE displayed higher expression levels in peel than that in the flesh. However, carotenoids decomposition gene, such as NCDE1, exhibited higher expression in flesh than that in the peel. Notably, all differentially expressed PAP genes showed higher expression levels in peel than flesh. We inferred that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in flesh and peel of 'Baiyu' is caused by the up- or down-regulation of the carotenogenic and PAP related genes. The functional analysis of these important genes will provide valuable information about underlying molecular mechanism of carotenoids accumulation in loquat.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Eriobotrya/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Eriobotrya/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Regulação para Cima
12.
Food Chem ; 331: 127286, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562978

RESUMO

Nowadays, novel tools have been developed for efficient analysis and visualization of large-scale metabolite profile data associated with metabolic pathways. A high-throughput platform using PathVisio 3 combined with multivariate analysis is proposed for the first time. Additionally, this is the first analysis of the relationships among terpenoids monoterpene, sesquiterpene, triterpene, and tetraterpene during pepper fruit ripening, and their changes. This platform was successfully applied to interpret large-scale data related to 131 metabolites from mature and immature fruits of 13 pepper phenotypes. The carotenoid-derived volatiles, such as dihydroactinidiolide and ß-ionone were closely correlated with carotenoids, indicating that the synthesis and degradation of carotenoids occurred in pepper fruit mature stage. Using PathVisio 3, the metabolic changes in pathway could be presented quickly, revealing the accumulation of stress-related metabolites, such as proline, capsaicin, and phenylalanine, in the mature stage. This approach could provide useful information about comprehensive biochemical regulation of fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Metabolômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 329: 127191, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505985

RESUMO

The awareness of the functional and nutraceutical properties of olives and olive oil bioactive constituents contributed to oliviculture recent increase. Olives' metabolism and nutritional quality are determined by how the olive-tree is coping to climate change-related episodes, which increasingly occur in the Mediterranean. We characterize the most relevant lipophilic and phenolic compounds of olives from Olea europaea cultivars [Cobrançosa, Cordovil de Castelo Branco and Cordovil de Serpa (C.Serpa)] exposed to drought + heat. Olives from the three cultivars presented a similar qualitative profile but differed in their relative richness. Cobrançosa olives are richer in organic acids, esters and carbohydrates, while C.Serpa olives have higher levels of phenolic compounds, particularly under control conditions. Drought + heat changed the quantitative profile of olives, in a way dependent on the cultivar, and C.Serpa olives showed the highest stress susceptibility. Climate change-related conditions stimulate the accumulation of relevant bioactive compounds in olives, contributing to increasing its nutritional value.


Assuntos
Secas , Lipídeos/análise , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/análise , Mudança Climática , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Iridoides/análise , Limite de Detecção , Olea/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura
14.
Food Chem ; 329: 127213, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516713

RESUMO

Chitosan and whey protein isolate (WPI) conjugate films were prepared as a novel matrix for encapsulating and extending the postharvest shelf life of strawberries. Film forming solutions of chitosan, WPI, and chitosan-WPI conjugate were mixed with glycerol, casted for films at 60 ± 2 °C and assessed for their colour, water vapour and oxygen transfer rate, textural, functional groups and secondary structure, thermal, crystallinity, and antioxidant properties. Chitosan-WPI conjugate films were applied as an edible coating on strawberries, and studied for storage stability at 5 °C and 20 °C by assessing physical and biochemical parameters. A considerable reduction in colour indices, weight loss, pH and titratable acidity, reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, DPPH and ABTS assay was noted in the coated strawberries over the control at both the studied temperatures. The control strawberries had a shelf life of 5 and 3 days, whereas coating enhanced the shelf life of strawberries to 8 and 5 days when stored at 5 °C and 20 °C, respectively.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cor , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicerol/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 364-372, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is little understood and has scarcely been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association of several complete dietary patterns [Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern] with the risk of BCC, conducting a nested case-control study (4 controls for each case). METHODS: Cases and controls were selected from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort using risk set sampling. Cases were identified among subjects free of skin cancer at baseline but who later reported a physician-made BCC diagnosis during the follow-up period. In the cohort we identified 101 incident cases of BCC. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses, better adherence to the Mediterranean diet (highest compared with lowest quintile) was associated with a 72% relative reduction in the odds of BCC (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.77; Ptrend = 0.014); the DASH diet was associated with a 68% RR reduction (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.76; Ptrend = 0.013) for the comparison between extreme quintiles. No association was found between a Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern and BCC. Higher fruit consumption (highest compared with lowest quintile, OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.64; Ptrend < 0.001) and low-fat dairy products (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92; Ptrend = 0.014) were associated with a lower BCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Mediterranean and DASH dietary patterns may be associated with a lower risk of BCC, but confirmatory studies are required.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Basocelular/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Feminino , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras/metabolismo , Vegetarianos
16.
Food Chem ; 330: 127256, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540529

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of different 1-MCP treatment patterns on alleviating chilling injury (CI) of postharvest nectarine stored at 0 ± 1 °C. Nectarine fruits were subjected to the following treatments: Single-High dose 1-MCP treatment (S-H): 1 µL L-1 application before storage; Multi-low dose 1-MCP treatment: (M-L) Five 0.25 µL L-1 applications after 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 d of storage; Multi-high dose 1-MCP treatment (M-H): Five 1 µL L-1 applications after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 d of storage. The results showed that although all 1-MCP treatments alleviated CI, M-H 1-MCP treatment is the most effective pattern in alleviating CI of nectarine fruit in S-H, M-L, and M-H 1-MCP treatments. Moreover, this study indicated that the reduction of CI in nectarine by 1-MCP application was related to its regulations of ROS and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Prunus/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Metabolismo Energético , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Néctar de Plantas , Prunus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0230546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516347

RESUMO

Winter squash fruits (Cucurbita moschata D.) are among the best sources of vitamin A precursors and constitute sources of bioactive components such as phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Approximately 70% of C. moschata seed oil is made up of unsaturated fatty acids, with high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and components such as vitamin E and carotenoids, which represent a promising nutritional aspect in the production of this vegetable. C. moschata germplasm expresses high genetic variability, especially in Brazil. We assessed 91 C. moschata accessions, from different regions of Brazil, and maintained at the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) Vegetable Germplasm Bank, to identify early-flowering accessions with high levels of carotenoids in the fruit pulp and high yields of seed and seed oil. Results showed that the accessions have high variability in the number and mass of seeds per fruit, number of accumulated degree-days for flowering, total carotenoid content, and fruit productivity, which allowed selection for considerable gains in these characteristics. Analysis of the correlation between these characteristics provided information that will assist in selection to improve this crop. Cluster analysis resulted in the formation of 16 groups, confirming the variability of the accessions. Per se analysis identified accessions BGH-6749, BGH-5639, and BGH-219 as those with the earliest flowering. Accessions BGH-5455A and BGH-5598A had the highest carotenoid content, with averages greater than 170.00 µg g-1 of fresh mass. With a productivity of 0.13 t ha-1, accessions BGH-5485A, BGH-4610A, and BGH-5472A were the most promising for seed oil production. These last two accessions corresponded to those with higher seed productivity, averaging 0.58 and 0.54 t ha-1, respectively. This study confirms the high potential of this germplasm for use in breeding for promotion of earlier flowering and increase in total content of fruit pulp carotenoids and in seed and seed oil productivity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cucurbita/anatomia & histologia , Cucurbita/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484826

RESUMO

During the past decade, Drosophila suzukii has established itself as a global invasive fruit pest, enabled by its ability to lay eggs into fresh, ripening fruit. In a previous study, we investigated the impact of different strawberry accessions on the development of D. suzukii eggs, in the search of natural resistance. We identified several accessions that significantly reduced adult fly emergence from infested fruit. In the present study, we aimed at understanding the chemical basis of this effect. We first noted that one of the more resistant accessions showed an unusual enrichment of methyl anthranilate within its fruit, prompting us to investigate this fruit compound as a possible cause limiting fly development. We found that methyl anthranilate alone triggers embryo lethality in a concentration-dependent manner, unlike another comparable organic fruit compound. We also showed that a chemical fraction of the resistant strawberry accession that contains methyl anthranilate carries some activity toward the egg hatching rate. Surprisingly, in spite of the lethal effect of this compound to their eggs, adult females are not only attracted to methyl anthranilate at certain concentrations, but they also display a concentration-dependent preference to lay on substrates enriched in methyl anthranilate. This study demonstrates that methyl anthranilate is a potent agonist molecule against D. suzukii egg development. Its elevated concentration in a specific strawberry accession proven to reduce the fly development may explain, at least in part the fruit resistance. It further illustrates how a single, natural compound, non-toxic to humans could be exploited for biological control of a pest species.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fragaria/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Reprodução , Volatilização , ortoaminobenzoatos/química
19.
Food Chem ; 329: 127155, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512393

RESUMO

Melatonin (MLT) has gained increasing attention due to its pleiotropic effects. In present study, 'Kyoho' grapes were immersed in 200 µM of MLT to investigate the role of exogenous melatonin in postharvest metabolism response. Results indicated that berry abscission and rotten index was reduced by 37.50% and 58.37%, respectively, by exogenous MLT treatment, while the amino acid accumulation was greatly enhanced. Furthermore, the endogenous MLT biosynthesis was activated, where the transcript expression of genes, encoding tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptophan decarboxylase, N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase and N-acetyltransferae were upregulated significantly (p < 0.05), in accordance with the increase of endogenous MLT. Phenolic biosynthesis related genes were upregulated significantly, accompanied with the significantly higher phenolics content (p < 0.05). On day 15, the expression level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in MLT-treated group was twice of that in control. Therefore, this study provides the first evidence pertinent to the contribution of exogenous melatonin to the phenolics metabolism in postharvest table grape.


Assuntos
Melatonina/química , Fenóis/química , Vitis/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 328: 126833, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480265

RESUMO

Raspberries are rich in polyphenols but the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on their phytochemical composition is not well known. This study aimed to analyse and compare the polyphenol accumulation in raspberries grown under both agricultural practices in the same edaphoclimatic conditions. Two raspberry cultivars 'Kweli' and 'Tulameen' were used. Under organic agricultural practices, the polyphenols levels increased for the 'Kweli' cultivar but decreased for the 'Tulameen' cultivar. 'Tulameen' cultivar grown under conventional agricultural practices contained higher anthocyanins levels than grown under organic agricultural practices while for the 'Kweli' cultivar no significant differences were observed between the two agricultural practices. 'Kweli' cultivar presented a significantly higher amount of ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives when compared to the 'Tulameen' cultivar under both agricultural practices. The effect of the agricultural practices on the raspberries' chemical profile was dependent on the cultivar and cannot be generalised.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Rubus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Elágico/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Rubus/metabolismo
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