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1.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 25(4): e13451, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590135

RESUMO

When compared with other phylogroups (PGs) of the Pseudomonas syringae species complex, P. syringae pv. syringae (Pss) strains within PG2 have a reduced repertoire of type III effectors (T3Es) but produce several phytotoxins. Effectors within the cherry pathogen Pss 9644 were grouped based on their frequency in strains from Prunus as the conserved effector locus (CEL) common to most P. syringae pathogens; a core of effectors common to PG2; a set of PRUNUS effectors common to cherry pathogens; and a FLEXIBLE set of T3Es. Pss 9644 also contains gene clusters for biosynthesis of toxins syringomycin, syringopeptin and syringolin A. After confirmation of virulence gene expression, mutants with a sequential series of T3E and toxin deletions were pathogenicity tested on wood, leaves and fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and leaves of ornamental cherry (Prunus incisa). The toxins had a key role in disease development in fruits but were less important in leaves and wood. An effectorless mutant retained some pathogenicity to fruit but not wood or leaves. Striking redundancy was observed amongst effector groups. The CEL effectors have important roles during the early stages of leaf infection and possibly acted synergistically with toxins in all tissues. Deletion of separate groups of T3Es had more effect in P. incisa than in P. avium. Mixed inocula were used to complement the toxin mutations in trans and indicated that strain mixtures may be important in the field. Our results highlight the niche-specific role of toxins in P. avium tissues and the complexity of effector redundancy in the pathogen Pss 9644.


Assuntos
Prunus avium , Prunus , Virulência/genética , Pseudomonas syringae , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Prunus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
2.
Biomol Concepts ; 15(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587059

RESUMO

The lifecycle of fresh produce involves a sequence of biochemical events during their ontology, and these events are particularly significant for climacteric fruits. A high demand during ripening is observed in these plant products, which is reflected in a high rate of respiration and ethylene production. Increased respiratory demand triggers the activation of secondary pathways such as alternate oxidase, which do not experience critical increases in energy consumption in non-climacteric fruit. In addition, biochemical events produced by external factors lead to compensatory responses in fresh produce to counteract the oxidative stress caused by the former. The dynamics of these responses are accompanied by signaling, where reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in fresh product cell perception. This review aims to describe the protection mechanisms of fresh produce against environmental challenges and how controlled doses of abiotic stressors can be used to improve quality and prolong their shelf-life through the interaction of stress and defense mechanisms.


Assuntos
Frutas , Estresse Oxidativo , Frutas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2912, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575617

RESUMO

Morphogenesis requires the coordination of cellular behaviors along developmental axes. In plants, gradients of growth and differentiation are typically established along a single longitudinal primordium axis to control global organ shape. Yet, it remains unclear how these gradients are locally adjusted to regulate the formation of complex organs that consist of diverse tissue types. Here we combine quantitative live imaging at cellular resolution with genetics, and chemical treatments to understand the formation of Arabidopsis thaliana female reproductive organ (gynoecium). We show that, contrary to other aerial organs, gynoecium shape is determined by two orthogonal, time-shifted differentiation gradients. An early mediolateral gradient controls valve morphogenesis while a late, longitudinal gradient regulates style differentiation. Local, tissue-dependent action of these gradients serves to fine-tune the common developmental program governing organ morphogenesis to ensure the specialized function of the gynoecium.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Frutas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
4.
Genome Biol ; 25(1): 87, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification. However, its contribution to trait changes and diversity in the domestication of perennial fruit trees remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, we investigate the variation in DNA methylation during pear domestication and improvement using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in 41 pear accessions. Contrary to the significant decrease during rice domestication, we detect a global increase in DNA methylation during pear domestication and improvement. We find this specific increase in pear is significantly correlated with the downregulation of Demeter-like1 (DML1, encoding DNA demethylase) due to human selection. We identify a total of 5591 differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Methylation in the CG and CHG contexts undergoes co-evolution during pear domestication and improvement. DMRs have higher genetic diversity than selection sweep regions, especially in the introns. Approximately 97% of DMRs are not associated with any SNPs, and these DMRs are associated with starch and sucrose metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. We also perform correlation analysis between DNA methylation and gene expression. We find genes close to the hypermethylated DMRs that are significantly associated with fruit ripening. We further verify the function of a hyper-DMR-associated gene, CAMTA2, and demonstrate that overexpression of CAMTA2 in tomato and pear callus inhibits fruit ripening. CONCLUSIONS: Our study describes a specific pattern of DNA methylation in the domestication and improvement of a perennial pear tree and suggests that increased DNA methylation plays an essential role in the early ripening of pear fruits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Pyrus , Humanos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Pyrus/genética , Domesticação , Epigênese Genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Transativadores/genética
5.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(3): 38, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605193

RESUMO

The cell wall (CW) is the dynamic structure of a plant cell, acting as a barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses. In grape berries, the modifications of pulp and skin CW during softening ensure flexibility during cell expansion and determine the final berry texture. In addition, the CW of grape berry skin is of fundamental importance for winemaking, controlling secondary metabolite extractability. Grapevine varieties with contrasting CW characteristics generally respond differently to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the context of climate change, it is important to investigate the CW dynamics occurring upon different stresses, to define new adaptation strategies. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying CW modifications during grapevine berry fruit ripening, plant-pathogen interaction, or in response to environmental stresses, also considering the most recently published transcriptomic data. Furthermore, perspectives of new biotechnological approaches aiming at modifying the CW properties based on other crops' examples are also presented.


Assuntos
Frutas , Vitis , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(4): e22110, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605666

RESUMO

20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a vital role in a series of biological processes, via the nuclear receptors, EcR/USP by activating the ecdysone regulatory cascade. To clarify the role of EcR during the development of Grapholita molesta, the complementary DNA of ecdysone receptor isoform B1 (GmEcR-B1) was obtained from the transcriptome of G. molesta and verified by PCR. Alignment analysis revealed that the deduced protein sequence of GmEcR-B1 was highly homologous to EcR proteins identified in other lepidopteran species, especially the EcR-B1 isoform in Spodoptera litura. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that GmEcRs was expressed at all test developmental stages, and the expression level of GmEcRs was relatively higher during the period of the 3rd day of fifth instar larvae to 2nd of pupa than those in other stages. Moreover, the messenger RNA of GmEcRs was much more strongly expressed in the Malpighian tubule and epidermis than those in other tissues, which suggests that this gene may function in a tissue-specific manner during larval development. Silencing of GmEcRs could significantly downregulate the transcriptional level of ecdysone-inducible genes and result in increased mortality during metamorphosis and prolonged prepupal duration. Taken together, the present results indicate that GmEcRs may directly or indirectly affect the development of G. molesta.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Receptores de Esteroides , Animais , Mariposas/metabolismo , Ecdisona , Frutas/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
7.
Planta ; 259(5): 109, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558186

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Six methyltransferase genes affecting tomato fruit ripening were identified through genome-wide screening, VIGS assay, and expression pattern analysis. The data provide the basis for understanding new mechanisms of methyltransferases. Fruit ripening is a critical stage for the formation of edible quality and seed maturation, which is finely modulated by kinds of factors, including genetic regulators, hormones, external signals, etc. Methyltransferases (MTases), important genetic regulators, play vital roles in plant development through epigenetic regulation, post-translational modification, or other mechanisms. However, the regulatory functions of numerous MTases except DNA methylation in fruit ripening remain limited so far. Here, six MTases, which act on different types of substrates, were identified to affect tomato fruit ripening. First, 35 MTase genes with relatively high expression at breaker (Br) stage of tomato fruit were screened from the tomato MTase gene database encompassing 421 genes totally. Thereafter, six MTase genes were identified as potential regulators of fruit ripening via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), including four genes with a positive regulatory role and two genes with a negative regulatory role, respectively. The expression of these six MTase genes exhibited diverse patterns during the fruit ripening process, and responded to various external ripening-related factors, including ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), temperature, and light exposure. These results help to further elaborate the biological mechanisms of MTase genes in tomato fruit ripening and enrich the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of fruit ripening involving MTases, despite of DNA MTases.


Assuntos
Frutas , Solanum lycopersicum , Frutas/metabolismo , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104461, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431316

RESUMO

Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the low infectious dose of noroviruses, sensitive methodologies are required to detect and characterize small numbers of viral particles that are found in contaminated foods. The ISO 15216 method, which is internationally recognized for detection of foodborne viruses from high-risk food commodities, is based on viral precipitation, followed by RNA extraction and identification of the viral genome by RT-PCR. Although the ISO 15216 method is efficient, it is time consuming and tedious, does not report on the viral infectivity, and is sensitive to the presence of RT-PCR inhibitors. Norovirus capture by the porcine gastric mucin conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MB) was developed as an alternative virus recovery method. It relies on the integrity of the viral capsid being able to bind to PGM. PGM contains a variety of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) that act as norovirus receptors. Therefore, the PGM-MB method allows for extraction of noroviruses, with potentially intact viral capsids, from complex food matrices. The viral genome can then be released through heat-shock of the captured virus. For this reason, we performed a parallel comparison between the ISO 15216 method and the PGM-MB method in isolation and quantification of noroviruses from frozen raspberries. We have demonstrated that the efficiency of the PGM-MB method in extraction of murine norovirus (MNV) and human norovirus GII.4 from raspberries is equal or better than the ISO 15216 method, while the PGM-MB has fewer steps and shorter turnaround time. Moreover, the PGM-MB method is more efficient in removing the inhibitors prior to RT-PCR analysis.


Assuntos
Norovirus , Vírus , Suínos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Mucinas Gástricas , Frutas/metabolismo , Separação Imunomagnética , Vírus/genética , Fenômenos Magnéticos , RNA Viral/genética
9.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 26(4): 53-61, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38523449

RESUMO

Air humidity is an important environmental factor restricting the fruit body growth of Auricularia heimuer. Low air humidity causes the fruit body to desiccate and enter dormancy. However, the survival mechanisms to low air humidity for fruit bodies before dormancy remain poorly understood. In the present study, we cultivated A. heimuer in a greenhouse and collected the fruit bodies at different air humidities (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%) to determine the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH); and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Results showed that the MDA contents tended to increase with decreasing relative air humidity. Relative air humidity below 90% caused membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress (based on MDA contents) to the fruit body, which we named air humidity stress. In contrast to the control and with the degree of stress, the GSH contents and activities of SOD, CAT, GR, GPX, and APX tended to ascend, whereas AsA showed a declining trend; the POD activity only rose at 50%. The antioxidants favored the fruit body to alleviate oxidative damage and strengthened its tolerance to air humidity stress. The antioxidant defense system could be an important mechanism for the fruit body of A. heimuer in air humidity stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Auricularia , Basidiomycota , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Umidade , Frutas/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6600, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504117

RESUMO

Grape breeding programs are mostly focused on developing new varieties with high production volume, sugar contents, and phenolic compound diversity combined with resistance and tolerance to the main pathogens under culture and adverse environmental conditions. The 'Niagara' variety (Vitis labrusca × Vitis vinifera) is one of the most widely produced and commercialized table grapes in Brazil. In this work, we selected three Niagara somatic variants with contrasting berry phenotypes and performed morphological and transcriptomic analyses of their berries. Histological sections of the berries were also performed to understand anatomical and chemical composition differences of the berry skin between the genotypes. An RNA-Seq pipeline was implemented, followed by global coexpression network modeling. 'Niagara Steck', an intensified russet mutant with the most extreme phenotype, showed the largest difference in expression and showed selection of coexpressed network modules involved in the development of its russet-like characteristics. Enrichment analysis of differently expressed genes and hub network modules revealed differences in transcription regulation, auxin signaling and cell wall and plasmatic membrane biogenesis. Cutin- and suberin-related genes were also differently expressed, supporting the anatomical differences observed with microscopy.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vitis/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frutas/metabolismo , Brasil
11.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(4): 92, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466441

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Pepper fruits contain two leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) genes which are differentially modulated during ripening and by nitric oxide. The LAP activity increases during ripening but is negatively modulated by nitration. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is an essential metalloenzyme that cleaves N-terminal leucine residues from proteins but also metabolizes dipeptides and tripeptides. LAPs play a fundamental role in cell protein turnover and participate in physiological processes such as defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, but little is known about their involvement in fruit physiology. This study aims to identify and characterize genes encoding LAP and evaluate their role during the ripening of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits and under a nitric oxide (NO)-enriched environment. Using a data-mining approach of the pepper plant genome and fruit transcriptome (RNA-seq), two LAP genes, designated CaLAP1 and CaLAP2, were identified. The time course expression analysis of these genes during different fruit ripening stages showed that whereas CaLAP1 decreased, CaLAP2 was upregulated. However, under an exogenous NO treatment of fruits, both genes were downregulated. On the contrary, it was shown that during fruit ripening LAP activity increased by 81%. An in vitro assay of the LAP activity in the presence of different modulating compounds including peroxynitrite (ONOO-), NO donors (S-nitrosoglutathione and nitrosocyteine), reducing agents such as reduced glutathione (GSH), L-cysteine (L-Cys), and cyanide triggered a differential response. Thus, peroxynitrite and reducing compounds provoked around 50% inhibition of the LAP activity in green immature fruits, whereas cyanide upregulated it 1.5 folds. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of LAP in pepper fruits as well as of its regulation by diverse modulating compounds. Based on the capacity of LAP to metabolize dipeptides and tripeptides, it could be hypothesized that the LAP might be involved in the GSH recycling during the ripening process.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Leucina/metabolismo , Leucil Aminopeptidase/genética , Leucil Aminopeptidase/metabolismo , Ácido Peroxinitroso/metabolismo , Cianetos/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 209: 108540, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518398

RESUMO

Citrus, cultivated extensively across the globe, possesses considerable economic importance and nutritional value. With the degradation of chlorophyll and accumulation of carotenoids, mature citrus fruits develop an orange-yellow peel, enhancing fruit value and consumer preference. MYB transcription factors (TFs) exert a significant role in diverse plant developmental processes and investigating their involvement in fruit coloration is crucial for developing new cultivars. This work aimed to characterize a citrus TF, CrMYB33, whose expression was found to be positively correlated with carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening. The interference of CrMYB33 expression in citrus fruit resulted in inhibition of carotenoid accumulation, down-regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes, and a slower rate of chlorophyll degradation. Conversely, overexpression of CrMYB33 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) enhanced chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis, resulting in a deeper red coloration of the fruits. Furthermore, the transcription of associated genes was upregulated in CrMYB33-overexpressing tomato fruits. Additional assays reveal that CrMYB33 exhibits direct links and activation of the promoters of lycopene ß-cyclase 2 (CrLCYb2), and ß-carotene hydroxylases 2 (CrBCH2), both crucial genes in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Additionally, it was found to inhibit chlorophyllase (CrCLH), a gene essential in chlorophyll degradation. These findings provide insight into the observed changes in LCYb2, BCH2, and CLH expression in the transgenic lines under investigation. In conclusion, our study revealed that CrMYB33 modulates carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation in citrus fruits through transcriptionally activating genes involved in metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Citrus , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(4): e0405223, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440971

RESUMO

"Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas), the causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), is able to multiply to a high abundance in citrus fruit pith. However, little is known about the biological processes and phytochemical substances that are vital for CLas colonization and growth in fruit pith. In this study, CLas-infected fruit pith of three citrus cultivars ("Shatangju" mandarin, "Guanxi" pomelo, and "Shatian" pomelo) exhibiting different tolerance to CLas were collected and used for dual RNA-Seq and untargeted metabolome analysis. Comparative transcriptome analysis found that the activation of the CLas noncyclic TCA pathway and pathogenic-related effectors could contribute to the colonization and growth of CLas in fruit pith. The pre-established Type 2 prophage in the CLas genome and the induction of its CRISPR/cas system could enhance the phage resistance of CLas and, in turn, facilitate CLas population growth in fruit pith. CLas infection caused the accumulation of amino acids that were correlated with tolerance to CLas. The accumulation of most sugars and organic acids in CLas-infected fruit pith, which could be due to the phloem blockage caused by CLas infection, was thought to be beneficial for CLas growth in localized phloem tissue. The higher levels of flavonoids and terpenoids in the fruit pith of CLas-tolerant cultivars, particularly those known for their antimicrobial properties, could hinder the growth of CLas. This study advances our understanding of CLas multiplication in fruit pith and offers novel insight into metabolites that could be responsible for tolerance to CLas or essential to CLas population growth.IMPORTANCECitrus Huanglongbing (HLB, also called citrus greening disease) is a highly destructive disease currently threatening citrus production worldwide. HLB is caused by an unculturable bacterial pathogen, "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas). However, the mechanism of CLas colonization and growth in citrus hosts is poorly understood. In this study, we utilized the fruit pith tissue, which was able to maintain the CLas at a high abundance, as the materials for dual RNA-Seq and untargeted metabolome analysis, aiming to reveal the biological processes and phytochemical substances that are vital for CLas colonization and growth. We provided a genome-wide CLas transcriptome landscape in the fruit pith of three citrus cultivars with different tolerance and identified the important genes/pathways that contribute to CLas colonization and growth in the fruit pith. Metabolome profiling identified the key metabolites, which were mainly affected by CLas infection and influenced the population dynamic of CLas in fruit pith.


Assuntos
Citrus , Liberibacter , Rhizobiaceae , Citrus/microbiologia , Rhizobiaceae/genética , Rhizobiaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Frutas/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Dinâmica Populacional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
14.
New Phytol ; 242(3): 1131-1145, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482565

RESUMO

Plenty of rainfall but unevenly seasonal distribution happens regularly in southern China. Seasonal drought from summer to early autumn leads to citrus fruit acidification, but how seasonal drought regulates citrate accumulation remains unknown. Herein, we employed a set of physiological, biochemical, and molecular approaches to reveal that CsABF3 responds to seasonal drought stress and modulates citrate accumulation in citrus fruits by directly regulating CsAN1 and CsPH8. Here, we demonstrated that irreversible acidification of citrus fruits is caused by drought lasting for > 30 d during the fruit enlargement stage. We investigated the transcriptome characteristics of fruits affected by drought and corroborated the pivotal roles of a bHLH transcription factor (CsAN1) and a P3A-ATPase gene (CsPH8) in regulating citrate accumulation in response to drought. Abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive element binding factor 3 (CsABF3) was upregulated by drought in an ABA-dependent manner. CsABF3 activated CsAN1 and CsPH8 expression by directly and specifically binding to the ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in the promoters and positively regulated citrate accumulation. Taken together, this study sheds new light on the regulatory module ABA-CsABF3-CsAN1-CsPH8 responsible for citrate accumulation under drought stress, which advances our understanding of quality formation of citrus fruit.


Assuntos
Citrus , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Secas , Estações do Ano , Citratos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108449, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503188

RESUMO

Five rootstock cultivars of differing vigor: vigorous ('Atlas™' and 'Bright's Hybrid® 5'), standard ('Krymsk® 86' and 'Lovell') and dwarfing ('Krymsk® 1') grafted with 'Redhaven' as the scion were studied for their impact on productivity, mid-canopy photosynthetic active radiation transmission (i.e., light availability) and internal fruit quality. Αverage yield (kg per tree) and fruit count increased significantly with increasing vigor (trunk cross sectional area, TCSA). Α detailed peach fruit quality analysis on fruit of equal maturity (based on the index of absorbance difference, IAD) coming from trees with equal crop load (no. of fruit cm-2 of TCSA) characterized the direct impact of rootstock vigor on peach internal quality [dry matter content (DMC) and soluble solids concentration (SSC)]. DMC and SSC increased significantly with decreasing vigor and increasing light availability, potentially due to reduced intra-tree shading and better light distribution within the canopy. Physiologically characterized peach fruit mesocarp was further analyzed by non-targeted metabolite profiling using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Metabolite distribution was associated with rootstock vigor class, mid-canopy light availability and fruit quality characteristics. Fructose, glucose, sorbose, neochlorogenic and quinic acids, catechin and sorbitol were associated with high light environments and enhanced quality traits, while sucrose, butanoic and malic acids related to low light conditions and inferior fruit quality. These outcomes show that while rootstock genotype and vigor are influencing peach tree productivity and yield, their effect on manipulating the light environment within the canopy also plays a significant role in fruit quality development.


Assuntos
Frutas , Fotossíntese , Salicilanilidas , Frutas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108537, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513517

RESUMO

Pre-harvest spraying of benzothiadiazole (BTH) can improve the winemaking properties of grapes, especially their aroma compounds and phenolics. Limited research has explored the molecular mechanisms by which BTH influences the accumulation of grape aroma precursors during early grape development. This study investigated the effects and putative molecular mechanisms of applying 0.37 mM BTH through whole-plant spraying on the accumulation of aroma metabolism precursors and gene expression in Cabernet Gernischt grapes during ripening. The results showed that BTH treatment increased the levels of fructose, alanine, aspartate, threonine, myristic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitic acid, ß-cryptoxanthin, norisoprenoids and methoxypyrazines. Contrarily, it decreased the levels of glucose, sucrose, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, valine, glycine, arginine, histidine, total unsaturated fatty acids (particularly linoleic acid), zeaxanthin, lutein, and organic acids. Additionally, BTH upregulated the expression of genes associated with the production and degradation of amino acids, fatty acids, and carotenoids while decreasing the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and degradation of soluble sugars and organic acids. Ten different metabolites, including fumaric acid, were identified as potential biological markers for distinguishing BTH-treated grapes from control grapes. The study demonstrates that BTH treatment had a substantial impact on the concentration and developmental patterns of aroma metabolism precursors. Furthermore, it altered the winemaking characteristics of Cabernet Gernischt grapes by modulating genes associated with the production and breakdown of metabolites.


Assuntos
Tiadiazóis , Vitis , Vinho , Vitis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Odorantes/análise , Melhoria de Qualidade , Frutas/metabolismo
17.
Food Funct ; 15(7): 3353-3364, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481358

RESUMO

Cyclocodon lancifolius fruit is a promising commercial fruit with antioxidant activity and is rich in polyphenolic compounds. In this study, the anti-aging activity of C. lancifolius fruit extract (CF) on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was evaluated by observing the longevity, stress response, reproduction, oscillation, lipofuscin, and antioxidant enzymes of worms. Moreover, the effects and potential mechanisms of CF on delaying C. elegans senescence at the mRNA and metabolite levels were investigated. The results showed that CF treatment significantly increased the lifespan and stress resistance, decreased the levels of lipofuscin and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and improved the antioxidant system of C. elegans. The extension of the lifespan of C. elegans was remarkably correlated with the upregulation of mtl-1 and Hsp-16.2, along with the downregulation of age-1, daf-2, and akt-1. Metabolomics analysis revealed that purine metabolism is a key regulatory pathway for CF to exert anti-aging effects. The present study suggests that C. lancifolius fruit has potential for use as a functional food to enhance antioxidant capacity and delay aging.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Longevidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Lipofuscina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Purinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 160, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are the most important compounds for nutritional quality and economic values of blood orange. However, there are few reports on the pre-harvest treatment accelerating the accumulation of anthocyanins in postharvest blood orange fruit. Here, we performed a comparative transcriptome and metabolomics analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanism involved in seasonal drought (SD) treatment during the fruit expansion stage on anthocyanin accumulation in postharvest 'Tarocco' blood orange fruit. RESULTS: Our results showed that SD treatment slowed down the fruit enlargement and increased the sugar accumulation during the fruit development and maturation period. Obviously, under SD treatment, the accumulation of anthocyanin in blood orange fruit during postharvest storage was significantly accelerated and markedly higher than that in CK. Meanwhile, the total flavonoids and phenols content and antioxidant activity in SD treatment fruits were also sensibly increased during postharvest storage. Based on metabolome analysis, we found that substrates required for anthocyanin biosynthesis, such as amino acids and their derivatives, and phenolic acids, had significantly accumulated and were higher in SD treated mature fruits compared with that of CK. Furthermore, according to the results of the transcriptome data and weighted gene coexpression correlation network analysis (WGCNA) analysis, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL3) was considered a key structural gene. The qRT-PCR analysis verified that the PAL3 was highly expressed in SD treated postharvest stored fruits, and was significantly positively correlated with the anthocyanin content. Moreover, we found that other structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were also upregulated under SD treatment, as evidenced by transcriptome data and qRT-PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that SD treatment promotes the accumulation of substrates necessary for anthocyanin biosynthesis during the fruit ripening process, and activates the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes during the postharvest storage period. This is especially true for PAL3, which co-contributed to the rapid accumulation of anthocyanin. The present study provides a theoretical basis for the postharvest quality control and water-saving utilization of blood orange fruit.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Frutas , Frutas/metabolismo , Secas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 263(Pt 1): 130678, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458276

RESUMO

Kiwifruit is a climacteric fruit that is prone to ripening and softening. Understanding molecular regulatory mechanism of kiwifruit softening, is helpful to ensure long-term storage of fruit. In the study, two NAC TFs and two XTH genes were isolated from kiwifruit. Phylogenetic tree showed that both AcNAC1 and AcNAC2 belonged to NAP subfamily, AcXTH1 belong to I subfamily, and AcXTH2 belong to III subfamily. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that AcNAC1 and AcNAC2 possessed similar three-dimensional structural, and belonged to hydrophilic proteins. AcXTH1 and AcXTH2 were hydrophilic proteins and contained signal peptides. AcXTH1 had a transmembrane structure, but AcXTH2 did not. qRT-PCR results showed that AcNAC1, AcNAC2, AcXTH1 and AcXTH2 were increased during kiwifruit ripening. Correlation analysis showed that kiwifruit softening was closely related to endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes and NAC TFs, as well as there was also a close relationship between AcXTHs and AcNACs. Moreover, both AcNAC1 and AcNAC2 were transcriptional activators located in nucleus, which bound to and activated the promoters of AcXTH1 and AcXTH2. In shortly, we proved that the roles of NAC TFs in mediating fruit softening during kiwifruit ripening. Altogether, our results clarified that AcNAC1 and AcNAC2 were transcriptional activators, and took part in kiwifruit ripening and softening through activating endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes, providing a new insight of fruit softening network in kiwifruit ripening.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Frutas , Glicosiltransferases , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Actinidia/genética , Actinidia/metabolismo , Hidrolases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540374

RESUMO

The formation of fruit color in pepper is closely related to the processes of carotenoid metabolism. In this study, red wild-type pepper XHB, SP01, PC01 and their corresponding mutants H0809 (orange), SP02 (yellow), and PC02 (orange) were used as research materials. The Ggps, Psy, Lcyb, Crtz, Zep, and Ccs genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were cloned, and bioinformatics and expression analyses were carried out. The results showed that the full lengths of the six genes were 1110 bp, 2844 bp, 1497 bp, 2025 bp, 510 bp, and 1497 bp, and they encoded 369, 419, 498, 315, 169, and 498 amino acids, respectively. Except for the full-length Ccs gene, which could not be amplified in the yellow mutant SP02 and the orange mutant PC02, the complete full-length sequences of the other genes could be amplified in different materials, indicating that the formation of fruit color in the SP02 and PC02 mutants could be closely related to the deletion or mutation of the Ccs gene. The analytical results of real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that the Ggps, Psy, Lcyb, Crtz, and Zep genes were expressed at different developmental stages of three pairs of mature-fruit-colored materials, but their patterns of expression were not consistent. The orange mutant H0809 could be amplified to the full Ccs gene sequence, but its expression was maintained at a lower level. It showed a significant difference in expression compared with the wild-type XHB, indicating that the formation of orange mutant H0809 fruit color could be closely related to the different regulatory pattern of Ccs expression. The results provide a theoretical basis for in-depth understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism of the formation of color in pepper fruit.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Frutas , Frutas/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Clonagem Molecular
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