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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5698-5705, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Localized subgingival minocycline hydrochloride (MH) delivery as an adjuvant to with non-surgical mechanical debridement (NSMD) is useful for the treatment of periodontitis; however, there are no trials that have assessed the efficacy of subgingival MH delivery with NSMD for the treatment of peri-implantitis in cigarette-smokers and non-smokers. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy of subgingival MH delivery with NSMD for the treatment of peri-implantitis in cigarette-smokers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Self-reported current cigarette-smokers and non-smokers with peri-implantitis were encompassed. These individuals were subdivided into 2-subgroups. Patients in test- and control groups received NSMD with and without a single delivery of subgingival MH. Modified-gingival-index (mGI), modified-plaque-index (mPI), probing-depth (PD) and crestal-bone-loss (CBL) were measured at baseline and at 6-months' follow-up. Demographic-data was also collected. Level of significance was set at p<0.01. RESULTS: Twenty-four cigarette-smokers and 24 non-smokers with peri-implantitis were included. There was a significant reduction in mPI (p<0.01), mGI (p<0.01), PD (p<0.01) at 6-months among patients with and without type-2 DM in test- and control-groups. There was no significant difference in peri-implant mPI, PD and mGI, patients with and without type-2 diabetes in test- and control-groups at 6-months of follow-up. There was no significant difference in CBL in all patients at 6-months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: A single application of subgingival MH delivery is as effective as NSMD alone for the treatment of peri-implantitis in cigarette-smokers and non-smokers.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peri-Implantite , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Fumantes
2.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 236, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of wood smoke (WS) exposure in the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer (LC), and mortality remains elusive in adults from countries with low ambient levels of combustion-emitted particulate matter. This study aims to delineate the impact of WS exposure on lung health and mortality in adults age 40 and older who ever smoked. METHODS: We assessed health impact of self-reported "ever WS exposure for over a year" in the Lovelace Smokers Cohort using both objective measures (i.e., lung function decline, LC incidence, and deaths) and two health related quality-of-life questionnaires (i.e., lung disease-specific St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] and the generic 36-item short-form health survey). RESULTS: Compared to subjects without WS exposure, subjects with WS exposure had a more rapid decline of FEV1 (- 4.3 ml/s, P = 0.025) and FEV1/FVC ratio (- 0.093%, P = 0.015), but not of FVC (- 2.4 ml, P = 0.30). Age modified the impacts of WS exposure on lung function decline. WS exposure impaired all health domains with the increase in SGRQ scores exceeding the minimal clinically important difference. WS exposure increased hazard for incidence of LC and death of all-cause, cardiopulmonary diseases, and cancers by > 50% and shortened the lifespan by 3.5 year. We found no evidence for differential misclassification or confounding from socioeconomic status for the health effects of WS exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We identified epidemiological evidence supporting WS exposure as an independent etiological factor for the development of COPD through accelerating lung function decline in an obstructive pattern. Time-to-event analyses of LC incidence and cancer-specific mortality provide human evidence supporting the carcinogenicity of WS exposure.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumantes , Madeira/efeitos adversos
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 372, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the association between smoking habits and dental care utilization and cost in individuals registered with the Japan Health Insurance Association, Osaka branch. METHODS: We used the administrative claims database and specific medical check-up data and included 226,359 participants, who visited dental institutions, underwent dental examinations, and underwent specific medical checkups, with smoking data from April 2016 to March 2017. We calculated propensity scores with age, gender, exercise, eating habits, alcohol intake, and sleep. We also compared dental care utilization with the total cost of each procedure. RESULTS: According to propensity score matching, 62,692 participants were selected for each group. Compared to non-smokers, smokers were younger, and a higher proportion were men. Smokers tended to skip breakfast, have dinner just before bed, and drink alcohol. After adjusting for potential confounding factors with propensity score matching, the mean annual dental cost among smokers was significantly higher than non-smokers. The prevalence of pulpitis, missing teeth, and apical periodontitis were higher among smokers than non-smokers, while inlay detachment, caries, and dentine hypersensitivity were higher among non-smokers. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that smokers have higher dental cost consisted of progressive dental caries, missing teeth, and uncontrolled acute inflammation that necessitated the use of medications. It is suggested that smokers tend to visit the dentist after their symptoms become severe.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Assistência Odontológica , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1706, 2022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Countries with best practice tobacco control measures have experienced significant reductions in smoking prevalence, but socioeconomic inequalities remain. Spending on tobacco products, particularly by low-income groups can negatively affect expenditure on other goods and services. This study aims to compare the household expenditure of adults who smoke tobacco products and those who formerly smoked across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Daily smokers and ex-smokers were compared using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, over 7 waves. Adults who never smoked were not included. Participants were continuing sample members across waves. Mean number of participants per wave was 2505, 25% were smokers and 75% ex-smokers. The expenditure variables investigated included tobacco products, alcohol, motor vehicle fuel, health practitioners, insurance, education, and meals eaten out. Regression models using the generalized estimating equation technique were employed to compare expenditure data aggregated across the waves by Socioeconomic Index for Areas (SEIFA) quintiles of relative socio-economic advantage/disadvantage while accounting for within-participant autocorrelation. Quintiles are ranked by information such as the income, occupation and access to material and social resources of the residents. RESULTS: Smokers from all quintiles spent significantly less per year on meals out, education and insurance than ex-smokers (p < 0.001). Smokers from quintiles 2-5 spent less on groceries, medicines, and health practitioners (p < 0.01). Smokers from quintiles 1 and 2 (most disadvantaged), spent less on motor vehicle fuel than ex-smokers ($280;95%CI: $126-$434), ($213;95%CI: $82-$344). Smokers from quintiles 2 and 3 spent more on alcohol ($212;95%CI: $86-$339), ($231.8;95%CI: $94-$370) than ex-smokers. Smokers from the least disadvantaged groups spent less on clothing than ex-smokers ($348;95%CI: $476-$221), ($501; 95%CI: $743-$258). Across the whole sample, smokers spent more than ex-smokers on alcohol ($230;95%CI:$95-$365) and less on meals out ($361;95%CI:$216-$379), groceries ($529;95%CI:$277-$781), education ($456;95%CI:$288-$624), medicine ($71;95%CI:$38-$104), health practitioners ($345;95%CI:$245-$444) and insurance ($318;95%CI:$229-$407). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation leads to reallocation of spending across all socioeconomic groups, which could have positive impacts on households and their local communities. Less spending on alcohol by ex-smokers across the whole sample could indicate a joint health improvement associated with smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Ex-Fumantes , Fumantes , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1738, 2022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research in high-income countries (HICs) has shown that smokers reduce their cognitive dissonance through two types of justifications over time: risk minimizing and functional beliefs. To date, however, the relationship between these justifications and smoking behaviors over time has limited evidence from low- and middle-income countries. This study examines these of justifications and their relation to quitting behavior and intentions among smoking tobacco users in India. METHODS: The data are from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Survey, a prospective cohort of nationally representative sample of tobacco users. The respondents include smoked tobacco (cigarettes and bidi) users (n = 1112) who participated in both Wave 1 (W1; 2010-2011) and Wave 2 (W2; 2012-2013) surveys. Key measures include questions about psychosocial beliefs such as functional beliefs (e.g., smoking calms you down when you are stressed or upset) and risk-minimizing beliefs (e.g., the medical evidence that smoking is harmful is exaggerated) and quitting behavior and intentions at Wave 2. FINDINGS: Of the 1112 smokers at W1, 78 (7.0%) had quit and 86 (7.8%) had intentions to quit at W2. Compared to W1, there was a significant increase in functional beliefs at W2 among smokers who transitioned to mixed use (using both smoking and smokeless tobacco) and a significant decrease among those who quit. At W2, smokers who quit held significantly lower levels of functional beliefs, than continuing smokers, and mixed users ((M = 2.96, 3.30, and 3.93, respectively, p < .05). In contrast, risk-minimizing beliefs did not change significantly between the two waves. Additionally, higher income and lower functional beliefs were significant predictors of quitting behavior at W2. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that smokers in India exhibit similar patterns of dissonance reduction as reported in studies from HICs: smokers who quit reduced their smoking justifications in the form of functional beliefs, not risk-minimizing beliefs. Smokers' beliefs change in concordance with their smoking behavior and functional beliefs tend to play a significant role as compared to risk-minimizing beliefs. Tobacco control messaging and interventions can be framed to target these functional beliefs to facilitate quitting.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Política Pública , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco
6.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(4): 358-375, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109859

RESUMO

Objective: Following AMSTAR 2 and PRISMA guidelines, in this synthesis of evidence we sought to identify and characterize any associations between e-cigarette use among cigarette smokers and cigarette smoking quit attempts. Methods: We queried 3 databases from January 1, 2007 to January 5, 2021. Search results were screened using the PICOS review method. Included studies examined e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking quit attempts across e-cigarette use statuses. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-Based Practice Center approach. Finally, 4 random-effects models compared e-cigarette users and non- e-cigarette-users in terms of past year and prospective (6 to 12 months) cigarette smoking quit attempts. Results: We qualitatively synthesized 17 adjusted studies for this review. Two meta-analyses showed past year quit attempts were significantly associated with current e-cigarette users and 2 prospective data analyses found no significant association. Conclusions: The results of the meta- analyses emphasize temporality in the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking quit attempts. Numerous methodological limitations, including inadequate definitions of e-cigarette use and non-adjustment for confounding variables, limit the confidence in conclusions that can be drawn on the causal association between e-cigarette use and cigarettes smoking quit attempts.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vaping/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(4): 442-455, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109860

RESUMO

Objectives: In this paper, we explore the adherence patterns to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID-19 mitigation guidelines among current, former, and never smokers. Methods: We used an online cross-sectional survey of adults 18 years or older in 5 northeastern states of the US (N=1084). Results: Unadjusted analyses revealed that current smokers reported lower adherence to the CDC guidelines than former smokers (27.5 vs 29.4, p<.05). After accounting for sociodemographic covariates, this finding was no longer statistically significant. However, compared to former smokers, never smokers reported wearing their mask less often (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.45-0.94) and current smokers were less likely to report always practicing illness-related hygiene skills (OR=0.60; 95% CI=0.39-0.93).Conclusions: Never smokers had poorer adherence to CDC guidelines than former smokers, namely wearing their masks, and current smokers were less likely to always follow the hygiene recommendations. Results should inform future public health efforts in targeting current smokers with lower adherence to CDC guidelines and learning from the ability of former smokers to demonstrate high adherence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fumantes , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(17): 6169-6175, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With our study we aimed at investigating the levels of high mobility group box chromosomal protein-1 (HMGB-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1ß in periimplant crevicular fluid (PICF) of smokers and never-smokers, with and without periimplantitis, and correlate these levels with the clinical and radiographic periimplant parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixty participants (n=15/group) were recruited and divided into 4 groups: cigarette smokers with periimplantitis (CSPI); cigarette smokers without periimplantitis (CSNPI); never-smokers with periimplantitis (NSPI); and never-smokers without periimplantitis (NSNPI). Clinical and radiographic periimplant parameters, including plaque scores (PS), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and crestal bone level (CBL), were assessed. Crevicular levels of HMGB-1, TNF-α, and IL-1ß were quantified using human enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. p-values were generated using Kruskal-Wallis' test for comparison between the study groups, while correlations between HMGB-1, TNF-α, IL-1ß levels and clinical variables were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. RESULTS: Bleeding on probing was least in NSNPI and CSNPI followed by CSPI and NSPI (p<0.05). The highest PD and CBL was recorded for CSPI and NSPI groups, while the least PD and CBL were recorded among non-periimplantitis groups. HMGB-1 and IL-1ß were found to be significantly highest in CSPI groups followed by NSPI and CSNPI groups with no statistically significant difference between CSPI and NSPI groups (p<0.05). CSPI groups reported the highest TNF-α levels in the PICF in comparison to other groups (p<0.05). A significant negative correlation was observed between plaque scores (p=0.0187) and CBL (p=0.0049) in NSNPI and CSPI groups with HMGB-1, respectively. A significant positive correlation was seen for HMGB-1 in groups CSPI (p=0.0023) and NSPI (p=0.0018) for BOP. In CSPI group, a significant positive correlation was observed between TNF-α and PD (p=0.0443). On correlating IL-1ß, a significant positive correlation was observed for CBL in CSPI (p=0.0006) and NSPI (p=0.0275) groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HMGB-1 could play a significant role in periimplant inflammatory response and inflammation. Higher crevicular fluid HMGB-1 levels are indicative of a possible surrogate biomarker for peri-implantitis.


Assuntos
Peri-Implantite , Proteínas HMGB , Humanos , Fumantes , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1388-1393, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117344

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the relapse status of smokers aged ≥15 years in China, and investigate the main factors influencing their relapse behavior. Methods: The data of this study cames from the 2018 China Adult Tobacco Survey, covering 400 committees or villages in 200 districts or counties in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) of China. The relevant data of smoking and relapsing in residents aged ≥15 years were collected by face-to-face interview. Software SAS 9.4 was used to clean and analyze the data, and logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors for relapse rate. Results: A total of 19 376 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 91.50%. In 2018, 66.05% of smokers aged ≥15 years in China had smoking relapse, in whom 66.59% were males and 55.79% were females. In all age groups, the age group 15-24 years had the highest smoking relapse rate (82.63%). Multivariate analysis showed that the younger age 15-24 years (OR=4.618,95%CI:1.981-10.763), e-cigarette use (OR=9.782,95%CI:3.139-30.490), and tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in the past 30 days (OR=1.710,95%CI:1.291-2.265) were associated with higher smoking relapse rate. Compared with people who were allowed smoking at home or those without smoking limit, the smoking relapse rate in people who were not allowed to smoke at home (OR=0.562, 95%CI: 0.439-0.719) or those with smoking limit (OR=0.487, 95%CI: 0.366-0.647) was lower. Conclusion: The smoking relapse rate in Chinese smokers is high, especially in young people. It is suggested to conduct targeted intervention based on the results of this study to reduce the smoking relapse rate and help achieve the smoking control goal in Healthy China 2030.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumantes , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078551

RESUMO

This study examines the use of JUUL vs. other e-cigarette brands among U.S. youth (12-17 years), young adult (18-24 years), and adult (25 years and above) e-cigarette users. Data were from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study Wave 5 survey (2019). The study population was past 30-day e-cigarette users who knew the brand of e-cigarettes they usually/last used (N = 2569). JUUL use was reported by 65.2% of youth, 60.7% of young adult, and 25.6% of adult e-cigarette users in our study sample. The share of JUUL consumed in the past 30 days, measured by the total number of puffs, was 15.4% by youth, 55.5% by young adults, and 29.1% by adults. By contrast, the share of other e-cigarettes consumed was 4.2% by youth, 28.9% by young adults, and 66.9% by adults. Youth JUUL users were more likely to use e-cigarettes within 30 min after waking (aOR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.12-4.75) than youth users of other brands of e-cigarettes. Additionally, youth e-cigarette users who currently smoked cigarettes were less likely to use JUUL (aOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.30-0.99). This study concludes that JUUL consumption was disproportionally higher among youth and young adults in the U.S. in 2019.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fumantes , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078553

RESUMO

Background: South Korea has made substantial progress on tobacco control, but cigarette smoking prevalence is still high. Previous studies were conducted before the use of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) or heated tobacco products (HTPs) became popular. Thus, whether the concurrent use of NVPs or HTPs affects quit intentions among Korean smokers remains a question that needs to be explored. This study aims to identify predictors of quit intentions among cigarette-only smokers and concurrent users of cigarettes and NVPs or HTPs. Methods: Data were from the 2020 International Tobacco Control Korea Survey. Included in the analysis were 3778 adult cigarette smokers: 1900 at-least-weekly exclusive smokers and 1878 at-least-weekly concurrent smokers and HTP or NVP users. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: Quit intentions were reported by 66.4% of respondents. Factors significantly associated with quit intentions included younger age, having a spouse/partner, lower nicotine dependence, reporting a past quit attempt, regretting starting smoking, believing that smoking had damaged health, worrying that smoking will damage future health, and perceiving health benefits of quitting. Current use of NVPs or HTPs was not significantly associated with quit intentions. Conclusions: This study contributes the following to current literature: intrinsic health-related beliefs were more important than societal norms in shaping quit intentions. These findings should be considered in shaping future smoking cessation policies, such as reinforcing education programs that emphasize the benefits of quitting for personal health reasons, lowering nicotine dependence, and encouraging multiple quit attempts and successful quitting.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Adulto , Humanos , Intenção , Nicotina , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fumantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078595

RESUMO

Financial incentives offered to those who quit smoking have been found effective, also in persons with low socioeconomic status (SES), but no previous study has investigated who benefits most: smokers with low or high SES. In this community-randomized trial ("Richer without smoking"), three Danish municipalities were randomized to reward persons who were abstinent when attending the municipal smoking cessation program (FIMs) and three municipalities were randomized to spend the same amount on smoking cessation campaigns recruiting smokers to the smoking cessation program (CAMs). The municipalities each received approximately USD 16,000. An intention-to-treat approach was used in analyses. In regression analyses adjusted for individual- and municipal-level differences, we found that smokers with high SES living in FIMs had significantly higher proportion of validated long-term successful quitters (OR (95% CI): 2.59 (1.6-4.2)) than high-SES smokers living in CAM. Smokers with low SES, however, did not experience the same benefit of financial incentives as smokers with high SES. Neither the FIMs nor the CAMs succeeded in attracting more smokers with low SES during the intervention year 2018 than the year before. Our study showed that smokers with low SES did not experience the same benefit of financial incentives as smokers with high SES.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Dinamarca , Humanos , Motivação , Fumantes , Fumar , Classe Social
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 984349, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091058

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the second most common and the most lethal malignancy worldwide. It is estimated that lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) accounts for 10-25% of cases, and its incidence is increasing according to recent data, although the reasons remain unclear. If considered alone, LCINS is the 7th most common cause of cancer death. These tumors occur more commonly in younger patients and females. LCINS tend to have a better prognosis, possibly due to a higher chance of bearing an actionable driver mutation, making them amenable to targeted therapy. Notwithstanding, these tumors respond poorly to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). There are several putative explanations for the poor response to immunotherapy: low immunogenicity due to low tumor mutation burden and hence low MANA (mutation-associated neo-antigen) load, constitutive PD-L1 expression in response to driver mutated protein signaling, high expression of immunosuppressive factors by tumors cells (like CD39 and TGF-beta), non-permissive immune TME (tumor microenvironment), abnormal metabolism of amino acids and glucose, and impaired TLS (Tertiary Lymphoid Structures) organization. Finally, there is an increasing concern of offering ICI as first line therapy to these patients owing to several reports of severe toxicity when TKIs (tyrosine kinase inhibitors) are administered sequentially after ICI. Understanding the biology behind the immune response against these tumors is crucial to the development of better therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fumantes , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
14.
Addict Biol ; 27(5): e13221, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco addiction is a chronic, relapsing mental disorder characterized by compulsive tobacco seeking and smoking. Current evidence shows that tobacco addiction exerts their initial reinforcing effects by activating reward circuits in the brain, but the causal connectivity among reward circuits is still unclear. Therefore, it is vital to understand how the reward network works to lead to the compulsive smoking behaviour. METHOD: We applied dynamic causal modelling (DCM) to resting-state functional magnetic resonance (rs-fMRI) to characterize changes in effective connectivity (EC) among eight major hubs from reward network between 76 long-term male smokers and 55 nonsmoking volunteers (matched with age, gender and education). RESULTS: Relative to the healthy controls, long-term smokers had stronger ECs from the right anterior insula to left ventral striatum, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to ventral tegmental area (VTA), PCC to left anterior insula, left anterior insula to VTA, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to PCC and weaker ECs from the VTA to left ventral striatum, right anterior insula to right ventral striatum, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to right anterior insula. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings revealed disrupted neural causal interactions among parts of the reward network associated with tobacco addiction, expanding the growing evidence for the potential neurobiological mechanisms of tobacco addiction. We found abnormalities within the mesocorticolimbic system and a top-down regulation disorder in the dopamine-dependent process of response inhibition and salience attribution among long-term smokers, which may facilitate the development of effective therapies in tobacco addiction.


Assuntos
Recompensa , Fumantes , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955123

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions. However, some challenges, such as relapse rates, remain. The availability of information technologies (ICTs) offers promising opportunities to address such challenges. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol followed to assess the efficacy of a face-to-face cognitive-behavioral intervention for smoking cessation using a smartphone application as a complement, compared with a control group. A single blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial is proposed (NCT04765813). The participants will be smokers over 18 years old, who smoke at least eight cigarettes per day. Participants will be randomized to one of two conditions, using a 1:1 allocation ratio: (1) cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment along with an App with active therapeutic components (SinHumo App); or (2) cognitive-behavioral treatment along with the use of a control App (without active components). The experimental App will be used during the eight treatment sessions and for 12 months after the end of treatment. The primary outcome measures will be 7-days point-prevalence abstinence at 12-months follow-up. We expect the experimental App to obtain higher abstinence rates at the end of treatment and at one-year post-treatment follow-ups and lower relapse rates, compared to the control App.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Método Simples-Cego , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(8)2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36013573

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between smoking status and single-nucleotide polymorphism in candidate genes that had a known association with smoking-related tumors in previous studies and to explore their link to laryngeal cancer risk in a population of northern Romanian descent. The genes selected have key functions in xenobiotic metabolism (GSTs: the glutathione S-transferases family: GSTM1 and GSTT1) and chromosomal management (TERT). Materials and Methods: The genotype frequencies of TERTRs2736100 and the GST subfamilies (GSTM1 and GSTT1) were determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The relationship between the polymorphisms and the risk of laryngeal cancer was analyzed in a retrospective case-control study of 92 laryngeal cancer cases and 101 controls, all of whom were smokers. Results: Subjects presenting the GSTT1-null variant had a two-fold increase in risk (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.07-3.95, p = 0.02). While no individual risk was observed for the TERTRs2736100 polymorphism, stratification based on gender revealed a nine-fold increase in risk for carriers of the "C" allele in the heterozygote variant who were male (OR = 9, 65% CI = 3.51-26.51, p = 0.0000). Conclusions: The results showed that the GSTT1-null genotype and the mutant heterozygote variant of TERTRs2736100 genes may play a significant role in laryngeal cancer susceptibility in subjects of northern Romanian descent. There may be no association between the susceptibility to laryngeal carcinoma and the GSTM1 polymorphism. The results could not confirm the carcinogenic influence smoking has on laryngeal cancer development for the studied polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/genética , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Telomerase , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Romênia , Fumantes , Telomerase/genética
19.
Trials ; 23(1): 681, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health (mHealth) is promising in developing personalised smoking cessation interventions. By using an adaptive trial design, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of personalised mHealth intervention in increasing smoking cessation. METHODS: This study is a two-arm, parallel, accessor-blinded Sequential Multiple-Assignment Randomised Trial (SMART) that randomises 1200 daily cigarette smokers from 70 community sites at two timepoints. In the first phase, participants receive brief cessation advice plus referral assistance to smoking cessation services and are randomly allocated to receive personalised instant messaging (PIM) or regular instant messaging (RIM). In the second phase, PIM participants who are non-responders (i.e. still smoking at 1 month) are randomised to receive either optional combined interventions (multi-media messages, nicotine replacement therapy sampling, financial incentive for active referral, phone counselling, and family/peer support group chat) or continued-PIM. Non-responders in the RIM group are randomised to receive PIM or continued-RIM. Participants who self-report quitting smoking for 7 days or longer at 1 month (responders) in both groups continue to receive the intervention assigned in phase 1. The primary outcomes are biochemical abstinence validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (< 4 ppm) and salivary cotinine (< 10 ng/ml) at 3 and 6 months from treatment initiation. Intention-to-treat analysis will be adopted. DISCUSSION: This is the first study using a SMART design to evaluate the effect of adaptive mHealth intervention on abstinence in community-recruited daily smokers. If found effective, the proposed intervention will inform the development of adaptive smoking cessation treatment and benefits smokers non-responding to low-intensity mHealth support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03992742 . Registered on 20 June 2019.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
20.
Addict Behav ; 135: 107456, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944381

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Attentional bias (AB) is an individual difference risk factor that represents the extent to which cigarette cues capture one's attention. AB is typically indexed by mean bias score (MBS), theoretically assuming that AB is static. However, poor reliability of MBS has threatened valid interpretation of the results on AB. Based on observed trial-by-trial temporal fluctuation and variability of attentional allocation, trial-level bias score (TLBS) has been introduced as an alternative index with evidence of better psychometric properties in various populations, as compared to MBS. However, such evidence is limited among daily smokers. The current study aimed to replicate and extend extant findings in a sample of daily smokers by hypothesizing that TLBS, as compared to MBS, would demonstrate superior reliability and external validity. METHODS: Forty-eight daily smokers completed self-reports, ad-libitum smoking, and a dot-probe task three times, which was comprised of 36 pairs of pictorial stimuli of cigarette and neutral cues, yielding 144 total trials. RESULTS: The TLBS demonstrated superior internal (range intra class correlation [ICC] = 0.79-0.95) and test-retest reliability (range ICC = 0.64-0.88) compared to MBS (range ICC = 0.31-0.40 and 0.06-0.16, respectively). However, few significant relations between either the MBS or TLBS and measures of biobehavioral and self-report indices of smoking reinforcement were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings demonstrate that TLBS, as compared to MBS, is a more reliable measure of AB among daily smokers, while evidence of its external validity is limited.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Fumantes , Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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