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1.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 19: 1261-1272, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863653

RESUMO

Introduction: Mortality differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) between nonsmokers and smokers remain unclear. We compared the risk of death associated with smoking and COPD on mortality. Methods: The study included participants aged ≥40 years who visited pulmonary clinics and were categorised into COPD or non-COPD and smoker or nonsmoker on the basis of spirometry results and cigarette consumption. Mortality rates were compared between groups using statistical analysis for all-cause mortality, respiratory disease-related mortality, and cardiocerebrovascular disease-related mortality. Results: Among 5811 participants, smokers with COPD had a higher risk of all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-2.33) and respiratory disease-related mortality (aHR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.20-3.79) than nonsmokers with COPD. Non-smokers with and without COPD had comparable risks of all-cause mortality (aHR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.98-1.97) and respiratory disease-related mortality (aHR, 1.77; 95% CI, 0.85-3.68). However, nonsmokers with COPD had a higher risk of cardiocerebrovascular disease-related mortality than nonsmokers without COPD (aHR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.15-4.40). Conclusion: The study found that smokers with COPD had higher risks of all-cause mortality and respiratory disease-related mortality compared to nonsmokers with and without COPD. Meanwhile, nonsmokers with COPD showed comparable risks of all-cause and respiratory mortality but had a higher risk of cardiocerebrovascular disease-related mortality compared to nonsmokers without COPD.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumar , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/mortalidade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Adulto , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Prognóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Pulmão/fisiopatologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13068, 2024 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844495

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy represents one of the main long-term complications in T2DM patients. Cigarette smoking represents one of modifiable renal risk factors to kidney damage due to lead (Pb) exposure in these patients. Our goal is to investigate serum copeptin and Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and urinary lead (UPb) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients even smokers and non-smokers groups and compared to corresponding health controls and assess its associations with Angiotensin-Converting enzyme Insertion/Deletion polymorphism [ACE (I/D)] polymorphism in diabetic nephropathy progression in those patients. In present study, 106 T2DM patients and 102 healthy control individuals were enrolled. Serum glucose, copeptin, KIM-1, total cholesterol (TChol), triglycerides (TG), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and UPb levels and ACE (I/D) polymorphisms were assessed in both groups. Results mentioned to significant variations in all parameters compared to in T2DM group compared to control group. Serum copeptin and UPb demonstrated significant difference in diabetic smokers (DS) and diabetic non-smokers (DNS) groups while KIM-1 exhibited significant change between DNS and healthy control non-smokers (CNS) groups. Positive relation was recorded between serum glucose and KIM-1 while negative one was found between serum copeptin and TChol. D allele was associated with significant variation in most parameters in T2DM, especially insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism. ROC curve analysis (AUC) for serum copeptin was 0.8, p < 0.044 and for Kim-1 was 0.54, p = 0.13 while for uPb was 0.71, p < 0.033. Serum copeptin and UPb might be a prognostic biomarker for renal function decline in smoker T2DM patients while KIM-1 was potent marker in non-smoker T2DM with association with D allele of ACE I/D gene polymorphism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicopeptídeos , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Polimorfismo Genético , Humanos , Masculino , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Mutação INDEL , Fumantes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adulto , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Biomarcadores/sangue , Curva ROC
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 24(1): 292, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is recognized as a major cause of cardiovascular disease, which is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is evaluated using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), which is a noninvasive method. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between smoking exposure and endothelial function evaluated using FMD values. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases for cohort studies of smokers or passive smokers that used FMD to assess endothelial function. The primary outcome of the study was the change in the rate of FMD. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Further, the weighted mean difference was used to analyze the continuous data. RESULTS: Overall, 14 of 1426 articles were included in this study. The results of these articles indicated that smoking is a major cause of endothelial dysfunction and altered FMD; a pooled effect size of - 3.15 was obtained with a 95% confidence interval of (- 3.84, - 2.46). Notably, pregnancy status, Asian ethnicity, or health status did not affect heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: We found that smoking has a significant negative impact on FMD, and measures such as medication or education for smoking cessation may improve endothelial function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO on April 5th, 2023 (CRD42023414654).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Endotélio Vascular , Vasodilatação , Humanos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Medição de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Fumantes , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
4.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606915, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847005

RESUMO

Objective: This research conducted two studies in South Korea to explore the relationship between smokers' self-construals and the types of cigarettes they use, emphasizing their combined effects on cessation campaign effectiveness. Methods: Study 1 explored how smokers' self-construals influenced their intentions to quit smoking or vaping, considering their primary cigarette usage. Study 2 further investigated this relationship within cessation campaigns, employing messages framed by both self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) and cigarette type (combustible vs. electronic). Results: The results of Study 1 showed that individuals with a strong interdependent self-construal were more likely to express intentions to quit smoking or vaping when using e-cigarettes compared to combustible cigarettes. Similarly, Study 2 demonstrated that cessation messages for e-cigarettes were more effective in eliciting intentions to quit when presented with an interdependent self-construal frame, while messages for combustible cigarettes showed greater effectiveness with an independent self-construal frame. Conclusion: Campaigns solely focused on independent self-construals might not effectively persuade e-cigarette users to quit, as they may prioritize communal wellbeing over individual benefits. Adapting anti-e-cigarette campaigns to align with the values of interdependent self-construals could yield better outcomes in promoting cessation among e-cigarette users.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Intenção , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , República da Coreia , Adulto , Fumantes/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vaping/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Produtos do Tabaco , Autoimagem
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1729: 465030, 2024 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838449

RESUMO

Exposure to tobacco smoke is highly correlated to the incidence of different types of cancer due to various carcinogenic compounds present in such smoke. Aromatic amines, such as 1-naphthylamine (1-NA) and 2-naphthylamine (2-NA), are produced in tobacco burning and are linked to bladder cancer. Miniaturized solid phase extraction techniques, such as microporous membrane solid phase extraction (MMSPE), have shown potential for the extraction of aromatic compounds. In this study, a bioanalytical method for the determination of 1-NA and 2-NA in human urine was developed using polypropylene microporous membranes as a sorptive phase for MMSPE. Urine samples were hydrolyzed with HCl for 1 h at 80 °C, after which pH was adjusted to 10. Ultrasound-assisted MMSPE procedure was optimized by factorial design as follows. To each sample, 750 µL of methanol was added, and ultrasound-assisted MMSPE was conducted for 1 h with four devices containing seven 2 mm polypropylene membrane segments. After extraction, the segments were transferred to 400 µL of hexane, and desorption was conducted for 30 min. Extracts were submitted to a simple and fast microwave-assisted derivatization procedure, by the addition of 10 µL of PFPA and heating at 480 W for 3 min, followed by clean-up with phosphate buffer pH 8.0 and GC-MS/MS analysis. Adequate linearity was obtained for both analytes in a range from 25 to 500 µg L-1, while the multiple reaction monitoring approach provided satisfactory selectivity and specificity. Intra-day (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 5) precision and accuracy were satisfactory, below 15 % and between 85 and 115 %, respectively. Recovery rates found were 91.9 and 58.4 % for 1-NA and 2-NA, respectively, with adequate precision. 1-NA was found in first-hand smokers' urine samples in a concentration range from 20.98 to 89.09 µg in 24 h, while it could be detected in second-hand smoker's urine samples, and 2-NA detected in all first and second-hand smokers' urine samples. The proposed method expands the applicability of low cost MMSPE devices to aromatic amines and biological fluids.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Polipropilenos , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Polipropilenos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , 1-Naftilamina/análogos & derivados , 1-Naftilamina/química , Membranas Artificiais , 2-Naftilamina/análogos & derivados , 2-Naftilamina/química , Porosidade , Fumantes
6.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(3): 479-486, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess cigarette demand among Chinese smokers through a cigarette purchase task (CPT) and to evaluate cigarette prices under different hypothetical scenarios in order to meet the goals of smoking prevalence reduction in China. METHODS: In the study, 447 participants completed a hypothetical CPT at baseline assessments of a trial, thus, cigarette demand curves were individually fitted for each participant using an exponentiated version of the exponential demand model. Typically, five demand indices were derived, intensity (consumption when free), breakpoint (first price at which consumption is suppressed to 0), maximum output (Omax), maximum price (Pmax, price at which Omax occurred), and elasticity (the ratio of the change in quantity demanded to the change in price). A one-way analysis of variance was used to explore the correlations between the cigarette purchase task indices and socio-demographic and smoking characteristics. The one-way decay model was employed to simulate the smoking cessation rates and determine optimal cigarette prices in a series of scenarios for achieving 20% smoking prevalence. RESULTS: The price elasticity drawn from CPT was 0.54, indicating that a 10% price increase could reduce smoking by 5.4% in the participated smokers. Smokers with higher income were less sensitive to cigarette prices (elasticity=-2.31, P=0.028). Cigarette purchase task indices varied significantly among the smokers with different prices of commonly used cigarettes, tobacco dependence, and smoking volume. The smokers who consumed cigarettes of higher prices reported higher breakpoint, Omax and Pmax, but lower intensity (P=0.001). The smokers who were moderately or highly nicotine dependent reported higher intensity, breakpoint, Omax and Pmax, and they had lower intensity (P=0.001). The smokers who had a higher volume of cigarettes reported higher intensity and Omax, and lower intensity (P < 0.001). To achieve the goal of reducing smoking prevalence to 20% in mainland China, we estimated the desired increase on smoking cessation rate and prices accordingly in a series of scenarios, considering the gender variance and reduced smoking initiation. In scenario (a), to achieve a smoking prevalence goal of 20%, it would be necessary for 24.81% of the current smokers to quit smoking when there were no new smokers. Our fitting model yielded a corresponding value of 59.64 yuan (95%CI 53.13-67.24). Given the assumption in scenario (b) that only males quitted smoking, the desired cessation rates would be 25.82%, with a higher corresponding price of 62.15 yuan (95%CI 55.40-70.06) to induce desired cessation rates. In the proposed scenario (c) where 40 percent of the reduction in smoking prevalence came from reduced smoking initiation, and females and males equally quitted smoking due to increased cigarette prices, the price of a pack of cigarettes would be at least 37.36 yuan (95%CI 32.32-42.69) (equals to $ 5.20) per pack to achieve the cessation rate of 14.89 percent. In scenario (d) where only males quitted smoking due to increased cigarette prices considering the reduced smoking initiation, the respective smoking cessation rates should be 15.49% with the desired prices of 38.60 yuan (95%CI 33.53-44.02). After adjusting for education levels and income levels in scenario (c), the price of cigarettes would be at least 37.37 yuan/pack (equals to $ 5.20) (95%CI 30.73-44.94) and 37.84 yuan/pack (equals to $ 5.26) (95%CI 31.94-44.53), respectively. CONCLUSION: Cigarette purchase task indices are significantly associated with income levels and prices of commonly used cigarettes, levels of tobacco dependence, and smoking volume, which is inspiring in studying price factors that influence smoking behavior. It is suggested that higher cigarette prices, surpassing the current actual market level, is imperative in mainland China. Stronger policy stra-tegies should be taken to increase tobacco taxes and retail cigarette prices to achieve the Healthy China 2030 goal of reducing smoking prevalence to 20%.


Assuntos
Comércio , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/economia , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Controle do Tabagismo
7.
Amino Acids ; 56(1): 41, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851640

RESUMO

Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition of supporting structures of teeth leading to attachment and bone loss. Cigarette smoking is the single most important and modifiable risk factor with 5 to 20-fold susceptibility for periodontal diseases. Reverse smoking is a peculiar habit of smoking where the lit end is kept inside the mouth, which is predominant in the northern coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. Polyamines are biologically active amines involved in tissue regeneration and modulation of inflammation. The study aimed to evaluate polyamines and check their utility as a marker in detection of periodontitis among different groups. Total polyamine levels showed significant increase in reverse smokers with periodontitis when compared to the other groups. Qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography showed three polyamine bands with varying intensity among the different groups. Mass spectrometric and NMR analyses of the three bands identified them as N1, N8-diacetyl spermidine, N-acetyl cadaverine and lysine. Most significantly elevated levels of lysine was observed in the smoker and reverse smoker periodontitis groups when compared to healthy and non-smoker periodontitis groups. The significantly elevated levels of N-acetyl cadaverine could be responsible for the more destruction of periodontium in the reverse smoker group. Antioxidant potential decreased significantly in different smoker periodontitis groups. The present study suggests that the quantitative analysis of salivary polyamines, lysine and N-acetyl cadaverine can aid as an easy noninvasive diagnostic method for assessing the periodontal status, especially in smokers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Cadaverina , Lisina , Periodontite , Humanos , Periodontite/metabolismo , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Cadaverina/metabolismo , Cadaverina/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/análise , Lisina/metabolismo , Adulto , Masculino , Fumantes , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo
8.
Vopr Virusol ; 69(2): 187-192, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most common human viral infections and has a double-stranded DNA genome belonging to the Herpesviridae family. Smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and premature death worldwide, responsible for the death of up to six million people annually. The purpose of the current study was to determine the seroprevalence of HSV-1 infection among smokers. Methods. The search strategy was conducted in the period from December 2022 to January 2023. The study included a random sample of 94 (88 males, and 6 females) healthy participants, aged between ≤ 20 to ≥ 60 years, with 50 participants as the control group. The HSV serological testing consisted of detecting antibodies to HSV-1 IgG with the help of ELISA. RESULTS: Most participants were university students, consisting of 45.7% males and 5.3% females, followed by employed smokers, consisting of 0.2% males and 1.1% females. The number of females was much lower than that of males reaching 6.4 and 93.6% respectively, due to customs and traditions. The seroprevalence was 24.47, 22.3 and 2.1% in males and females respectively. The seroprevalence rate was 13.8% in hookah and cigarette smokers, 9% in cigarette smokers and 1.1% in hookah smokers exclusively. The highest rate was observed in the age groups of 21-30 and 31-40 years with 12.80% and 7.40% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgG was 24.47%, and was higher among hookah and cigarette smokers compared to those who exclusively smoked cigarettes or hookah.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Fumantes , Humanos , Masculino , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpes Simples/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Adolescente
9.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 19: 1315-1331, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38895046

RESUMO

Purpose: Cigarette smoking is the most recognized risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. However, there are no studies analyzing the impact of different smoking behaviors on pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension (PH) among Chinese male patients with COPD. Patients and Methods: Chinese male smokers with COPD performed pulmonary function tests. Clinical characteristics, smoking behavior features, spirometry and echocardiographic results were compared between the two groups stratified by initial smoking age (18 years old) or complicated PH. Results: The early-smoking group had more respiratory symptoms, more severe smoking behavior, worse pulmonary function with lower FEV1%pre (38.5% vs 70.2%) and FEV1/FVC% (47.5% vs 63.8%), and higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP: 38.6 vs 33.9 mmHg) than the late-smoking group. Initiating smoking before adulthood was an independently contributing factor of ventilatory dysfunction and Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage escalation. It also had a significant interaction with long smoking duration (≥30 years), characterized by markedly decreased lung volumes (VC%pre: 64.0% vs 84.5%), impaired diffusing capacity (DLCO%pre: 58.0% vs 76.8%) and severe emphysema (RV/TLC%pre: 145.2% vs 130.2%). COPD patients complicated with PH exhibited worse ventilatory function (FEV1%pre: 43.2% vs 56.2%), impaired diffusion capacity (DLCO%pre: 56.7% vs 77.1%) and decreased lung volume (VC%pre: 67.67% vs 75.38%). Both severe smoking behaviors and impaired pulmonary function had close correlations with sPAP. Conclusion: The early-smoking group exhibited predominantly ventilation dysfunction and had complex interactions with long smoking duration to further affect lung volume and diffusion capacity. Different smoking behaviors influenced variations of pulmonary dysfunction and comorbid PH in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumar , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Idoso , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital , Espirometria , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Fatores de Tempo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumantes , Pressão Arterial , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , População do Leste Asiático
10.
Narra J ; 4(1): e654, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798858

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a significant global challenge, impacting health systems, economies, and societies. Its prevalence is anticipated to rise owing to an aging demographic. Although the PUMA and CAPTURE questionnaires are available for COPD screening, their comparative effectiveness has not been studied in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the PUMA and CAPTURE questionnaires as screening tools for COPD among smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Universitas Sumatera Utara Hospital and H. Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, Indonesia, from December 2022 to February 2023. Smokers aged over 40 or above with a history of smoking more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and no previous COPD diagnosis were included in the study. To collect the responses to PUMA and CAPTURE questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were conducted, followed by a spirometry test. A total of 76 smokers were included in the study; the predominant age group was 51-60 years (36.8%), with the majority being male (81.6%). Most participants began smoking at ages 15-20 years (65.8%) and had been smoking for 20-30 years (36.8%) at a moderate intensity (44.8%). Spirometry tests indicated obstructive patterns in 50 participants, with 17 classified as severe obstruction. At a cut-off score of ≥6, the PUMA questionnaire yielded a sensitivity of 72.55% and a specificity of 84%. In contrast, the CAPTURE questionnaire, with a cut-off score of ≥4, exhibited a sensitivity of 70.83% and a specificity of 64.29%. These results imply that the PUMA questionnaire could be more efficient in COPD screening compared to the CAPTURE questionnaire.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Espirometria , Idoso , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12321, 2024 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38811767

RESUMO

Impulsivity dimensions have been shown to be associated with smoking status and tobacco use disorder severity. However, it is important to determine the specific impulsivity traits associated with smoking relapse. This study aimed at investigating the associations between impulsivity traits and smoking cessation success among adult smokers at 12 months after a quit attempt. Participants were 68 adult smokers enrolled in a 3-month course of simvastatine or placebo associated with behavioral cessation support, with a 9-month follow-up (ADDICSTATINE study). They were classified in 3 groups according to smoking status: abstinent, reduction ≥ 50%baseline or reduction < 50%baseline at 3 and 12 months. Impulsivity traits were assessed using the UPPS-P-scale. At 12 months, abstainers and participants who reduced smoking by 50% or more had significantly lower scores in negative and positive urgency compared to participants who reduced smoking by less than 50% (p = 0.011 and 0.0059). These urgency traits scores at 12 months were significantly and negatively correlated with smoking reduction at 12 months (p = 0.017 and 0.0012). These impulsivity traits were also associated with the smoking cessation success at 3 months. Patients who were abstinent at 3 months had also lower negative and positive urgency (p = 0.017 and 0.0039). Smoking cessation success at 3 and 12 months were not associated with the other impulsivity traits, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation or perseverance. Our findings suggest that positive and negative urgency are associated with smoking cessation success. Proposing better tailored-based-treatment targeting these impulsivity traits in combination with conventional treatment may help improving smoking treatment success.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Tabagismo/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Seguimentos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To enhance tobacco control in Japan, the government set a future smoking rate target (smoking prevalence = 12% by 2022) arguing that the "smoking rate target is expected if only smokers who want to quit smoking now, actually quit". However, ideally both those wanting to quit now and those who wanted to in the past will succeed in the future. We aimed to re-define smokers who intend to quit and estimate their number. We also examined determinants of intention to quit, including daily tobacco consumption and tobacco use categories (exclusive combustible cigarette users, exclusive heated tobacco product (HTP) users, and dual (combustible cigarette and HTP)) users. METHODS: Using data from the 2021 Japan 'Society and New Tobacco' Internet Survey, we analyzed 5,072 current smokers (had used combustible cigarettes or HTPs in the past 30 days) aged 20-80 years. Smokers who intend to quit were defined as total smokers who want to quit now, have previously attempted or previously wanted to quit. Log-Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for intention to quit (current or current/past), adjusting for potential covariates such as tobacco use categories. RESULTS: Among current smokers, 40.6% want to quit now, 27.0% have previously attempted and 9.0% have previously wanted to quit. Smokers of over 20 tobacco sticks/day are less likely to want to quit now than 1-10 /day (aOR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.71-0.87) and less likely to intend to quit (both current and past) (aOR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.88-0.98). Exclusive HTP and dual users were more likely to intend to quit (both current and past) than exclusive combustible cigarette users (aOR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.04-1.14) and (aOR = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.03-1.12). CONCLUSIONS: In total, 76.6% of current smokers, were defined as having intention to quit (both current and past). Applying this percentage to the target calculation, Japan's smoking rate target would be 3.9%, considerably lower than the current target of 12%. The Japanese government may have to revise the smoking rate target. Additionally, we found that the usage of HTPs reduces intention to quit smoking. These insights have implications for setting of smoking rate targets and regulating HTPs in different countries.


Assuntos
Intenção , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Japão , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia
13.
Anal Methods ; 16(21): 3311-3317, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38766840

RESUMO

The concentration in urine of N-acetyl-hydroxy-propyl-cisteine (3HPMA), an acrolein metabolite, has been employed as a marker of the risk of illness of smokers and the relative concentration of creatinine has been evaluated to verify the effect of moving from the practice of burning tobacco to nicotine vaping. From the results concerning the urine samples of 38 subjects, collected from 2021 to 2023 and analyzed by LC-MS/MS, corresponding to 5 active smokers, 13 previously heavy smokers who replaced traditional tobacco by vaping, and 20 non-smokers, a dramatic reduction was found in 3HPMA/creatinine in urine. 3HPMA varied from values of 2150-3100 µg gcreatinine-1 to levels of 225-625 µg gcreatinine-1 found for non-smokers, with the time decay described by the equation y = 0.3661x2 - 94.359x + 6246.4 (R2: 0.757), providing a time of approximately 10 years for tobacco memory after the cessation of the consumption of burned tobacco.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Nicotiana/química , Creatinina/urina , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Masculino , Adulto , Fumar/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Fumar Tabaco/urina , Feminino , Vaping , Fumantes , Acetilcisteína/análogos & derivados
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11279, 2024 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760463

RESUMO

The detrimental effects of smoking are multisystemic and its effects on the eye health are significant. Smoking is a strong risk factor for age-related nuclear cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, delayed corneal epithelial healing and increased risk of cystoid macular edema in patients with intermediate uveitis among others. We aimed to characterize the aqueous humor (AH) proteome in chronic smokers to gain insight into its perturbations and to identify potential biomarkers for smoking-associated ocular pathologies. Compared to the control group, chronic smokers displayed 67 (37 upregulated, 30 downregulated) differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Analysis of DEPs from the biological point of view revealed that they were proteins involved in complement activation, lymphocyte mediated immunity, innate immune response, cellular oxidant detoxification, bicarbonate transport and platelet degranulation. From the molecular function point of view, DEPs were involved in oxygen binding, oxygen carrier activity, hemoglobin binding, peptidase/endopeptidase/cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitory activity. Several of the upregulated proteins were acute phase reactant proteins such as clusterin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, fibrinogen, alpha-1-antitrypsin, C4b-binding protein and serum amyloid A-2. Further research should confirm if these proteins might serve as biomarkers or therapeutic target for smoking-associated ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso , Proteômica , Humanos , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fumantes , Idoso , Adulto
15.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 11: e49519, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking remains one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. A worldwide study by the World Health Organization concluded that more than 8 million people die every year from smoking, tobacco consumption, and secondhand smoke. The most effective tobacco cessation programs require personalized human intervention combined with costly pharmaceutical supplementation, making them unaffordable or inaccessible to most tobacco users. Thus, digital interventions offer a promising alternative to these traditional methods. However, the leading smartphone apps available in the market today have either not been studied in a clinical setting or are unable to match the smoking cessation success rates of their expensive offline counterparts. We would like to understand whether QuitSure, a novel smoking cessation app built by Rapidkart Online Private Limited, is able to bridge this efficacy gap and deliver affordable and effective smoking cessation at scale. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to do an initial exploration into the engagement, efficacy, and safety of QuitSure based on the self-reported experiences of its users. Outcomes measured were program completion, the effect of program completion on smoking behavior, including self-reported cessation outcomes, and negative health events from using the app. METHODS: All QuitSure registered users who created their accounts on the QuitSure app between April 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022, were sent an anonymized web-based survey. The survey results were added to their engagement data on the app to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the app as a smoking cessation intervention. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and the χ2 test of independence. RESULTS: In total, 1299 users who had completed the QuitSure program submitted the survey and satisfied the inclusion criteria of the study. Of these, 1286 participants had completed the program more than 30 days before filling out the survey, and 1040 (80.1%, 95% CI 79.1%-82.6%) of them had maintained prolonged abstinence for at least 30 days after program completion. A majority of participants (770/891, 86.4%) who were still maintaining abstinence at the time of submitting the survey did not experience any severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms, while 41.9% (373/891) experienced no mild withdrawal symptoms either. Smoking quantity prior to completing the program significantly affected quit rates (P<.001), with heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes per day) having a lower 30-day prolonged abstinence rate (relative risk=0.91; 95% CI 90.0%-96.2%) compared to lighter smokers. No additional adverse events outside of known nicotine withdrawal symptoms were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The nature of web-based surveys and cohort selection allows for extensive unknown biases. However, the efficacy rates of survey respondents who completed the program were high and provide a case for further investigation in the form of randomized controlled trials on the QuitSure tobacco cessation program.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Internet
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(11): e034779, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38804231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of stroke, particularly the older population, are at an increased risk of falls and incident fractures. Smoking is a widely recognized risk factor for fractures. However, the association between changes in smoking habits before and after an index stroke and increased risk of fracture remains unelucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the Korean National Health Insurance program, patients with ischemic stroke between 2010 and 2016 were enrolled. Individuals were classified by smoking habits: "never smoker," "former smoker," "smoking quitter," "new smoker," and "sustained smoker." The primary outcome was the composite outcome of the vertebral, hip, and any fractures. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted, using the never-smoker group as the reference. Among 177 787 patients with health screening data within 2 years before and after ischemic stroke, 14 991 (8.43%) patients had any fractures. After multivariable adjustment, the sustained smokers had a significantly increased risk of composite primary outcomes of any, vertebral, and hip fractures (adjusted HR [aHR], 1.222 [95% CI, 1.124-1.329]; aHR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.13-1.428]; aHR, 1.502 [95% CI, 1.218-1.853], respectively). Additionally, the new smoker group exhibited a similar or higher risk of any fractures and hip fractures (aHR, 1.218 [95% CI, 1.062-1.397]; aHR, 1.772 [95% CI, 1.291-2.431], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Sustained smokers had a significantly increased risk of vertebral and hip fractures after an ischemic stroke. The risk of any hip fractures was higher in new smokers after ischemic stroke. As poststroke fractures are detrimental to the rehabilitation process of patients with stroke, physicians should actively advise patients to stop smoking.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Fumar , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/etiologia , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 332: 118298, 2024 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714238

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a popular beverage consumed all over the world due to its health benefits. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are attributed to polyphenols, particularly catechins. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study focuses on underlying anti-platelet aggregation, anti-thrombotic, and anti-lipidemic molecular mechanisms of green tea in South Indian smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 120 South Indian male volunteers for this study to collect the blood and categorised them into four groups; control group individuals (Controls), smokers, healthy control individuals consuming green tea, and smokers consuming green tea. Smokers group subjects have been smoking an average 16-18 cigarettes per day for the last 7 years or more. The subjects (green tea consumed groups) consumed 100 mL of green tea each time, thrice a day for a one-year period. RESULTS: LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of multiple phytocompounds along with catechins in green tea extract. Increased plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls, cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol with decreased HDL-cholesterol levels were observed in smokers compared to the control group and the consumption of green tea showed beneficial effect. Furthermore, docking studies revealed that natural compounds of green tea had high binding capacity with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA) when compared to their positive controls, whereas (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-) epicatechin-gallate (ECG) had high binding capacity with sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1c). Further, our ex vivo studies showed that green tea extract (GTE) significantly inhibited platelet aggregation and increased thrombolytic activity in a dose dependent manner. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in smokers, catechins synergistically lowered oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and modified the aberrant lipid profile. Furthermore, molecular docking studies supported green tea catechins' antihyperlipidemic efficacy through strong inhibitory activity on HMG-CoA reductase and SREBP1c. The mitigating effects of green tea on cardiovascular disease risk factors in smokers that have been reported can be attributed majorly to catechins or to their synergistic effects.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Chá , Humanos , Masculino , Índia , Adulto , Camellia sinensis/química , Chá/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fumar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Fumantes , Catequina/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Lipídeos/sangue , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e44973, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While text messaging has proven effective for smoking cessation (SC), engagement in the intervention remains suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate whether using more interactive and adaptive instant messaging (IM) apps on smartphones, which enable personalization and chatting with SC advisors, can enhance SC outcomes beyond the provision of brief SC advice and active referral (AR) to SC services. METHODS: From December 2018 to November 2019, we proactively recruited 700 adult Chinese daily cigarette users in Hong Kong. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio. At baseline, all participants received face-to-face brief advice on SC. Additionally, they were introduced to local SC services and assisted in selecting one. The intervention group received an additional 26 personalized regular messages and access to interactive chatting through IM apps for 3 months. The regular messages aimed to enhance self-efficacy, social support, and behavioral capacity for quitting, as well as to clarify outcome expectations related to cessation. We developed 3 sets of messages tailored to the planned quit date (within 30 days, 60 days, and undecided). Participants in the intervention group could initiate chatting with SC advisors on IM themselves or through prompts from regular messages or proactive inquiries from SC advisors. The control group received 26 SMS text messages focusing on general health. The primary outcomes were smoking abstinence validated by carbon monoxide levels of <4 parts per million at 6 and 12 months after the start of the intervention. RESULTS: Of the participants, 505/700 (72.1%) were male, and 450/648 (69.4%) were aged 40 or above. Planning to quit within 30 days was reported by 500/648 (77.2%) participants, with fewer intervention group members (124/332, 37.3%) reporting previous quit attempts compared with the control group (152/335, 45.4%; P=.04). At the 6- and 12-month follow-ups (with retention rates of 456/700, 65.1%, and 446/700, 63.7%, respectively), validated abstinence rates were comparable between the intervention (14/350, 4.0%, and 19/350, 5.4%) and control (11/350, 3.1% and 21/350, 6.0%) groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported greater utilization of SC services at 12 months (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01-1.56). Within the intervention group, engaging in chat sessions with SC advisors predicted better validated abstinence at 6 months (RR 3.29, 95% CI 1.13-9.63) and any use of SC services (RR 1.66, 95% CI 1.14-2.43 at 6 months; RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.26-2.23 at 12 months). CONCLUSIONS: An IM-based intervention, providing support and assistance alongside brief SC advice and AR, did not yield further increases in quitting rates but did encourage the utilization of SC services. Future research could explore whether enhanced SC service utilization leads to improved long-term SC outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03800719; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03800719.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hong Kong , Smartphone , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 260: 111345, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38815291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Social smoking' typically occurs predominantly or exclusively in the presence of others who are smoking. Relatively little is known about changes in the prevalence of 'social smoking identity' over time and its association with other smoking-related correlates. METHODS: Data were from the Smoking Toolkit Study, a nationally-representative cross-sectional survey in England. Participants were 26,774 adults who currently smoked or had quit in the past year, surveyed between February-2014 and April-2021. We estimated the proportion identifying as having a social smoking identity, changes over time, and associations with smoking in social situations, cigarette dependence, motivation to stop, quit attempts and success. RESULTS: Of adults who currently smoked or had quit in the past year, 34.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=33.5-34.6) identified as having a social smoking identity. There was a near linear increase in this proportion from 31.9% (95%CI=29.7-34.2) in February-2014 to 36.5% (95%CI=34.1-38.9) in April-2021. Adults who currenty smoked identifying as having a social smoking identity were less cigarette dependent (adjusted B=0.34, 95%CI=0.31-0.37) and more motivated to stop (aOR=1.20, 95%CI=1.15-1.26) than those who did not. Adults who currently smoked or had quit in the past year identifying as having a social smoking identity reported more smoking in social situations (aOR=6.45, 95%CI=6.13-6.80) and past-year quit attempts (aOR=1.22, 95%CI=1.14-1.30) than those who did not. Quit success was not associated with having a social smoking identity among adults who currently smoked or had quit in the past year and who had attempted to quit (aOR=0.90, 95%CI=0.79-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: An increasing proportion, over a third, of adults who currently smoked or had quit in the past year in England identify as having a social smoking identity. Despite being associated with lower dependence, greater motivation to quit and more quit attempts, social smoking identity is not associated with greater quit success, suggesting a complex interplay between identity and smoking-related behaviours.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Motivação , Idoso , Identificação Social , Fumantes/psicologia
20.
Stem Cell Res ; 77: 103437, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723411

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) represent a unique opportunity to model lung development and chronic bronchial diseases. We generated a hiPSC line from a highly characterized healthy heavy smoker male donor free from emphysema or tobacco related disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed using integration-free Sendai virus. The cell line had normal karyotype, expressed pluripotency hallmarks, and differentiated into the three primary germ layers. The reported UHOMi007-A iPSC line may be used as a control to model lung development, study human chronic bronchial diseases and drug testing.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Masculino , Linhagem Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Fumantes , Reprogramação Celular
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