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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479899

RESUMO

Primary pneumomediastinum is the presence of air in the interstitium of the mediastinum. The exact aetiology is unclear; nevertheless, it has been reported more frequently in patients with asthma and in individuals who use recreational drugs. It is commonly preceded by a sharp rise in intrathoracic pressure as in a Valsalva-like manoeuvre. We describe a rare case of severe pneumomediastinum with a small pneumothorax related to cannabis smoking and aggravated by vigorous sexual intercourse. The patient was successfully treated conservatively due to clinical and radiological stability and the absence of secondary cause.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Enfisema Mediastínico , Pneumotórax , Coito , Humanos , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Fumantes
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021048, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine whether the regional density of tobacco outlets in Korea was associated with the likelihood of attempting to quit among smokers. METHODS: This study was designed as a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study. Data from the 2015 Korean Community Health Survey and tobacco outlet registrations in 17 metropolitan cities and provinces with 254 communities in Korea were used for the analysis. In total, 41,013 current smokers (≥19 years of age) were included. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate regional differences associated with smokers' attempts to quit and to evaluate the effects of individual and regional characteristics on quit attempts. RESULTS: Higher tobacco outlet density was associated with lower odds of attempting to quit. Smokers who resided in districts with the highest tobacco outlet density were 18% less likely to attempt quitting (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98) than smokers who resided in the regions with the lowest tobacco outlet density (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that quit attempts were related to community-level factors, such as tobacco outlet density, as well as other individual factors. These findings support the implementation of national policies restricting the number of tobacco outlets within communities or zones and limiting tobacco marketing in tobacco outlets.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribuição , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045445, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of exposure to misinformation about e-cigarette harms found on Twitter on adult current smokers' intention to quit smoking cigarettes, intention to purchase e-cigarettes and perceived relative harm of e-cigarettes compared with regular cigarettes. SETTING: An online randomised controlled experiment conducted in November 2019 among USA and UK current smokers. PARTICIPANTS: 2400 adult current smokers aged ≥18 years who were not current e-cigarette users recruited from an online panel. Participants' were randomised in a 1:1:1:1 ratio using a least-fill randomiser function. INTERVENTIONS: Viewing 4 tweets in random order within one of four conditions: (1) e-cigarettes are just as or more harmful than smoking, (2) e-cigarettes are completely harmless, (3) e-cigarette harms are uncertain, and (4) a control condition of tweets about physical activity. PRIMARY OUTCOMES MEASURES: Self-reported post-test intention to quit smoking cigarettes, intention to purchase e-cigarettes, and perceived relative harm of e-cigarettes compared with smoking. RESULTS: Among US and UK participants, after controlling for baseline measures of the outcome, exposure to tweets that e-cigarettes are as or more harmful than smoking versus control was associated with lower post-test intention to purchase e-cigarettes (ß=-0.339, 95% CI -0.487 to -0.191, p<0.001) and increased post-test perceived relative harm of e-cigarettes (ß=0.341, 95% CI 0.273 to 0.410, p<0.001). Among US smokers, exposure to tweets that e-cigarettes are completely harmless was associated with higher post-test intention to purchase e-cigarettes (ß=0.229, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.456, p=0.048) and lower post-test perceived relative harm of e-cigarettes (ß=-0.154, 95% CI -0.258 to -0.050, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: US and UK adult current smokers may be deterred from considering using e-cigarettes after brief exposure to tweets that e-cigarettes were just as or more harmful than smoking. Conversely, US adult current smokers may be encouraged to use e-cigarettes after exposure to tweets that e-cigarettes are completely harmless. These findings suggest that misinformation about e-cigarette harms may influence some adult smokers' decisions to consider using e-cigarettes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16082420.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Humanos , Fumantes
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 668, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: From genome-wide association studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) locus on chromosome 11 was the only SNP associated with both smoking and body mass index (BMI) in European, African and Asian population. This study aims to explore the unique genetic predisposition to obesity in former smokers by examining the effects of BDNF on BMI and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: The study design is case-control study with a cohort validation in supplementary. We included 15,072 ethnic Chinese participants in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) with data of four BDNF SNPs related to both BMI and smoking behavior. We used baseline smoke exposure data in 2003-2007 and follow-up outcomes of general obesity (by BMI) and central obesity (WC) in 2008-2012. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for general obesity and central obesity associated with these SNPs were derived from logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 15,072 participants (3169 men and 11,903 women), 1664 (11.0%) had general and 7868 (52.2%) had central obesity. In 1233 former smokers, the rs6265 GG, versus AA, genotype was associated with higher risks of general obesity (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.06-3.01) and central obesity (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.47-2.92) after adjustment. These associations were not significant in never or current smokers. In former heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day) smokers, the rs6265 GG genotype showed a higher odds for general obesity (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.05-4.40), while no association was found in former light (1-9 cigarettes/day) smokers. Similar results were found for the association of rs6265 with central obesity and for the associations of other two BDNF SNPs (rs4923457 and rs11030104) with both general and central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: We firstly identified the genetic predisposition (BDNF SNPs) to general and central obesity in former smokers, particularly in former heavy smokers. The different associations of the SNPs for general/central obesity in different smoke exposure groups may be related to the competitive performance of the sites and epigenetic modification, which needs further study.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Fumantes
5.
Adv Ther ; 38(9): 4815-4835, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347255

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking may reduce the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its impact on bronchodilator efficacy is unclear. This analysis of the EMAX trial explored efficacy and safety of dual- versus mono-bronchodilator therapy in current or former smokers with COPD. METHODS: The 24-week EMAX trial evaluated lung function, symptoms, health status, exacerbations, clinically important deterioration, and safety with umeclidinium/vilanterol, umeclidinium, and salmeterol in symptomatic patients at low exacerbation risk who were not receiving ICS. Current and former smoker subgroups were defined by smoking status at screening. RESULTS: The analysis included 1203 (50%) current smokers and 1221 (50%) former smokers. Both subgroups demonstrated greater improvements from baseline in trough FEV1 at week 24 (primary endpoint) with umeclidinium/vilanterol versus umeclidinium (least squares [LS] mean difference, mL [95% CI]; current: 84 [50, 117]; former: 49 [18, 80]) and salmeterol (current: 165 [132, 198]; former: 117 [86, 148]) and larger reductions in rescue medication inhalations/day over 24 weeks versus umeclidinium (LS mean difference [95% CI]; current: - 0.42 [- 0.63, - 0.20]; former: - 0.25 - 0.44, - 0.05]) and salmeterol (current: - 0.28 [- 0.49, - 0.06]; former: - 0.29 [- 0.49, - 0.09]). Umeclidinium/vilanterol increased the odds (odds ratio [95% CI]) of clinically significant improvement at week 24 in Transition Dyspnea Index versus umeclidinium (current: 1.54 [1.16, 2.06]; former: 1.32 [0.99, 1.75]) and salmeterol (current: 1.37 (1.03, 1.82]; former: 1.60 [1.20, 2.13]) and Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms-COPD versus umeclidinium (current: 1.54 [1.13, 2.09]; former: 1.50 [1.11, 2.04]) and salmeterol (current: 1.53 [1.13, 2.08]; former: 1.53 [1.12, 2.08]). All treatments were well tolerated in both subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In current and former smokers, umeclidinium/vilanterol provided greater improvements in lung function and symptoms versus umeclidinium and salmeterol, supporting consideration of dual-bronchodilator therapy in symptomatic patients with COPD regardless of their smoking status.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumantes , Administração por Inalação , Álcoois Benzílicos , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Clorobenzenos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049395, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although heated tobacco products (HTPs) have become popular worldwide, research on occupational differences in smoking HTPs remains scarce. We aimed to examine the prevalence of smoking HTPs among a working population in Japan. SETTING, DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: In 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional study comprised of 7714 retail business workers in the service industry in Japan. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: For the definition of smoking HTPs, we identified current HTP smokers who only smoked HTPs, using five mutual categories of current smoking status (never, former, HTPs only, combustible cigarettes only and dual smokers who smoked both combustible cigarettes and HTPs). Occupational classes were classified into office workers (eg, upper non-manual workers) and other workers. ORs and 95% CIs of office workers were estimated for HTP usage, adjusted for age, sex, employment type and cigarette smoking-related health knowledge. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of smoking HTPs was 3.0% (male 5.0%, female 2.2%). The prevalence of HTP smokers differed across occupational classes (5.6% in office workers vs 2.5% in others; p<0.05). Compared with other workers, the adjusted odds of office workers for smoking HTPs remained elevated (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.77). Sensitivity analyses with workers of all smoking status showed the same pattern. When stratified by sex, the occupational difference only remained significant in male workers. CONCLUSIONS: We found a positive occupational difference in smoking HTPs, particularly among male workers in the retail sector in Japan. National tobacco control should explicitly address this occupational gap and further encourage individuals to quit smoking.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fumantes , Uso de Tabaco
7.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107061, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359015

RESUMO

Smoking abstinence expectancies are beliefs about negative and positive short-term psychological and physiological consequences of not smoking. The Smoking Abstinence Expectancies Questionnaire (SAEQ) is a widely used Patient-Reported Outcome Measure (PROM) to assess smoking abstinence expectancies. It has four subscales: negative mood, somatic symptoms, harmful consequences, positive consequences. Although studied from a psychometric perspective, the SAEQ needs further evaluation. Clinimetrics, and its Clinimetric Criteria for Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (CLIPROM), offers a robust method to evaluate the SAEQ. We verified construct validity and sensitivity of the Italian version of the SAEQ applying CLIPROM criteria. A total of 293 adult Italian smokers were consecutively enrolled at two smoking cessation clinics and assessed via the SAEQ. Item Response Theory models (i.e., combining Rasch and Mokken analyses) were used to test construct validity and sensitivity. The total score of the SAEQ was not found to be unidimensional but each SAEQ subscale score was. PSI (0.90) indicated that the total score of the SAEQ could reliably discriminate between respondents with different levels of the trait under assessment, whereas SAEQ subscales on negative mood and harmful consequences could reliably distinguish between different groups but not between different subjects (PSI ranging from 0.77 and 0.78). Overall, the total score of the SAEQ is a sensitive screening PROM and can be used at smoking cessation clinics to discriminate between subjects with different levels of smoking abstinence expectancies. SAEQ subscales should be used to detect severity and subjective burden of a wide range of expected effects of nicotine abstinence.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Psicometria , Fumantes , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444006

RESUMO

The current study is the first to examine the perceptions of the Greek public towards selected health risks and prioritize perceived risk importance and the needs to be addressed for public health promotion. Participants were asked to consider the individual importance of selected risks and the top three most important risks. Data collection took place on February 2020 in a representative sample of the adult Greek population. Differences between groups were assessed with Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were used to identify perceptions based on participants' characteristics. Analysis was conducted in Stata 14, and 1976 adults participated in the survey: 48% male and 52% female. Road accidents, cancer and air pollution and environmental protection were considered the top three most important public health risks. Differences were observed between sexes; females were more concerned regarding the importance of the examined public health risks, and between age groups, younger ages considered STDs and contraception more important than older ages. Finally, non-smokers considered exercise and smoking to be more important than smokers. This is the first study to present and grade the public's perceptions on the importance of public health risks in Greece. Our study's prioritization of health risks could aid health authorities in improving and promoting the overall public health in Greece.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use remains one of the world's greatest preventable causes of death and disease. While most smokers want to quit, few are successful, highlighting a need for novel therapeutic approaches to support cessation efforts. Lower delay discounting (DD) rates are associated with increased smoking cessation success. Future thinking priming (FTP) reliably reduces DD rates in large populations. Smokers consistently discount more than nonsmokers, and evidence suggests that changes in DD rates are rate dependent. This study examined whether smoking status moderated the effect of FTP on DD rates and, if so, if the moderation effect could be attributed to differences in baseline rates of DD. METHODS: Moderation analysis was conducted to determine whether the effect of FTP, versus neutral priming (NP), on DD differed among smokers and nonsmokers. RESULTS: Smoking status moderated the effect of condition (FTP vs. NP) on post-intervention DD scores (b = -0.2919, p = 0.0124) and DD change scores (b = -0.2975, p = 0.0130). There was no evidence of rate dependence effects in the current sample. CONCLUSIONS: FTP had a greater effect on decreasing DD rates among smokers than nonsmokers. FTP is effective and simple to administer, which makes it a promising therapeutic approach for aiding smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Fumantes , Fumar
10.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356644

RESUMO

Two adenovirus-based vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S, and two mRNA-based vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA.1273, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and are invaluable in preventing and reducing the incidence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Recent reports have pointed to thrombosis with associated thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect occurring at a low frequency in some individuals after vaccination. The causes of such events may be related to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interactions with different C-type lectin receptors, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and the CD147 receptor, or to different soluble splice variants of the spike protein, adenovirus vector interactions with the CD46 receptor or platelet factor 4 antibodies. Similar findings have been reported for several viral diseases after vaccine administration. In addition, immunological mechanisms elicited by viral vectors related to cellular delivery could play a relevant role in individuals with certain genetic backgrounds. Although rare, the potential COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) requires immediate validation, especially in risk groups, such as the elderly, chronic smokers, and individuals with pre-existing incidences of thrombocytopenia; and if necessary, a reformulation of existing vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Trombose/etiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fumantes , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/imunologia , Trombose/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360221

RESUMO

Nicotine vaping products (NVPs) have evolved rapidly, and some vapers have difficulty reporting about their NVP. NVP knowledge may be important for providing accurate survey data, understanding the potential risks of NVP use, and assessing legal and regulated products. This paper examines current vapers who responded "don't know" (DK) regarding their NVP features. Data are from adult daily/weekly vapers in Waves Two (2018, n = 4192) and Three (2020, n = 3894) of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Analyses assessed DK responses for NVP features (e.g., type/appearance, nicotine) and consumption. A DK index score was computed based on the percent of all features with DK responses, which was tested for associations with demographics, smoking/vaping status, NVP features, purchase location, and knowledge of NVP relative risks. NVP description and appearance were easily identified, but DK was more common for features such as nicotine content (7.3-9.2%) and tank/cartridge volume capacity (26.6-30.0%). DK responses often differed by vaping/smoking status, NVP type/appearance, purchase location, and country. Vapers who are younger, use box-shaped NVPs, purchase online, and exclusive daily vapers were associated with lower DK index scores. Higher DK index scores were associated with poorer knowledge of relative health risks of NVP use. The diversity of the NVP market and wide variation in how products are used makes it challenging to capture information from users about device features, such as nicotine content and capacity, in population surveys.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vaping , Adulto , Humanos , Nicotina , Fumantes , Fumar
12.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(3 Suppl. 1): 205-212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289680

RESUMO

The aim of this clinical study is to evaluate, through some clinical and radiographic tests, the different biological responses of hard and soft tissues adjacent to the standard or to reduced-length implants in smokers, non-smokers and former smokers. This study was a comparative analysis of three groups of patients. Patients were eligible if they needed an implant in the posterior areas of the maxilla and mandible, both with a sufficient amount of bone, using implants that are standard or with small heights, and using small implants so that they could avoid any regenerative bone therapy aimed at increasing vertical size. The clinical and X-ray assessment was performed after 4/6 months (T1) and after one year (T2). The main results were recordings of clinical aspects such as presence of inflammation, color and gum appearance assessments, and X-ray assessment differentiating maxilla and mandible implants. Averages were conducted to estimate differences between study groups. One-hundred patients were included, with a total of 200 implants: 100 standard sized implants and 100 short implants. In the individual study groups, there is no difference between the types of implants, and we have favorable and unfavorable conditions. The reported data and the analyzed studies are insufficient to define the influence of smoking in the assessment of the long-term predictability of implants.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/cirurgia , não Fumantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumantes
13.
Intern Med J ; 51(7): 1156-1159, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278688

RESUMO

The Australian Government recently walked away from changes to the importation of nicotine-containing electronic cigarette fluids, originally due to come into force on 1 January 2021. Additionally, the Therapeutic Goods Administration is in the process of rescheduling nicotine for use in e-fluids. We are concerned that the 270 000 daily vapers in Australia will purchase high concentrations of nicotine (≥100 mg/mL) for mixing with nicotine-free locally purchased e-fluids, which is a pathway of increased relative harm. We would like to see regulation of these products to limit the maximum concentration of nicotine, ensure appropriate child-resistant containers and compulsory labelling for all nicotine-containing e-fluid bottles.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Austrália , Humanos , Nicotina , Fumantes
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299799

RESUMO

Biomarkers of tobacco exposure are known to be associated with disease risk but previous studies are limited in number and restricted to certain regions. We conducted a nested case-control study examining baseline levels and subsequent lung cancer incidence among current male exclusive cigarette smokers in the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran. We calculated geometric mean biomarker concentrations for 28 matched cases and 52 controls for the correlation of biomarker levels among controls and for adjusted odds' ratios (ORs) for lung cancer incidence by biomarker concentration, accounting for demographic characteristics, smoking quantity and duration, and opium use. Lung cancer cases had higher average levels of most biomarkers including total nicotine equivalents (TNE-2), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and 3-hydroxyfluorene (3-FLU). Many biomarkers correlated highly with one another including TNE-2 with NNAL and N-Acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (2CYEMA), and N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (t4HBEMA) with N-Acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl-1-methyl)-L-cysteine (3HMPMA) and N-Acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (4HMBEMA). Lung cancer risk increased with concentration for several biomarkers, including TNE-2 (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.78) and NNN (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.13, 5.27), and estimates were significant after further adjustment for demographic and smoking characteristics for 2CYEMA (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.55), N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (2CAEMA) (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.01, 4.55), and N-Acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (2HPMA) (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.04, 7.81). Estimates were not significant with adjustment for opium use. Concentrations of many biomarkers were higher at the baseline for participants who subsequently developed lung cancer than among the matched controls. Odds of lung cancer were higher for several biomarkers including with adjustment for smoking exposure for some but not with adjustment for opium use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nitrosaminas , Produtos do Tabaco , Biomarcadores , Carcinógenos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fumantes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209193

RESUMO

Background: Limited research has been done to measure ambulatory respiratory behavior, in particular those associated with tobacco use, in the natural environment due to a lack of monitoring techniques. Respiratory topography parameters provide useful information for modeling particle deposition in the lung and assessing exposure risk and health effects associated with tobacco use. Commercially available Wearable Respiratory Monitors (WRM), such as the Hexoskin Smart Garment, have embedded sensors that measure chest motion and may be adapted for measuring ambulatory lung volume. Methods: Self-reported "everyday" and "some days" Hookah and Cigarette smokers were recruited for a 3-day natural environment observation study. Participants wore the Hexoskin shirt while using their preferred tobacco product. The shirt was calibrated on them prior to, during, and after the observation period. A novel method for calculating the calibration parameters is presented. Results: NH = 5 Hookah and NC = 3 Cigarette participants were enrolled. Calibration parameters were obtained and applied to the observed chest motion waveform from each participant to obtain their lung volume waveform. Respiratory topography parameters were derived from the lung volume waveform. Conclusion: The feasibility of using the Hexoskin for measuring ambulatory respiratory topography parameters in the natural environment is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Vestuário , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Respiração , Fumantes
16.
Odontology ; 109(4): 979-986, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240298

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate and compare the clinical, radiographic, and restorative parameters around short tuberosity implants (STIs) placed in cigarette smokers (CS) and never smokers (NS). In this 60-month follow-up retrospective study, a total of 50 (37 males + 13 females) individuals who had received 82 dental implants were included. These participants were categorized into two groups as follows: (i) Group-1: 25 self-reported systemically healthy CS with 43 STIs; and (ii) Group-2: 25 self-reported systemically healthy NS with 39 STIs. In both groups, peri-implant plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and crestal bone loss (CBL) and restorative parameters were measured at 12 and 60 months of follow-up. Group comparisons were performed utilizing the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. In CS and NS, the mean age of participants was 58.5 and 60.7 years, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed in the overall mean levels of PD and CBL around STIs among CS and NS. However, a statistically significant increase was observed in the mean scores of BOP and PI around STIs in the NS and CS at 12 and 60 months follow-up, respectively. In both groups, the loosening of the implant was the most frequently encountered type of STI failure. The outcomes of the present study suggest that STIs placed in maxillary tuberosity can show reliable clinical, radiographic, and restorative stability among cigarettes smokers and non-smokers. However, the role of smoking status and oral hygiene cannot be disregarded in this scenario.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumantes
17.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107046, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Menthol cigarettes were banned in Ontario, Canada on January 1st, 2017. We used concept mapping, a mixed-method approach, to describe how menthol cigarette smokers quit smoking after the Ontario menthol ban. METHODS: Pre-ban daily and non-daily menthol cigarette smokers who reported smoking abstinence 24 months after the ban (n = 62; 53.2% women; mean age = 43.6, SD = 12.5) generated statements describing reasons and strategies for smoking cessation/reduction after the menthol ban. Participants sorted a final list of 57 statements into groups of similar content and rated statements on how true each statement was for them and multidimensional scaling analysis identified thematic clusters. RESULTS: Six clusters were identified: Mental and Environment Changes, Direct Ban Impacts, Health Reasons, Cues to Action, Family and Friends, and Cessation Strategies. The highest rated statements (i.e., most true) suggested many participants were motivated to quit smoking before or after the ban and 30.7% of participants believed the menthol ban helped with smoking cessation. Some of the lowest rated statements included using nicotine replacement therapy products, medication (i.e., Champix), or other tobacco products suggesting these strategies were less common. Statement ratings suggested many smokers quit without using replacement products or medication, but modifying cognitions and avoiding smoking cues were common. CONCLUSIONS: The menthol ban aided some menthol smokers to quit, while others reported the ban did not play a role in smoking cessation. These data suggest the menthol ban had direct and indirect effects on smoking reduction behavior. Campaigns supporting similar bans that target both types of effects will likely be most effective for smoking reduction.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentol , Ontário , Fumantes , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
18.
Addict Behav ; 122: 107040, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality and disability. Smoke-free policies in healthcare settings have been implemented as a public health measure. This scoping review aims to explore attitudes on smokers' cessation in smoke-free healthcare settings using a socio-ecological framework. METHODS: Four databases were searched for terms: smoking cessation, patient attitudes, and smoke-free policy. Of 420 studies, 17 met full inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The review identified four socio-ecological aspects of smoking cessation in smoke-free healthcare settings: Intrapersonal factors (health literacy, health conditions, and self-efficacy), interpersonal factors (social support, peer pressure, and social responsibility), healthcare factors (perceived mixed messages, healthcare setting, clinical, psychosocial and health promotion supports), and societal factors (restrictions on smoking in a public place and social acceptability of smoking). Smoke-free policies effectively encouraged cessation in some patients but were ineffective in those that felt a loss of autonomy. Provision of smoke breaks within smoke-free policies was considered a mixed message. CONCLUSIONS: Holistic strategies are required to interconnect the four socio-ecological dimensions for successful smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Atitude , Humanos , Fumantes , Fumar
19.
Addict Behav ; 122: 107037, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette (e-cig) use is widespread and may play an important role in facilitating smoking reduction. Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely than Whites to use e-cigs and suffer disproportionate tobacco-related disease, making them a priority for harm reduction. This paper explores factors associated with smoking reduction among African American (AA) and Latinx smokers enrolled in a trial assessing toxicant exposure in those assigned to e-cigs or smoking as usual. METHODS: Participants were randomized to receive 6 weeks of JUUL e-cigs or continue smoking cigarettes as usual (N = 187). This analysis focuses on 109 participants randomized to e-cigs. We modeled cigarettes smoked in the past week at baseline and week 6 as a function of a priori selected predictors (number of JUUL pods used throughout the study, baseline cigarette dependence, and baseline cotinine) using a Poisson model fit with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Over the six-week study, cigarette smoking decreased from an average of 82.4 to 15.5 cigarettes per week. Greater numbers of JUUL pods used predicted a greater smoking reduction by week 6 (IRR = 0.94 [0.91, 0.96], p < 0.001). Higher baseline cigarette dependence (IRR = 1.03 [1.01, 1.05], p = 0.004), and baseline cotinine (IRR = 1.18 [1.03, 1.37], p = 0.020) predicted a lesser smoking reduction. CONCLUSIONS: AA and Latinx smokers reduced their cigarette consumption while using JUUL e-cigs. Higher e-cig use during an intervention to switch to e-cigs to reduce harm may facilitate a transition to smoking fewer cigarettes, offering an opportunity to narrow smoking-related health disparities.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Redução do Consumo de Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Fumantes
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299215

RESUMO

Synchronous primary malignancies occur in a small proportion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Here, we analysed three synchronous primaries and a recurrence from one patient by comparing the genomic and transcriptomic profiles among the tumour samples and determining the recurrence origin. We found remarkable levels of heterogeneity among the primary tumours, and through the patterns of shared mutations, we traced the origin of the recurrence. Interestingly, the patient carried germline variants that might have predisposed him to carcinogenesis, together with a history of alcohol and tobacco consumption. The mutational signature analysis confirmed the impact of alcohol exposure, with Signature 16 present in all tumour samples. Characterisation of immune cell infiltration highlighted an immunosuppressive environment in all samples, which exceeded the potential activity of T cells. Studies such as the one described here have important clinical value and contribute to personalised treatment decisions for patients with synchronous primaries and matched recurrences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Evolução Fatal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/terapia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
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