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3.
Oncology ; 98(1): 42-47, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437849

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking induces inflammation and an immune response. A cancer-related inflammatory response has been seen in smoking and nonsmoking head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible separated effects of smoking or HNSCC on 18 inflammatory or immune regulatory biomarkers. METHODS: Fifty-one nonsmoking and 36 smoking pretreated HNSCC patients and 101 nonsmoking and 39 smoking controls were included in this study. The levels of 18 inflammatory or immune regulatory biomarkers were analyzed. A multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the impact of smoking and HNSCC on the levels of the biomarkers. RESULTS: Smoking had the highest impact on total WBC, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 levels. The highest impact of HNSCC was found on neutrophils, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, HsCRP, MIP-1b, and TNF-α levels. CONCLUSION: IdentifyingHNSCC or smoking-related inflammatory biomarkers might contribute to the understanding of the immune response in HNSCC patients. This study could provide information of inflammatory biomarkers in HNSCC patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Fumar Cigarros , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
4.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e31-e61, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene -1562C/T (rs3918242) polymorphism and the susceptibility of ischemic stroke (IS) has been investigated. However, results were ambiguous and inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this study to better assess the potential relationship between rs3918242 polymorphism and susceptibility risk of IS. METHODS: We included case-control studies concerning the relationship between the rs3918242 polymorphism and IS, and odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the associations. Furthermore, meta-regression analyses, heterogeneity, cumulative analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias were examined. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies were included for analysis. Significant associations with the risk of IS were detected for the rs3918242 polymorphism in overall population, Asians, and whites. When available data were stratified by gender, we found a significant correlation with the risk of IS in both males and females. Further subgroup analysis by the subtypes of IS showed that the rs3918242 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the risk of patients with large artery atherosclerosis. When stratified by age, we found that the rs3918242 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the risk of IS in patients both aged ≥65 years and >65 years. Both the diabetes and the nondiabetes subgroups reached significant results, and in an analysis stratified by smoking status, an increased risk of IS was associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The rs3918242 polymorphism may be a susceptible predictor of susceptibility of IS. Further large-scale studies are needed to verify the results of our findings.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/enzimologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Distribuição por Sexo
5.
Life Sci ; 241: 117132, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to verify the effects of cigarette smoke exposure in bone mineralization and fibrillar matrix composition as well as in bone healing after tibial fracture induction. METHODS: C57Bl/6 Mice were assigned according to exposure and surgery: C room air; F room air and tibia open osteotomy; CS cigarette smoke; FCS cigarette smoke and tibia open osteotomy. In order to study fracture healing we performed, under anesthesia, a bone injury through a tibial shaft osteotomy. Bone samples were obtained to evaluate bone histomorphometry, trabecular morphology and volume, trabecular collagen types composition and presence of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. RESULTS: CS exposure significantly reduced the thickness of bone trabeculae associated with decrease in mineralizing surface and mineral deposition rate, leading a lower bone formation rate and longer mineralization time. Resorption surface and osteoclastic surface were greater in the CS group, attesting increased resorptive action. There was a decrease in type I collagen deposition and genes expression in the CS and FCS groups compared to C group and in contrast there was an increase in type V collagen deposition and genes expression in the CS, FC and FSC groups compared to C group. Also, CS exposure induced a decrease in bone forming cytokines and an increase in inflammatory associated cytokines, and these changes were intensified under fracture conditions. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoke exposure alters bone matrix composition and worsens bone mineralization, leading to bone fragility by increasing collagen V synthesis and deposition and impairing collagen I fibril forming and assembling. And these deleterious effects contributed to the worsening in fracture healing after tibia osteotomy.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tíbia/patologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/patologia , Animais , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/lesões , Tíbia/metabolismo , Fraturas da Tíbia/etiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/metabolismo
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800865

RESUMO

This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of different toothpastes on dental enamel subjected to an erosive cycle with and without exposure to cigarette smoke. Bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated into 12 groups (n = 12). For the in vitro simulation of smoking, half the groups underwent an exposure cycle of 20 cigarettes per day for 5 days. Subsequently, all groups were subjected to a 5-day erosion cycle intercalating demineralization (1 min; 1% citric acid; pH = 3.5) and treatment with toothpaste slurries (2 min) of NaF, SnF2, F/Sn/Chitosan, F/CaSiO3/Na3PO4, and F/bioactive glass. The control group was immersed in distilled water. Surface microhardness (SMH) was measured initially, after exposure to smoke, and after the erosive cycle, and %SMH was calculated. At the end of the experimental cycle, surface roughness, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed. SMH increased after exposure to cigarette smoke (p < 0.05). After the erosive cycle, there were no differences between the presence and absence of cigarette smoke exposure in SMH and roughness (p > 0.05). Besides increasing enamel SMH, cigarette smoke did not prevent enamel loss after the erosion cycle (p < 0.05). In profilometry, roughness and surface loss had the lowest values in the groups treated with SnF2 and F/Sn/Chitosan (p < 0.05). AFM showed lower mineral loss with F/CaSiO3/Na3PO4 and F/Sn/Chitosan. For all groups, except F/CaSiO3/Na3PO4, cigarette smoke resulted in higher enamel wear. F/Sn/Chitosan showed the best results against erosion.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Compostos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Quitosana/uso terapêutico , Testes de Dureza , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saliva/química , Silicatos/uso terapêutico , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Fluoretos de Estanho/uso terapêutico , Desmineralização do Dente/induzido quimicamente , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Água/química
8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 935-951, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047680

RESUMO

Este artigo é resultado do trabalho de pesquisa sobre a produção das campanhas antitabagistas de governo e sobre a forma com que foram apropriados pela população. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar como essas campanhas foram pensadas em relação aos princípios de comunicação e saúde pressupostos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. A expectativa foi problematizar a questão numa perspectiva interdisciplinar. Analisamos documentos a partir dos preceitos teóricos e metodológicos da Semiologia dos Discursos Sociais. Concluiu-se que foram criadas campanhas alarmistas, pautadas na imputação do medo e na vigília moral, que acabaram por se distanciar da ideia de uma comunicação em saúde pública dialógica, informativa e participativa.


This article is the result of a research on the use of the concept of aversion in the production of government anti-smoking campaigns and how they were appropriated by the population. Our objective was to evaluate how these campaigns were conceived in relation to the principles of communication and health presupposed by the Unified Health System. The expectation was to problematize the issue from an interdisciplinary perspective. We analyze documents from the theoretical and methodological precepts of Semiology of Social Discourses. It was concluded that alarmist campaigns were created, based on the imputation of fear and on moral vigilance, which eventually distanced these actions from the principles of communication in dialogic, informative and participatory public health.


Este artículo es el resultado del trabajo de investigación sobre la utilización del concepto de aversión en la producción de las campañas antitabaco de gobierno y sobre la forma en que fueron apropiados por la población. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar cómo estas campañas fueron pensadas en relación a los principios de comunicación y salud presupuestados por el Sistema Único de Salud. La expectativa fue problematizar la cuestión desde una perspectiva interdisciplinaria. Analizamos documentos a partir de los preceptos teóricos y metodológicos de la Semiología de los Discursos Sociales. Se concluyó que se crearon campañas alarmistas, pautadas en la imputación del miedo y en la vigilia moral, que acabaron por distanciarse de la idea de una comunicación en salud pública dialógica, informativa y participativa.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tabagismo , Meios de Comunicação , Publicidade como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Propaganda , Política Pública , Sistema Único de Saúde , Saúde , Comercialização de Produtos Derivados do Tabaco , Fumar Cigarros , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/história , Neoplasias
9.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(6): 1144-1149, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey the cigarette smoking status and periodontal status, and to study the correlation between cigarette smoking and periodontal status. METHODS: Questionnaires were distributed (including self-assessed periodontal status, such as bleeding while brushing teeth, oral odor, tooth loosening, gum swelling, etc.) and clinical periodontal examinations performed for parameters including probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), attachment loss (AL), plaque index (PLI) and amount of teeth loss, which was recorded in the population above 35 years of a community in Beijing. A total of 974 subjects were recruited in the study. The population was divided into current smokers and non-smokers, and the differences of self-assessed periodontal status and periodontal parameters between the groups analyzed. RESULTS: The smokers had significantly less bleeding during toothbrushing, and in the meantime, had significantly more self-reported tooth loosening compared with the non-smokers. The smokers brushed their teeth less than the non-smokers (P<0.05). The self-reported gum swelling and oral odor had no significant difference between the smokers and non-smokers. The smokers had 0.565 times and 1.572 times the risk of bleeding during toothbrushing, self-reported tooth loosening and from Logistic regression analyses, respectively (P<0.05). The mean PD, AL, PLI and the amount of tooth loss of the smokers were significant higher than the non-smokers (P<0.05). However, the mean BI of the smokers was slightly less than the non-smokers' (1.93±0.540 vs. 1.94±0.512, P=0.707). The smokers had 2.129 times, 1.698 times and 1.933 times the risk of the mean PD>3 mm, the mean AL>3 mm, and the amount of tooth loss above 8, respectively compared with the non-smokers (P<0.05) from Logistic regression analyses. CONCLUSION: The self-assessed periodontal status is different between smokers and non-smokers in the population of a community in Beijing. Smokers have less bleeding during toothbrushing but no significant difference with BI. Smokers also have more self-reported tooth loosening. Compared with non-smokers, smokers have more severe periodontal destruction.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Adulto , Pequim , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS Genet ; 15(10): e1008353, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671092

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) is an established approach to evaluate the effect of an exposure on an outcome. The gene-by-environment (GxE) study design can be used to determine whether the genetic instrument affects the outcome through pathways other than via the exposure of interest (horizontal pleiotropy). MR phenome-wide association studies (MR-pheWAS) search for the effects of an exposure, and can be conducted in UK Biobank using the PHESANT package. In this proof-of-principle study, we introduce the novel GxE MR-pheWAS approach, that combines MR-pheWAS with the use of GxE interactions. This method aims to identify the presence of effects of an exposure while simultaneously investigating horizontal pleiotropy. We systematically test for the presence of causal effects of smoking heaviness-stratifying on smoking status (ever versus never)-as an exemplar. If a genetic variant is associated with smoking heaviness (but not smoking initiation), and this variant affects an outcome (at least partially) via tobacco intake, we would expect the effect of the variant on the outcome to differ in ever versus never smokers. We used PHESANT to test for the presence of effects of smoking heaviness, instrumented by genetic variant rs16969968, among never and ever smokers respectively, in UK Biobank. We ranked results by the strength of interaction between ever and never smokers. We replicated previously established effects of smoking heaviness, including detrimental effects on lung function. Novel results included a detrimental effect of heavier smoking on facial aging. We have demonstrated how GxE MR-pheWAS can be used to identify potential effects of an exposure, while simultaneously assessing whether results may be biased by horizontal pleiotropy.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Pleiotropia Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17996, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725666

RESUMO

To investigate the difference of clinical characteristics between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with the frequent exacerbators with chronic bronchitis (FE-CB) phenotype and those with the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACO) phenotype.We searched CNKI, Wan Fang, Chongqing VIP, China Biology Medicine disc, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases for studies published as of April 30, 2019. All studies that investigated COPD patients with the FE-CB and ACO phenotypes and which qualified the inclusion criteria were included. Cross-sectional/prevalence study quality recommendations were used to measure methodological quality. RevMan5.3 software was used for meta-analysis.Ten studies (combined n = 4568) qualified the inclusion criteria. The FE-CB phenotype of COPD was associated with significantly lower forced vital capacity percent predicted (mean difference [MD] -9.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-12.00, -6.10], P < .001, I = 66%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (MD -407.18, 95% CI [-438.63, -375.72], P < .001, I = 33%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted (MD -9.71, 95% CI [-12.79, -6.63], P < .001, I = 87%), FEV1/forced vital capacity (MD -5.4, 95% CI [-6.49, -4.30], P < .001, I = 0%), and body mass index (BMI) (MD -0.81, 95% CI [-1.18, -0.45], P < .001, I = 44%) as compared to the ACO phenotype. However, FE-CB phenotype was associated with higher quantity of cigarettes smoked (pack-years) (MD 6.45, 95% CI [1.82, 11.09], P < .001, I = 73%), COPD assessment test score (CAT) (MD 4.04, 95% CI [3.46, 4.61], P < .001, I = 0%), mMRC score (MD 0.54, 95% CI [0.46, 0.62], P < .001, I = 34%), exacerbations in previous year (1.34, 95% CI [0.98, 1.71], P < .001, I = 68%), and BMI, obstruction, dyspnea, exacerbations (BODEx) (MD 1.59, 95% CI [1.00, 2.18], P < .001, I = 86%) as compared to the ACO phenotype.Compared with the ACO phenotype, COPD patients with the FE-CB phenotype had poorer pulmonary function, lower BMI, and higher CAT score, quantity of cigarettes smoked (pack-years), exacerbations in previous year, mMRC score, and BODEx.This study is an analysis of published literature, which belongs to the second study. Therefore, this study does not require the approval of the ethics committee. The findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal publication or conference presentation.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/fisiopatologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Bronquite Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Testes de Função Respiratória
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 1, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762870

RESUMO

Introduction: Early sexual debut is common among young people and it has several sexual and reproductive health consequences. But, its burden and the associated factors leading to this behavior haven't received due attention. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of sexual debut in the preparatory and high school students of Aksum town. Methods: A school-based quantitative cross-sectional study design was used for this research work. A total of 519 preparatory and high school regular students participated in the survey. The sample population was obtained by using a simple random sampling technique from each schooling proportion with their number of students. Data, that were collected using self administered questionnaires, were entered into EpiData 3.02 and analyzed in SPSS 22.0. Results were presented using frequencies, tables and graphs. Statistical significance was declared at a P-value <0.05. Results: Of the total participants, 266 (51.3%) were males. The age of the participants ranged from 13 to 23 years with a mean age of 16.3 ± 1.47 years. Of the total participants, 137(26.2%) had sexual experience, among which 119 (87.5%) had an early sexual debut at an average age of 13.7 + 1.4 years. Factors that were found to be significantly associated with an early sexual debut were gender (AOR=3.41; 95% CI: 1.54, 6.99), residence (AOR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81), alcohol drinking (AOR=5.5; 95% CI: 2.2, 14.8), cigarette smoking (AOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.3, 7.5), exposure to pornography, such as reading/seeing pornographic materials (AOR=7.4; 95% CI: 4.4, 11.78), living arrangement for educational purpose (AOR= 0.43; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.89), grade (AOR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.68) and monthly living allowance (AOR=0.419; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9). Conclusion: A significant number of students reported early sexual debut. Gender, place of residence, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, exposure to pornography, grade and living arrangement for educational purpose and monthly living allowance were significant predictors of an early sexual debut.


Assuntos
Literatura Erótica , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 92-101, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593750

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cellular senescence in lung cells. We determined the mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction by CS in lung epithelial cells. CS extract (CSE) treatment differentially affected mitochondrial function, such as membrane potential, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) and mitochrondrial mass as analyzed by FACS, and were associated with altered oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein levels (Complexes I-IV) in primary lung epithelial cells (SAEC and NHBE), and (complexes I and II) in BEAS2B cells. There were dose- and time-dependent changes in mitochondrial respiration (oxygen consumption rate parameters i.e. maximal respiration, ATP production and spare capacity, measured by the Seahorse analyzer) in control vs. CSE treated BEAS2B and NHBE/DHBE cells. Electron microscopy (EM) analysis revealed perinuclear clustering by localization and increased mitochondrial fragmentation by fragement length analysis. Immunoblot analysis revealed CS-mediated increase in Drp1 and decrease in Mfn2 levels that are involved in mitochondrial fission/fusion process. CSE treatment reduced Miro1 and Pink1 abundance that play a crucial role in the intercellular transfer mechanism and mitophagy process. Overall, these findings highlight the role of Miro1 in context of CS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in lung epithelial cells that may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory lung diseases.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo , Metabolismo Energético , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 188-194, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking of water pipe (WP) and cigarettes has recently turned into a major global health burden. The present study aimed at assessing WP and cigarette smoking among Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS) students in Iran. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 500 students in ZUMS (182 males, 318 females). The subjects were selected through randomized cluster sampling. Morgan's chart was applied to calculate the sample size; 96.6% of the attendees completed a questionnaire designed to address the aims of the study. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 21.2 ± 2.4 years. WP and cigarette smoker rates were at 31.2% and 15.2%, respectively. The age of smoking initiation ranged between 15 and 20 years. Friends played crucial roles in triggering the smoking in both groups of WP and cigarette smokers (78% and 54%, respectively). The main reasons for WP and cigarette smoking were entertainment followed by curiosity. Furthermore, males used more cigarette (26.5 vs. 8.7%) and WP (50.6 vs. 20.4%) than females. Among father and mother smokers, respectively, 54.2% and 60% of children were also WP smokers (p = 0.001). Also, 21.9% and 60% of children smoking cigarettes had father and mother smokers, respectively (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Tobacco use, especially for WP seems to be at alarming rates among medical students in Iran. It is highly recommended to control the progressive prevalence of WP smoking by governmental/academic preventive measures as educational and smoking cessation activities.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Estudantes de Medicina , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17218, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577712

RESUMO

Health examination is an important method for early detection of people with different risk of stroke. This study estimates the risk of stroke and identify risk factors for people who underwent health examinations at the Health Examination Center at West China Hospital, Sichuan University from July 2014 to February 2018.A total of 31,464 people were recruited in this study and divided into 3 groups (low risk, moderate risk, and high risk) according to risk of stroke. We explored possible factors associated with the risk of stroke by using multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis.Among the participants, 17,959 were at low risk, 11,825 were at moderate risk, and 1680 were at high risk. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, uric acid, diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were independent significant risk factors for stroke, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was an independent protective factor for stroke. Interestingly, with increasing age, the percentage of people at moderate or high risk of stroke was increased. The percentages of people at moderate and high risk of stroke were also increased with respect to the stages of baPWV.This study showed that >40% of the participants were at moderate or high risk of stroke, especially the older participants. Several factors were related to the risk of stroke, especially baPWV. Some preventive action may be adopted early, and more attention can be paid to the health examination population.


Assuntos
Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17238, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis due to its higher patency and lower infection rate. However, its suboptimal maturation rate is a major weakness. Although substantial risk factors for AVF maturation failure have been disclosed, modifiable risk factors remain unknown. During the AVF maturation process, an elevated luminal pressure is required for outward remodeling; however, excessively high luminal pressure may also be detrimental to AVF maturation, which remains to be defined. We hypothesized that higher AVF luminal pressure is harmful to its maturation, and investigate its potential as a modifiable factor to improve AVF maturation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective study includes patients undergoing surgical creation for a native AVF. The exclusion criteria were as follows: age <20 years, inability to sign an informed consent, and failure to create a native AVF due to technical difficulties. Demographic and laboratory profiles will be collected before AVF surgery. Vascular sonography will be performed within 1 week of AVF creation to measure the diameters, flow rates, and flow volumes of AVF and its branched veins. The pressure gradient within AVF will be estimated from the blood flow rates using the modified Bernoulli equation. The primary outcome is spontaneous AVF maturation defined as provision of sufficient blood flow for hemodialysis within 2 months of its creation without any interventional procedures. The secondary outcome is assisted AVF maturation, which is defined as AVF maturation within 2 months from its creation aided by any interventional procedure before the successful use of AVF. DISCUSSION: While contemporary theory for AVF maturation failure focuses on disturbed wall shear stress, complicate assumptions and measurement preclude its clinical applicability. AVF luminal pressure, which may be manipulated pharmaceutically and surgically, may be a target to improve the outcome of AVF maturation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been registered at the protocol registration and results system. The Protocol ID: NCT04017806.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/métodos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular/fisiologia , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17375, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577741

RESUMO

Achieving abstinence in schizophrenic smokers using a combination of medications and cognitive behavioral therapy is feasible; however, abstinence rates are significantly lower compared to the general population and studies are scanty. Additionally, maintaining sustained abstinence and preventing relapse is a major limiting factor and represents key tasks in managing tobacco dependence in schizophrenic patients. Several theories have been postulated to explain the higher tendency of tobacco use among schizophrenic individuals. Schizophrenic patients may use nicotine as a "self-medication" strategy to improve negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, studies suggest that although nicotine may act as an anxiolytic acutely, chronic use of nicotine may lead to increased anxiety with the possibility of increased catecholamines, which is confirmed with the prevalence of tachycardia and hypertension in smokers in general. On this basis, the main objective of our present study was to assess anxiety in schizophrenic smoking and nonsmoking patients by comparing the number of anxiety and agitation episodes and evaluating the amount of antianxiety/antiagitation medication used by each group. A separate objective was to document the unmet needs of smoking cessation programs in treating schizophrenic patients. Consequently, in the present retrospective cohort study, it was observed that schizophrenic smokers tend to have higher anxiety episodes and utilize as-needed medications at a higher frequency compared to nonsmokers for the relief of anxiety and agitation symptoms. Further research is warranted to examine these results on a larger scale.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 136, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565115

RESUMO

Introduction: Shisha consumption is a growing public health issue all over the globe and public health awareness about its deleterious health consequences is still not sufficiently raised. Methods: In this location-based study of nightclubs in Ibadan, Nigeria, 633 patrons of selected nightclubs were interviewed in order to obtain information on prevalence, correlates and predictors of shisha smoking. Results: The overall prevalence of shisha smoking was 7.1%. The age of initiation into shisha smoking was lower among women, p = 0.03, but men were significantly more likely to be more frequent users, daily or weekly users, p < 0.001 and also to be current cigarette smokers, p = 0.03. There was no significant gender variability in the stage of readiness to quit. Regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age, the predictors of shisha smoking were: cigarette smoking, OR = 4.83, 95% CI (1.49-15.70) and more than 12 years of education, OR = 7.55, 95% CI (1.88 - 30.37), while being a rural dweller was a protective factor, OR = 0.05, 95% CI (0.01-0.20). Conclusion: Shisha smoking has emerged as a prevalent public health issue in Nigeria. There is a need for an immediate response from policy providers towards shisha smoking intervention in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Cachimbos de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 102-109, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is considered a risk factor for lung and colorectal cancer. A convincing link between epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with colorectal cancer progression and therapeutic resistance has emerged. Deregulated expression of E-Cadherin and Claudin-1 and increased miR-21 expression and invasiveness represent hallmarks of EMT. The effects of cigarette smoke exposure on EMT in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells are largely unknown. AIM: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on miR-21, Claudin-1 and E-Cadherin, molecules associated to EMT in colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: A human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) was treated with CSE at different concentration (5% and 10%) and for different time points (3 h and 24 h). Metabolic activity (by MTS assay), cell necrosis/cell apoptosis (evaluating Propidium Iodide/Annexin V expression by flow cytometry), miR-21, Claudin-1 and E-Cadherin gene expression were evaluated by Real time PCR. Cell permeability, actin polymerization and cancer cell migration was assessed by Trans-Epitelial Electrical Resistance (TEER), Phalloidin expression and matrigel system, respectively. RESULTS: CSE at all the tested concentrations and at all time points reduced cell necrosis. CSE at 10% increased miR-21 and reduced the metabolic activity, cell necrosis, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin mRNA at 3 h. Cell permeability, actin polymerization and cancer cell migration were all increased upon CSE exposure. CONCLUSION: These results showed that CSE increasing miR-21, Claudin-1 and E-Cadherin and enhancing the aggressiveness of cancer cells, may concur to colorectal cancer progression.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Antígenos CD/genética , Células CACO-2 , Caderinas/genética , Claudina-1/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53: 648-655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Smoking is a major risk factor for several cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and it has also been associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength leading to sarcopenia. The aim of this is study is to analyze the effects of cigarette smoking on the diaphragm muscle histopathology of postmortem samples from patients without respiratory diseases. METHODS: Diaphragm samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological analysis. Picrosirius stain was used to highlight the collagen fibers. RESULTS: Cigarette smokers had an increase of histopathological alterations as abnormal cytoplasm, abnormal fiber size and shape, and central nucleus. Additionally, smokers had an increase of collagen fibers on diaphragm muscle. CONCLUSION: Smoking may influence in a negatively fashion the diaphragm musculature.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Diafragma/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Celular/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Citoplasma/química , Diafragma/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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