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1.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305088, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861510

RESUMO

Although cannabis was legalized in Canada in 2018 and is one of the most used substances in Canada, few studies have examined how individuals with different patterns of cannabis use differ in their attempts to decrease or abstain from cannabis. The current study examined how groups of cannabis users, which were formed on the basis of demographic characteristics, substance use patterns, mental health symptoms, and self-reported quality of life differed on their experiences with cannabis cessation. A sample of 147 Canadian adult participants who had attempted to decrease or quit cannabis were recruited from the community (n = 84, 57.14%) and crowdsourcing (n = 63, 42.86%). Four profiles of cannabis users emerged using a Latent Profile Analysis: low-risk (n = 62, 42.18%), rapidly escalating high-risk (n = 40, 27.21%), long-term high severity (n = 35, 23.81%), and long-term lower severity (n = 10, 6.80%). Individuals in the rapidly escalating profile had attempted to decrease their cannabis use more times compared to other profiles. More participants in the long-term high severity group found their use stayed the same or got worse after their last cessation attempt, compared to the low-risk group where more individuals indicated their use stopped. The results of the current study indicate that cannabis users differ in their attempts at reducing or ceasing cannabis use and that they may benefit from different intensity of cannabis interventions.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Cannabis , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e084611, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Germany is reforming its legal approach to cannabis, allowing the possession and cultivation of cannabis for recreational purposes. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the policy reform on (1) The prevalence of cannabis use in the general population and (2) Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) among regular users. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A quasi-experimental research design will be employed, with repeated cross-sectional surveys on self-reported DUIC and cannabis use conducted at three measurement points in Germany (intervention group) and Austria (control group) over a 2-year observation period (2023-2025). Data will be collected from approximately 50 000 individuals aged between 18 years and 64 years. To minimise reporting biases in the measurement of DUIC, we will use direct and indirect assessments via crosswise model and motor vehicle accident data from official statistics. In a difference-in-difference framework, regression analyses and interrupted time series analysis will be carried out for hypothesis testing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Participants will be informed about voluntary participation, data protection laws and the option to delete data on request. Ethical approval was obtained from the Local Psychological Ethics Committee of the Centre for Psychosocial Medicine in Hamburg, Germany (reference number: 0686). Findings will be disseminated through scientific networks and will be key for a comprehensive evaluation of the cannabis law reform. The findings will facilitate the design and implementation of road safety measures.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Dirigir sob a Influência , Humanos , Alemanha , Adulto , Dirigir sob a Influência/legislação & jurisprudência , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Cannabis , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Projetos de Pesquisa , Legislação de Medicamentos , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia
3.
Harefuah ; 163(5): 327-330, 2024 May.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734949

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of medical cannabis licenses in Israel is increasing persistently (over 120,000 approved licenses in October 2022), reaching about 1.5% of adult population. Medical cannabis products are available in two main forms: inflorescence (administered by smoking or evaporation) and cannabis oil (administered sub-lingually). Data from the Israel ministry of health, regarding the split between these forms, show a major preference for inflorescence products over cannabis oils. This preference is increasing over time. This article reviews the main differences between the administration of these forms and their effects on the quality of treatment. It's conclusion is that for the most common cases of cannabis treatment, sublingual oils should be preferred and that the medical community has an important role in driving this change.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal/administração & dosagem , Israel , Cannabis , Óleos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Administração Sublingual , Adulto , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Inflorescência , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos
4.
PeerJ ; 12: e17317, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699183

RESUMO

Background: Thailand recently decriminalized (de facto legalized) cannabis use and sales. However, nationally representative data are scarce with regard to cannabis use behaviors and its association with cannabis outlet density. The objectives of this study are: (1) to describe the prevalence of cannabis use behaviors and cannabis use disorder among the general adult population of Thailand; (2) to describe the extent that the density of cannabis outlets is associated with cannabis use behaviors, cannabis use disorder, and the amount of cannabis smoked per day. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in 11 provinces and the Bangkok Metropolitan Area. Participants were residents of sampled communities aged 20 years or older. We requested literate participants to self-administer the questionnaire and interviewed participants who could not read. We analyzed data using descriptive statistics with sampling weight adjustments and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: The prevalence of current cannabis use was 15 percent. At a 400-m radius, participants who reported three cannabis outlets had 4.2 times higher odds of being current users than participants who reported no outlet (Adjusted OR = 4.82; 95% CI [3.04-7.63]). We found no association between outlet density and hazardous cannabis use or cannabis use disorder, nor association with the amount of cannabis use among cannabis smokers. Discussion and Conclusion: The patterns of association between outlet density and cannabis use behaviors were inconsistent. Furthermore, limitations regarding outlet density measurement and lack of temporality should be considered as caveats in the interpretation of the study findings.


Assuntos
Comércio , Abuso de Maconha , Humanos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Cannabis , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia
5.
Nursing ; 54(5): 52-54, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640036

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Nursing students increasingly report being stressed. As a potential treatment, students are using marijuana, according to nursing schools. Currently, there is no standardized guideline for the use of marijuana or marijuana testing for nursing students. This article discusses several concerns about clinical nursing students' use of marijuana for stress and anxiety relief.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 50(2): 242-251, 2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640463

RESUMO

Background: Cannabis use is increasing among middle-aged and older US adults, populations that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of cannabis. Risks for adverse effects differ by cannabis use patterns, which have become increasingly heterogeneous. Nevertheless, little is known about age differences in such patterns.Objective: To investigate age differences in cannabis use patterns, comparing younger (age 18-49), middle-aged (age 50-64), and older adults (age ≥65).Methods: A total of 4,151 US adults with past 7-day cannabis consumption completed an online survey (35.1% male; 60.1% female; 4.8% identified as "other"). Regression models examined age differences in cannabis use patterns.Results: Compared to younger adults, middle-aged and older adults were more likely to consume cannabis during evening hours (50-64: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.98, 95% CI 2.24-3.96; ≥65: aOR = 4.23, 95 CI 2.82-6.35); by only one method (50-64: aOR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.09; ≥65: aOR = 3.38, 95 CI 2.24-5.09); primarily by smoking as the only method (50-64: aOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.29-1.78; ≥65: aOR = 2.12, 95 CI 1.64-2.74); but less likely to consume concentrated cannabis products (concentrates) with extremely high %THC (50-64: aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.93; ≥65: aOR = 0.30, 95 CI 0.16-0.55). Age differences in cannabis use patterns were also observed between middle-aged and older adults.Conclusion: Findings suggest that middle-aged and older adults may engage in less risky cannabis use patterns compared to younger groups (e.g. lower likelihood of consuming highly potent concentrates). However, findings also underscore the importance of recognizing risks unique to these older demographics, such as smoking-related health events. Consequently, prevention strategies targeting such use patterns are needed.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fatores Etários , Adolescente , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Internet
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301535, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While research has examined the effect of stigma from others towards individuals with substance use disorders, few studies have examined the relationship between perceived self-stigma and engagement in substance use more broadly, especially among non-clinical samples. AIMS: The present study examined the relationships between perceptions of self-stigma if one were to develop a substance use disorder, consisting of negative self-esteem and negative self-efficacy, and alcohol or marijuana use behaviors and outcomes. METHOD: Participants (n = 2,243; 71.5% female) were college students within the U.S. recruited to participate in an online survey on substance use with a special focus on alcohol and marijuana. RESULTS: Results indicated no significant differences in stigma scores across individuals with different lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Stigma ratings did differ between individuals with different profiles of last 30-day alcohol and marijuana use where, generally, individuals with lifetime use but no use in the last 30-day reported higher levels of self-stigma. Correlation analyses indicated that perceived impact of substance use disorder on sense of self-efficacy and self-esteem related negatively to nearly all observed factors of alcohol and marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: Though self-stigma, and stigma more broadly, has been shown to have negative implications for people with substance use disorders, the present study suggests that for non-clinical populations there may be some protective association between perceived self-stigma and alcohol or marijuana use engagement. This is not to say that self-stigma is a positive clinical intervention. Rather, we interpret these findings to indicate that negative perceptions of substance use disorder on the sense of self may be associated with distinct alcohol and marijuana use behaviors among young adults.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudantes
8.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 103: 107351, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis use among pregnant people and equivocal evidence linking prenatal cannabis exposure to adverse outcomes in offspring highlights the need to understand its potential impact on pregnancy and child outcomes. Assessing cannabis use during pregnancy remains a major challenge with potential influences of stigma on self-report as well as detection limitations of easily collected biological matrices. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive study examined the concordance between self-reported (SR) cannabis use and urine drug screen (UDS) detection of cannabis exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy and characterized concordant and discordant groups for sociodemographic factors, modes of use, secondhand exposure to cannabis and tobacco, and alcohol use and cotinine positivity. STUDY DESIGN: The Cannabis Use During Development and Early Life (CUDDEL) Study is an ongoing longitudinal study that recruits pregnant individuals presenting for obstetric care, who report lifetime cannabis use as well as using (n = 289) or not using cannabis (n = 169) during pregnancy. During the first trimester pregnancy visit, SR of cannabis use and a UDS for cannabis, other illicit drugs and nicotine are acquired from eligible participants, of whom 333 as of 05/01/2023 had both. RESULTS: Using available CUDDEL Study data on both SR and UDS (n = 333; age 26.6 ± 4.7; 88.6% Black; 45.4% below federal poverty threshold; 56.5% with paid employment; 89% with high school education; 22% first pregnancy; 12.3 ± 3.6 weeks gestation), we classified pregnant individuals with SR and UDS data into 4 groups based on concordance (k = 0.49 [95% C.I. 0.40-0.58]) between SR cannabis use and UDS cannabis detection during the first trimester: 1) SR+/UDS+ (n = 107); 2) SR-/UDS- (n = 142); 3) SR+/UDS- (n = 44); 4) SR-/UDS+ (n = 40). Those who were SR+/UDS- reported less frequent cannabis use and fewer hours under the influence of cannabis during their pregnancy. Those who were SR-/UDS+ were more likely to have joined the study at a lower gestational age with 62.5% reporting cannabis use during their pregnancy prior to being aware that they were pregnant. Of the 40 SR-/UDS+ women, 14 (i.e., 35%) reported past month secondhand exposure, or blunt usage. In the subset of individuals with SR and UDS available at trimester 2 (N = 160) and 3 (N = 140), concordant groups were mostly stable and > 50% of those in the discordant groups became concordant by the second trimester. Classifying individuals as exposed or not exposed who were SR+ and/or UDS+ resulted in minor changes in group status based on self-report at screening. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was moderate concordance between SR and UDS for cannabis use/exposure during pregnancy. Instances of SR+/UDS- discordancy may partially be attributable to lower levels of use that are not detected on UDS. SR-/UDS+ discordancy may arise from recent use prior to knowledge of pregnancy, extreme secondhand exposure, deception, and challenges with completing questionnaires. Acquiring both self-report and biological detection of cannabis use/exposure allows for the examination of convergent evidence. Classifying those who are SR+ and/or UDS+ as individuals who used cannabis during their first trimester after being aware of their pregnancy resulted in only a minor change in exposure status; thus, relying on self-report screening, at least in this population and within this sociocultural context likely provides an adequate approximation of cannabis use during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Autorrelato , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Longitudinais , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/urina , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/urina , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Cotinina/urina , Adolescente , Fumar Maconha/urina
9.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(9): 1331-1351, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644600

RESUMO

Aim: Knowledge of the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of cannabis use by route of administration is unclear. This evidence is necessary to increase clinical and public health awareness given the recent trend in cannabis legalization, normalization, and surge in the availability and usage of various forms of cannabis products. Methods: Search was conducted in Web of Science, ProQuest, Psych INFO, Scopus, Embase, and Medline databases, and subsequently in the references of retrieved articles. Peer-reviewed articles published between 2009 and 2023, that reported on cardiovascular and respiratory effects of cannabis use by route of administration were included. Studies with no report of the route of administration and combined use of other illicit substances were excluded. The review was guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: Of the 1873 articles retrieved, 42 met inclusion criteria encompassing six case reports, 21 reviews, and 15 empirical studies. Four administration routes were identified: smoking, vaping, oral ingestion, and dabbing. Smoking was the most common route of administration and was associated with both respiratory effects, such as bronchitis, dyspnea, and chronic obstructive lung disease, and cardiovascular effects including tachycardia, ventricular arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction. Cannabis edibles were associated with minimal respiratory effects. Tachycardia was the most common cardiovascular effect and was associated with all routes of administration. Conclusion: Cannabis use does cause cardiovascular and respiratory effects, but the conclusion remains tentative of the cardiovascular and respiratory effects by route of administration due to methodological limitations of the studies.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Humanos , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Cannabis , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(9): 1303-1312, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increases in cannabis use and potency, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impact of use on cognitive function. Previous research indicates long-term cannabis use may have a negative effect on executive function. Few studies have examined persistence of it in protracted abstinence, and there is limited evidence of predictors of worse cognitive function in current and former users. In this study, we aim to evaluate the associations between cannabis use status (current, former, and never use) and self-report cognition. Further, we investigate if cannabis use characteristics predict self-report cognitive function. METHODS: Cross-sectional cannabis use data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III), a national survey (N = 36,309) conducted in the USA between 2012 and 2013 were used alongside the Executive Function Index scales. The data were analyzed by using Ordinary Least Squares regression. RESULTS: Current (N = 3,681, Female = 37.7%) and former users (N = 7,448, Female = 45.4%) reported poorer cognition than never users (N = 24,956, Female = 56.6%). Self-reported cognition of former users was in-between that of current and never users. Several cannabis use characteristics were associated with self-reported cognition in current and former users. CONCLUSION: While prospective studies are required to confirm, findings suggest cannabis use is linked to worse cognition. There may be some limited recovery of cognition in former users and some cannabis use characteristics predict impairment. These findings add to our understanding of the cognitive impact of cannabis use. As worse cognitive function may impact relapse, findings have implications for personalization of cannabis use disorder treatment.


Assuntos
Cognição , Autorrelato , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Função Executiva , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia
12.
JAMA ; 331(10): 861-865, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470384

RESUMO

Importance: Gummies, flavored vaping devices, and other cannabis products containing psychoactive hemp-derived Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are increasingly marketed in the US with claims of being federally legal and comparable to marijuana. National data on prevalence and correlates of Δ8-THC use and comparisons to marijuana use among adolescents in the US are lacking. Objective: To estimate the self-reported prevalence of and sociodemographic and policy factors associated with Δ8-THC and marijuana use among US adolescents in the past 12 months. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationally representative cross-sectional analysis included a randomly selected subset of 12th-grade students in 27 US states who participated in the Monitoring the Future Study in-school survey during February to June 2023. Exposures: Self-reported sex, race, ethnicity, and parental education; census region; state-level adult-use (ie, recreational) marijuana legalization (yes vs no); and state-level Δ8-THC policies (regulated vs not regulated). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was self-reported Δ8-THC and marijuana use in the past 12 months (any vs no use and number of occasions used). Results: In the sample of 2186 12th-grade students (mean age, 17.7 years; 1054 [48.9% weighted] were female; 232 [11.1%] were Black, 411 [23.5%] were Hispanic, 1113 [46.1%] were White, and 328 [14.2%] were multiracial), prevalence of self-reported use in the past 12 months was 11.4% (95% CI, 8.6%-14.2%) for Δ8-THC and 30.4% (95% CI, 26.5%-34.4%) for marijuana. Of those 295 participants reporting Δ8-THC use, 35.4% used it at least 10 times in the past 12 months. Prevalence of Δ8-THC use was lower in Western vs Southern census regions (5.0% vs 14.3%; risk difference [RD], -9.4% [95% CI, -15.2% to -3.5%]; adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.35 [95% CI, 0.16-0.77]), states in which Δ8-THC was regulated vs not regulated (5.7% vs 14.4%; RD, -8.6% [95% CI, -12.9% to -4.4%]; aRR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.23-0.74]), and states with vs without legal adult-use marijuana (8.0% vs 14.0%; RD, -6.0% [95% CI, -10.8% to -1.2%]; aRR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.35-0.91]). Use in the past 12 months was lower among Hispanic than White participants for Δ8-THC (7.3% vs 14.4%; RD, -7.2% [95% CI, -12.2% to -2.1%]; aRR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.34-0.87]) and marijuana (24.5% vs 33.0%; RD, -8.5% [95% CI, -14.9% to -2.1%]; aRR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59-0.94]). Δ8-THC and marijuana use prevalence did not differ by sex or parental education. Conclusions and Relevance: Δ8-THC use prevalence is appreciable among US adolescents and is higher in states without marijuana legalization or existing Δ8-THC regulations. Prioritizing surveillance, policy, and public health efforts addressing adolescent Δ8-THC use may be warranted.


Assuntos
Dronabinol , Alucinógenos , Uso da Maconha , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cannabis , Estudos Transversais , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Grupos Raciais/etnologia , Grupos Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dronabinol/análogos & derivados
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(3)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38534233

RESUMO

An increasing number of countries have started to decriminalize or legalize the consumption of cannabis for recreational and medical purposes. The active ingredients in cannabis, termed cannabinoids, affect multiple functions in the human body, including coordination, motor skills, memory, response time to external stimuli, and even judgment. Cannabinoids are a unique class of terpeno-phenolic compounds, with 120 molecules discovered so far. There are certain situations when people under the influence of cannabis may be a risk to themselves or the public safety. Over the past two decades, there has been a growing research interest in detecting cannabinoids from various biological matrices. There is a need to develop a rapid, accurate, and reliable method of detecting cannabinoids in oral fluid as it can reveal the recent intake in comparison with urine specimens, which only show a history of consumption. Significant improvements are continuously made in the analytical formats of various technologies, mainly concerning improving their sensitivity, miniaturization, and making them more user-friendly. Additionally, sample collection and pretreatment have been extensively studied, and specific devices for collecting oral fluid specimens have been perfected to allow rapid and effective sample collection. This review presents the recent findings regarding the use of oral fluid specimens as the preferred biological matrix for cannabinoid detection in a point-of-care biosensor diagnostic device. A critical review is presented, discussing the findings from a collection of review and research articles, as well as publicly available data from companies that manufacture oral fluid screening devices. Firstly, the various conventional methods used to detect cannabinoids in biological matrices are presented. Secondly, the detection of cannabinoids using point-of-care biosensors is discussed, emphasizing oral fluid specimens. This review presents the current pressing technological challenges and highlights the gaps where new technological solutions can be implemented.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Fumar Maconha , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Saliva , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos
14.
Addict Behav ; 153: 107999, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452424

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated whether adult use marijuana sales were associated with changes in lifetime and past 30-day (P30D) marijuana use among middle school students in Nevada (NV), which had adult-use marijuana sales during the study period, compared to New Mexico (NM), which did not have adult-use marijuana sales during the study period. METHODS: Data were drawn from the middle school 2017 and 2019 NV Youth Risk Behavior and NM Youth Risk and Resiliency Surveys. Difference-in-difference analyses compare changes in lifetime and P30D marijuana use in NV (adult-use sales implemented July 2017) vs. NM (no adult-use sales during the study period). RESULTS: There was no difference in lifetime (aOR 1.11; 95% CI 0.91,1.36) and P30D (aOR 1.17; 95% CI 0.91,1.51) marijuana use by adult-use sales status. The odds of lifetime and P30D marijuana use increased in both states, particularly among students who were female, older, non-White, or attending a Title 1 school. DISCUSSION: Adult-use sales were not associated with an increase in lifetime or P30D marijuana use. State-level prevention efforts should focus on sub-populations with increasing lifetime and P30D use regardless of adult-use sales status.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes
16.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 669, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perception of health risk can influence household rules, but little is known about how the perception of harm from cannabis secondhand smoke (cSHS) is related to having a complete ban on in-home cannabis smoking. We examined this association among a nationally representative sample of United States adults. METHODS: Respondents were 21,381 adults from the cross-sectional Marijuana Use and Environmental Survey recruited from December 2019-February 2020. Perceived harm of cSHS exposure (extremely harmful, somewhat harmful, mostly safe, or totally safe) and complete ban of cannabis smoking anywhere in the home (yes or no) were self-reported. Logistic regression for survey-weighted data estimated covariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between perceived harm of cSHS and complete ban on in-home cannabis smoking. Stratified subgroup analyses (by cannabis smoking status, cannabis use legalization in state of residence, and children under age 6 living in the home) were conducted to quantify effect measure modification of the association between perception of harm and complete ban. RESULTS: A complete ban on in-home cannabis smoking was reported by 71.8% of respondents. Eight percent reported cSHS as "totally safe"; 20.5% "mostly safe"; 38.3% "somewhat harmful"; and 33.0% "extremely harmful". Those who reported cSHS as "extremely harmful" had 6 times the odds of a complete ban on in-home cannabis smoking (OR = 6.0, 95%CI = 4.9-7.2) as those reporting smoking as "totally safe". The odds of a complete ban were higher among those reporting cSHS as "somewhat harmful" (OR = 2.6, 95%CI = 2.2-3.1) or "mostly safe" (OR = 1.4, 95%CI = 1.2-1.7) vs those reporting cSHS as "totally safe". In each subgroup of cannabis smoking status, state cannabis use legalization, and children under the age of 6 living in the home, perceived harm was associated with a complete ban on in-home cannabis smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates perceiving cSHS as harmful is strongly associated with having a complete in-home cannabis smoking ban. With almost a third of US adults perceiving cSHS as at least "mostly safe", there is strong need to educate the general population about potential risks associated with cSHS exposure to raise awareness and encourage adoption of household rules prohibiting indoor cannabis smoking.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Fumar Maconha , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Habitação , Percepção
17.
Int J Drug Policy ; 127: 104385, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis use for non-medical purposes was legalized and regulated in Canada through the Cannabis Act in October 2018. This paper examined trends in use of cannabis for non-medical purposes and related indicators from pre- to post-legalization in Canada (2018-2022). METHODS: Data from 5 years of the Canadian Cannabis Survey, an annual web-based survey administered to Canadians 16 years of age or older, were used in the analysis (n2018=12,952; n2019=11,922; n2020=10,821; n2021=10,733; n2022=10,048). Cannabis measures include questions about use, types of products, sources, risk perceptions and beliefs, and exposure to public education campaigns and health warnings. Adjusted logistic regression models tested differences in outcomes over time. RESULTS: Past 12-month cannabis consumption increased among Canadians from 22 % in 2018 to 27 % in 2022 (AOR=1.41;99 % CI:1.28-1.54). Similarly, daily/almost daily (DAD) consumption increased from 5 % in 2018 to 7 % in 2022 (AOR=1.36;99 % CI:1.16-1.59). Consumption of dried flower, hash/kief, and concentrates/extracts (e.g., wax, shatter, budder) decreased since 2018, whereas consumption of edibles, beverages and vape pens/cartridges increased (p < 0.001). Legal purchasing increased from 4 % in 2018 to 69 % in 2022, while accessing cannabis through social and illegal sources decreased over time (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: More Canadians are reporting cannabis consumption since legalization and regulation of cannabis for non-medical purposes, continuing a pre-existing trend despite an increase in awareness of the risks of consuming cannabis. Trends in product use indicate a transition from dried flower and concentrates/extracts towards consumption of cannabis foods, drinks and vape pens/cartridges. The legal market is increasingly displacing the illicit cannabis market in Canada.


Assuntos
Legislação de Medicamentos , Uso da Maconha , Humanos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/tendências , Cannabis , Idoso
18.
Int J Drug Policy ; 127: 104395, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Chile, Laws 19366 and 20000, implemented in 1995 and 2005 respectively, regulated and sanctioned cannabis' personal use, cultivation and trafficking. METHODS: We use thirteen biannual cross-sectional national surveys data from 1994 to 2018 to examine the effect of Laws 19366 and 20000-using the rate of individuals incarcerated per 100000 population due to drug-related crimes as proxy-on the age of onset of cannabis use over time. We estimate the effect of these policies using a mixed proportional hazards framework that models the transition to first cannabis use in 47,832 individuals aged 12-21. RESULTS: Overall, changes in these laws did not affect the transition to first cannabis use. However, increases in the rate of individuals incarcerated were associated with decreases on the age of onset of cannabis use in females and individuals living in affluent neighborhoods or in specific regions. CONCLUSION: We find no evidence of cannabis policy changes affecting the age of onset of cannabis use across all individuals aged 12-21. Policy effects associated with decreases in cannabis onset age in females and individuals from affluent neighborhoods or specific regions can be explained by using theoretical frames that recognize specific dynamics of cannabis supply and demand.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Humanos , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Política Pública , Cannabis , Legislação de Medicamentos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Int J Drug Policy ; 127: 104400, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, derived psychoactive cannabis products containing delta 8 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have become increasingly popular across the US, particularly in states that lack medical or recreational cannabis programs. Despite this, little is known about patterns of delta 8 THC use. METHODS: A sample of Nebraska residents (a state without legal medical or recreational cannabis) were surveyed to gather data on substance use, including delta 8 THC and cannabis, across the state. Then, logistic regressions were used to calculate relative odds ratios to understand the factors that increased the likelihood at which Nebraska residents use delta 8 THC or cannabis products. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that younger adults have higher odds of delta 8 THC use but not cannabis and that non-white participants had higher odds of delta 8 use than white non-Hispanic groups but there was no difference for cannabis use. Political affiliation, sexual orientation, access, and knowledge of friends who used cannabis were also associated with cannabis use but not delta 8 THC use. Past substance use and personal opinion regarding cannabis use increased likelihood for both delta 8 THC and cannabis use. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate several factors which affect cannabis and delta 8 THC use while providing insight on the people that are most likely to be impacted by the potential consequences of substance use, especially when considering the inconsistent laws governing cannabis and delta 8 THC use across the US.


Assuntos
Dronabinol , Humanos , Nebraska , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cannabis/química , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Legislação de Medicamentos , Fatores Etários , Idoso
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 258: 111264, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cigarettes are frequently co-used with alcohol and cannabis. However, definitions of co-use vary and the extent to which cigarette use changes on days with different patterns of co-use is unclear. We compared the number of cigarettes smoked on different days based on co-use patterns of cigarettes and alcohol or cannabis. METHODS: This study analyzed 2408 smoking days collected in a 30-day smartphone-based daily diary study among 146 young adults (aged 18-26) with an oversample from sexual minority groups. Two separate multilevel models were estimated: one for cigarette and alcohol co-use and the other for cigarette and cannabis co-use. Both models examined day-level associations between the number of cigarettes smoked and 3 different types of days (smoking-only days, same-occasion co-use days, different-occasion co-use days), controlling for demographic characteristics. RESULTS: More cigarettes were smoked on same-occasion co-use days compared to cigarette-smoking-only days for both alcohol (b=1.474, SE=0.136, t=10.8, p<.001) and cannabis (b=0.822, SE=0.209, t=3.9, p<.001). There were no significant differences in cigarettes smoked on days with co-use on the same day, but on different occasions, compared to days with smoking only. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to days with cigarette smoking only, more cigarettes are smoked on days when cigarettes are co-used with alcohol or cannabis on the same occasion, while the same is not true for days with co-use on different occasions. Conflating different definitions of co-use may impact findings on associations between co-use and smoking behavior.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Fumar Cigarros , Fumar Maconha , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Smartphone
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