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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15041, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057695

RESUMO

Smoking, inflammation and depression commonly co-occur and may be mechanistically linked. However, key questions remain around the direction of association and the influence of residual confounding. We aimed to characterize the association between lifetime smoking and depression, as well as to assess the role that genetically-predicted C-reactive protein (CRP) level, (an archetypal generalized inflammatory marker) and/or IL-6 activity, as a potential explanation for this association. We performed inverse variance weighted Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using recently published summary-level GWAS data for lifetime smoking index, CRP levels, and depression. A subset of inflammatory-related genetic variants from the lifetime smoking GWAS were also used to assess the potential inflammatory causal pathways between smoking and depression. The analysis indicated reciprocal relationships of lifetime smoking with depression (ORSmk-Dep = 2.01, 95% CI 1.71-2.37, p < 0.001; ORDep-Smk = 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.13, p < 0.001), CRP levels and IL-6 activity (ORSmk-CRP = 1.40, 95% CI 1.21-1.55, p < 0.001; ORCRP-Smk = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p < 0.001, ORIL-6/CRP-Smk = 1.06 (1.03-1.09), p < 0.001). These associations were also supported by the majority of the robust MR methods performed. We did not find evidence for a reciprocal relationship between CRP levels (using > 500 genetic instruments for CRP) and depression (ORCRP-Dep = 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.04; ORDep-CRP = 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.07). We observed little variation in the IVW estimates between smoking and depression when we limited the genetic variants assessed to those related to measures of generalized inflammation, but we found evidence for an attenuation of the smoking-depression association in multivariable mendelian randomization when adjusting for IL-6 activity, suggesting that the IL-6 pathway may be at least in part responsible for the association of smoking and depression. Our study supports potential bidirectional causal associations between lifetime smoking and depression which may be at least in part explained by the IL-6 signalling pathway. The IL-6 pathway may represent a putative therapeutic target for smoking and to mitigate the effects of smoking on depression.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética
2.
South Med J ; 115(9): 665-673, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Developing a comprehensive understanding of tobacco product use among adolescents requires information about the use of conventional cigarettes; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes); other tobacco products such as cigars, little cigars, and cigarillos (CCLCs); and smokeless tobacco. In particular, the use of products other than cigarettes may have important implications for additional smoking-related behaviors and the health of students and adolescents. METHODS: The National Youth Tobacco Surveys for 2017, 2018, and 2019 were aggregated to analyze the characteristics of middle school and high school students who had used tobacco products, such as CCLCs. Information collected included age, sex, race, and perceptions about harm and addiction related to tobacco products. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between having used conventional/e-cigarettes and having used CCLCs, while adjusting for the perceived harm of conventional/e-cigarettes, sex, age, and other risk factors. RESULTS: These combined surveys included 50,172 responses; 6836 respondents (13.6%) had tried CCLCs. Male students used these products more frequently than female students. Students in older age groups (15, 16, 17, and 18 and older,) had used these products more frequently than younger students. The odds for students in this CCLCs subgroup trying conventional cigarettes decreased in those who thought that conventional cigarettes could cause "some harm" or "a lot of harm." The odds for having tried e-cigarettes in the CCLCs subgroup decreased in those who thought that e-cigarettes could cause harm and increased in those who thought that conventional cigarettes could cause "little harm" or "a lot of harm." CONCLUSIONS: More than 10% of middle school and high school students have used CCLCs. The majority of students in this subgroup also have used either conventional cigarettes or e-cigarettes. Understanding possible harm with cigarette use is significantly associated with the reduced use of conventional and e-cigarettes, and using CCLCs independently contributes to the increased risk of using conventional and e-cigarettes. The frequent use of several tobacco products makes surveys in this age group more complicated and indicates that educational efforts and public policies regarding tobacco need to include all tobacco products.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Fumar/epidemiologia , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
N Z Med J ; 135(1561): 45-55, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049789

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the use of smoking cessation aids across different ethnic groups and age groups within a large New Zealand cohort and to assess the uptake and effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation via a "vape to quit" initiative. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of Te Ha - Waitaha smoking cessation service, including a telephone interview of a subgroup, who opted into the "vape to quit" programme. The uptake of different smoking cessation aids, including the use of medications and other products, was evaluated and the self-reported quit rate in a "vape to quit" cohort was evaluated. RESULTS: The final dataset analysed consisted of 1,118 participants: 66.6% NZ European; 28.1% Maori; 3.1% Pacific; and 2.2% Asian. Maori participants were younger on average and had increasing vaping use. Maori were less likely to receive varenicline to assist with smoking cessation. Vaping use increased over time in all groups. Nicotine containing e-cigarettes were the most common smoking cessation products used, with >65% of each ethnic cohort utilising these products. Of the 100 participants in the "vape to quit" cohort 16% were smokefree and vapefree, 31% were smokefree and vaping, 31% were smoking and not vaping, and 22% were smoking and vaping. CONCLUSIONS: The Te Ha - Waitaha service was successful in engaging Maori in their smoking cessation programme. Nicotine containing e-cigarette products were popular in all cohorts. Nicotine containing e-cigarettes are showing potential in smoking cessation programmes in support of the Smokefree Aotearoa 2025; however, 22% of those in the "vape to quit" programme became dual users.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vaping , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Nicotina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/terapia
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1170, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indonesia is in the middle of a rapid epidemiological transition with an ageing population and increasing exposure to risk factors for chronic conditions. This study examines the relative impacts of obesity, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity, on non-communicable diseases multimorbidity, health service use, catastrophic health expenditure (CHE), and loss in employment productivity in Indonesia. METHODS: Secondary analyses were conducted of cross-sectional data from adults aged ≥ 40 years (n = 12,081) in the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2014/2015. We used propensity score matching to assess the associations between behavioural risk factors and health service use, CHE, employment productivity, and multimorbidity. RESULTS: Being obese, overweight and a former tobacco user was associated with a higher number of chronic conditions and multimorbidity (p < 0.05). Being a former tobacco user contributed to a higher number of outpatient and inpatient visits as well as CHE incidences and work absenteeism. Physical inactivity relatively increased the number of outpatient visits (30% increase, p < 0.05) and work absenteeism (21% increase, P < 0.06). Although being underweight was associated with an increased outpatient care utilisation (23% increase, p < 0.05), being overweight was negatively associated with CHE incidences (50% decrease, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined together, obesity, overweight, physical inactivity and tobacco use contributed to an increased number of NCDs as well as medical costs and productivity loss in Indonesia. Interventions addressing physical and behavioural risk factors are likely to have substantial benefits for individuals and the wider society in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Magreza , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia
5.
Can Respir J ; 2022: 6810745, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051533

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the relevance of CD40, CD86, and GSTO1 with the pathogenesis of COPD. Methods: Patients with acute exacerbation of COPD were contrasted with the healthy and nonsmoking ones and smoking but without COPD ones. The changes of CD40, CD86, and GSTO1 in the peripheral blood, collected from different groups, were detected by flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. Results: Compared with the nonsmoking group and smoking but without the COPD group, the expression of CD40 and CD86 of the patients with COPD increased significantly, but the expression of GSTO1 decreased. CD40 and CD86 were negatively correlated with FEV1%, while GSTO1 was positively correlated with FEV1% and negatively correlated with CD40 and CD86. Conclusion: CD40, CD86, and GSTO1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD, and they are related to the severity of COPD and the degree of changes in the lung function.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-2/metabolismo , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 372, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the association between smoking habits and dental care utilization and cost in individuals registered with the Japan Health Insurance Association, Osaka branch. METHODS: We used the administrative claims database and specific medical check-up data and included 226,359 participants, who visited dental institutions, underwent dental examinations, and underwent specific medical checkups, with smoking data from April 2016 to March 2017. We calculated propensity scores with age, gender, exercise, eating habits, alcohol intake, and sleep. We also compared dental care utilization with the total cost of each procedure. RESULTS: According to propensity score matching, 62,692 participants were selected for each group. Compared to non-smokers, smokers were younger, and a higher proportion were men. Smokers tended to skip breakfast, have dinner just before bed, and drink alcohol. After adjusting for potential confounding factors with propensity score matching, the mean annual dental cost among smokers was significantly higher than non-smokers. The prevalence of pulpitis, missing teeth, and apical periodontitis were higher among smokers than non-smokers, while inlay detachment, caries, and dentine hypersensitivity were higher among non-smokers. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that smokers have higher dental cost consisted of progressive dental caries, missing teeth, and uncontrolled acute inflammation that necessitated the use of medications. It is suggested that smokers tend to visit the dentist after their symptoms become severe.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Assistência Odontológica , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1662, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Large-scale population-based studies regarding the role of education in periodontitis are lacking. Thus, the aim of the current study was to analyze the potential association between education and periodontitis with state of the art measured clinical phenotypes within a large population-based sample from northern Germany. MATERIAL & METHODS: The Hamburg City Health Study (HCHS) is a population-based cohort study registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT03934957). Oral health was assessed via plaque-index, probing depth, gingival recession and gingival bleeding. Periodontitis was classified according to Eke & Page. Education level was determined using the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED-97) further categorized in "low, medium or high" education. Analyses for descriptive models were stratified by periodontitis severity. Ordinal logistic regression models were stepwise constructed to test for hypotheses. RESULTS: Within the first cohort of 10,000 participants, we identified 1,453 with none/mild, 3,580 with moderate, and 1,176 with severe periodontitis. Ordinal regression analyses adjusted for co-variables (age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and migration) showed that the education level (low vs. high) was significantly associated with periodontitis (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.18;1.47). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the current study revealed a significant association between the education level and periodontitis after adjustments for a set of confounders. Further research is needed to develop strategies to overcome education related deficits in oral and periodontal health.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Fumar
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 939910, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061871

RESUMO

Objective: The pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is not completely clear. With further studies, smoking is toxic to the pancreas. This study classified smoking-related CP as a new etiology of CP and defined the cutoff of smoking. Design: Patients with CP admitted from January 2000 to December 2013 were included in the study. The characteristics were compared between smoking patients, drinking patients, and a group of patients who never smoke or drink (control group). The cumulative rates of steatorrhea, diabetes mellitus (DM), pancreatic pseudocyst (PPC), pancreatic stone, and biliary stricture after the onset of CP were calculated, respectively. Results: A total of 1,324 patients were included. Among them, 55 were smoking patients, 80 were drinking patients, and 1,189 were controls. The characteristics of smokers are different from the other two groups, especially in age at the onset and diagnosis of CP, initial manifestation, and type of pain. The development of DM (P = 0.011) and PPC (P = 0.033) was significantly more common and earlier in the smokers than in the other two groups. Steatorrhea also developed significantly more in the smokers than in the controls (P = 0.029). Smokers tend to delay the formation of pancreatic stones and steatorrhea. Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of smoking-related CP is different from CP of other etiologies. A new type of CP, smoking-related CP, was put forward. Smoking-related CP should be separated from idiopathic CP and defined as a new independent subtype of CP different from alcoholic CP or idiopathic CP.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pancreatite Crônica , Esteatorreia , Humanos , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Esteatorreia/etiologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1699, 2022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality and morbidity worldwide, with the European Region having the highest prevalence of tobacco smoking among adults compared to other WHO regions. The Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS) provides a reliable source of national and regional estimates of smoking prevalence; however, currently there are no estimates at a smaller geographical resolution such as the municipality scale in Belgium. This hinders the estimation of the spatial distribution of smoking attributable mortality at small geographical scale (i.e., number of deaths that can be attributed to tobacco). The objective of this study was to obtain estimates of smoking prevalence in each Belgian municipality using BHIS and calculate smoking attributable mortality at municipality level. METHODS: Data of participants aged 15 + on smoking behavior, age, gender, educational level and municipality of residence were obtained from the BHIS 2018. A Bayesian hierarchical Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model was used to model the logit transformation of the design-based Horvitz-Thompson direct prevalence estimates. Municipality-level variables obtained from Statbel, the Belgian statistical office, were used as auxiliary variables in the model. Model parameters were estimated using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA). Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) and Conditional Predictive Ordinate (CPO) were computed to assess model fit. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were computed using the estimated prevalence of smoking in each of the 589 Belgian municipalities and relative risks obtained from published meta-analyses. Smoking attributable mortality was calculated by multiplying PAF with age-gender standardized and stratified number of deaths in each municipality. RESULTS: BHIS 2018 data included 7,829 respondents from 154 municipalities. Smoothed estimates for current smoking ranged between 11% [Credible Interval 3;23] and 27% [21;34] per municipality, and for former smoking between 4% [0;14] and 34% [21;47]. Estimates of smoking attributable mortality constituted between 10% [7;15] and 47% [34;59] of total number of deaths per municipality. CONCLUSIONS: Within-country variation in smoking and smoking attributable mortality was observed. Computed estimates should inform local public health prevention campaigns as well as contribute to explaining the regional differences in mortality.


Assuntos
Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1738, 2022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research in high-income countries (HICs) has shown that smokers reduce their cognitive dissonance through two types of justifications over time: risk minimizing and functional beliefs. To date, however, the relationship between these justifications and smoking behaviors over time has limited evidence from low- and middle-income countries. This study examines these of justifications and their relation to quitting behavior and intentions among smoking tobacco users in India. METHODS: The data are from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Survey, a prospective cohort of nationally representative sample of tobacco users. The respondents include smoked tobacco (cigarettes and bidi) users (n = 1112) who participated in both Wave 1 (W1; 2010-2011) and Wave 2 (W2; 2012-2013) surveys. Key measures include questions about psychosocial beliefs such as functional beliefs (e.g., smoking calms you down when you are stressed or upset) and risk-minimizing beliefs (e.g., the medical evidence that smoking is harmful is exaggerated) and quitting behavior and intentions at Wave 2. FINDINGS: Of the 1112 smokers at W1, 78 (7.0%) had quit and 86 (7.8%) had intentions to quit at W2. Compared to W1, there was a significant increase in functional beliefs at W2 among smokers who transitioned to mixed use (using both smoking and smokeless tobacco) and a significant decrease among those who quit. At W2, smokers who quit held significantly lower levels of functional beliefs, than continuing smokers, and mixed users ((M = 2.96, 3.30, and 3.93, respectively, p < .05). In contrast, risk-minimizing beliefs did not change significantly between the two waves. Additionally, higher income and lower functional beliefs were significant predictors of quitting behavior at W2. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that smokers in India exhibit similar patterns of dissonance reduction as reported in studies from HICs: smokers who quit reduced their smoking justifications in the form of functional beliefs, not risk-minimizing beliefs. Smokers' beliefs change in concordance with their smoking behavior and functional beliefs tend to play a significant role as compared to risk-minimizing beliefs. Tobacco control messaging and interventions can be framed to target these functional beliefs to facilitate quitting.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Política Pública , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco
11.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 28: 1610495, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091938

RESUMO

Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the associations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and its interaction with current smoking with gastric cancer (GC) risk in the Chinese Han population. Methods: We used logistic regression model to test the association between VEGF gene polymorphism and the risk of GC. The association strength was evaluated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated using logistic regression. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to analyze the effect of the interaction between VEGF gene and current smoking on GC risk. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of GC was significantly higher in rs10434 -G allele carriers than that in AA genotype carriers (AG + GG and AA), and the adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.64 (1.24-2.08). In addition, we found a significantly higher GC risk in subjects with rs833061-T allele than those with CC allele (CT + TT and CC), adjusted or (95% CI) = 1.43 (1.10-1.87). We also found a statistically significant two- locus model (p = 0.018), including rs10434 and current smoking, indicating a significant interaction between rs10434 and current smoking on the risk of GC. Hierarchical analysis found that current smokers with AG or GG genotype have the highest GC risk, compared to never- smokers with AA genotype, OR (95% CI) = 2.43 (1.64-3.28). Conclusion: We found that rs10434 -G and rs833061-T alleles, gene- environment interaction between rs10434, and current smoking were all related to increased GC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , China/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study determined the proportion of adolescents and young persons (AYP) in Nigeria who use e-cigarettes and smoke tobacco; and identified factors associated with the use of e-cigarettes and tobacco smoking. METHODS: AYP aged 11-23 years were recruited to participate in an online survey. The independent variables were respondents' health, HIV and COVID-19 status and their level of anxiety. The dependent variables were tobacco smoking and use of e-cigarettes. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders (age, sex, educational level and vulnerability status). RESULTS: There were 2206 respondents of which 568 (19.8%) used e-cigarettes and 787 (27.4%) smoked tobacco. Individual (18-23 years, having a health condition, high anxiety and being vulnerable) and familial (having father, mother, siblings or friends who used e-cigarettes) factors were associated with both the use of e-cigarettes and tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoking was a significant risk indicator for e-cigarettes use and vice versa. COVID-19 infection (adjusted OR, AOR: 3.602) and living with HIV (AOR: 1.898) were associated with higher odds of using e-cigarettes. Males (AOR: 1.577), 15-17 years (AOR: 6.621) and moderate anxiety (AOR: 2.500) were associated with higher odds of tobacco smoking. AYP with health conditions had higher odds of using e-cigarettes (AOR: 1.514) while AYP with moderate anxiety had lower odds of using e-cigarettes (AOR: 0.627). CONCLUSION: The proportion of AYP in Nigeria who used e-cigarettes and smoked tobacco is high. Public health interventions that target the common risk factors for e-cigarettes use and tobacco smoking among AYP in Nigeria are urgently needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Infecções por HIV , Vaping , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumaça , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia
13.
Am J Health Behav ; 46(4): 442-455, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109860

RESUMO

Objectives: In this paper, we explore the adherence patterns to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID-19 mitigation guidelines among current, former, and never smokers. Methods: We used an online cross-sectional survey of adults 18 years or older in 5 northeastern states of the US (N=1084). Results: Unadjusted analyses revealed that current smokers reported lower adherence to the CDC guidelines than former smokers (27.5 vs 29.4, p<.05). After accounting for sociodemographic covariates, this finding was no longer statistically significant. However, compared to former smokers, never smokers reported wearing their mask less often (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.45-0.94) and current smokers were less likely to report always practicing illness-related hygiene skills (OR=0.60; 95% CI=0.39-0.93).Conclusions: Never smokers had poorer adherence to CDC guidelines than former smokers, namely wearing their masks, and current smokers were less likely to always follow the hygiene recommendations. Results should inform future public health efforts in targeting current smokers with lower adherence to CDC guidelines and learning from the ability of former smokers to demonstrate high adherence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fumantes , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia
14.
J Int Med Res ; 50(9): 3000605221123697, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To undertake a meta-analysis to investigate if there is an association between the glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease (CAD) susceptibility and smoking. METHODS: Electronic databases, including PubMed®, Web of Science and Embase®, were searched for relevant case-control studies. Data were extracted and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated and appropriate statistical methods were used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The analysis included eight studies with a total of 1880 cases with CAD and 1758 control subjects. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that there is no association between the GSTM1 null and CAD (OR 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.55). An increased risk of CAD was observed in the smoking population with the GSTM1 null genotype (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02, 2.15). Subgroup analyses of geographical region, genotyping method and publication language category demonstrated potential relationships among gene polymorphism, smoking and CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current literature, the GSTM1 null genotype was associated to CAD in the smoking population. The interaction between smoking and GSTM1 polymorphism may contribute to the susceptibility of CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética
15.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 247, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The club cell secretory protein (CC16) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and low CC16 serum levels have been associated with both risk and progression of COPD, yet the interaction between smoking and CC16 on lung function outcomes remains unknown. METHODS: Utilizing cross-sectional data on United States veterans, CC16 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA and log transformed for analyses. Spirometry was conducted and COPD status was defined by post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.7. Smoking measures were self-reported on questionnaire. Multivariable logistic and linear regression were employed to examine associations between CC16 levels and COPD, and lung function with adjustment for covariates. Unadjusted Pearson correlations described relationships between CC16 level and lung function measures, pack-years smoked, and years since smoking cessation. RESULTS: The study population (N = 351) was mostly male, white, with an average age over 60 years. An interaction between CC16 and smoking status on FEV1/FVC ratio was demonstrated among subjects with COPD (N = 245, p = 0.01). There was a positive correlation among former smokers and negative correlation among current or never smokers with COPD. Among former smokers with COPD, CC16 levels were also positively correlated with years since smoking cessation, and inversely related with pack-years smoked. Increasing CC16 levels were associated with lower odds of COPD (ORadj = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.57, Padj < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status is an important effect modifier of CC16 relationships with lung function. Increasing serum CC16 corresponded to increases in FEV1/FVC ratio in former smokers with COPD versus opposite relationships in current or never smokers. Additional longitudinal studies may be warranted to assess relationship of CC16 with smoking cessation on lung function among subjects with COPD.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Uteroglobina , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Broncodilatadores/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Fumaça , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Uteroglobina/metabolismo
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1388-1393, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117344

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the relapse status of smokers aged ≥15 years in China, and investigate the main factors influencing their relapse behavior. Methods: The data of this study cames from the 2018 China Adult Tobacco Survey, covering 400 committees or villages in 200 districts or counties in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) of China. The relevant data of smoking and relapsing in residents aged ≥15 years were collected by face-to-face interview. Software SAS 9.4 was used to clean and analyze the data, and logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors for relapse rate. Results: A total of 19 376 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 91.50%. In 2018, 66.05% of smokers aged ≥15 years in China had smoking relapse, in whom 66.59% were males and 55.79% were females. In all age groups, the age group 15-24 years had the highest smoking relapse rate (82.63%). Multivariate analysis showed that the younger age 15-24 years (OR=4.618,95%CI:1.981-10.763), e-cigarette use (OR=9.782,95%CI:3.139-30.490), and tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in the past 30 days (OR=1.710,95%CI:1.291-2.265) were associated with higher smoking relapse rate. Compared with people who were allowed smoking at home or those without smoking limit, the smoking relapse rate in people who were not allowed to smoke at home (OR=0.562, 95%CI: 0.439-0.719) or those with smoking limit (OR=0.487, 95%CI: 0.366-0.647) was lower. Conclusion: The smoking relapse rate in Chinese smokers is high, especially in young people. It is suggested to conduct targeted intervention based on the results of this study to reduce the smoking relapse rate and help achieve the smoking control goal in Healthy China 2030.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumantes , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco
18.
Sante Publique ; 34(1): 141-155, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102087

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: WHO advocates that financial and fiscal measures, aimed at making tobacco acquisition less affordable, are most effective, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: The objective is to analyze the application and effectiveness of the tobacco fiscal policy in Algeria in accordance with the provisions of the WHO Convention-Framework for Tobacco Control. METHOD: Using macroeconomic data covering the period 1970-2018, we verified whether the levels, structure and evolution of tobacco taxes are oriented towards the implementation of a tobacco control tax policy. Then, we analyzed the conditions for the effectiveness of this policy and its viability through an econometric study of the price elasticity of cigarette demand, the income elasticity of cigarette demand, and the elasticity of affordable tobacco demand. RESULTS: We have shown that in Algeria, the tobacco control fiscal Policy is not applied, it is not effective in the long term, and the conditions for its viability are not met. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study have led to question Article 6 of the WHO FCTC.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Argélia , Comércio , Humanos , Política Pública , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Impostos , Tabaco
19.
In Vivo ; 36(5): 2297-2302, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Lung cancer is a frequent and fatal cancer that is difficult to diagnose in the early stages. CYFRA 21-1 is a serological marker currently used to diagnose and monitor lung cancer; however, its clinical use for screening is controversial. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between serum CYFRA 21-1 levels and clinical confounders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 3,674 individuals who had never been diagnosed with any cancer. The relationships between high serum CYFRA 21-1 levels (≥3.5 ng/ml) and age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status were investigated. RESULTS: High serum CYFRA 21-1 levels (≥3.5 ng/ml) were detected in 5.1% of all subjects. High serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were observed in 7.3% of current smokers and 4.3% of non-smokers. The proportion of subjects with high serum CYFRA 21-1 levels was markedly higher in the older group (65 years and older, 11%) than in the younger group (younger than 45 years, 2.0%). High serum CYFRA 21-1 levels (≥3.5 ng/ml) were associated with older age [odds ratio (OR)=3.39, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.79-6.41 for 55-64 years vs. <45 years, and OR=7.34, 95% CI=3.86-13.9 for ≥65 years vs. <45 years, respectively] and current smoking (OR=2.09, 95% CI=1.38-3.15 for current smoker vs. non-smoker). CONCLUSION: High serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were associated with an older age and current smoking, which may be considered as factors influencing CYFRA 21-1 levels.


Assuntos
Queratina-19 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumar
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078225

RESUMO

COVID-19 infection is associated with oral lesions which may be exacerbated by tobacco smoking or e-cigarette use. This study assessed the oral lesions associated with the use of e-cigarettes, tobacco smoking, and COVID-19 among adolescents and young people in Nigeria. A national survey recruited 11-23-year-old participants from the 36 States of Nigeria and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Data were collected using Survey Monkey®. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Statistical significance was set at p-value less than 0.05. There were 2870 participants, of which 386 (13.4%) were tobacco smokers, 167 (5.8%) e-cigarette users, and 401 (14.0%) were both e-cigarette and tobacco users; and 344 (12.0%) had ever tested positive to COVID-19. Adolescents and young people who smoked tobacco had more than twice the odds of reporting gingival inflammation, oral ulcers, dry mouth, and changes in taste than those who did not smoke. Those who used e-cigarettes had 1.5 times higher odds of reporting oral lesions. Respondents who had COVID-19 infection had higher odds of reporting gingival inflammation and lower odds of reporting dry mouth than those who did not have COVID-19 infection. These findings were significant, and may help clinicians to screen for tobacco use and COVID-19 among adolescents and young people in Nigeria.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Úlceras Orais , Vaping , Xerostomia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fumar , Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Vaping/epidemiologia
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