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1.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(2): 100-104, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030934

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) and smoking are causing a heavy mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoke increases the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease, including severe pulmonary tuberculosis, resistant bacilli forms and death from this disease. Smoking patients with TB have poorer compliance with treatment of tuberculosis than non-smokers. In countries with high TB incidence and smoking prevalence tending to increase, smoking cessation is a means of controlling the TB epidemic. Stopping smoking improves the course of tuberculosis and promotes its final cure, it is accompanied by a better therapeutic observance. WHO recommended coordination between national tuberculosis and tobacco control programs to optimize control of the TB epidemic. The mobilization of health professionals in helping smokers with tuberculosis stopping smoking is required.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Fumantes , Fumar
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18744, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000378

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To the best of our knowledge, there is no consensus on dose-response between smoking, alcohol drinking, and bone healing. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of studies to estimate the influence of smoking and alcohol use on the success of non-pathologic bone fracture healing in adult patients. METHODS: A systematic search will be performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, and AMED databases to identify randomized controlled trials and observational studies which have assessed the effect of smoking or alcohol drinking on fracture healing. Primary outcomes include delayed union or nonunion rate and time to union. Secondary outcomes are common complications which occur during bone healing including malunion and wound infection. Risk of bias will be evaluated using the Quality In Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool for quality assessment of each study. Dose-response meta-analysis will be performed between smoking, alcohol drinking, and bone healing. Evaluation of the quality of evidence will be conducted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. RESULTS: The present study will assess the effects of smoking and alcohol drinking on non-pathologic bone fracture healing in adult patients. CONCLUSION: We hope that this systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis will provide high quality evidence on dose-response between smoking, alcohol drinking, and bone fracture healing. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019131454.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas não Consolidadas/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
3.
Waste Manag ; 104: 104-118, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978829

RESUMO

Cigarette butts, one of the most abundant forms of waste in the world, contain more than 4000 toxic chemicals and pose serious risks to the health of wildlife, humans, and marine and freshwater organisms. Although trivial in size, trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in the accumulation of tonnes of toxic waste litter. In 2016, a world production of over 5.7 trillion cigarettes was reported with the majority comprising cellulose acetate filters - a polymer with poor biodegradability. Depending on the environmental conditions, cellulose acetate filters can take up to 10 years to decompose during which time they leach heavy metals and toxic chemicals into the environment. Although possible disposal methods for collected cigarette butt waste include incineration and landfilling, both techniques may result in the release of hazardous fumes and can be costly. However, recycling CBs in different materials could be a possible solution for this concurrent environmental pollution. A number of novel studies have been publicized on recycling cigarette butts with encouraging results, and several methods have been studied, including recycling of cigarette butts in asphalt concrete and fired clay bricks, as a carbon source, sound absorbing material, corrosion inhibitor, biofilm carrier, and many more. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review and discussion of various studies that have been carried out on the toxicity and valorization of cigarette butt waste and investigates the feasibility and sustainability of recycling methods adopted. Further research and developments are essential for the widespread application of recycling cigarette butts.


Assuntos
Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Poluição Ambiental , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Reciclagem
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 27-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Even though prostate cancer (PCa) has good prognosis, there is a discrepancy in the risk among ethnic groups, with high morbidity in African American men. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin 10 (IL-10) have been associated with inflammation and cancer risk. We investigated the association of five SNPs in the IL-10 promoter with clinical features such as Gleason score and smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 413 DNA samples were obtained from a nested case-control study of African American males who were genotyped for 5 SNPs utilizing pyrosequencing. Multiple and binary logistic regression models were applied to analyze the clinical and genotypic data. RESULTS: rs12122923 and rs1800871 were associated with PCa risk. Smoking was also found to increase the risk of PCa by 1.6-fold. rs1800893 was found to be associated with lower grades for prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: IL-10 promoter polymorphisms might be a risk factor for PCa development in smoking subjects and PCa progression.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMJ ; 368: l7057, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fractures in offspring during different developmental stages of life. DESIGN: National register based birth cohort study with a sibling comparison design. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1 680 307 people born in Sweden between 1983 and 2000 to women who smoked (n=377 367, 22.5%) and did not smoke (n=1 302 940) in early pregnancy. Follow-up was until 31 December 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Fractures by attained age up to 32 years. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 21.1 years, 377 970 fractures were observed (the overall incidence rate for fracture standardised by calendar year of birth was 11.8 per 1000 person years). The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of fracture in offspring differed by attained age. Maternal smoking was associated with a higher rate of fractures in offspring before 1 year of age in the entire cohort (birth year standardised fracture rates in those exposed and unexposed to maternal smoking were 1.59 and 1.28 per 1000 person years, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders the hazard ratio for maternal smoking compared with no smoking was 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.45). This association followed a dose dependent pattern (compared with no smoking, hazard ratios for 1-9 cigarettes/day and ≥10 cigarettes/day were 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.39) and 1.41 (1.18 to 1.69), respectively) and persisted in within-sibship comparisons although with wider confidence intervals (compared with no smoking, 1.58 (1.01 to 2.46)). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was also associated with an increased fracture incidence in offspring from age 5 to 32 years in whole cohort analyses, but these associations did not follow a dose dependent gradient. In within-sibship analyses, which controls for confounding by measured and unmeasured shared familial factors, corresponding point estimates were all close to null. Maternal smoking was not associated with risk of fracture in offspring between the ages of 1 and 5 years in any of the models. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with an increased rate of fracture during the first year of life but does not seem to have a long lasting biological influence on fractures later in childhood and up to early adulthood.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Gestantes/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
6.
BMJ ; 368: l6669, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366). MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%). MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (≥15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index ≥30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (≤75%) of total life expectancy at age 50. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18753, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914097

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and explore the association between sleep duration and MetS. This study enrolled 8 272 adults aged 18 years and older from 6 urban and 8 rural areas during 2013 to 2014in Henan China. Participants were interviewed about demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and medical history, and physical measurements were performed. The relationships between sleep duration and MetS were evaluated and plotted by Restricted Cubic Spline Regression. The mean age was 51.5 years (SD 14.2) and 4 916 (59.4%) were female. The crude prevalence of MetS was 30.3% and the age-standardized rate was 23.6%. Men were more likely to have MetS than women (P = .01). MetS was positively associated with age, education, smoking, drinking, BMI and sleep duration, and seemed irrelevant to occupation and sedentary behavior. In terms of individual component of MetS, high blood pressure was the most prevalent component for both men and women, while the lowest prevalent was high triglycerides in men and for women was low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). There was a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and MetS and its components. Sleep duration <6 hours or >9 hours were associated with higher risk of MetS (OR from 1.10 to 2.15). The MetS was prevalent, and more than half of total adult population was suffering from high blood pressure. Sleep duration may be a determinant of metabolic health. Both short (<6 hours) and long sleep duration (>9 hours) was linked to an increased risk of MetS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(1): 90-99, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents are seen as an important target group for reducing tobacco and alcohol consumption in the population. Data on substance use over a longer period of time for adolescents are a basis for addiction policy in the state of Brandenburg and show certain trends. METHODS: Adolescents of the 10th grade in the state of Brandenburg were asked in 2005, 2009, 2013 and 2017 about consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other psychoactive substances and about possibly helpful contact persons. A total of 42,221 adolescents with an average age of 15.7 years (standard deviation 0.7 years) were contacted. RESULTS: Regular (at least weekly) tobacco consumption decreased between 2005 and 2017 from 41 to 17% for girls and from 37 to 18% for boys. The regular consumption of alcohol decreased in girls from 18 to 9% and in boys from 34 to 15%. Boys drink more alcohol than girls. Tobacco use is lowest in high schools and there are differences between regions in the consumption of both substances. The adolescents see their peers as the main contact persons for problems with addictive substances. Professional help is accessed less often. CONCLUSION: The Brandenburg study describes a positive development. If the reduction is sustained or even continued, alcohol and tobacco consumption in the population will decrease. The results suggest strengthening the peer approach for addiction prevention.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Fumar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Tabaco
11.
Pneumologie ; 74(1): 39-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756736

RESUMO

AIM: The aim was to investigate whether e-cigarette use predicts later experimentation with conventional cigarettes. METHODS: During the 2016/2017 school year, 2,388 children and adolescents from Baden-Württemberg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony who had never smoked conventional cigarettes before took part in a survey over a 2-year period (mean age 11.8 years, SD = 1.21; 49.6 % female). RESULTS: At baseline, 85 pupils (3.6 %) reported that they had already tried e-cigarettes at least once. By the end of the observational period, 430 of the sample had tried conventional cigarettes (18.0 %). After statistical control for age, sex, migration background, type of school, socioeconomic status, sensation-seeking, alcohol use, and school performance, the adjusted relative risk of experimentation with conventional cigarettes was 85 % higher (adjusted relative risk = 1.85, 95 % CI [1.34 - 2.56]) for pupils who had used e-cigarettes at baseline. Further analyses revealed that the risk was higher among adolescents with low sensation-seeking scores. CONCLUSION: Among young never-smokers, experimentation with conventional cigarettes is more common in those who used e-cigarettes before than among those who have not tried e-cigarettes before. This effect seems to be stronger among adolescents who, in general, have a lower risk of starting to smoke.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Life Sci ; 240: 117069, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751582

RESUMO

AIM: Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is presented in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and is suggested to promote AAA expansion. D-dimer, a breakdown product in the thrombus remodeling, may have prognostic value for AAA. This study investigated the interrelation between plasma D-dimer level, ILT volume, AAA size and progression. MAIN METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study that involved 181 patients with infra-renal AAA. They were divided into small and large AAA groups according to AAA diameter. 24 of them had repeated abdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) scan and were divided into slow-growing and fast-growing AAA groups according to the median value of AAA growth rate. Baseline and follow-up plasma D-dimer level, maximum diameter of AAA, total infra-renal aortic volume and ILT volume were analyzed. KEY FINDINGS: Plasma D-dimer level was positively correlated with ILT volume (R = 0.382, P < 0.001) and maximum diameter of AAA (R = 0.442, P < 0.001). Increasing value of plasma D-dimer was positively associated with the accelerated growth rate of AAA (R = 0.720, P < 0.01). ILT volume showed positive correlation with maximum diameter (R = 0.859, P < 0.001) and growth rate of AAA (R = 0.490, P < 0.05). After adjusting the baseline ILT volume, the positive correlations remained to be statistically significant between plasma D-dimer level and AAA size (R = 0.200, P < 0.05), as well as increasing value of plasma D-dimer and growth rate of AAA (R = 0.642, P < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma D-dimer level reflected ILT burden in AAAs. Plasma D-dimer level and ILT volume were positively correlated with AAA size. Increasing value of plasma D-dimer and baseline ILT volume could be predictors of AAA progression.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Trombose/complicações , Trombose/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/sangue , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Trombose/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 171-178, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646623

RESUMO

Free nicotine patches may promote pre-operative smoking cessation. Smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes.day-1 ) awaiting non-urgent surgery were randomly assigned (3:1) to an offer of free nicotine patches or a control group who were not offered free nicotine patches. The suggested regimen lasted 5 weeks, with patch strength decreasing incrementally after 3 and 4 weeks. The primary outcome was smoking abstinence for ≥ 4 weeks, as self-reported by participants on the day of surgery, including, where possible, corroboration using exhaled carbon monoxide testing. Out of 600 included smokers, 447 (74.5%) were randomly assigned to an offer of pre-operative nicotine patches, with 175 (39.1%) of these accepting the offer and 56 (12.5%) using patches for ≥ 3 weeks. Out of 396 participants offered nicotine patches who were included for analysis, 36 (9.1%) quit smoking for ≥ 4 weeks before surgery as compared with 8 (5.9%) controls, OR 1.5 [95%CI 0.7-3.2], p = 0.300. Sixty-three (15.9%) quit smoking for 24 h before surgery as compared with 15 (11.1%) controls, OR 1.4 [95%CI 0.8-2.4], p = 0.200. Participants offered nicotine patches were more likely to engage in a cessation attempt lasting more than 24 h, 46 (11.6%) vs. 5 (3.7%), OR 3.4 [95%CI 1.8-8.8], p = 0.010. Out of 78 participants who quit smoking by the day of surgery and were followed up at 6 months, 46 (59%) had relapsed. Offering free nicotine patches stimulated interest in quitting compared with controls, but our protocol had limited effectiveness.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/terapia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 200-212, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, and these two factors combined on gingival crevicular fluid levels and ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Associations between cytokines with each other and with key periodontal pathogens in periodontal sites under the challenge of one or both of these risk factors were also assessed. METHODS: A total of 102 subjects with periodontitis were included in this cross-sectional study and assigned to one of the following groups: non-diabetic non-smokers (control group, n = 25), non-smokers with DM (DM group, n = 30), non-diabetic smokers (S group, n = 26), and smokers with DM (S + DM group, n = 21). The levels of 13 pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1α, GM-CSF, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23) and 5 anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-ß) cytokines were assessed in healthy and diseased sites, using multiplex immunoassay. Ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines were obtained in all possible permutations. The levels of 7 key periodontal pathogens were evaluated by qPCR. RESULTS: Overall, the ratios of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines were higher in healthy and diseased sites of the DM group and in healthy sites of the S + DM group, and lower in diseased sites of the S group, compared with the control (p < .05). The proportion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines in relation to the 18 cytokines studied was higher in the DM group and lower in the S group, whereas the proportion of the anti-inflammatory cytokines was lower in both diabetic groups and higher in the S group, compared to the control (p < .05). A cluster of six common cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, IL-13, IL-21, and IL-23) was observed in the diseased sites of all groups studied. Eight common cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-21, IL-23, and IFN-γ) grouped closely in the healthy sites of both diabetic groups. Significant associations between pathogens and cytokines occurred mainly in the diseased sites of the S + DM group (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus induced an overall pro-inflammatory state, while smoking mainly stimulated immunosuppression in periodontal sites. When the two risk factors overlapped, smoking seemed to partially assuage the hyperinflammatory effect of DM.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Imunossupressão , Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 218-226, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531854

RESUMO

Postoperative nausea and vomiting is the most common side-effect of opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Apfel's simplified risk score is popular but it has some limitations. We developed and validated a dynamic predictive model for nausea or vomiting up to 48 postoperative hours, available as an online web application. Fentanyl was used by 22,144 adult patients for analgesia after non-cardiac surgery under general anaesthesia: we randomly divided them into development (80%) and validation (20%) cohorts, repeated 100 times. We used linear discriminant analysis to select variables for multivariate logistic regression. The incidences of postoperative nausea or vomiting were: 0-48 h, 5691/22,144 (26%); 0-6 h, 2749/22,144 (12%); 6-12 h, 2687/22,144 (12%); 12-18 h, 2624/22,144 (12%); 18-24 h, 1884/22,144 (9%); and 24-48 h, 1082/22,144 (5%). The median (95%CI) area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.72 (0.71-0.73) up to 48 postoperative hours compared with 0.65 (0.64-0.66) for the Apfel model, p < 0.001. The equivalent areas for 0-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-18 h, 18-24 h and 24-48 h were: 0.70 (0.69-0.72); 0.71 (0.69-0.73); 0.69 (0.68-0.71); 0.70 (0.67-0.72); and 0.69 (0.66-0.71), respectively. Our web application allows clinicians to calculate incidences of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving intravenous fentanyl for patient-controlled analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Analgésicos Opioides , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/epidemiologia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
16.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 166-172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of smoking on peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP) following initial periodontal therapy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with CP (20 smokers (S + CP) and 20 non-smokers (S-CP)) and 40 subjects with healthy periodontium (20 smokers (S + PH) and 20 non-smokers (S-PH)), comprising 80 subjects, were included in this study. Baseline GCF samples were obtained from all subjects, and clinical periodontal measurements were recorded. In patients who had received initial periodontal therapy, GCF samples were obtained and all clinical periodontal measurements were recorded again during the 6th-8th weeks. GCF PGRP-1 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: At baseline, GCF PGRP-1 levels were significantly higher in both groups with CP than in both groups with healthy periodontium, whereas these levels were significantly lower in S + CP than in S-CP. GCF PGRP-1 levels decreased significantly in both CP groups after periodontal therapy, and this reduction was significantly greater in non-smokers than in smokers. CONCLUSION: Smoking might have a suppressive effect on GCF PGRP-1 levels in CP. Initial periodontal therapy is effective in decreasing GCF PGRP-1 levels in both smokers and non-smokers with CP.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/química , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Raspagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Aplainamento Radicular , Adulto Jovem
17.
Gene ; 7242020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898706

RESUMO

AIM: The long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gradually been reported to be an important class of RNAs with pivotal roles in the development and progression of myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we hypothesized that genetic variant of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense RNA (ANRIL) and metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) may affect the prognosis of MI patients. METHODS: The study included 401 Han Chinese MI patients and 409 controls. Four lncRNA tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-ANRIL rs9632884 and rs1537373, MALAT1 rs619586 and rs3200401-were selected. SNP genotyping was performed by an improved multiplex ligation detection reaction assay. RESULTS: rs9632884 and rs3200401 SNPs were significantly associated with lipid levels in both controls and MI patients (P < 0.003-0.046). Several SNPs interacted with sex and age to modify total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine levels to modify the risk of MI. No association between the lncRNAs SNPs and susceptibility to MI was found (P > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this study provides additional evidence that genetic variation of the ANRIL rs9632884 and MALAT1 rs3200401 can mediate lipid levels in MI patients.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/genética , Triglicerídeos/genética
18.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020.
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-330485
20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 874-883, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107541

RESUMO

Substantial changes in the prevalence of the principal kidney and bladder cancer risk factors, smoking (both cancers) and body fatness (kidney cancer), have occurred but the contemporary cancer burden attributable to these factors has not been evaluated. We quantified the kidney and bladder cancer burden attributable to individual and joint exposures and assessed whether these burdens differ between population subgroups. We linked pooled data from seven Australian cohorts (N = 367,058) to national cancer and death registries and estimated the strength of the associations between exposures and cancer using adjusted proportional hazards models. We estimated exposure prevalence from representative contemporaneous health surveys. We combined these estimates to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), accounting for competing risk of death, and compared PAFs for population subgroups. During the first 10-year follow-up, 550 kidney and 530 bladder cancers were diagnosed and over 21,000 people died from any cause. Current levels of overweight and obesity explain 28.8% (CI = 17.3-38.7%), current or past smoking 15.5% (CI = 6.0-24.1%) and these exposures jointly 39.6% (CI = 27.5-49.7%) of the kidney cancer burden. Current or past smoking explains 44.4% (CI = 35.4-52.1%) of the bladder cancer burden, with 24.4% attributable to current smoking. Ever smoking explains more than half (53.4%) of the bladder cancer burden in men, and the burden potentially preventable by quitting smoking is highest in men (30.4%), those aged <65 years (28.0%) and those consuming >2 standard alcoholic drinks/day (41.2%). In conclusion, large fractions of kidney and bladder cancers in Australia are preventable by behavior change.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Previsões , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
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