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1.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(3): 188-196, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a Transtheoretical-Model-based and WhatsApp-text-message-supported smoking cessation program for pregnant women and to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: This study is a pretest-posttest designed, randomized controlled and quasi-experimental intervention research. The study was conducted on 50 pregnant women, 25 of them in the intervention group and 25 of them in the control group. A theory-based motivational individual counseling initiative has been applied to the intervention group, and WhatsApp text messages have been sent 3 days a week, in accordance with the stages of change to support the interviews. RESULTS: In the final follow-up, 60% of pregnant women in the intervention group and 36% of pregnant women in the control group quit smoking. All participants indicated they would recommend the WhatsApp-text-message-supported smoking cessation program. Transtheoretical-Model-based and WhatsApp-text-message-supported smoking cessation programs were found to be effective in reducing nicotine dependency scores and carbon monoxide levels of pregnant women and quitting smoking. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The smoking cessation program used in the research may be applied by midwives or nurses trained on the subject to help pregnant women quit smoking.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Tabagismo , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fumar
2.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(3): 211-215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473451

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The study aims to assess the effectiveness of telephone follow-ups combined with a smartphone app (e.g., WeChat [Tencent], which is one of the most widely used communication apps in China), as a smoking cessation intervention. Social volunteers were recruited on March 1, 2017, and randomized to supervision groups with five participants in each group. Every day, the specialists shared some information related to smoking cessation including the videos, songs, and scientific knowledge in WeChat groups and conducted telephone follow-ups on the third, fifth, seventh, ninth, 12th, 17th, 22nd, 27th, and 30th day in March and on April 1. Ultimately, a comparison was made of the self-reported smoking abstinence and self-reported average number of cigarettes smoked between the participants. One hundred ten volunteers participated in the study, with 105 who completed follow-up. Self-reported smoking abstinence in the past 7 days occurred in 65.7% of the participants (n = 69) compared with 34.3% (n = 36) in whom smoking abstinence did not occur. The mean age of those who failed was 40.15 years (range: 22-70 years), and 55.5% (n = 20) attributed their failure to personal reasons. However, the self-reported average number of cigarettes smoked every day was less than that before the study (on average, 10.34 ± 8.17 per day), and this difference was statistically significant (95% CI [8.312, 12.364], p < .01). It was effective to deliver a telephone follow-up combined with a smartphone app follow-up as an intervention for smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar , Telefone , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(3): 406-410, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide are attributable to smoking, and it is associated with an increased risk of latent and active TB, recurrence, and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the smoking prevalence and the effects on treatment outcomes in TB patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients with a recent TB diagnosis. The smoking status was defined, in addition to the patients' knowledge and attitudes toward smoking. The patients were followed up until the end of the treatment, and the treatment result was recorded. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included in this study. The prevalence of active smoking was 31.5%. Active smokers had less chance for cure (62.1% versus 82.5%; p=0.032) and more treatment dropout (31.0% versus 12.7%; p=0.035) than non-active smokers. Patients demonstrated positive attitudes and good knowledge about smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Active smokers had less chance for cure and more abandonment than non-active smokers. These results can be useful for the proper planning of actions that impact TB control, especially in the treatment results, such as cognitive-behavioral approaches to smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Fumar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 216, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with the prognosis of cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for poor HRQoL in patients with colon cancer. METHODS: This was a prospective population-based study of patients with colon cancer included between 2012 and 2016. HRQoL was measured using the cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, emergency/elective surgery, resection with/without a stoma and tumour stage was used. RESULTS: A total of 67% (376/561) of all incident patients with colon cancer (196 [52.1%] females) was included. Mean (range) age was 73 (30-96) years. Patients with worse health (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 3 and 4), those with higher body mass index, smokers and those planned to undergo surgical treatment with a stoma were at a higher risk for poor HRQoL than the other included patients at baseline and 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Patient characteristics such as smoking, high body mass index and worse physical health as well as treatment with a stoma were associated with lower HRQoL. Health care for such patients should focus on social and lifestyle behavioural support and stoma closure, when possible. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03910894).


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 561-565, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the relationship between periodontal health status and coronary slow flow phenomenon. METHODS: One hundred and two patients who underwent coronary angiography with the diagnosis of stable angina pectoris were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with coronary slow flow (Test group) (n=51), and patients with normal coronary angiography (Control group) (n=51). Diagnosis of slow coronary flow was made according to Beltrame criteria by coronary angiography. Demographic characteristics of the participants were recorded. The periodontal health was assessed by clinical periodontal parameters such as probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, plaque index, and bleeding on probing. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups as regards the frequencies of hypertension, smoking (p>0.05). As for the periodontal parameters of the study groups, probing depth, gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, and clinical attachment level values were statistically higher in the test group compared to the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis might be accepted as one of the underlying causes of coronary slow flow. Patients with coronary slow flow should be evaluated for an underlying periodontal disease, and treatment of periodontal disease can protect against future cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice Periodontal , Fumar
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e075, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495136

RESUMO

Smoking has been shown to alter innate and adaptive immune responses and is directly associated with the onset of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on dendritic cells (DCs) from OSCC patients. CD1a and CD83 antibodies were used to identify immature and mature DCs, respectively, by immunohistochemistry in OSCC samples of 24 smokers and 24 non-smokers. Density of DCs was calculated in intra and peritumoral areas. Clinical and microscopic findings were reviewed and analyzed for all patients. Smokers with OSCC had a lower density of intra and peritumoral DCs when compared to non-smokers. Tumors classified as moderately/poorly differentiated had lower peritumoral CD1a+ DCs than well-differentiated tumors (p < 0.001). Smoking contributed to a depletion of immature and mature DCs in the OSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Células Dendríticas , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 684683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497791

RESUMO

A growing body of scientific studies has been published to inform responses to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, and some have claimed that cigarette smoking has a beneficial or mixed effect on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The presentation of such findings, unfortunately, has created an infodemic. This study integrated the theory of planned behavior and the health belief model and incorporated findings on addiction from the medical literature to predict cessation intention and support for tobacco control measures in the context of the COVID-19 infodemic. The study found that cessation intention partially mediated the effect of perceived severity and fully mediated the effects of perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and addiction on support for control measures. In addition, a positively-valenced message of the effect of smoking on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 vs. a mixedly-valenced message was significant in predicting cessation intention, and the positively-valenced message of smoking indirectly predicted support for tobacco control measures. Perceived susceptibility, barriers, and subjective norms, however, exerted neither direct nor indirect effects on the two outcome variables.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488267

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the related risk factors of silicosis complicated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , so as to provide ideas for formulating relevant prevention and treatment measures. Methods: In August 2020, 135 silicosis patients hospitalized in the pneumoconiosis Department of Beidaihe rehabilitation hospital of the emergency management department from August 2019 to July 2020 were selected as the research object. The clinical data of the patients were collected. According to whether they were complicated with COPD, they were divided into Silicosis group (74 cases) and silicosis complicated with COPD group (61 cases) . The physical activity level of the patients was investigated with the international physical activity scale (IPAQ) . Results: Compared with Silicosis group, silicosis complicated with COPD group had higher body mass index (BMI) , current smoking, previous smoking, pneumoconiosis grade Ⅱ, pneumoconiosis grade Ⅲ, insufficient physical activity, family history of respiratory diseases and abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) (P0.05) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smoking, family history of respiratory diseases and abnormal CRP were the risk factors of silicosis complicated with COPD (OR=4.704, 2.516, 4.445, P<0.05) . Conclusion: Now smoking, family history of respiratory diseases and abnormal CRP are the possible influencing factors of silicosis complicated with COPD.


Assuntos
Pneumoconiose , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Silicose , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Silicose/complicações , Fumar
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1627, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salameh et al. developed the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) that assesses nicotine dependence among adult waterpipe smokers. In view of the high waterpipe use among Lebanese youth and other neighboring countries, it was deemed necessary to check the psychometric properties of the LWDS-11, originally adapted to the Lebanese population, to measure nicotine dependence among adolescents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional investigations were conducted; Study 1 (January and May 2019) enrolled a total of 449 students who were exclusive waterpipe smokers; this sample was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 enrolled another sample composed of 243 waterpipe smoking adolescents. This sample was independent from the first one and was used to conduct the confirmatory analysis. RESULTS: The results also showed that 312 (69.5%) [95% CI 0.652-0.738] had high waterpipe dependence (scores of ≥10). Results of the factor analysis in sample 1 showed that all LWDS-11 items were extracted following the factor analysis. Items converged over a solution of one factor; total variance explained = 70.45%, αCronbach = 0.96). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were as follows: the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 129.58 and Degrees of Freedom = 45, which gave a χ2/df = 2.88. For non-centrality fit indices, the Steiger-Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.08 [0.071-0.106]. Moreover, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value was 0.77. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that the LWDS-11 has good psychometric properties to measure waterpipe dependence among adolescents. We hope this tool would serve the benefit of research and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking status does not indicate the amount or length of tobacco use, and thus, it is an imperfect measure to assess the association between cigarette smoking and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. This investigation assessed whether cigarette smoking status, intensity of smoking (i.e., average daily packs of cigarettes smoked), duration of smoking, and pack-years of smoking are associated with severe outcomes among adults diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study in which we identified consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at the University of Cincinnati healthcare system between 13 March 2020 and 30 September 2020 who had complete information on smoking status, severe COVID-19 outcomes, and covariates (i.e., demographics and comorbidities). We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations of smoking status and intensity of smoking with COVID-19 severity, defined as hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), or death, adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbidities. RESULTS: Among the 4611 COVID-19 patients included in the analysis, 18.2% were current smokers and 20.7% were former smokers. The prevalence of COVID-19 outcomes was 28.9% for hospitalization, 9.8% for ICU admission, and 1.4% for death. In the adjusted analysis, current smoking (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02-1.49), former smoking (AOR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.54), and pack-years of smoking (AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17) were associated with a higher prevalence of hospitalization. Average daily packs of cigarettes smoked was associated with a higher prevalence of hospitalization (AOR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10-1.53) and ICU admission (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status, pack-years, and intensity of smoking were associated with hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19 and intensity of smoking was associated with ICU admission. The findings underscore the need for detailed information beyond smoking status when evaluating smokers with COVID-19 so that the potential for adverse sequelae may be optimally managed in at-risk patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar/epidemiologia
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(16): 5255-5260, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to analyze the correlation between the decrease of ovarian reserve and lower oocyte quality produced by the follicle associated with use of tobacco. In particular, the study analyzed the potential effects of cigarette smoking on hormonal dosages in infertile patients and patients with recurrent miscarriages. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 61 women with a history of infertility and recurrent miscarriage between March 2016 and March 2019 selected at the clinic of poly-abortivity and infertility at the ASL Roma 2 - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "S. Eugenio" Hospital. Patients' medical history (familiar, physiological and pathological with particular attention to smoking habits and nutrition), the obstetric history, gynecological examination and ultrasound were recorded. The serum concentration of FSH, AMH, Inhibin B were examined between the second and third day of the period. RESULTS: A total of 61 patients between 25 and 43 years of age admitted into our clinic were identified; 42 patients with a history of recurrent abortion (more than two abortions) and 19 patients with a history of infertility were selected. A total of 31 non-smokers women (50.82%) (G1) and 30 (49.18%) (G2) smokers were included. No differences were detected between the two groups under examination; the parameter that did appear discordant is the AMH value; this value scored higher in non-smokers than in smokers. Specifically, in smoker patients with recurrent abortions. CONCLUSIONS: The connection between nicotine, combustion material, and oocyte quality is an important and controversial research topic. Further studies are needed to clarify the influence of nicotine and combustion on the ovarian reserve in order to identify the main risk factors.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Oócitos , Reserva Ovariana , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Ultrassonografia
17.
Trials ; 22(1): 512, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Financial incentives are an effective way of helping women to stop smoking during pregnancy. Unfortunately, most women who stop smoking at this time return to smoking within 12 months of the infant's birth. There is no evidence for interventions that are effective at preventing postpartum smoking relapse. Financial incentives provided after the birth may help women to sustain cessation. This randomised controlled trial will assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of financial incentives to help women who are abstinent from smoking at end-of-pregnancy to avoid return to smoking up to 12 months postpartum. METHODS: This is a UK-based, multi-centre, three-arm, superiority, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with 1:1:1 allocation. It will compare the effectiveness of two financial incentive interventions with each other (one intervention for up to 3 months postpartum offering up to £120 of incentives (£60 for the participant and £60 for a significant other support); the other for up to 12 months postpartum with up to £300 of incentives (£240 for the participant and £60 for a significant other support) and with a no incentives/usual care control group. Eligible women will be between 34 weeks gestation and 2 weeks postpartum, abstinent from smoking for at least 4 weeks, have an expired carbon monoxide (CO) reading < 4 parts per million (ppm), aged at least 16 years, intend remaining abstinent from smoking after the birth and able to speak and read English. The primary outcome is self-reported, lapse-free, smoking abstinence from the last quit attempt in pregnancy until 12 months postpartum, biochemically validated by expired CO and/or salivary cotinine or anabasine. Outcomes will be analysed by intention-to-treat and regression models used to compare the proportion of abstinent women between the two intervention groups and between each intervention group and the control group. An economic evaluation will assess the cost-effectiveness of offering incentives and a qualitative process evaluation will examine barriers and facilitators to trial retention, effectiveness and implementation. DISCUSSION: This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will test whether offering financial incentives is effective and cost-effective for helping women to avoid smoking relapse during the 12 months after the birth of their baby. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number 55218215 . Registered retrospectively on 5th June 2019.


Assuntos
Motivação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
18.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(1): 149-157, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372634

RESUMO

This article proposes a reflection on the policies of tobacco consumption regulation in the ECOWAS countries. The argument is built from a cost-benefit economic approach. It shows that, even if fiscal and pricing policies are necessary to reduce the demand for tobacco, they must make it possible to strengthen information and awareness policies for a comprehensive approach to the fight against smoking and passive smoking.New forms of regulation should be established, which are part of a logic of promotion and health education for dependent, and/or poor people because the latter have difficulty changing their behavior following an increase in drug prices.


Assuntos
Impostos , Tabaco , Humanos , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 3065-3076, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378698

RESUMO

Cigarette consumption is a worldwide epidemic and its reduction is one of the major public health concerns. In Brazil, although there is a wide literature on smoking cessation it is restricted to experimental studies. Based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS), this study uses the survival methodology and use population data and consumer's profile to investigate which characteristics will affect smoking cessation hazard. The results showed that the people who are less likely to quit smoking are older, single men, with low income and fewer education years. They also do not practice physical exercise. The findings of cigarette cessation hazard to Brazilian population are similar of experimental studies with smokers and ex-smokers in country. Therefore, in order to decrease public health spending, Brazilian health policies regarding tobacco cessation could focus on those groups who will likely smoke for a long time.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360260

RESUMO

Reviews of national and state-specific cancer registries have revealed differences in rates of oral, esophageal, and lung cancer incidence and mortality that have implications for public health research and policy. Many significant associations between these types of cancers and major risk factors, such as cigarette usage, may be influenced by public health policy such as smoking restrictions and bans-including the Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA) of 2006 (and subsequent modification in 2011). Although evaluation of general and regional advances in public policy have been previously evaluated, no recent studies have focused specifically on the changes to the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal, esophageal, and lung cancer incidence and mortality in Nevada. Methods: Cancer incidence and mortality rate data were obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Most recently available rate changes in cancer incidence and mortality for Nevada included the years 2012-2016 and are age-adjusted to the year 2000 standard US population. This analysis revealed that the overall rates of incidence and mortality from these types of cancer in Nevada differs from that observed in the overall US population. For example, although the incidence rate of oral cancer is decreasing in the US overall (0.9%), it is stable in Nevada (0.0%). However, the incidence and mortality rates from esophageal cancer are also decreasing in the US (-1.1%, -1.2%, respectively), and are declining more rapidly in Nevada (-1.5%, -1.9%, respectively). Similarly, the incidence and mortality rates from lung are cancer are declining in the US (-2.5%, -2.4%, respectively) and are also declining more rapidly in Nevada (-3.2%, -3.1%, respectively). Analysis of previous epidemiologic data from Nevada (1999-2003) revealed the highest annual percent change (APC) in oral cancer incidence in the US was observed in Nevada (+4.6%), which corresponded with the highest APC in oral cancer mortality (+4.6%). Subsequent studies regarding reduced rates of cigarette use due to smoking restrictions and bans have suggested that follow up studies may reveal changes in the incidence and mortality rates of oral and other related cancers. This study analysis revealed that oral cancer incidence rates are no longer increasing in Nevada and that mortality rates have started to decline, although not as rapidly as the overall national rates. However, rapid decreases in both the incidence and mortality from esophageal and lung cancer were observed in Nevada, which strongly suggest the corresponding changes in oral cancer may be part of a larger epidemiologic shift resulting from improved public health policies that include indoor smoking restrictions and bans.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Nevada , Fumar , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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