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1.
Clin Ter ; 175(2): 144-152, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571473

RESUMO

Background: Adolescence is a critical phase of development characterized by numerous physical, psychological and social changes. During this stage, individuals may engage in experimentation and risky behavior, leading to increased vulnerability to addiction. This article aims to present the results of a survey based on the HBSC (Health Behavior in School-aged Children) surveillance model in a province of Southern Italy for primary and secondary school students. Methods: We conducted a prospective study from March 2020 to April 2023 through the administration of a questionnaire to students of the healthcare faculties of the University of Messina and primary and secondary school students, composed of 19 items and based on HBSC surveillance. Results: We collected a total of 664 questionnaires. We found that smoking habits increase with age: approximately 31% of secondary school students declare they are real smokers compared to 40% of HCP students. At least once, in the three study groups, students experienced alcohol consumption at different rates, with younger students having a greater propensity to drink than older students. Fortunately, in our sample, no middle school students had tried cannabis. At the same time there is a surprising decrease in gambling in all categories compared to national data. Conclusions: The presence of addictive behaviors in our sample was found to be widespread despite being in line with the national trend. Furthermore, we have observed a reduction in recent years which needs to be investigated to assess the reasons. Primary prevention is probably the main weapon in the hands of politicians and must be applied early in school and community settings to reduce prevalence.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Fumar , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7823, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570551

RESUMO

Prior research has predominantly focused on the overall effects of the tobacco tax increase and the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent smoking behavior. However, there is a need to examine both the immediate and sustained associations of these two factors on subgroups of adolescents, employing an interrupted time-series model. We aimed to investigate the immediate and sustained association of tobacco tax increase and the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent smoking prevalence. This study utilized data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey to analyze the prevalence of current smoking among all participants (CSP) and the prevalence of daily smoking among current smokers (DSP) of Korean adolescents (n = 1,159,995; mean, age 14.99; male 51.5%) over 18 years from 2005 to 2022. The study examined 18-year trends in CSP and DSP among Korean adolescents, emphasizing the influences of the 2015 tobacco tax increase and the COVID-19 pandemic, using ß coefficients and their differences (ßdiff) from an interrupted time-series ARIMA model. While CSP exhibited a decreasing trend, DSP exhibited an increasing trend. Tobacco tax increase was associated with both the short and long terms in smoking prevalence, however, the short-term association on prevalence (CSP, - 3.076 [95% CI, - 3.707 to - 2.445]; DSP, - 4.112 [95% CI, - 6.488 to - 1.735]) was stronger. The pandemic was associated with an immediate increase in DSP (9.345 [95% CI, 5.285-13.406]). These effects were strongest among adolescents from low economic status and those exposed to familial secondhand smoking. Supportive programs for adolescents in low-income families will help overcome the effects associated with the pandemic. As a tobacco tax increase was associated with a reduction in smoking prevalence, this could be one method to overcome the effects of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Pandemias , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevalência , Impostos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores the intricate relationship between smoking, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and their combined impact on overall CVD risk, utilizing data from NHANES 2011-2018. METHODS: Participants were categorized based on the presence of CVD, and we compared their demographic, social, and clinical characteristics. We utilized logistic regression models, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, and the chi-squared test to examine the associations between variables and CVD risk. RESULTS: Significant differences in characteristics were observed between those with and without CVD. Serum cotinine levels exhibited a dose-dependent association with CVD risk. The highest quartile of cotinine levels corresponded to a 2.33-fold increase in risk. Smoking, especially in conjunction with lower HDL-c, significantly increases CVD risk. Combinations of smoking with hypertension, central obesity, diabetes, and elevated triglycerides also contributed to increased CVD risk. Waist-to-Height Ratio, Visceral Adiposity Index, A Body Shape Index, Conicity Index, Triglyceride-Glucose Index, Neutrophil, Mean platelet volume and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio demonstrated significant associations with CVD risk, with varying levels of significance post-adjustment. When assessing the combined effect of smoking with multiple risk factors, a combination of smoking, central obesity, higher triglycerides, lower HDL-c, and hypertension presented the highest CVD risk, with an adjusted odds ratio of 14.18. CONCLUSION: Smoking, when combined with central obesity, higher triglycerides, lower HDL-c, and hypertension, presented the highest CVD risk, with an adjusted odds ratio of 14.18.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cotinina , Hipertensão/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Triglicerídeos
6.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined longitudinal changes in lifestyle-related factors and frailty. METHODS: We examined the association between individual lifestyle factors (exercise, diet, sleep, alcohol, smoking and body composition), their sum at baseline, their change over the 17-year follow-up and the rate of change in frailty index values using linear mixed models in a cohort of 2,000 participants aged 57-69 years at baseline. RESULTS: A higher number of healthy lifestyle-related factors at baseline was associated with lower levels of frailty but not with its rate of change from late midlife into old age. Participants who stopped exercising regularly (adjusted ß × Time = 0.19, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.27) and who began experiencing sleeping difficulties (adjusted ß × Time = 0.20, 95%CI = 0.10, 0.31) experienced more rapid increases in frailty from late midlife into old age. Conversely, those whose sleep improved (adjusted ß × Time = -0.10, 95%CI = -0.23, -0.01) showed a slower increase in frailty from late midlife onwards. Participants letting go of lifestyle-related factors (decline by 3+ factors vs. no change) became more frail faster from late midlife into old age (adjusted ß × Time = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle-related differences in frailty were already evident in late midlife and persisted into old age. Adopting one new healthy lifestyle-related factor had a small impact on a slightly less steeply increasing level of frailty. Maintaining regular exercise and sleeping habits may help prevent more rapid increases in frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estilo de Vida , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Popul Health Metr ; 22(1): 6, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted marketing of menthol cigarettes in the US influences disparities in the prevalence of menthol smoking. There has been no analysis of sub-national data documenting differences in use across demographic subgroups. This study estimated trends in the prevalence of menthol use among adults who smoke in the nine US census divisions by sex, age, and race/ethnicity from 2002 to 2020. METHODS: Data from 12 waves of the US ITC Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of menthol cigarette use across census divisions and demographic subgroups using multilevel regression and post-stratification (n = 12,020). Multilevel logistic regression was used to predict the prevalence of menthol cigarette use in 72 cross-classified groups of adults who smoke defined by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status; division-level effects were fit with a random intercept. Predicted prevalence was weighted by the total number of adults who smoke in each cross-classified group and aggregated to divisions within demographic subgroup. Estimates were validated against the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). RESULTS: Overall modeled prevalence of menthol cigarette use was similar to TUS-CPS estimates. Prevalence among adults who smoke increased in each division from 2002 to 2020. By 2020, prevalence was highest in the Middle (46.3%) and South Atlantic (42.7%) and lowest in the Pacific (25.9%) and Mountain (24.2%) divisions. Prevalence was higher among adults aged 18-29 (vs. 50+) and females (vs. males). Prevalence among non-Hispanic Black people exceeded 80% in the Middle Atlantic, East North Central, West North Central, and South Atlantic in all years and varied most among Hispanic people in 2020 (Pacific: 26.5%, New England: 55.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Significant geographic variation in the prevalence of menthol cigarette use among adults who smoke suggests the proposed US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) menthol cigarette ban will exert differential public health benefits and challenges across geographic and demographic subgroups.


Assuntos
Mentol , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Censos , Controle do Tabagismo , Fumar/epidemiologia
9.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 21: E20, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547020

RESUMO

Introduction: Monitoring menthol cigarette use allows for identification of potential health disparities. We examined sociodemographic and temporal differences in menthol cigarette use among US adults who smoke. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults aged 20 years or older who smoke (N = 11,431) using binary logistic regression. Results: Among US adults who smoke, 28.8% used menthol cigarettes. After adjusting for age, sex, race and ethnicity, education, income-to-poverty ratio, and health status, the prevalence of menthol use among adults who smoke increased on average by 3.8% (95% CI, 2.7%-4.9%) annually. Non-Hispanic Black adults had the highest average prevalence of menthol cigarette use, 73.0% (95% CI, 70.9%-75.2%), and Mexican American adults had higher average annual increase in menthol cigarette use, 7.1% (95% CI, 4.0%-10.3%). Adults with fair or poor health status had a 4.3% annual increase in menthol cigarette use (95% CI, 2.5%-6.1%). The adjusted prevalence ratios of menthol cigarette use were 1.61 (95% CI, 1.39-1.83) for adults aged 20-29 years compared with those aged 65 years or older, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.32-1.49) for female adults compared with male adults, and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.07-1.27) for high school graduates or higher compared with those with no high school diploma. Conclusion: Non-Hispanic Black adults who smoke had the highest prevalence of menthol cigarette use among all racial and ethnic groups; the prevalence of menthol cigarette use among adults who smoke increased especially among Mexican American adults, younger adults, and adults who reported fair to poor health status.


Assuntos
Mentol , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Brancos
10.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 196: 104323, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking history is a heterogeneous situation for different populations, and numerous studies suggest that smoking cessation is conducive to reduce the mortality of lung cancer. However, no quantitative meta-analysis regarding smoking cessation duration based on different populations has demonstrated it clearly. METHODS: We systematically searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scoups) till February 2023. Eligible studies reported the association between lung cancer survival and duration of smoking cessation. Additionally, we stratified the study population according to whether they had lung cancer at the time they quit smoking. Studies were pooled with the random-effects model. RESULTS: Out of the 11,361 potential studies initially identified, we included 24 studies involving 969,560 individuals in our analysis. Lung cancer mortality varied across two groups: general quitters and peri-diagnosis quitters. For general quitters, those who had quit smoking for less than 10 years exhibited an RR of 0.64 (95% CI [0.55-0.76]), while those who quit for 10-20 years had an RR of 0.33 (0.25-0.43), over 20 years had an RR of 0.16 (0.11-0.24), and never-smokers had an RR at 0.11 (0.07-0.15). Among peri-diagnosis quitters, the 1-year Overall Survival (OS) showed an RR of 0.80 (0.67-0.96), the 2-year OS had an RR of 0.89 (0.80-0.98), the 3-year OS had an RR of 0.93 (0.84-1.03), and the 5-year OS had an RR of 0.85 (0.76-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Earlier and longer smoking cessation is associated with reduced lung cancer mortality, no matter in which cessation stage for two different populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1320932, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439759

RESUMO

Backgrounds: Observational studies have shown that cigarette smoking is inversely associated with risk of rosacea, However, it remains uncertain whether this association is causal or it is a result of reverse causation, and whether this association is affected by drinking behaviors. Methods: This study utilized the summary-level data from the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for smoking, alcohol consumption, and rosacea. The objective was to investigate the effect of genetically predicted exposures to smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of developing rosacea. Two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) was applied, accompanied by sensitive analyses to validate the robustness of findings. Furthermore, multivariable MR was conducted to evaluate the direct impact of smoking on rosacea. Results: A decreased risk of rosacea was observed in individuals with genetically predicted lifetime smoking [odds ratio (OR)MR - IVW = 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.318-0.897; P = 0.017], and number of cigarettes per day (ORMR - IVW = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.358-0.845; P = 0.006). However, no significant associations were found between initiation of regular smoking, smoking cessation, smoking initiation, alcohol consumption and rosacea. Reverse MR analysis did not show any associations between genetic liability toward rosacea and smoking or alcohol drinking. Importantly, the effect of lifetime smoking and the number of cigarettes per day on rosacea remained significant even after adjusting for alcohol consumption in multivariable MR analysis. Conclusion: Smoking was causally related to a lower risk of rosacea, while alcohol consumption does not appear to be associated with risk of rosacea.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Rosácea , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Rosácea/epidemiologia
12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of phytoestrogens in asthma/wheeze and lung function remains controversial. Thus, we aimed to examine whether phytoestrogens have beneficial effects on asthma/wheeze, lung function for subgroups and mortality. METHODS: Participants in this study were individuals aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations of urinary phytoestrogens with the risk of asthma/wheeze and lung function in individuals with and without asthma/wheeze. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between urinary phytoestrogens and all-cause mortality. Stratified analyses were conducted based on gender and smoking status. RESULTS: We included 2465 individuals in this study. Enterolactone levels in the highest quartile were associated with a lower risk of asthma than those in the lowest quartile. As compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of enterodiol and enterolactone was associated with a lower risk of wheeze. Significant associations were observed between subtypes of phytoestrogens (equol and enterolactone) and lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Besides, FVC was higher in individuals with higher levels of enterodiol. The results were consistent in subpopulations without asthma/wheeze, while the significant difference was not observed in individuals with asthma/wheeze. The stratified analyses revealed that the associations between phytoestrogens and lung function differed by gender and smoking status among subgroups. No significant association was found between urinary phytoestrogens and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: In summary, subtypes of phytoestrogens were associated with lower risk of asthma/wheeze and beneficial for lung function improvement in individuals without asthma/wheeze. Furthermore, gender and smoking may interact in the relationship between phytoestrogens and asthma/wheeze, and lung function. Further researches are needed to confirm these associations and explain the results of stratified analyses.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Asma , Lignanas , Fitoestrógenos , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Pulmão
13.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1295050, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38435291

RESUMO

Introduction: Smoking is a major risk factor for premature death and health problems in which there are significant gender differences in the prevalence of smoking. This ecological study examines the correlation between changes in gender equality and prevalence of smoking among young adults (15-25 years old) in Germany over a period of 45 years (1960-2005). Methods: Gender inequality was measured using the United Nations Gender Inequality Index (GII), which is composed of three dimensions; health, empowerment and labour market. It was calculated for the entire registered German population in five-year intervals with values between 0 and 1 (1 = highest inequality). The smoking prevalence of young women and men in Germany was established using a reconstruction method. A gender smoking ratio (GSR) with values between 0 and 1 was determined (1 = identical smoking prevalence among men and women). The smoking behaviour was illustrated and stratified by education. The correlation between the GII and the GSR was analysed. Results: The GII decreased from 0.98 to 0.56 between 1960 and 2005. The GSR increased from 0.34 to 0.93. There was a strong negative correlation between the GII and the GSR (r = -0.71). The strength of the correlation fell slightly as the level of education decreased. An increase in gender equality as measured by the GII came along with similarities of smoking prevalence between young women and young men. Conclusion: Successful tobacco prevention among young women and men may benefit from involving experts in gender-specific public health research to develop counter-advertising and gender-specific information as needed.


Assuntos
Equidade de Gênero , Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Escolaridade , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 683, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most adult smokers started smoking in their teenage years, which increases the risk of nicotine dependence. In Denmark, there is a high prevalence of youth smoking among students in Vocational Education and Training (VET). However, reducing and preventing smoking in this group is a major challenge. This article presents a needs assessment aimed to explore factors sustaining legitimacy of smoking in VET schools and consider the measures needed to prepare VET schools' implementation of smoking reduction and prevention interventions. METHODS: Participant observations were conducted in four VET classes representing three VET schools in Denmark with a duration of four days each. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with teachers, managers, and a student advisor, as well as four focus groups with a total of 20 students. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and the data material was analyzed following Malterud's systematic text condensation. FINDINGS: Factors that helped sustain legitimacy of smoking in VET schools included a positive and normalized attitude towards smoking at home and among friends, an understanding of smoking as an integral and expected practice in VET professions and schools, a perceived reliance on smoking as an icebreaker in new social relations and as a pedagogical tool, and smoking as a habit and a means to deal with boredom and stress relief. CONCLUSIONS: The factors sustaining legitimacy of smoking in VET schools are reciprocal and call for smoking reduction and prevention intervention efforts which consider and address social influence, habitual behavior, and psychological needs, as well as changes at the policy level.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Educação Vocacional , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Escolaridade , Fumar/epidemiologia
16.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 33(1): 57-64, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous epidemiological data on the association between cigarette smoking and risk of gallstone development remain controversial, and most relevant studies have relied on self-reported questionnaires. We aimed to elucidate this association using both an objective biomarker of tobacco exposure (urinary cotinine) and a self-reported questionnaire. METHODS: We analyzed 221,721 asymptomatic adults who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and urinary cotinine measurement between January 2011 and December 2016. Cotinine-verified current smokers were defined as participants with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 35.9 years, and the proportion of men was 55.8%. The proportions of self-reported and cotinine-verified current smokers were 21.3% and 21.2%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, self-reported current smoking was associated with an increased risk of gallstone development [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 1.04-1.25]. Moreover, among the current smokers, the risk of gallstone development increased with an increase in the amount of cigarette smoking (<20 and ≥20 pack-years vs. never smoked; aOR=1.11 and 1.25; 95%CI: 1.01-1.22 and 1.07-1.45, respectively). Cotinine-verified current smoking was also associated with an increased risk of gallstone development (aOR=1.16; 95%CI: 1.07-1.25). Among the self-reported never or former smokers, the cotinine-verified current smokers (aOR=1.20; 95%CI: 1.01-1.44) showed a significantly higher risk of gallstones than cotinine-verified never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Cotinine-verified and self-reported current smoking were independent risk factors for gallstones, suggesting a distinct role of tobacco smoking in gallstone development.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Cálculos Biliares , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Cotinina/urina , Estudos de Coortes , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Biliares/epidemiologia , Cálculos Biliares/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 206, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There may be unexplored interactions between family health, personality, and smoking that could help provide new perspectives on tobacco control. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the health of one's family and their smoking habits, as well as investigate the potential influence of personality on this relationship. METHODS: For this cross-sectional investigation, a national survey conducted in China in 2022 recruited a total of 21,916 individuals. The Family Health Scale was utilized to assess the health of the family. The 10-item Big Five Inventory scale was utilized to assess the Big five personality traits. The relationship between big five personality, family health, and smoking were investigated using binary and linear logistic regression. The indirect effects mediated by Big five personality were analyzed using mediation analysis with Sobel tests, and the indirect effects were composited using the Karlson-Holm-Breen method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of smoking in the study population was 14.87%, 26.19% for males and 3.54% for females. Urban and rural smoking prevalence was 13.81% and 16.10% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between smoking and family health (odds ratio 0.964, 95% CI 0.959, 0.970, P < 0.001) with covariates controlled. The Karlson-Holm-Breen composition facilitated the connection between extraversion (47.81%) and nervousness (52.19%). CONCLUSIONS: Preventive interventions for smoking behavior should prioritize family health and the Big five personality as significant areas to focus on. According to this study, in addition to implementing various interventions for different personalities, family health should be strengthened to reduce smoking behavior.


Assuntos
População do Leste Asiático , Saúde da Família , Personalidade , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
Rev Mal Respir ; 41(3): 237-247, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429192

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco addiction is the leading cause of preventable death. During the perioperative period, patients who smoke are at increased risk of systemic as well as surgical site complications. STATE OF THE ART: Surgery is an ideal time for change of lifestyle habits. It is vital to seize this opportunity to improve the patient's health in the long- as well as the short-term. Smoking cessation should be encouraged in all surgical patients. Initiating smoking cessation combines pharmacological treatment and a behavioral approach. In this field, significant advances have been recorded over the last decade. This review proposes a practical approach that every practitioner will be able to apply. PERSPECTIVES: In this review, we will also examine ongoing research, particularly as regards vaccination and the place of biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking represents a major source of health-related complications. Smoking cessation must therefore remain a priority in the management of medical and surgical patients.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/terapia
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300927, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety disorder is an unpleasant emotional feeling with symptoms related to psychological and autonomic symptoms such as headache, perspiration, palpitations, dizziness, and stomach discomfort. The use of substances become a worldwide problem among youth which brings situation that leads to serious social and health-related problems. Anxiety disorders with substance use have a huge impact on their high prevalence, therapeutic issues, and poor prognosis on clinical effects. Although the prevalence of anxiety disorders is significant among young people who use substances, limited studies were conducted. Therefore, this study revealed the burden of anxiety disorders among youth with substance use and associated factors in Ethiopia. METHOD: A community-based multi-stage with a simple random sampling technique was conducted. A total of 372 substance users study participants were recruited for this study. Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Tests, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and other tools were used to assess anxiety disorders with substance use and associated factors. Data were entered into Epi-data version 4.6, and exported to SPSS version 20 for further analysis. Bi-variables logistic regression analysis was employed to identify variables with a p-value of < 0.2 and associated factors were determined in multi-variables logistic regression analysis with a p-value < 0.05 with AOR and CI. RESULTS: From a total of 372 respondents the overall prevalence of anxiety disorders with substance use was 48.1%. Male sex [AOR = 1.99; 95% CI: (1.01-3.93)], low educational status of the father [AOR = 6.38 95%CI: (1.50-7.08)], and the presence of stress [AOR = 2.48; 95% CI: 2.48(2.43-4.40)] were significantly associated factors with anxiety disorders with substances use. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The prevalence of anxiety disorders with substance use was 48.1% therefore; it is recommended that the zonal administration give collaborative work with the health bureau and facilitate awareness creation about the impact of substance abuse. Clinicians are recommended to mitigate anxiety disorders with substance use to get a good prognosis for clients with controlling their stress.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ansiedade
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 45(3): 425-431, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514320

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the influence of unhealthy lifestyle on diabetic dyslipidemia and the key influencing factors in occupational population and provided scientific evidence for the prevention of diabetic dyslipidemia. Methods: Based on baseline data and follow-up data of Southwest Occupational Population Cohort from China Railway Chengdu Group Co., Ltd. during 2021. Diabetic dyslipidemia was defined as diabetes plus one or more forms of dyslipidemia, and unhealthy lifestyle factors included smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy dietary patterns, low physical activity, and abnormal BMI. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between unhealthy lifestyle scores and diabetic dyslipidemia, network analysis was used to find and explore the key lifestyles influencing glycolipid metabolism. Results: A total of 25 631 subjects were included. People with unhealthy lifestyle score 2 and 3 were 1.93 (95%CI: 1.31-2.86) times and 2.37 (95%CI: 1.60-3.50) times more likely to have diabetes with ≥1 forms of dyslipidemia than those with scores of 0; People with unhealthy lifestyle score 1, 2 and 3 were 1.98 (95%CI: 1.08-3.61) times, 2.87 (95%CI: 1.60-5.14) times and 3.95 (95%CI: 2.22-7.06) times more likely to have diabetes with ≥2 forms of dyslipidemia than those with score 0. Network analysis found that abnormal BMI and HDL-C were the "bridge nodes" that link unhealthy lifestyles with diabetic dyslipidemia. Conclusion: The higher the score of unhealthy lifestyle, the higher the risk for diabetic dyslipidemia, abnormal BMI and HDL-C are key factors influencing the association between unhealthy lifestyle and diabetic dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Dislipidemias , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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