Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36.986
Filtrar
1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1627, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salameh et al. developed the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) that assesses nicotine dependence among adult waterpipe smokers. In view of the high waterpipe use among Lebanese youth and other neighboring countries, it was deemed necessary to check the psychometric properties of the LWDS-11, originally adapted to the Lebanese population, to measure nicotine dependence among adolescents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional investigations were conducted; Study 1 (January and May 2019) enrolled a total of 449 students who were exclusive waterpipe smokers; this sample was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 enrolled another sample composed of 243 waterpipe smoking adolescents. This sample was independent from the first one and was used to conduct the confirmatory analysis. RESULTS: The results also showed that 312 (69.5%) [95% CI 0.652-0.738] had high waterpipe dependence (scores of ≥10). Results of the factor analysis in sample 1 showed that all LWDS-11 items were extracted following the factor analysis. Items converged over a solution of one factor; total variance explained = 70.45%, αCronbach = 0.96). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were as follows: the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 129.58 and Degrees of Freedom = 45, which gave a χ2/df = 2.88. For non-centrality fit indices, the Steiger-Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.08 [0.071-0.106]. Moreover, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value was 0.77. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that the LWDS-11 has good psychometric properties to measure waterpipe dependence among adolescents. We hope this tool would serve the benefit of research and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking status does not indicate the amount or length of tobacco use, and thus, it is an imperfect measure to assess the association between cigarette smoking and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. This investigation assessed whether cigarette smoking status, intensity of smoking (i.e., average daily packs of cigarettes smoked), duration of smoking, and pack-years of smoking are associated with severe outcomes among adults diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study in which we identified consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at the University of Cincinnati healthcare system between 13 March 2020 and 30 September 2020 who had complete information on smoking status, severe COVID-19 outcomes, and covariates (i.e., demographics and comorbidities). We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations of smoking status and intensity of smoking with COVID-19 severity, defined as hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), or death, adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbidities. RESULTS: Among the 4611 COVID-19 patients included in the analysis, 18.2% were current smokers and 20.7% were former smokers. The prevalence of COVID-19 outcomes was 28.9% for hospitalization, 9.8% for ICU admission, and 1.4% for death. In the adjusted analysis, current smoking (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02-1.49), former smoking (AOR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07-1.54), and pack-years of smoking (AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17) were associated with a higher prevalence of hospitalization. Average daily packs of cigarettes smoked was associated with a higher prevalence of hospitalization (AOR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10-1.53) and ICU admission (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status, pack-years, and intensity of smoking were associated with hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19 and intensity of smoking was associated with ICU admission. The findings underscore the need for detailed information beyond smoking status when evaluating smokers with COVID-19 so that the potential for adverse sequelae may be optimally managed in at-risk patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021048, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine whether the regional density of tobacco outlets in Korea was associated with the likelihood of attempting to quit among smokers. METHODS: This study was designed as a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study. Data from the 2015 Korean Community Health Survey and tobacco outlet registrations in 17 metropolitan cities and provinces with 254 communities in Korea were used for the analysis. In total, 41,013 current smokers (≥19 years of age) were included. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate regional differences associated with smokers' attempts to quit and to evaluate the effects of individual and regional characteristics on quit attempts. RESULTS: Higher tobacco outlet density was associated with lower odds of attempting to quit. Smokers who resided in districts with the highest tobacco outlet density were 18% less likely to attempt quitting (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98) than smokers who resided in the regions with the lowest tobacco outlet density (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that quit attempts were related to community-level factors, such as tobacco outlet density, as well as other individual factors. These findings support the implementation of national policies restricting the number of tobacco outlets within communities or zones and limiting tobacco marketing in tobacco outlets.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribuição , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931471, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The demand for plasma and plasma products has increased in China, which has a short supply. Compared with whole blood donors, plasma donors and their donation behavior have received less attention. This study aimed to investigate the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of Chinese plasma donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS During 2018-2019, information on plasma donors was collected from blood product companies using a 25-item questionnaire, including sex, age, height, weight, blood group, donation frequency, occupation, smoking and drinking, and sleeping and dietary habits. RESULTS Among 15 497 plasma donors, 70.5% were women and 78.5% were aged 46-55 years. Among 4847 plasma donors, the average height of men was 169.5±6.2 cm and the average height of women was 157.0±4.6 cm. In addition, the average weight of men was 67.0±10.4 kg and the average weight of women was 60.0±8.3 kg. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥30.0 kg/m²) of all donors was 14.8%; 14.7% of men were obese, and 15% of women were obese. Among all plasma donors, 88.8% were farmers and 60% were frequent donors with a donation history of at least 5 years. Among all donors, 84.0% did not smoke, 67.3% did not drink, and 95.1% reported good sleep quality. All respondents reported healthy dietary habits. CONCLUSIONS Healthy lifestyle habits considerably affect the health of plasma donors and the quality of source plasma. Chinese plasma donors in this study demonstrated imbalances in terms of characteristics, which became more marked with age.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(4): 191-197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and its harmful health effects also increase economic burdens globally. Surprisingly, despite the detrimental health consequences of smoking, some studies have shown better survival among smokers compared with non-smokers, a phenomenon called "smoker's paradox". However, the impact of smoking status on clinical outcomes in severe calcified coronary artery disease (CAD) patients has yet to be reported. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in calcified CAD receiving rotational atherectomy (RA). DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records. SETTING: Multicenter registry in South Korea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter registry included consecutive patients with calcified CAD who underwent RA at nine tertiary centers in Korea between January 2010 and October 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Target-vessel failure (TVF) which included the composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction (TVMI), and target-vessel revascularization (TVR). SAMPLE SIZE: 583 lesions in 540 patients followed for a median of 16.1 months. RESULTS: Lesions were divided into two groups: non-smokers (n=472, 81.0%) and smokers (n=111, 19.0%). TVF in the smoker group was significantly more frequent than in non-smoker group (log rank P=.016). The inverse probability of treatment weighting analysis also showed that smoking was significantly associated with a higher incidence of the primary outcome (HR: 1.617; 95% CI: 1.127-2.320; P=.009), cardiac death (HR 1.912; 95% CI: 1.105-3.311; P=.021), myocardial infarction (HR: 3.914; 95% CI: 1.884-8.132; P<.001), TVMI (HR: 3.234; 95% CI: 1.130-9.258; P=.029), and TVR (HR: 1.661; 95% CI: 1.043-2.643; P=.032). However, any bleeding was significantly observed less in the smokers. CONCLUSION: Smoking is significantly associated with adverse clinical outcomes in CAD patients requiring RA. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Aterectomia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Calcificação Vascular , Aterectomia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco , Resultado do Tratamento , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445366

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in North America and other developed countries. One of the reasons lung cancer is at the top of the list is that it is often not diagnosed until the cancer is at an advanced stage. Thus, the earliest diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial, especially in screening high-risk populations, such as smokers, exposure to fumes, oil fields, toxic occupational places, etc. Based on the current knowledge, it looks that there is an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers. The current diagnosis of lung cancer includes different types of imaging complemented with pathological assessment of biopsies, but these techniques can still not detect early lung cancer developments. In this review, we described the advantages and disadvantages of current methods used in diagnosing lung cancer, and we provide an analysis of the potential use of body fluids as carriers of biomarkers as predictors of cancer development and progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biópsia , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Progressão da Doença , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 199, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the general population of Kazakhstan has never been characterized. We constructed this population-based study of the largest city in Kazakhstan, Almaty with the aim to quantitatively assess HRQL and ascertain whether occupation and lifestyle are associated with HRQL in this population. METHODS: In a random sample (N = 1500) of general population in Almaty (median age 49 (interquartile range 28) years, 50% women), we collected data on demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, lifetime occupational history and general HRQL using SF-8 instrument. The association of demographic and occupational predictors with HRQL was tested in multiple regression models. RESULTS: No occupational associations were found for physical component score in the models adjusted for age, sex, income, cigarette and waterpipe smoking, electronic cigarette use, physical activity, alcohol and exposure to secondhand smoke. Ever being a manager (ß - 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) - 2.92; - 0.34)), a welder (ß - 5.11 (95% CI - 8.77; - 1.46)) and a secretary (ß - 5.06 (95% CI - 8.56; - 1.56)) for one year or more was associated with poorer mental component score in the models adjusted for age, sex, income, cigarette smoking, physical activity and each other. Age, income and physical activity were independent predictors of both physical and mental components. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational history is associated with HRQL in the general population in Almaty, Kazakhstan, but the mechanism explaining this association should be further elucidated.


Assuntos
Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444117

RESUMO

Tobacco taxation and price policies are considered the most effective for lowering demand for tobacco products. While this statement is based on research from numerous countries, scant evidence exists on this topic for Israel. Accordingly, we assessed the association between cigarette prices and smoking prevalence and intensity from a national sample of adults in Israel (2002-2017). Data on smoking behavior were derived from the Israeli Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey, a repeated cross-sectional survey. Price information is from the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) since it was not collected in the KAP survey. We used the price of a pack of 20 cigarettes for Marlboro and the local brand. These two price variables were the primary independent variables, and we adjusted for inflation. The dependent variables were current smoking (yes/no) and smoking intensity, defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per week. Multivariable analysis was employed using a two-part model while adjusting for covariates. The first step of the model utilized logistic regression with current smoking as the dependent variable. The second step examining smoking intensity as the dependent variable, used OLS regression. Price elasticity was estimated as well. Analysis revealed that a one-unit increase (Israeli currency) in the price of local brand of cigarettes was related to 2.0% (OR = 0.98; 95%CI 0.98, 0.99) lower odds of being a current smoker, adjusting for covariates including household income. Moreover, a one unit increase in the price of the local brand of cigarettes was related to consuming 1.49 (95% CI -1.97, -1.00) fewer weekly cigarettes, controlling for household income and covariates. Similar results were found with the Marlboro cigarette prices. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand, given by the sum of price elasticities of smoking prevalence and intensity, showed that a 10.0% increase in the price is associated with a 4.6-9.2% lower cigarette consumption among Israeli adults. Thus, increasing cigarette prices will likely lead to a reduction in cigarette smoking thereby improving public health in Israel.


Assuntos
Comércio , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos
10.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107050, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343923

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited information about longitudinal patterns of vaping during pregnancy and the postpartum. We describe the prevalence, frequency, and reasons for vaping throughout pregnancy and postpartum. We also describe temporal patterns in pregnant women's vaping. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study across England and Scotland, with questionnaires in early pregnancy (8-24 weeks gestation), late pregnancy (34-38 weeks) and 3 months postpartum. A total of 750 women, aged 16 years or over, who were either current smokers, vapers or had smoked in the 3 months before pregnancy, were recruited between June and November 2017. RESULTS: Vaping prevalence was 15.9% (n = 119/750) in early pregnancy: 12.4% (n = 93/750) were dual users and 3.5% (n = 26/750) exclusive vapers. Late pregnancy vaping prevalence was 17.8% (n = 68/383): 12.5% (n = 48/383) were dual users and 5.2% (n = 20/383) exclusive vapers. Postpartum vaping prevalence was 23.1% (n = 95/411): 14.6% (n = 60/411) were dual users and 8.5% (n = 35/411) exclusive vapers. The most frequently reported reason to vape among all vapers was to quit smoking. A total of 316 women completed all three surveys: 2.6% (n = 8/316) were exclusive vapers in early pregnancy with most remaining exclusive vapers postpartum (n = 6/8, 75%). Of the 11.5% (n = 35/316) dual users in early pregnancy, 31.4% (n = 11/35) were exclusive smokers by the postpartum. CONCLUSION: Vaping prevalence was between 15.9% and 23.1% during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and the majority were dual users. Vaping habits of exclusive vapers remains stable throughout pregnancy and the postpartum. However, the vaping habits of dual users varies, with a third exclusively smoking in the postpartum.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107072, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and a range of adverse outcomes in offspring. However, evidence reporting adverse effects on poor academic performance in adolescence is scant. METHODS: This register-based cohort study used linked data obtained from New South Wales (NSW) educational and health registries in Australia. MSDP was assessed using self-reports of smoking during pregnancy. Offspring's educational performance was assessed using the National Assessment Program for Literacy and numeracy (NAPLAN), when students were in grade 9 and approximately aged 14 years. We used multivariable logistic regression models to explore associations. RESULTS: Adolescent offspring exposed to MSDP were at an increased risk of substandard academic performance in all domains, with the highest odds for spelling [OR, 3.12 (95%CI 2.98-3.26)] followed by writing [OR, 2.97 (95%CI 2.84-3.11)], reading [OR, 2.49 (95%CI 2.37-2.62)], and numeracy [OR, 2.43 (95%CI 2.30-2.58)]. In our sex-stratified analysis, MSDP displayed stronger effects on the academic performance of female offspring in all domains. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that MSDP was associated with an increased risk of reduced academic performance in adolescent offspring. The different effects of MSDP on the academic performance of male and female offspring is a new finding, which needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fumar/epidemiologia
12.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107073, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364109

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increase in electronic cigarette (EC) use among US youth has raised concerns that their use may increase conventional cigarette smoking. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data from two large nationally representative samples of US youth were drawn from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) and Monitoring the Future (MTF). Students from grade 6-12 of the NYTS (N = 98,454-132,003) and students from grade 12 of the MTF (N = 17,870-30,981) were included in the analyses. Trends in smoking behavior, intention to smoke in the future and perceived smoking harms among youth who do and do not use ECs were estimated from 2014 to 2020 using weighted multinomial logistic regression and predicted marginal probabilities. RESULTS: The prevalence for regular smoking decreased among youth who regularly use ECs. For example, among regular EC users, smoking prevalence decreased from 27.8% to 6.7% (-21%; 99.67% CI:[-32.3%, -9.9%]) in the NYTS between 2014 and 2020 and from 31.8% to 10.6% (-21.2%, 99.67% CI:[-35.0%, -7.3%]) in the MTF between 2014 and 2018. Intent to smoke in the future and perceiving smoking as harmless decreased or remained unchanged during the same period. For example, among regular EC users, there was no significant change in intention to smoke next year in the NYTS between 2014 and 2018; intention to smoke in the next 5 years decreased significantly from 30.7% to 11.2% (-19.5%, 99.67% CI:[-37.7%, -1.3%]) in the MTF. CONCLUSIONS: In two national samples of US youth, smoking prevalence declined by a sizeable relative percentage. Intent to smoke in the future and harm perceptions of smoking declined or remained unchanged while EC use increased. Results provide little evidence that EC use has increased conventional cigarette smoking among youth.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Fumaça , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1554, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking impairs lung immune function and damages upper airways, increasing risks of contracting and severity of infectious diseases. This paper quantifies the association between smoking and COVID-19 disease progression. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for studies published from January 1-May 25, 2020. We included studies reporting smoking behavior of COVID-19 patients and progression of disease, including death. We used random effects meta-analysis, meta-regression and locally weighted regression and smoothing to examine relationships in the data. RESULTS: We identified 46 peer-reviewed papers with a total of 22,939 COVID-19 patients, 5421 (23.6%) experienced disease progression and 2914 (12.7%) with a history of smoking (current and former smokers). Among those with a history of smoking, 33.5% experienced disease progression, compared with 21.9% of non-smokers. The meta-analysis confirmed an association between ever smoking and COVID-19 progression (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.33-1.89, p = 0.001). Ever smoking was associated with increased risk of death from COVID-19 (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.39, p = 0.003). We found no significant difference (p = 0.864) between the effects of ever smoking on COVID-19 disease progression between adjusted and unadjusted analyses, suggesting that smoking is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 disease progression. We also found the risk of having COVID-19 progression higher among younger adults (p = 0.001), with the effect most pronounced among younger adults under about 45 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is an independent risk for having progression of COVID-19, including mortality. The effects seem to be higher among young people. Smoking prevention and cessation should remain a priority for the public, physicians, and public health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 3065-3076, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378698

RESUMO

Cigarette consumption is a worldwide epidemic and its reduction is one of the major public health concerns. In Brazil, although there is a wide literature on smoking cessation it is restricted to experimental studies. Based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS), this study uses the survival methodology and use population data and consumer's profile to investigate which characteristics will affect smoking cessation hazard. The results showed that the people who are less likely to quit smoking are older, single men, with low income and fewer education years. They also do not practice physical exercise. The findings of cigarette cessation hazard to Brazilian population are similar of experimental studies with smokers and ex-smokers in country. Therefore, in order to decrease public health spending, Brazilian health policies regarding tobacco cessation could focus on those groups who will likely smoke for a long time.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26189, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative major complications after esophageal cancer resection vary and may significantly impact long-term outcomes. This study aimed to build an individualized nomogram to predict post-esophagectomy major morbidity. METHODS: This retrospective study included 599 consecutive patients treated at a single center between January 2017 and April 2019. Of them, 420 and 179 were assigned to the model development and validation cohorts, respectively. Major morbidity predictors were identified using multiple logistic regression. Model discrimination and calibration were evaluated by validation. Regarding clinical usefulness, we examined the net benefit using decision curve analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 64 years; 79% of the patients were male. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke history. The 30-day postoperative major morbidity rate was 24%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, smoking history, coronary heart disease, dysphagia, body mass index, operation time, and tumor size were independent risk factors for surgery-associated major morbidity. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of the development and validation groups were 0.775 (95% confidence interval, 0.721-0.829) and 0.792 (95% confidence interval, 0.709-0.874), respectively. In the validation cohort, the nomogram showed good calibration. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: Morbidity models and nomograms incorporating clinical and surgical data can be used to predict operative risk for esophagectomy and provide appropriate resources for the postoperative management of high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Nomogramas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Carga Tumoral
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26757, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397819

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The role of cognitive, social and biological factors in the etiology of chronic periodontitis has been reported.The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol level and interleukin-1 B level in patients of Chronic periodontitis in smokers and stress and nonsmokers without stress.The design of study randomized, prospective, double-blinded, and prospective study.The total sample size was comprised of 600 subjects between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The sample size was divided into 300 males and 300 females. Out of 600 subjects, 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis with positive depression level with a history of smoking (Group I), 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis without depression and without smoking (Group II), and 200 subjects who were taken as the control group comprised of healthy subjects without chronic periodontitis, without depression level, and no smoking history (Group III). Salivary cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The result showed that there was a positive correlation between morning and evening salivary cortisol level in all the groups with correlation coefficient. There was significant higher value of salivary cortisol in Group I patients when compared with Group II and Group III. However, when the comparison of salivary cortisol levels was done between the Group II and Control group, the result showed nonsignificant P value.It is suggested that stress is positively correlated with the salivary cortisol levels in smokers and nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/sangue , Hidrocortisona/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/enzimologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27091, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449512

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reflux esophagitis (RE) was controversial. We investigated the factors influencing RE development in patients with COPD and evaluated the association between RE and AECOPD.Patients with COPD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy from January 2003 to December 2013 in St. Paul's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea (Seoul, Korea) were enrolled retrospectively. The grade of RE was based on the Los Angeles classification and minimal change esophagitis. Body mass index, smoking history, medical history, AECOPD, pulmonary function test data, endoscopic findings, and comorbidities were reviewed.Of a total of 218 patients with COPD, 111 (50.9%) were diagnosed with RE. None of age, sex, smoking history, or the severity of airflow limitation was associated with RE. AECOPD was not related to either the presence or severity of RE. There was no significant correlation between RE grade by Los Angeles classification and severity of airflow limitation (P = .625). Those who had RE used theophylline (P = .003) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (P = .026) significantly more often than did controls. The use of theophylline (OR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.16-3.65, P = .014) was associated with an increased incidence of RE.The use of theophylline might increase the risk of RE in COPD patients. RE may not be associated with airflow limitation or AECOPD.


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Esofagite Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Teofilina/efeitos adversos
18.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1528-1533, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several lifestyle-related factors, such as obesity and diabetes, have been identified as risk factors for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the global association between lifestyle-related factors and COVID-19 mortality using data from each individual country. METHODS: The association between prevalence of seven lifestyle-related factors (overweight, insufficient physical activity, smoking, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and age over 65) and COVID-19 mortality was assessed by linear and multivariable regression among 186 countries. The cumulative effect of lifestyle-related factors on COVID-19 mortality was assessed by dividing countries into four categories according to the number of lifestyle-related factors in the upper half range and comparing the mean mortality between groups. RESULTS: In linear regression, COVID-19 mortality was significantly associated with overweight, insufficient physical activity, hyperlipidaemia, and age ≥65. In multivariable regression, overweight and age ≥65 demonstrated significant association with COVID-19 mortality (p = .0039, .0094). Countries with more risk factors demonstrated greater COVID-19 mortality (P for trend <.001). CONCLUSION: Lifestyle-related factors, especially overweight and elderly population, were associated with increased COVID-19 mortality on a global scale. Global effort to reduce burden of lifestyle-related factors along with protection and vaccination of these susceptible groups may help reduce COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105965, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke are the most common sequelae of the Moyamoya variants [Moyamoya disease (MMD) and syndrome (MMS)]. We sought to determine the rates of stroke subtypes and the predictive factors of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) utilizing a large data sample of MMD and MMS patients in the US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried the 2016 and 2017 National Inpatient Sample database for Moyamoya diagnosis plus any of the following associated conditions; sickle cell disease, neurofibromatosis type 1, cranial radiation therapy or Down Syndrome. Multivariate regression determined the risk factors for AIS onset in MMD and MMS. RESULTS: 2323 patients with a diagnosis of Moyamoya were included; 668 (28.8%) patients were classified as MMS and 1655 (71.2%) as MMD. AIS was the most common presentation in both cohorts; however, MMD patients had higher rates of AIS (20.4 vs 6%, p < 0.001), hemorrhagic stroke (7.4vs 2.5%, p < 0.001), and TIA (3.3vs 0.9%, p = 0.001) compared to MMS patients. Multivariate analysis showed that increasing age [OR = 1.017 95%CI: 1.008-1.03, p < 0.001], lipidemia [OR = 1.32 95%CI: 1.02-1.74, p = 0.049], and current smoking status [OR = 1.43 95%CI: 1.04-1.97, p = 0.026] were independent risk factors for AIS in MMD patients, whereas hypertension [OR = 2.61 95%CI: 1.29-5.25, p = 0.007] and African-American race [OR = 0.274, 95%CI: .117-.64, p = 0.003] were independent predictors in the MMS cohort. CONCLUSION: AIS is the most common presentation in both, MMD and MMS. However, MMD patients had higher rates of stroke events compared to MMS. Risk factors for AIS in MMD included increasing age, lipidemia and smoking status, whereas in MMS hypertension was the only independent risk factor.


Assuntos
AVC Hemorrágico/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Doença de Moyamoya/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , AVC Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204696

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between smoking behavior in out-of-school youths (OSY) and individual, interpersonal, and organizational factors through an ecological model. METHODS: Participants were 297 OSY aged 13-18 years, who visited J area's counseling center. The independent variables were self-control (intrapersonal factor), parental attachment and social network (interpersonal factors), and exposure to no-smoking policy (community factor). The dependent variable was smoking. Descriptive statistics, χ2-tests, correlation analyses, and logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: The predictors of smoking in OSY were analyzed using demographic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community factors. Period after discontinuation of school, self-control, parental attachment, and friends' smoking behavior were significant predictors. Smoking behavior was found to decrease when the period after discontinuation of school was over than one year, when the parents attachment increased and when self-control increased. Conversely, smoking increased when friends' smoking increased. CONCLUSIONS: When administering smoking prevention programs for OSY, parental attachment and psychological traits, such as self-control, should be taken into consideration. Therefore, for effective results, such programs need to strengthen self-control, stress the importance of parental attachment through parent education, and enroll adolescents along with their friends who smoke. Implications and Contribution: Based on an ecological model, this descriptive survey, conducted to investigate the association between smoking behavior among out-of-school youths and individual, interpersonal, and organizational factors, proposes that smoking prevention programs should consider parental attachment and psychological traits, including self-control, for optimal effectiveness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Fumar , Adolescente , Amigos , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...