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1.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(4): e16614, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570900

RESUMO

Sustainable crop protection is vital for food security, yet it is under threat due to the adaptation of a diverse and evolving pathogen population. Resistance can be managed by maximising the diversity of selection pressure through dose variation and the spatial and temporal combination of active ingredients. This study explores the interplay between operational drivers for maximising the sustainability of management strategies in relation to the resistance status of fungal populations. We applied an experimental evolution approach to three artificial populations of Zymoseptoria tritici, an economically significant wheat pathogen, each differing in initial resistance status. Our findings reveal that diversified selection pressure curtails the selection of resistance in naïve populations and those with low frequencies of single resistance. Increasing the number of modes of action most effectively delays resistance development, surpassing the increase in the number of fungicides, fungicide choice based on resistance risk, and temporal variation in fungicide exposure. However, this approach favours generalism in the evolved populations. The prior presence of multiple resistant isolates and their subsequent selection in populations override the effects of diversity in management strategies, thereby invalidating any universal ranking. Therefore, the initial resistance composition must be specifically considered in sustainable resistance management to address real-world field situations.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fungicidas Industriais , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105806, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582572

RESUMO

Boscalid, a widely used SDHI fungicide, has been employed in plant disease control for over two decades. However, there is currently no available information regarding its antifungal activity against Sclerotium rolfsii and the potential risk of resistance development in this pathogen. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of 100 S. rolfsii strains collected from five different regions in China during 2018-2019 to boscalid using mycelial growth inhibition method and assessed the risk of resistance development. The EC50 values for boscalid ranged from 0.2994 µg/mL to 1.0766 µg/mL against the tested strains, with an average EC50 value of 0.7052 ± 0.1473 µg/mL. Notably, a single peak sensitivity baseline was curved, indicating the absence of any detected resistant strains. Furtherly, 10 randomly selected strains of S. rolfsii were subjected to chemical taming to evaluate its resistance risk to boscalid, resulting in the successful generation of six stable and inheritable resistant mutants. These mutants exhibited significantly reduced mycelial growth, sclerotia production, and virulence compared to their respective parental strains. Cross-resistance tests revealed a correlation between boscalid and flutolanil, benzovindiflupyr, pydiflumetofen, fluindapyr, and thifluzamide; however, no cross-resistance was observed between boscalid and azoxystrobin. Thus, we conclude that the development risk of resistance in S. rolfsii to boscalid is low. Boscalid can be used as an alternative fungicide for controlling peanut sclerotium blight when combined with other fungicides that have different mechanisms of action. Finally, the target genes SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD in S. rolfsii were initially identified, cloned and sequenced to elucidate the mechanism of S. rolfsii resistance to boscalid. Two mutation genotypes were found in the mutants: SDHD-D111H and SDHD-H121Y. The mutants carrying SDHD-H121Y exhibited moderate resistance, while the mutants with SDHD-D111H showed low resistance. These findings contribute to our comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying plant pathogens resistance to SDHI fungicides.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Compostos de Bifenilo , Fungicidas Industriais , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Succinato Desidrogenase , Medição de Risco , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105815, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582573

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is an important fungal pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereal crops worldwide. Due to lack of resistant wheat cultivars, FHB control mainly relies on application of chemical fungicides. Both fludioxonil (a phenylpyrrole compound) and phenamacril (a cyanoacrylate fungicide) have been registered for controlling FHB in China, however, fludioxonil-resistant isolates of F. graminearum have been detected in field. To evaluate the potential risk of dual resistance of F. graminearum to both compounds, fludioxonil and phenamacril dual resistant (DR) mutants of F. graminearum were obtained via fungicide domestication in laboratory. Result showed that resistance of the DR mutants to both fludioxonil and phenamacril were genetically stable after sub-cultured for ten generations or stored at 4 °C for 30 days on fungicide-free PDA. Cross-resistance assay showed that the DR mutants remain sensitive to other groups of fungicides, including carbendazim, tebuconazole, pydiflumetofen, and fluazinam. In addition, the DR mutants exhibited defects in mycelia growth, conidiation, mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) production, and virulence Moreover, the DR mutants displayed increased sensitivity to osmotic stress. Sequencing results showed that amino acid point mutations S217L/T in the myosin I protein is responsible for phenamacril resistance in the DR mutants. Our results indicate that mutations leading to fludioxonil and phenamacril dual resistance could result in fitness cost for F. graminearum. Our results also suggest that the potential risk of F. graminearum developing resistance to both fludioxonil and phenamacril in field could be rather low, which provides scientific guidance in controlling FHB with fludioxonil and phenamacril.


Assuntos
Dioxóis , Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Pirróis , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Cianoacrilatos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105828, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582592

RESUMO

Soybean root rot is a worldwide soil-borne disease threatening soybean production, causing large losses in soybean yield and quality. Fusarium species are the most detrimental pathogens of soybean root rot worldwide, causing large production losses. Fusarium root rot has been frequently reported in Heilongjiang Province of China, but the predominant Fusarium species and the sensitivity of these pathogens to different fungicides remain unclear. In this study, diseased soybean roots were collected from 14 regions of Heilongjiang province in 2021 and 2022. A total of 144 isolates of Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified as seven distinct species: F. scirpi, F. oxysporum, F. graminearum, F. clavum, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, and F. sporotrichioide. F. scirpi and F. oxysporum had high separation frequency and strong pathogenicity. The sensitivity of Fusarium spp. to five different fungicides was determined. Mefentrifluconazole and fludioxonil showed good inhibitory effects, and the sensitivity to pydiflumetofen and phenamacril varied between Fusarium species. In particular, the activity of DMI fungicide prothioconazole was lower than that of mefentrifluconazole. Molecular docking showed that mefentrifluconazole mainly bound to CYP51C, but prothioconazole mainly bound to CYP51B. Furthermore, the sensitivity to prothioconazole only significantly decreased in ΔFgCYP51B mutant, and the sensitivity to mefentrifluconazole changed in ΔFgCYP51C and ΔFgCYP51A mutants. The results demonstrated that the predominant Fusarium species causing soybean root rot in Heilongjiang province were F. scirpi and F. oxysporum and DMI fungicides had differences in binding cavity due to the diversity of CYP51 proteins in Fusarium.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium/genética , Soja , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , China
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301584, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578716

RESUMO

Argentina is among the most important lemon fruit producers in the world. Penicillium digitatum is the primary lemon fungal phytopathogen, causing green mold during the postharvest. Several alternatives to the use of synthetic fungicides have been developed, being the use of biocontrol yeasts one of the most promising. Although many of the reports are based on the use of a single yeast species, it has been shown that the combination of agents with different mechanisms of action can increase control efficiency through synergistic effects. The combined use of native yeasts with different mechanisms of action had not been studied as a biological control strategy in lemons. In this work, the mechanisms of action of native yeasts (Clavispora lusitaniae AgL21, Clavispora lusitaniae AgL2 and Clavispora lusitaniae AcL2) with biocontrol activity against P. digitatum were evaluated. Isolate AgL21 was selected for its ability to form biofilm, colonize lemon wounds, and inhibit fungal spore germination. The compatibility of C. lusitaniae AgL21 with two killer yeasts of the species Kazachstania exigua (AcL4 and AcL8) was evaluated. In vivo assays were then carried out with the yeasts applied individually or mixed in equal cell concentrations. AgL21 alone was able to control green mold with 87.5% efficiency, while individual killer yeasts were significantly less efficient (43.3% and 38.3%, respectively). Inhibitory effects were increased when C. lusitaniae AgL21 and K. exigua strains were jointly applied. The most efficient treatment was the combination of AgL21 and AcL4, reaching 100% efficiency in wound protection. The combination of AgL21 with AcL8 was as well promising, with an efficiency of 97.5%. The combined application of native yeasts showed a synergistic effect considering that the multiple mechanisms of action involved could hinder the development of green mold in lemon more efficiently than using single yeasts. Therefore, this work demonstrates that the integration of native yeasts with diverse modes of action can provide new insights to formulate effective microbial consortia. This could lead to the development of tailor-made biofungicides, allowing control of postharvest fungal diseases in lemons while remaining competitive with traditionally used synthetic chemicals.


Assuntos
Citrus , Fungicidas Industriais , Penicillium , Saccharomycetales , Leveduras , Citrus/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Frutas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301519, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578751

RESUMO

Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, poses a severe threat to rice production, particularly in Asia where rice is a staple food. Concerns over fungicide resistance and environmental impact have sparked interest in exploring natural fungicides as potential alternatives. This study aimed to identify highly potent natural fungicides against M. oryzae to combat rice blast disease, using advanced molecular dynamics techniques. Four key proteins (CATALASE PEROXIDASES 2, HYBRID PKS-NRPS SYNTHETASE TAS1, MANGANESE LIPOXYGENASE, and PRE-MRNA-SPLICING FACTOR CEF1) involved in M. oryzae's infection process were identified. A list of 30 plant metabolites with documented antifungal properties was compiled for evaluation as potential fungicides. Molecular docking studies revealed that 2-Coumaroylquinic acid, Myricetin, Rosmarinic Acid, and Quercetin exhibited superior binding affinities compared to reference fungicides (Azoxystrobin and Tricyclazole). High throughput molecular dynamics simulations were performed, analyzing parameters like RMSD, RMSF, Rg, SASA, hydrogen bonds, contact analysis, Gibbs free energy, and cluster analysis. The results revealed stable interactions between the selected metabolites and the target proteins, involving important hydrogen bonds and contacts. The SwissADME server analysis indicated that the metabolites possess fungicide properties, making them effective and safe fungicides with low toxicity to the environment and living beings. Additionally, bioactivity assays confirmed their biological activity as nuclear receptor ligands and enzyme inhibitors. Overall, this study offers valuable insights into potential natural fungicides for combating rice blast disease, with 2-Coumaroylquinic acid, Myricetin, Rosmarinic Acid, and Quercetin standing out as promising and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional fungicides. These findings have significant implications for developing crop protection strategies and enhancing global food security, particularly in rice-dependent regions.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Magnaporthe , Oryza , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oryza/microbiologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110640, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442539

RESUMO

Alternaria alternata is a common fungal pathogen causing postharvest decay in table grapes. This study addressed the potential of autochthonous yeasts and bioactive compounds of natural sources to act as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against A. alternata in cold-stored table grapes. With this purpose, 19 yeast capable of growing at 0-1 °C were isolated from the surface of Red Globe table grapes. These isolates, along with the pre-isolated strain Metschnikowia pulcherrima RCM2, were evaluated as BCAs in wounded berries. From these results, six yeast isolates were pre-selected to be combined with bioactive compounds of natural sources, like phenolic compounds (PCs) of side streams of wine industry, including bunch stem extract (BSE) (5-25 %), and cane extract (CE) (5-25 %), and functional polysaccharides from shrimp waste such as chitosan (CH) (0.5 %). Then, the biocontrol efficacy of combined treatments beyond individual ones was compared. The results revealed that 4 yeast isolates, namely M. pulcherrima RCM2 and ULA146, and Aureobasidium pullulans FUL14 and FUL18, were the most effective. However, when combined with the natural bioactive compounds, their efficacy against A. alternata did not increase significantly. Notably, ULA146 and FUL18 demonstrated a biocontrol efficacy of 36-37 %, comparable to that of the treatment with commercial doses of SO2, which only showed a 27 % reduction in the lesion diameter. These findings highlight the potential of using psychrotrophic yeasts as BCAs against A. alternata in cold-stored table grapes. Combining these yeast strains with BSE, CE and CH did not increase BCAs efficacy against this pathogen at the concentrations tested. The development of effective biocontrol strategies for A. alternata could contribute to reducing reliance on chemically synthesized fungicides, promoting sustainable practices, aiming to improve the quality and safety of cold-stored table grapes.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Vitis , Vitis/microbiologia , Leveduras , Alternaria
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 199: 105757, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458660

RESUMO

Fenhexamid are fungicides that act against plant pathogens by inhibiting sterol biosynthesis. Nonetheless, it can trigger endocrine disruption and promote breast cancer cell growth. In a recent study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the lipid accumulation induced by fenhexamid hydroxyanilide fungicides in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. To examine the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-agonistic effect, ER transactivation assay using the ERα-HeLa-9903 cell line was applied, and fenhexamid-induced ERα agonist effect was confirmed. Further confirmation that ERα-dependent lipid accumulation occurred was provided by treating 3 T3-L1 adipocytes with Methyl-piperidino-pyrazole hydrate (MPP), an ERα-selective antagonist. Fenhexamid mimicked the actions of ERα agonists and impacted lipid metabolism, and its mechanism involves upregulation of the expression of transcription factors that facilitate adipogenesis and lipogenesis. Additionally, it stimulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and significantly elevated the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). In contrast, in combination with an ERα-selective antagonist, fenhexamid suppressed the expression of adipogenic/lipogenic transcription factors. These results suggest that fenhexamid affects the endocrine system and leads to lipid accumulation by interfering with processes influenced by ERα activation.


Assuntos
Amidas , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio , Fungicidas Industriais , Camundongos , Animais , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/farmacologia , Lipídeos , Células 3T3-L1 , PPAR gama/metabolismo
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 199: 105786, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458686

RESUMO

Ipconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole fungicide that is highly effective against Fusarium pseudograminearum. However, its risk of developing resistance and mechanism are not well understood in F. pseudograminearum. Here, the sensitivities of 101 F. pseudograminearum isolates to ipconazole were investigated, and the average EC50 value was 0.1072 µg/mL. Seven mutants resistant to ipconazole were obtained by fungicide adaption, with all but one showing reduced fitness relative to the parental isolates. Cross-resistance was found between ipconazole and mefentrifluconazole and tebuconazole, but none between ipconazole and pydiflumetofen, carbendazim, fludioxonil, or phenamacril. In summary, these findings suggest that there is a low risk of F. pseudograminearum developing resistance to ipconazole. Additionally, a point mutation, G464S, was seen in FpCYP51B and overexpression of FpCYP51A, FpCYP51B and FpCYP51C was observed in ipconazole-resistant mutants. Assays, including transformation and molecular docking, indicated that G464S conferred ipconazole resistance in F. pseudograminearum.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fusarium/genética , Desmetilação , Doenças das Plantas
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 199: 105795, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458689

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight in wheat is caused by Fusarium graminearum, resulting in significant yield losses and grain contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON), which poses a potential threat to animal health. Cyclobutrifluram, a newly developed succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, has shown excellent inhibition of Fusarium spp. However, the resistance risk of F. graminearum to cyclobutrifluram and the molecular mechanism of resistance have not been determined. In this study, we established the average EC50 of a range of F. graminearum isolates to cyclobutrifluram to be 0.0110 µg/mL. Six cyclobutrifluram-resistant mutants were obtained using fungicide adaptation. All mutants exhibited impaired fitness relative to their parental isolates. This was evident from measurements of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, virulence, and DON production. Interestingly, cyclobutrifluram did not seem to affect the DON production of either the sensitive isolates or the resistant mutants. Furthermore, a positive cross-resistance was observed between cyclobutrifluram and pydiflumetofen. These findings suggest that F. graminearum carries a moderate to high risk of developing resistance to cyclobutrifluram. Additionally, point mutations H248Y in FgSdhB and A73V in FgSdhC1 of F. graminearum were observed in the cyclobutrifluram-resistant mutants. Finally, an overexpression transformation assay and molecular docking indicated that FgSdhBH248Y or FgSdhC1A73V could confer resistance of F. graminearum to cyclobutrifluram.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Micélio , Doenças das Plantas
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5484, 2024 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443385

RESUMO

Tomato production plays a crucial role in the livelihoods of farmers and agricultural households in the forest savanna transitional belt of Ghana. However, the success of tomato cultivation is hindered by the presence of insect pests and diseases, necessitating the use of agricultural inputs. This study aimed to identify the pesticides used in tomato farming, assess their World Health Organization (WHO) active ingredient hazard class, determine the precautionary behaviour associated with pesticide use by tomato farmers, and elucidate the socio-economic factors influencing pesticide usage in the Bono and Ahafo regions of Ghana. A multistage sampling procedure was employed to select 1009 respondents, who were administered a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to analyse the collected data. The results revealed that tomato farmers utilized 15 types of insecticides (e.g., lambda and chlorpyrifos ethyl based), 8 types of fungicides (e.g., mancozeb and sulphur + copper based), and 6 types of weedicides (mostly glyphosate based) on their crops. Notably, four insecticides and two fungicides types were found to be unregistered products. Lambda-cyhalothrin-based insecticides and mancozeb-based fungicides were predominantly used by the farmers. The assessed pesticides exhibited varying levels of hazard, ranging from slight to moderate. The study found that farmer training was a significant driver influencing insecticide use, while the educational level of farmers and average yield played important roles in determining fungicide use. Socio-economic factors such as being the head of the household, employing farm workers, the cultivated tomato variety, and farmer training influenced weedicide use. The type of tomato variety cultivated emerged as the primary socio-economic driver of pesticide use. The study recommended the establishment and implementation of a systematic monitoring regime for pesticide product marketing and use, with the aim of reducing the utilization of unregistered products by farmers. Implementing these measures supports sustainable tomato farming in the Bono and Ahafo regions of Ghana.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Inseticidas , Maneb , Praguicidas , Solanum lycopersicum , Zineb , Humanos , Fazendeiros , Gana
12.
Biomed Khim ; 70(1): 41-51, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450680

RESUMO

Pesticides represent a serious problem for agricultural workers due to their neurotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of pharmacological oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers to reduce the effect of the difenoconazole fungicide on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of various organs in mice. Injections of difenoconazole caused cognitive deficits in mice, and the protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and Azur I (AzI), a demethylated metabolite of methylene blue (MB), prevented the deterioration of cognitive abilities in mice induced by difenoconazole. Difenoconazole increased the rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, likely through inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. After intraperitoneal administration of difenoconazole lungs, testes and midbrain were most sensitive to the accumulation of mtDNA damage. In contrast, the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were not tolerant to the effects of difenoconazole. The protonophore 2,4-DNP reduced the rate of ROS formation and significantly reduced the amount of mtDNA damage caused by difenoconazole in the midbrain, and partially, in the lungs and testes. MB, an alternative electron carrier capable of bypassing inhibited complex I, had no effect on the effect of difenoconazole on mtDNA, while its metabolite AzI, a demethylated metabolite of MB, was able to protect the mtDNA of the midbrain and testes. Thus, mitochondria-targeted therapy is a promising approach to reduce pesticide toxicity for agricultural workers.


Assuntos
Corantes Azur , Dioxolanos , Fungicidas Industriais , Triazóis , Animais , Camundongos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , 2,4-Dinitrofenol , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Mitocôndrias , DNA Mitocondrial , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons
13.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 25(3): e13435, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476108

RESUMO

Alternaria spp. cause different diseases in potato and tomato crops. Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and brown spot caused by Alternaria alternata are most common, but the disease complex is far more diverse. We first provide an overview of the Alternaria species infecting the two host plants to alleviate some of the confusion that arises from the taxonomic rearrangements in this fungal genus. Highlighting the diversity of Alternaria fungi on both solanaceous hosts, we review studies investigating the genetic diversity and genomes, before we present recent advances from studies elucidating host-pathogen interactions and fungicide resistances. TAXONOMY: Kingdom Fungi, Phylum Ascomycota, Class Dothideomycetes, Order Pleosporales, Family Pleosporaceae, Genus Alternaria. BIOLOGY AND HOST RANGE: Alternaria spp. adopt diverse lifestyles. We specifically review Alternaria spp. that cause disease in the two solanaceous crops potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). They are necrotrophic pathogens with no known sexual stage, despite some signatures of recombination. DISEASE SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of the early blight/brown spot disease complex include foliar lesions that first present as brown spots, depending on the species with characteristic concentric rings, which eventually lead to severe defoliation and considerable yield loss. CONTROL: Good field hygiene can keep the disease pressure low. Some potato and tomato cultivars show differences in susceptibility, but there are no fully resistant varieties known. Therefore, the main control mechanism is treatment with fungicides.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum tuberosum , Alternaria/genética , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5983-5992, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456397

RESUMO

Structural modification of natural products is an effective approach for improving antifungal activity and has, therefore, been used extensively in the development of new agrochemical products. In this work, a series of novel coumarin derivatives containing oxime ether structures were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for antifungal activity. Some of the designed compounds exhibited promising antifungal activities against tested fungi, and compounds 4a, 4c, 5a, and 6b had EC50 values equivalent to those of commercial fungicides. Compound 6b was the most promising candidate fungicide against Rhizoctonia solani (EC50 = 0.46 µg/mL). In vivo antifungal bioassays suggested that compounds 5a and 6b could serve as novel agricultural antifungals. Furthermore, microscopy demonstrated that compound 6b induced the sprawling growth of hyphae, distorted the outline of cell walls, and reduced mitochondrial numbers. Additionally, the effects of the substituent steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen-bond fields were elucidated using an accurate and reliable three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model. The results presented here will guide the discovery of potential novel fungicides for plant disease control in agriculture.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Fungicidas Industriais , Antifúngicos/química , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Éter , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Oximas/farmacologia , Etil-Éteres , Éteres/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5636-5644, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457784

RESUMO

The evaluation of toxicity and environmental behavior of bioactive lead molecules is helpful in providing theoretical support for the development of agrochemicals, in line with the sustainable development of the ecological environment. In previous work, some acethydrazide structures have been demonstrated to exhibit excellent and broad-spectrum fungicidal activity; however, its environmental compatibility needs to be further elucidated if it is to be identified as a potential fungicide. In this project, the toxicity of fungicidal acethydrazide lead compounds F51, F58, F72, and F75 to zebrafish was determined at 10 µg mL-1 and 1 µg mL-1. Subsequently, the toxic mechanism of compound F58 was preliminarily explored by histologic section and TEM observations, which revealed that the gallbladder volume of common carp treated with compound F58 increased, accompanied by a deepened bile color, damaged plasma membrane, and atrophied mitochondria in gallbladder cells. Approximately, F58-treated hepatocytes exhibited cytoplasmic heterogeneity, with partial cellular vacuolation and mitochondrial membrane rupture. Metabolomics analysis further indicated that differential metabolites were enriched in the bile formation-associated steroid biosynthesis, primary bile acid biosynthesis, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism pathways, as well as in the membrane function-related glycerophospholipid metabolism, linolenic acid metabolism, α-linolenic acid metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways, suggesting that the acethydrazide F58 may have acute liver toxicity to common carp. Finally, the hydrolysis dynamics of F58 was investigated, with the obtained half-life of 5.82 days. The above results provide important guiding significance for the development of new green fungicides.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Bile , Metabolômica
16.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 121, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional pesticides are poorly water-soluble and suffer from low bioavailability. N-succinyl chitosan (NSCS) is a water-soluble chitosan derivative, has been recently used to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs to improve their bioavailability. However, it remains challenging to synthesize pesticides of a wide variety of water-soluble drugs and to scale up the production in a continuous manner. RESULTS: A synthetic method for preparing water-soluble nanopesticides with a polymer carrier was applied. The bioactive molecule BTL-11 was loaded into hollow NSCS to promote drug delivery, improve solubility and anti-fungal activity. The synthesized nanopesticides had well controlled sizes of 606 nm and the encapsulation rate was 80%. The release kinetics, drug toxicity and drug activity were further evaluated. The inhibitory activity of nanopesticides against Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) was tested in vivo and in vitro. In vivo against R. solani trials revealed that BTL-11 has excellent control efficiency for cultivated rice leaf and sheath was 79.6 and 76.5%, respectively. By contrast, for BTL-11@NSCS NPs, the anti-fungal ability was strongly released and afforded significant control efficiencies of 85.9 and 81.1%. Those effects were significantly better than that of the agricultural fungicide azoxystrobin (51.5 and 66.5%). The proposed mechanism was validated by successfully predicting the synthesis outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that NSCS is a promising biocompatible carrier, which can enhance the efficacy of pesticides, synergistically improve plant disease resistance, protect crop growth, and can be used for the delivery of more insoluble pesticides.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Fungicidas Industriais , Micoses , Humanos , Quitosana/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Água/química
17.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 36, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequence variation produced by mutation provides the ultimate source of natural selection for species adaptation. Unlike nonsynonymous mutation, synonymous mutations are generally considered to be selectively neutral but accumulating evidence suggests they also contribute to species adaptation by regulating the flow of genetic information and the development of functional traits. In this study, we analysed sequence characteristics of ATP6, a housekeeping gene from 139 Phytophthora infestans isolates, and compared the fitness components including metabolic rate, temperature sensitivity, aggressiveness, and fungicide tolerance among synonymous mutations. RESULTS: We found that the housekeeping gene exhibited low genetic variation and was represented by two major synonymous mutants at similar frequency (0.496 and 0.468, respectively). The two synonymous mutants were generated by a single nucleotide substitution but differed significantly in fitness as well as temperature-mediated spatial distribution and expression. The synonymous mutant ending in AT was more common in cold regions and was more expressed at lower experimental temperature than the synonymous mutant ending in GC and vice versa. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with the argument that synonymous mutations can modulate the adaptive evolution of species including pathogens and have important implications for sustainable disease management, especially under climate change.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Phytophthora infestans , Mutação Silenciosa , Phytophthora infestans/genética , Mutação/genética , Seleção Genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6691, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509170

RESUMO

The clinical effects of Schisandra chinensis against human disease are well-documented; however, studies on its application in controlling plant pathogens are limited. Here, we investigated its inhibitory effect on the growth of Alternaria alternata, a fungus which causes significant post-harvest losses on apples, known as black spot disease. S. chinensis fruit extract exhibited strong inhibitory effects on the growth of A. alternata with an EC50 of 1882.00 mg/L. There were 157 compounds identified in the extract by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, where benzocaine constituted 14.19% of the extract. Antifungal experiments showed that the inhibitory activity of benzocaine on A. alternata was 43.77-fold higher than the crude extract. The application of benzocaine before and after A. alternata inoculation on apples prevented the pathogen infection and led to mycelial distortion according to scanning electron microscopy. Transcriptome analysis revealed that there were 4226 genes differentially expressed between treated and untreated A. alternata-infected apples with benzocaine. Metabolomics analysis led to the identification of 155 metabolites. Correlation analysis between the transcriptome and metabolome revealed that benzocaine may inhibit A. alternata growth via the beta-alanine metabolic pathway. Overall, S. chinensis extract and benzocaine are environmentally friendly plant-based fungicides with potential to control A. alternata.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Schisandra , Humanos , Benzocaína/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Alternaria/genética
19.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 29(3): 105, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytopathogens, encompassing fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes, pose a significant threat to the agricultural industry by causing substantial economic losses through severe plant diseases. The excessive use of synthetic fungicides to combat phytopathogens has raised environmental and human health concerns. RESULTS: Consequently, there is an increasing demand for safe and environmentally friendly biopesticides to align with consumer preferences for uncontaminated food. One particularly promising alternative to synthetic fungicides involves harnessing biocontrol bacteria that produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. These enzymes serve to effectively manage phytopathogens while concurrently fostering sustainable plant protection. Among the pivotal hydrolytic enzymes generated by biocontrol bacteria are chitinase, cellulase, protease, lipase, glucanase, and amylase. These enzymes exert their influence by breaking down the cell wall, proteins, and DNA of phytopathogens, thereby establishing a dependable method of biocontrol. CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing the critical role of these hydrolytic enzymes in sustainable biocontrol, this review seeks to delve into their primary functions, contribution to sustainable plant protection, and mechanisms of action. Through an exploration of the potential presented by biocontrol bacteria and their enzymatic mechanisms, we can discern effective and environmentally conscious strategies for managing phytopathogens in agriculture.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Humanos , Solo , Fungos , Bactérias , Hidrólise , Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
20.
Molecules ; 29(6)2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542855

RESUMO

Benzimidazole fungicides are a class of highly effective, low-toxicity, systemic broad-spectrum fungicides developed in the 1960s and 1970s, based on the fungicidal activity of the benzimidazole ring structure. They exhibit biological activities including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. Due to their particularly outstanding antibacterial properties, they are widely used in agriculture to prevent and control various plant diseases caused by fungi. The main products of benzimidazole fungicides include benomyl, carbendazim, thiabendazole, albendazole, thiophanate, thiophanate-methyl, fuberidazole, methyl (1-{[(5-cyanopentyl)amino]carbonyl}-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl) carbamate, and carbendazim salicylate. This article mainly reviews the physicochemical properties, toxicological properties, disease control efficacy, and pesticide residue and detection technologies of the aforementioned nine benzimidazole fungicides and their main metabolite (2-aminobenzimidazole). On this basis, a brief outlook on the future research directions of benzimidazole fungicides is presented.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/metabolismo , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Tiofanato , Antibacterianos
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