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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 76-88, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182181

RESUMO

Mepanipyrim, an anilinopyrimidine fungicide, has been extensively used to prevent fungal diseases in fruit culture. Currently, research on mepanipyrim-induced toxicity in organisms is still very scarce, especially visual developmental toxicity. Here, zebrafish larvae were employed to investigate mepanipyrim-induced visual developmental toxicity. Intense light and monochromatic light stimuli-evoked escape experiments were used to investigate vision-guided behaviors. Meanwhile, transcriptomic sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR assays were applied to assess the potential mechanisms of mepanipyrim-induced visual developmental toxicity and vision-guided behavioral alteration. Our results showed that mepanipyrim exposure could induce retinal impairment and vision-guided behavioral alteration in larval zebrafish. In addition, the grk1b gene of the phototransduction signaling pathway was found to be a potential aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated gene. Mepanipyrim-induced visual developmental toxicity was potentially related to the AhR signaling pathway. Furthermore, mepanipyrim-induced behavioral alteration was guided by the visual function, and the effects of mepanipyrim on long and middle wavelength light-sensitive opsins may be the main cause of vision-guided behavioral alteration. Our results provide insights into understanding the relationship between visual development and vision-guided behaviors induced by mepanipyrim exposure.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Larva , Opsinas/metabolismo , Opsinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 403: 134324, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174342

RESUMO

The individual effects of iprovalicarb, mepanipyrim, and tetraconazole on the volatile composition and aromatic profile of Monastrell-based wines were evaluated. To date, no studies about the effect of these fungicides on Monastrell-based wines are available, and the effect on other grape varieties is also unknown. Fungicides were added separately in the cellar to the grape must at two concentration levels (4 and 10 mg/kg for iprovalicarb and mepanipyrim and 1 and 2.5 mg/kg for tetraconazole). The aromatic composition of the final wines was analysed by gas chromatography using flame ionisation and ion trap mass selective detectors. In the presence of fungicides, the most significant variations were observed for isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate (increasing between 20 and 43% compared with the control wine) and ethyl caprate and caprylate (increasing between 12 and 68%). Consequently, treated wines showed a higher global odourant intensity, with increased fresh fruit notes.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Vitis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Vitis/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 403: 134273, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174345

RESUMO

Herein, an ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction (UA-DSPME) approach has been described for trace level analysis of triazole fungicides in real samples. For this purpose, a new nanosorbent was prepared through modification of carboxymethylcellulose biopolymer with zinc-based metal-organic framework and graphene oxide, and fully characterized. Then, the effect of extraction parameters on extraction efficiency was optimized for the microextraction process. Finally, desorbed triazole fungicides with ethanol were determined using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector. This technique provided good linearity (R2 > 0.99), low detection limits (0.3-1.5 ng mL-1), high preconcentration factors (419-426), good relative recoveries (91.6-102 %), and high repeatability (RSD < 4.1 %) at optimized conditions (amount of sorbent: 15 mg; pH of solution: 7.0; and extraction time; 4 min). Ultimately, this approach was applied to determine triazole fungicides in different water and food samples.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Nanocompostos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Verduras/química , Triazóis/análise , Frutas/química , Água/análise , Celulose/análise , Ultrassom , Nanocompostos/análise , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida , Limite de Detecção
4.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136932, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283436

RESUMO

The engineering of a novel biocomposite based on Cerastoderma edule shells doped with copper and alginate (Ce-Cu@Alg) forming hydrogel beads was used for batch and dynamic adsorption thiabendazole (TBZ) pesticide from water. The prepared biosorbent was analyzed by various characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric and differential analysis (TGA-DTA). The results of the TBZ batch biosorption by Ce-Cu@Alg composite showed that the Langmuir model was the most adequate to describe the adsorption process, with a maximum adsorption capacity value of 21.98 mg/g. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics were adjusted by the pseudo-second-order model. The optimal conditions determined by the RSM approach coupled with the CCD design were 100 ppm of initial TBZ concentration, a Ce-Cu@Alg beads dose of 6 g/L and a contact time of 180 min for maximum removal of 83.42%. On the other hand, the TBZ sorption on a fixed bed of Ce-Cu@Alg beads was effective at high column height, low effluent flow and low solution concentration. The Thomas model was best fitted to the kinetic data. This study shows the possibility of using this new hybrid biocomposite in the industrial sector to treat large effluent volumes.


Assuntos
Cardiidae , Fungicidas Industriais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Alginatos/química , Cobre/química , Hidrogéis/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Adsorção , Água/química , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159425, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244480

RESUMO

Difenoconazole is widely used to protect crops, fruits, and vegetables. However, this fungicide can enter aquatic environments and cause harmful effects to non-target organisms and induce little-known biological disorders. Thus, aiming to expand our knowledge about the ecotoxicity of difenoconazole on freshwater ichthyofauna, we aimed to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) of difenoconazole and evaluate its possible impacts from different toxicity biomarkers, using freshwater fish Labeo rohita as a model system. Using the probit analysis method, the 96 h LC50 value of difenoconazole in the fish was calculated as 4.5 mg L-1. Posteriorly, fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (0.45 mg L-1 1/10th and 0.9 mg L-1 1/5th LC50 value) for 21 days. A significant reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity was noted in the gill, liver, and kidneys of fish compared to the control groups. The level of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) activity was higher in all vital tissues of difenoconazole-treated fish. Histological alterations in the gill include epithelial lifting, lamellar fusion, hypertrophy, and epithelial necrosis. At the same time, the liver showed pyknotic nucleus, vacuolation, cellular edema and tubular necrosis, shrinkage of glomeruli, vacuolation, and pyknotic nuclei in the kidney. DNA damage was increased significantly with tail formation based on the concentration and time-dependent manner. Therefore, our study confirms that the exposure of L. rohita to difenoconazole induces negative biological consequences and sheds light on the danger of this fungicide for freshwater fish species. We believe that studies like ours can support actions and strategies for the remediation/mitigation of aquatic pollution by difenoconazole and for the conservation of freshwater ichthyofauna.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Fungicidas Industriais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/genética , Água Doce , Antioxidantes , Necrose
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283647

RESUMO

Among pesticides, fungicides are the most extensively used ones in agriculture and their effects on fish health and indirectly human health are needed to evaluate. Folpet has been used for over 50 years as a fungicide across the world. The mechanism of action of folpet on non-target aquatic organisms is so poorly understood and there is no available information about potential acute toxicity of folpet and its mechanism of action in non-target aquatic organisms. With this motivation, two successive experiments were set up: first, 96 h-LC50 value of folpet for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was determined; and second, effects of different sublethal concentrations (0, 0.025, 0.50, 0.1 and 0.15 mg/L) of folpet on hematological serum biochemical blood parameters, DNA damages, expression levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and cortisol receptor (HSP70) genes were evaluated in this study. It was calculated that 0.199 mg/L of folpet was the 96 h-LC50 value. After the folpet exposure for 14 days, significant decreases in red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum total protein, and GST gene expression levels were observed while serum glucose, liver enzymes activities, and expression levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, HSP70 genes increased. Also, folpet induced a significant genotoxic effect on the blood cells regarding to DNA damages. Consequently, the results have shown the toxic effects of folpet even at the lowest concentration on common carp.


Assuntos
Carpas , Fungicidas Industriais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Carpas/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 400-410, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mango anthracnose is among the most severe diseases impacting mango yields and quality. While this disease can be effectively controlled through chemical means, it is vital that appropriate field efficacy and fate determination studies be conducted when applying pesticides to crops in order to appropriately gauge the ecological and health risks associated with the use of these agents. RESULTS: GAP field trials were conducted to explore the efficacy, dissipation, and terminal residues associated with the application of mefentrifluconazole and pyraclostrobin to mango crops in six locations throughout China. These analyses revealed that three applications of mefentrifluconazole [160 mg active ingredient (a.i.) kg-1 ] in combination with pyraclostrobin mixture achieved satisfactory disease control efficacy. To simultaneously detect mefentrifluconazole and pyraclostrobin residues on mangoes, a 'quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe' (QuEChERS) high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)-based approach was established. The initial mefentrifluconazole and pyraclostrobin concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 0.34 mg kg-1 , and these two compounds exhibited respective half-lives of 5.6 to 10.8 days and 5.5 to 9.0 days. At 21 days following foliage application, the terminal mefentrifluconazole and pyraclostrobin residue concentrations were 0.02-0.04 and 0.01-0.04 mg kg-1 , with these concentrations being below the maximum residue limit (MRL) established for pyraclostrobin. Both short-term [acute reference dose percent (ARfD%) 0.78-2.36% and 2.0-6.08%] and chronic [acceptable daily intake percent (ADI%) 0.08-0.47% and 0.09-0.55%] dietary intake risk assessments for mefentrifluconazole and pyraclostrobin indicated that these terminal residue concentrations are acceptable for the general population. CONCLUSION: Mefentrifluconazole and pyraclostrobin in mango was rapidly degraded following first-order kinetics models. The dietary risk of mefentrifluconazole and pyraclostrobin through mango was negligible to consumers. The application of a 400 g L-1 mefentrifluconazole-pyraclostrobin suspension concentrate mixture represents a highly efficacious fungicidal approach to controlling mango anthracnose that exhibits significant potential for development as it is easily degraded and associated with low residual concentrations after application. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Mangifera , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Humanos , Mangifera/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/química , China , Medição de Risco
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121895, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228505

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates based on metal/semiconductors have attracted much attention due to their excellent photocatalytic activity and SERS performance. However, they generally exhibit low light utilization and photocatalytic efficiencies. Herein, molybdenum disulfide coated titanium dioxide modified with gold nanoparticles (MoS2@TiO2@Au) as a heterojunction-based recyclable SERS platform was fabricated for the efficient determination of fungicides. Results showed that the MoS2@TiO2@Au platform could rapidly degrade 90.7% crystal violet in 120 min under solar light irradiation and enable reproducible and sensitive SERS analysis of three fungicides (methylene blue, malachite green, and crystal violet) and in-situ monitor of the photodegradation process. The platform could also be reused five times due to the unique integrated merits of the MoS2@TiO2@Au heterojunction. Meanwhile, experiments in determining methylene blue in prawn protein solution achieved a limit of detection of 1.509 µg/L. Therefore, it is hoped that this work could expand detection applications of photocatalytic materials.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ouro/química , Fotólise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Molibdênio/química , Azul de Metileno/química , Violeta Genciana/análise
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121897, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148732

RESUMO

In recent years, it is urgent to develop bi-functional materials for highly sensitive SERS detection and photocatalytic degradation of contaminants in water of fish pond. Herein, using 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole as the ligand, the tree-trunk like zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) is induced and in-situ grown on the surface of aluminum/flower carbon nitride (Al/f-C3N4). Then, AgNPs are tightly anchored in ZIF-8 of Al/f-C3N4/ZIF-8 by strong Ag-N and Ag-S bonds, and a portable architecture of Al/f-C3N4/ZIF-8/Ag is successfully prepared. Results indicate that the Al/f-C3N4/ZIF-8/Ag architecture exhibits excellent SERS activity and the detection limit can as low as 2.15 × 10-11 mol⋅L-1 for crystal violet (CV, a typical fungicide). Also, the Al/f-C3N4/ZIF-8/Ag substrate presents good photocatalytic activity for CV molecule, and the degradation efficiency reaches 98.58% after illumination for 90 min. This is mainly due to the good adsorption capacity of ZIF-8 which can enrich more CV molecules and pull them to "hot spots" generated by Ag in Al/f-C3N4/ZIF-8/Ag, and thus SERS response are enhanced significantly. Besides, the strong synergistic effect of f-C3N4, ZIF-8 and AgNPs is also important which facilitates the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. Thus, the designed portable and bi-functional substrate could be used as a potential material for the detection and removal of CV in practical application.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Zeolitas , Animais , Prata/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Zeolitas/química
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 317-327, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to develop a new formulation based on active substances of natural origin to protect plant seedlings against fungal pathogens, and to evaluate the effect of this formulation on fungal communities in arable soil. RESULTS: Coating seeds of common crop plants with a p-coumaric acid (p-CA)-based preparation resulted in a significant reduction in the growth of most of the tested pathogens. When applied to soil, both the p-CA-based formulation and Porter 250 EC had a similar overall effect on soil fungal communities and significantly altered the structure of fungal communities at all of the times examined. Shifts in the fungal community composition concerned less than 2% of the total number of amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). The strongest impact of the formulations on soil microbiota was recorded at the fourth week of treatment. Two ASVs assigned to Botrytis and Chromelosporium, known as plant pathogens, and an unidentified ASV from Diversisporales encompassing the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), were significantly depleted in soil samples treated with p-CA in comparison with Porter 250 EC. CONCLUSION: The p-CA-based preparation has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. It shows a similar effect to Porter 250 EC on the organization of soil communities, determining changes in the character of the communities of fungi in general, at any given time. Moreover, p-CA caused a reduction in ASVs belonging to Botrytis and Chromelosporium (plant pathogens) and ASVs of Diversisporales (containing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) in comparison with the commercial compound that was analyzed. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Fungicidas Industriais , Glomeromycota , Micorrizas , Solo/química , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodiversidade , Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Fungos/genética
11.
Talanta ; 252: 123873, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041313

RESUMO

Nowadays, the use of pesticides in world agriculture is fundamental. However, it leads to an increase in the illegal sale and smuggling of these products in various parts of the world, mainly in Brazil. Therefore, the development of new analytical methods for screening and analysis of these kind of substances is a relevant issue. We present in this work, for the first time, an electrochemical study and a novel electroanalytical method for determination of fungicide benzovindiflupyr (BENZO). According to our knowledge, the electrochemical behavior of BENZO, as well as its voltammetric determination, have never been reported before. The sensors used here consisted of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs). On this electrode surface and at optimal pH, BENZO behaved according to a quasi-reversible system and showed two voltammetric peaks, one anodic at Ep = +0.59 V and another cathodic at Ep = +0.43 V. The analytical studies utilized BENZO anodic sweep and square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV). All experimental and instrumental parameters were fully investigated and optimized. Under the best conditions, a calibration plot was obtained in the concentration range from 0.10 to 12.5 µmol L-1. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) achieved were 0.023 and 0.076 µmol L-1, respectively. An electrochemical mechanism for BENZO oxidation was also proposed. The method developed here was successfully employed for the qualitative and quantitative forensic analysis of BENZO in smuggled products, showing good accuracy (recoveries ca. 104%) and precision (relative standard deviation < 5%). These data attest the potential for use of this method in forensic area.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Grafite , Grafite/química , Eletrodos , Norbornanos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas
12.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134664, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327508

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetable postharvest diseases wreak havoc on food supply and the market economy. Meanwhile, the frequent use of synthetic fungicides poses a threat to the environment and public health. Marine oligosaccharides can act as an elicitor of postharvest disease resistance in fruits and also show broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this review focuses on the mechanism and technology of marine oligosaccharides for postharvest disease control and compares them to horticulture studies to highlight the limitations of existing research and the prospects for future study. It is critical to developing marine oligosaccharides-based products for postharvest disease control.


Assuntos
Frutas , Fungicidas Industriais , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Verduras , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Tecnologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159518, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270350

RESUMO

Understanding the frequency of non-additive effects of pesticides (synergism and antagonism) is important in the context of risk assessment. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of non-additive effects of pesticides to honey bees (Apis mellifera). We investigated a large set of mixtures including insecticides and fungicides of different chemical modes of action and classes. The mixtures included represent a relevant sample of pesticides that are currently used globally. We investigated whether the experimental toxicity of the mixtures could be predicted based on the Concentration Addition (CA) model for acute contact and oral adult bee toxicity tests. We measured the degree of deviation from the additivity predictions of the experimental toxicity based on the well-known Mixture Deviation Ratio (MDR). Further, we investigated the appropriate MDR thresholds that should be used for the identification of non-additive effects based on acceptable rates for false positive (alpha) and true positive (beta) findings. We found that a deviation factor of MDR = 5 is a sound reference for labeling potential non-additive effects in acute adult bee experimental designs when assuming a typical Coefficient of Variation (CV%) = 100 in the determination of the LD50 of a pesticide (a factor of 2× deviation in the LD 50 resulting from inter-experimental variability). We found that only 2.4 % and 9 % of the mixtures evaluated had an MDR > 5 and MDR < 0.2, respectively. The frequency and magnitude of deviation from additivity found for bees in this study are consistent with those of other terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Our findings suggest that additivity is a good baseline for predicting the toxicity of pesticide mixtures to bees, and that the rare cases of synergy of pesticide mixtures to bees are not random but have a mechanistic basis.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Dose Letal Mediana
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159656, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280076

RESUMO

As a special category of pesticides, chiral pesticides have increased the difficulty in investigating pesticide toxicity. Based on their usage, chiral pesticides can be divided into insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Over the past decades, great efforts have been made on elucidating their toxicological effects. However, no literature has reviewed the enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticides since 2014. In recent years, more chiral pesticides have been registered for application. As such, huge research progresses have been achieved in enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticides. Generally, more researches have remedied the knowledge gap in toxicological effects of old and new chiral pesticides. And the toxicological endpoints being evaluated have become more specific rather than centering on basic toxicity and target organisms. Besides, the underlying mechanisms accounting for the enantioselectivity in toxicological effects of chiral pesticides have been discussed as well. All in all, this review provides the critical knowledge for risk assessments, and help to drive the green-technology of single- or enriched-enantiomer pesticides and formulation of relevant laws and regulations.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Herbicidas , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20092, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418392

RESUMO

Current study signifies the use of nanoparticles as alternative in plant disease management to avoid harmful effect of pesticide and fungicide residue. Synthesis of nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) by hydrothermal method and studied their X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectra, and UV spectra and further successfully evaluated for antifungal activity against a soil and seed borne pathogenic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum).Among various pests, fungal pathogens are the main cause of crop destruction and we developed nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) which is successfully evaluated for antimycotic activity against dry rot (F. oxysporum) of ginger which causes 50-70% losses in the ginger plant. In vitro and in vivo analysis designated that the nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) has shown an excellent antifungal activity against F. oxysporum at 0.5 mg/ml concentration. Similarly, no disease incidence was recorded when Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles used at 0.5 mg/ml concentration under in vivo conditions. In plants various environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic) leads to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately leads to cell death. The role of ROS in nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) represents by reduction in the growth inhibition of F. oxysporum. We speculated in light of these results that the cytotoxic effect of Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles on F. oxysporum may be mediated through ROS. We can suggest the role of nanoparticles (Ni0.5Al0.5Fe2O4) gives a promising result as a fungicidal activity and could be a novel family of future new generation fungicide.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Gengibre , Nanopartículas , Gengibre/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20232, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418863

RESUMO

Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most notorious fungal pathogens that causes blast disease in cereals, and results in enormous loss of grain production. Many chemical fungicides are being used to control the pathogen but none of them are fully effective in controlling blast disease. Therefore, there is a demand for the discovery of a new natural biofungicide to manage the blast disease efficiently. A large number of new natural products showed inhibitory activities against M. oryzae in vitro. To find out effective biofungicides, we performed in silico molecular docking analysis of some of the potent natural compounds targeting four enzymes namely, scytalone dehydratase, SDH1 (PDB ID:1STD), trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, 3HNR (PDB ID:1YBV), trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, Tps1 (PDB ID:6JBI) and isocitrate lyase, ICL1 (PDB ID:5E9G) of M. oryzae fungus that regulate melanin biosynthesis and/or appresorium formation. Thirty-nine natural compounds that were previously reported to inhibit the growth of M. oryzae were subjected to rigid and flexible molecular docking against aforementioned enzymes followed by molecular dynamic simulation. The results of virtual screening showed that out of 39, eight compounds showed good binding energy with any one of the target enzymes as compared to reference commercial fungicides, azoxystrobin and strobilurin. Among the compounds, camptothecin, GKK1032A2 and chaetoviridin-A bind with more than one target enzymes of M. oryzae. All of the compounds except tricyclazole showed good bioactivity score. Taken together, our results suggest that all of the eight compounds have the potential to develop new fungicides, and remarkably, camptothecin, GKK1032A2 and chaetoviridin-A could act as multi-site mode of action fungicides against the blast fungus M. oryzae.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Magnaporthe , Oryza , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Grão Comestível , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oryza/microbiologia , Camptotecina/farmacologia
18.
Se Pu ; 40(11): 988-997, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351807

RESUMO

Fungicides can lead to soil and plant diseases after long-term enrichment in the environment; they can also penetrate deeper into the soil and groundwater by rainwater or irrigation, threatening the water environment and human health. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a simple, rapid, efficient, and sensitive analytical method for the detection of fungicides in the water environment. Sample pretreatment is important for the extraction and enrichment of pollutants from environmental water. Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is a new sample pretreatment method, which uses magnetic materials as adsorbents dispersed in solution, and rapid separation can be achieved by the aid of external magnets. Because of its advantages of short analytical time, less organic solvent consumption, and easy separation of adsorbents, MSPE has attracted much attention. The key to MSPE is the preparation of highly selective magnetic adsorbents. Covalent organic frameworks have the advantages of large surface area, good chemical and thermal stability, tunable porous structure, low density, and easy functionalization, all of which are ideal for adsorbing fungicides. The concentration of fungicides in environmental water is low. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has high sensitivity and high selectivity, which is suitable for the analysis of fungicides. In this work, a magnetic covalent organic framework Fe3O4@TpBD was prepared by an in situ method, as the MSPE sorbent material to enrich of benzimidazole fungicides (thiabendazole, carbendazim, fuberidazole) and organic sulfur fungicide (isoprothiolane) in environmental water. An extraction method based on π-π conjugation, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction between Fe3O4@TpBD and the fungicides, in combination with UHPLC-MS/MS, was developed for the determination of four trace fungicides in water. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were performed to confirm the successful synthesis of Fe3O4@TpBD and to characterize this material. A series of experiments were carried out to decide the optimal extraction conditions, i. e., the magnetic ratio and dosage of Fe3O4@TpBD, pH of the water sample, adsorption time, type and volume of the eluent, elution time, and salinity. Gradient elution was carried out with methanol-water as the mobile phase. The target analytes were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm), and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was conducted in the positive electrospray ionization mode. The ion source temperature and ion source voltage were set to 500 ℃ and 5 kV, respectively. The analytical method was established under the optimized extraction conditions. The four fungicides showed good linearity in the range of 3-1200 ng/L, with linear correlation coefficients greater than 0.998. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of this developed method were 0.06-0.28 ng/L and 0.20-0.92 ng/L, respectively. Recovery tests were performed at three spiked levels of 15, 150, and 600 ng/L, with relative standard deviations of 2.8% to 10.0% (intra-day) and 4.4% to 15.7% (inter-day). The accuracy of the established analytical method was investigated by using it to test real water samples, and satisfactory recoveries for the four analytes were achieved within 77.1% to 119.1%. Trace amounts of carbendazim were detected in the reservoir water at 27.5 ng/L. The method has good sensitivity, accuracy, and precision, and the operation process is convenient.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Humanos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Água , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Solo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 247: 114240, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323153

RESUMO

The paper discusses the types of fibers contained in the museum textile artifacts and the types of pests and pesticides. Also, the main health problems associated with pesticide exposure are presented. Textile fibers represent an excellent source of food for microbes and insects. The key to the long-term preservation of textiles is by implementing an integrated management program for pest and environmental conditions control. The main types of pesticides are insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, acaricides, and fumigants and a way for classification can be made according to the LD50 (lethal dose) value which evaluates the toxicity of a pesticide. Depending on the LD50 values, pesticides can be very toxic, moderately toxic, slightly toxic, and relatively non-toxic. Exposure to pesticides can occur through 4 four routes: oral, dermal, respiratory, and eye exposure. The main diseases that can be associated with exposure to pesticides are discussed in the paper. In the end, a basic set of precautionary recommendations when handling museum objects that may contain hazardous materials was presented.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Museus , Artefatos , Têxteis
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361318

RESUMO

In this work, we have assessed the exposure of soil bacteria from potato monoculture to three types of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as well as silver ions (Ag+ ions) delivered in the form of silver nitrate and a commercially available fungicide. The diversity of the soil microbial community, enzymatic activity, and carbon source utilization were evaluated. It was found that only the fungicide significantly limited the abundance and activity of soil bacteria. Silver ions significantly reduced bacterial metabolic activity. In turn, one type of AgNPs prepared with the use of tannic acid (TA) increased bacterial load and activity. There was found in all AgNPs treated soils (1) a greater proportion of all types of persistent bacteria, i.e., Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Clostridium; (2) a visible decrease in the proportion of Nocardioides, Arthrobacter, and Candidatus Solibacter; (3) almost complete depletion of Pseudomonas; (4) increase in the number of low-frequency taxa and decrease in dominant taxa compared to the control soil. Despite the general trend of qualitative changes in the bacterial community, it was found that the differences in the chemical structure of the AgNP stabilizing layers had a significant impact on the specific metabolic activity resulting from qualitative changes in the microbiome.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Microbiota , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata , Bactérias , Íons
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