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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0238901, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338037

RESUMO

Despite the recent increase in interest in indoor air quality regarding mould, there is no universally accepted standard media for the detection of airborne fungi, nor verification of many commonly used techniques. Commonly used media including malt-extract agar (MEA), Sabouraud dextrose agar (Sab), potato dextrose agar (PDA) with and without antibiotics chloramphenicol & gentamycin (CG) were compared for their suitability in detecting a range of airborne fungi by collecting 150 L outdoor air on a number of different days and seasons via an Anderson 400-hole sampler in suburban Melbourne, Australia. There was relatively little variation in mean numbers of colony forming units (CFU) and types of fungi recovered between MEA, PDA, Sab media groups relative to variation within each group. There was a significant difference between Sab, Dichloran-18% glycerol (DG18) and V8® Original juice agar media, however. Antibiotics reliably prevented the growth of bacteria that typically interfered with the growth and appearance of fungal colonies. There was no significant evidence for a growth enhancing factor from potato, mineral supplements or various vegetable juices. Differing glucose concentrations had modest effects, showing a vague ideal at 2%-4% with peptone. Sanitisation of the aluminium Andersen 400-hole sampler top-plate by flame is possible, but not strictly required nor advisable. The use of SabCG as a standard medium was generally supported.


Assuntos
Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ágar/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Austrália , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estações do Ano
2.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 105(4): e21747, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029869

RESUMO

All living things on Earth experience various diseases such as those caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Insects are no exception to this rule, and fungi that cause disease in insects are called entomopathogenic fungi. These fungi have been developed as microbial insecticides and are used to control various pests. Generally, the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi is divided into the attachment of conidia, germination, penetration, growth, and generation of secondary infectious conidia. In each of these steps, that entomopathogenic fungi use genes in a complex manner (specific or diverse) has been shown by gene knock-out and RNA-sequencing analysis. In this review, the information mechanism of entomopathogenic fungi was divided into six steps: (1) attachment of conidia to host, (2) germination and appressorium, (3) penetration, (4) fungal growth in hemolymph, (5) conidia production on host, and (6) transmission and dispersal. The strategy used by the fungi in each step was described at the genetic level. In addition, an approach for studying the mode of action of the fungi is presented.


Assuntos
Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Insetos/microbiologia , Animais , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hemolinfa/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237561, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877468

RESUMO

In increasingly urban landscapes, the loss of native pollen and nectar floral resources is impacting ecologically important pollinators. Increased urbanization has also brought about the rise of urban gardens which introduce new floral resources that may help replace those the pollinators have lost. Recently, studies have shown that the microbial communities of nectar may play an important role in plant-pollinator interactions, but these microbial communities and the floral visitors in urban environments are poorly studied. In this study we characterized the floral visitors and nectar microbial communities of Ascelpias curassavica, a non-native tropical milkweed commonly, in an urban environment. We found that the majority of the floral visitors to A. curassavica were honey bees followed closely by monarch butterflies. We also found that there were several unique visitors to each site, such as ants, wasps, solitary bees, several species of butterflies and moths, Anna's hummingbird, and the tarantula hawk wasp. Significant differences in the nectar bacterial alpha and beta diversity were found across the urban sites, although we found no significant differences among the fungal communities. We found that the differences in the bacterial communities were more likely due to the environment and floral visitors rather than physiological differences in the plants growing at the gardens. Greater understanding of the impact of urbanization on the nectar microbiome of urban floral resources and consequently their effect on plant-pollinator relationships will help to predict how these relationships will change with urbanization, and how negative impacts can be mitigated through better management of the floral composition in urban gardens.


Assuntos
Asclepias/microbiologia , Microbiota , Néctar de Plantas , Clima Tropical , Urbanização , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Flores/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 9946-9957, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896415

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of 3 commercial protective cultures designated PC1 (Lactobacillus spp.), PC2 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus), and PC3 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) as biopreservatives in queso fresco (QF) against 9 yeast strains (Candida zeylanoides, Clavispora lusitaniae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces prosopidis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Pichia fermentans, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Torulaspora delbrueckii) and 11 mold strains (Aspergillus cibarius, Aureobasidium pullulans, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium decumbens, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor genevensis, Mucor racemosus, Phoma dimorpha, and Trichoderma amazonicum). All fungal spoilage strains were previously isolated from dairy processing environments. A positive control (C) with no protective culture was included. Fungal spoilage organisms were inoculated on cheese surfaces at an inoculum level of 20 cfu/g, and cheeses were stored at 6 ± 2°C throughout the study. For yeast enumeration, cheeses were sampled on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 postinoculation. Significant inhibition was detected for each yeast strain by comparing yeast counts for each cheese treated with protective culture against the control cheese using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction performed individually at d 7, 14, and 21 postinoculation. Mold growth was visually observed and imaged weekly through 70 d postinoculation. Whereas PC3 inhibited Cl. lusitaniae, Mey. guilliermondii, and Ph. dimorpha, PC2 inhibited the outgrowth of Cl. lusitaniae, D. hansenii, and Ph. dimorpha. Protective culture 1 had the broadest spectrum of efficacy across yeast and molds, delaying spoilage caused by 4 distinct yeast strains (Cl. lusitaniae, D. hansenii, D. prosopidis, and Mey. guilliermondii), and inhibiting visible growth of 2 mold strains (P. chrysogenum and Ph. dimorpha). Results demonstrated that commercial protective cultures vary in performance, as indicated by the breadth of mold and yeast inhibition at both the genus and species level. This study suggests that manufacturers looking into using protective cultures should investigate their efficacy against specific fungal strains of concern.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais
5.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 694: 108603, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986977

RESUMO

The alternative oxidase (AOX) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to oxygen without the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This enzyme has been proposed to participate in the regulation of cell growth, sporulation, yeast-mycelium transition, resistance to reactive oxygen species, infection, and production of secondary metabolites. Two approaches have been used to evaluate AOX function: incubation of cells for long periods of time with AOX inhibitors or deletion of AOX gene. However, AOX inhibitors might have different targets. To test non-specific effects of n-octyl gallate (nOg) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) on fungal physiology we measured the growth and respiratory capacity of two fungal strains lacking (Ustilago maydis-Δaox and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and three species containing the AOX gene (U. maydis WT, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Aspergillus nidulans). For U. maydis, a strong inhibition of growth and respiratory capacity by SHAM was observed, regardless of the presence of AOX. Similarly, A. nidulans mycelial growth was inhibited by low concentrations of nOg independently of AOX expression. In contrast, these inhibitors had no effect or had a minor effect on S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii growth. These results show that nOg and SHAM have AOX independent effects which vary in different microorganisms, indicating that studies based on long-term incubation of cells with these inhibitors should be considered as inconclusive.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Salicilamidas/farmacologia , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108892, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979616

RESUMO

Cold plasma is a novel technology for surface decontamination. Almond slices can be contaminated with different microorganisms during their production. In the current research, the atmospheric argon plasma treatment (5, 10, 15, and 20 min) was used to decontamination of almond slices surface. Microbial load, Color, peroxide value, hardness, and sensory properties of slices was comprised with untreated samples (control). Descriptive sensory evaluation about color, flavor, crispiness, crunchiness, and hardness of almond slices were performed. According to the results of the microbial tests, Total count, molds and yeasts, and Staphylococcus aureus of almond surface decreased about 2.95 log cfu/g, 1.81 log cfu/g, and 2.72 log cfu/g after 20 min of plasma treatment, respectively, provided that microbial reduction increased more by increasing the treatment time. Coupled with the color evaluation, peroxide value and sensory attributes didn't change during plasma treatment. Having said that, the hardness of slices was changed by increasing treatment time. Furthermore, Principal Component Analysis and cluster analysis were performed for sensory evaluation. In light of the consumer's point of view, firstly 10 min and secondly 15 min plasma treatment can be more desirable.


Assuntos
Argônio/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Prunus dulcis/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 670-678, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734730

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections is challenging due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient specimens. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) needle rinse fluid has become an emerging diagnostic material. This study evaluated the role of routine fungal culture from EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid, in addition to histopathologic examination and fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue, in the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA, those with results for at least one of three tests (histopathologic examination, fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue or needle rinse fluid) were included. Patients with a positive test were divided into two groups (clinical fungal infection and suspected fungal contamination) according to their clinical assessment and therapeutic response to antifungal. RESULTS: Of 6072 patients, 41 (0.7%) had positive fungal tests and 9 (22%) were diagnosed as clinical fungal infection. Of the 5222 patients who were evaluated using a fungal culture from EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid, 35 (0.7%) had positive results. However, only 4 out of 35 (11.4%) were classified as clinical fungal infection. Positive results were determined in 4 of the 68 (5.9%) evaluated by a fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue, and all were diagnosed as clinical fungal infection. CONCLUSION: Routine fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid is not useful due to the low incidence of fungal infection and high rate of contamination. However, fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue and needle rinse fluid should be considered in patients with clinically suspected fungal infection.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agulhas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3897, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753587

RESUMO

Lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are signaling molecules produced by rhizobial bacteria that trigger the nodulation process in legumes, and by some fungi that also establish symbiotic relationships with plants, notably the arbuscular and ecto mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we show that many other fungi also produce LCOs. We tested 59 species representing most fungal phyla, and found that 53 species produce LCOs that can be detected by functional assays and/or by mass spectroscopy. LCO treatment affects spore germination, branching of hyphae, pseudohyphal growth, and transcription in non-symbiotic fungi from the Ascomycete and Basidiomycete phyla. Our findings suggest that LCO production is common among fungi, and LCOs may function as signals regulating fungal growth and development.


Assuntos
Quitina/análogos & derivados , Quitina/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose/fisiologia
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2857-2865, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812228

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to develop Manihot esculenta and Carrageenan bio-based composite active film functionalized with anise, caraway, and nutmeg essential oils (EOs) and to assess the shelf life of chicken nuggets wrapped with the developed film at refrigeration storage. Overall, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of the three EOs ranged from 0.4 to 0.8% v/v of which nutmeg EO was found most effective. Incorporation of EOs in the film resulted in significant (P ˂ 0.05) decrease in tensile strength and water activity while elongation at break was significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased. No significant (P ˃ 0.05) changes in thickness and Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) were observed. Based on physicomechanical and sensory evaluation, films incorporated with 0.5, 1, and 1% concentration of anise, nutmeg, and caraway EO were selected. Chicken nuggets overwrapped with aforementioned films were stored aerobically at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) to evaluate antimicrobial, antioxidant, and sensory characteristics. The result indicated that pH, peroxide, free fatty acid (FFA), and thiobarbituric acide (TBA) value of treatments were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lower than controls however significantly (P < 0.05) higher DPPH activity was observed in all treatments. The total plate count, psychrophilic count and, yeast and mold count were also significantly (P ˂ 0.01) lower in treatment groups and were within the permissible limits. The treated samples were well acceptable during whole storage period of 15 days. The application of composite, active edible bio-based film was found proficient in confining product quality attributes throughout storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The majority of films used for packaging of meat and meat products are derived from synthetic "plastic" materials. The demerits associated with plastics have eventually led to explore natural alternatives such as edible films. The composite-active bio-based films have a huge potential to be molded for specific film properties based on requirements of product-specific packaging conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Filmes Comestíveis , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Polímeros/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carragenina/química , Galinhas , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Manihot/química , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polímeros/síntese química , Refrigeração , Paladar
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13157, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753655

RESUMO

Mass-energy transfer across the boundaries of living systems is crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis; however, it is scarcely known how structural strength and integrity is maintained in extended phenotypes while also achieving optimum heat-mass exchange. Here we present data on strength, stability, porosity and permeability of termite mounds of a fungus-farming species, Odontotermes obesus. We demonstrate that the termite mound is a bi-layered structure with a dense, strong core and a porous shell that is constantly remodelled. Its safety factor is extraordinarily high and is orders of magnitude higher than those of human constructions. The porous peripheries are analogous to the mulch layer used in agriculture and help in moisture retention crucial for the survival of fungus gardens, while also allowing adequate wind-induced ventilation of the mounds. We suggest that the architectural solutions offered by these termites have wider implications for natural and industrial building technologies.


Assuntos
Isópteros/fisiologia , Animais , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ventilação
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 332: 108769, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622249

RESUMO

Controlling spoilage of the popular ethnic marinated beef "Shawarma" is crucial to achieve high quality, extend shelf-life, reduce food waste and meet the need of the globalized supply chain. Active essential oil (EO) components (thymol and carvacrol) were added at 0.4% and 0.8% (w/w) to preserve marinated beef, stored under aerobic or vacuum packaging. Microbiological and sensory (odor) parameters were assessed during 21 days at 4 °C. The treatments with higher EO concentration achieved higher antimicrobial activity than the lower ones and significantly reduced the mesophilic total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, yeasts and molds. The higher EO concentration extended the microbiological shelf-life by 6 days, as judged by TVC and compared to the controls (aerobic and vacuum packaging) but was unacceptable sensorially. The lower EO concentration increased the microbiological shelf-life by 3 days and the sensorial shelf-life by 9 and > 12 days, under aerobic and vacuum conditions, respectively.


Assuntos
Cimenos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Timol/farmacologia , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127417, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629332

RESUMO

The use of UHPH sterilization in the absence of SO2 has been used to eliminate wild microorganisms and inactivate oxidative enzymes. A white must of the Muscat of Alexandria grape variety was continuously processed by UHPH at 300 MPa (inlet temperature: 23-25 °C). The initial microbial load of the settled must was 4-log CFU/mL for both yeast and moulds, and slightly lower for bacteria. After UHPH processing, no microorganisms were detected in 1 mL. UHPH musts remain without fermentative activity for more than 60 days. Concentrations of the thermal markers indicated the absence of thermal damage in the UHPH-treated musts, since 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was not detected. In addition, the must treated by UHPH keeps terpene concentrations similar to those of the untreated controls. A strong inactivation of the oxidative enzymes was observed, with no browning at room temperature for more than 3 days. The antioxidant value of the UHPH-treated must was 156% higher than the control.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterilização/métodos , Vinho/análise , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Paladar , Temperatura , Vitis/química
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12384, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709946

RESUMO

Some lineages of ants, termites, and beetles independently evolved a symbiotic association with lignocellulolytic fungi cultivated for food, in a lifestyle known as fungiculture. Fungus-growing insects' symbiosis also hosts a bacterial community thought to integrate their physiology. Similarities in taxonomic composition support the microbiota of fungus-growing insects as convergent, despite differences in fungus-rearing by these insects. Here, by comparing fungus-growing insects to several hosts ranging diverse dietary patterns, we investigate whether the microbiota taxonomic and functional profiles are characteristic of the fungiculture environment. Compared to other hosts, the microbiota associated with fungus-growing insects presents a distinctive taxonomic profile, dominated by Gammaproteobacteria at class level and by Pseudomonas at genera level. Even with a functional profile presenting similarities with the gut microbiota of herbivorous and omnivorous hosts, some differentially abundant features codified by the microbiota of fungus-growing insects suggest these communities occupying microhabitats that are characteristic of fungiculture. These features include metabolic pathways involved in lignocellulose breakdown, detoxification of plant secondary metabolites, metabolism of simple sugars, fungal cell wall deconstruction, biofilm formation, antimicrobials biosynthesis, and metabolism of diverse nutrients. Our results suggest that the microbiota could be functionally adapted to the fungiculture environment, codifying metabolic pathways potentially relevant to the fungus-growing insects' ecosystems functioning.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Meio Ambiente , Fungos/fisiologia , Insetos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Simbiose
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11013, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620925

RESUMO

Saprobic soil fungi drive many important ecosystem processes, including decomposition, and many of their effects are related to growth rate and enzymatic ability. In mycology, there has long been the implicit assumption of a trade-off between growth and enzymatic investment, which we test here using a set of filamentous fungi from the same soil. For these fungi we measured growth rate (as colony radial extension) and enzymatic repertoire (activities of four enzymes: laccase, cellobiohydrolase, leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase), and explored the interaction between the traits based on phylogenetically corrected methods. Our results support the existence of a trade-off, however only for the enzymes presumably representing a larger metabolic cost (laccase and cellobiohydrolase). Our study offers new insights into potential functional complementarity within the soil fungal community in ecosystem processes, and experimentally supports an enzymatic investment/growth rate trade-off underpinning phenomena including substrate succession.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Celulose 1,4-beta-Celobiosidase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fungos/enzimologia , Lacase/metabolismo , Leucil Aminopeptidase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180885, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491134

RESUMO

To investigate the simultaneous influence of different non-nutritional factors in production and physical-chemical characteristics of chitosan obtained by Syncephalastrum racemosum we used individually agroindustrial wastes as the only nutritional sources for fungus growth. The growth conditions were evaluated according to Factorial Design, 24 with three central points in order to determine the mainly factors for maximum production of microbiological chitosan in submerged culture. Syncephalastrum racemosum grown in corn steep liquor and yield up to 7.8 g chitosan/kg of substrate in the best condition by factorial design. The microbiological chitosan obtained has deacetilation degree 88.14%, crystallinity rate of 55.96%, mass decomposition process at 304.43 ºC, and low molecular weight. To fast production we performed a kinetic study and confirmed that at 36 h the chitosan production is higher and the physical-chemical characteristics were maintained. This research describes, for the first time, the factorial study of chitosan production by Syncephalastrum racemosum in agroindustrial wastes and its economic potential for commercialization.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Quitosana/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resíduos Industriais/economia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110847, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554203

RESUMO

Bauxite residues (BR), commonly named red muds, are the saline-sodic waste produced during the extraction of alumina from bauxite. In this study, four kinds of BR were mixed at increasing concentrations with two soils in a mesososm experiment. Unamended BR from Provence (PRO) and Guinea (GUI) bauxite were selected, and Modified Bauxite Residues from PRO and GUI (MBR-PRO and MBR-GUI) were obtained by gypsum application and repeated leaching, in order to reduce their pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Several indicators of microbial community functions and structure (growth of culturable bacteria; enzymatic activities; C-sourced substrates degradation (Biolog®); bacteria and fungi PCR-RFLP fingerprints) were measured after 35 days of incubation. Results showed that PRO residue had stronger negative effects than GUI on all the tested indicators. Residues modified by gypsum addition (MBR-PRO, MBR-GUI) were equally or sometimes less harmful compared to unamended residues. Microbial activities (bacterial growth and enzyme activities) were more inhibited than the diversity of microbial functions (Biolog®), and the structure of bacterial and fungal communities was not affected by increasing concentrations of bauxite residues. EC and ESP were the main factors explaining the inhibition of microbial activities, although the origin of bauxite residue is of great importance too.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/toxicidade , Sulfato de Cálcio/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Óxido de Alumínio/análise , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sulfato de Cálcio/análise , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108713, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512363

RESUMO

Sodium metabisulfite (SMBS), potassium metabisulfite (PMBS), aluminum sulfate (AlS) and aluminum potassium sulfate (AlPS), common sulfur-containing salts used as food additives, were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the most economically important pathogens causing postharvest diseases of citrus fruits. In vitro radial mycelial growth was measured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) Petri dishes amended with five different concentrations of the salts (10, 20, 30, 50, 100 mM) after 7 d of incubation at 25 °C. SMBS and PMBS at all concentrations, and AIS and AIPS above 20 mM, completely inhibited the growth of these fungi. The curative antifungal activity of the four salts to control citrus green (GM) and blue (BM) molds and sour rot (SR) was evaluated on 'Valencia' oranges artificially inoculated in rind wounds with P. digitatum, P. italicum and G. citri-aurantii, respectively. In vivo primary screenings showed no significant antifungal activity of AlS and AlPS to control the three diseases at any dose tested, but SMBS and PMBS reduced the incidence and severity of GM, BM and SR at various concentrations. Effective salts and concentrations were selected for in vivo dip treatments in small-scale trials. Dips at room temperature (20 °C) in SMBS and PMBS at 20 and 50 mM for 60 or 120 s significantly reduced the incidence and severity of GM and BM, with PMBS at 50 mM for 120 s the most effective treatment. Conversely, dips in SMBS and PMBS at 50 mM for 60 or 120 s did not reduce SR incidence and severity. SMBS and PMBS treatments are potentially new tools to be included in reduced-risk non-polluting strategies to control Penicillium diseases, but not SR, on citrus fruits.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Enxofre/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(7): 944-948, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490795

RESUMO

Introduction. Polymicrobial infections including yeasts and bacteria are not rare and patients with polymicrobial bloodstream infection have higher early and overall case fatality rates. The diagnosis of invasive fungal and bacterial infections is mainly based on blood culture.Aim. The aim was to reveal the effect of concomitant bacteraemia on the detection of fungi from blood cultures in the presence of polymicrobial bloodstream infections involving Candida and non-Candida fungi and to show the superiority of blood culture bottles including selective fungal media in such situations.Methodology. Twenty-four polymicrobial bloodstream infection models - involving one fungus and one bacterium - were constituted by using clinical blood culture isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Fusarium solani and Trichosporon asahii). The Plus Aerobic/F (PAF) and Mycosis IC/F (MICF) culture bottles were used with the BACTEC 9240 device. After a bottle signalled positive, direct microscopic examination and subcultures on agar plates were performed.Results. All of fungi that were inoculated alone and in combination were detected by both direct microscopic examination and subcultures on agar plates from MICF bottles, whereas direct microscopic examination only revealed the bacterial agents from PAF bottles including combinations. Furthermore, fungal growth was hidden by bacterial growth on blood agar subcultures from PAF bottles including combinations of F. solani, C. glabrata or T. asahii with bacteria.Conclusion. Blood culture bottles including selective fungal media that can allow selective growth of fungi and earlier detection of some species should be preferred in addition to non-selective blood culture bottles, especially in specific patient populations. Further, the use of selective agar plates such as inhibitory mould agar may contribute to the solution of this problem in clinical laboratories.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Hemocultura/métodos , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/sangue , Candidemia/diagnóstico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Micoses/sangue , Micoses/diagnóstico
19.
Biochimie ; 175: 132-145, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534825

RESUMO

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes has stimulated research worldwide seeking new biologically active molecules. In this respect, synthetic antimicrobial peptides (SAMPs) have been suggested to overcome this problem. Although there are some online servers that provide putative SAMPs from protein sequences, the choice of the best peptide sequences for further analysis is still difficult. Therefore, the goal of this paper is not to launch a new tool but to provide a friendly workflow to characterize and predict potential SAMPs by employing existing tools. Using this proposed workflow, two peptides (PepGAT and PepKAA) were obtained and extensively characterized. These peptides damaged microbial membranes and cell walls, and induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both peptides were found to assume random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution, organic solvent, and upon binding to negatively charged lipid systems. Peptides were also able to degrade formed biofilms but not to prevent biofilm formation. PepGAT was not resistant to proteolysis, whereas PepKAA was resistant to pepsin but not to pancreatin. Furthermore, both presented no hemolytic activity against red blood cells, even at a 10-fold higher concentration than the antimicrobial concentration. The pipeline proposed here is an easy way to design new SAMPs for application as alternatives to develop new drugs against human pathogenic microorganisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/síntese química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Coelhos
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2379-2390, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588083

RESUMO

In the aquaculture industry, the selection and quality of feed are highly relevant because their integrity and management have an impact on the health and development of organisms. In general, feeds contamination depends on storage conditions and formulation. Furthermore, it has been recognized that filamentous fungi are among the most important contaminating agent in formulated feeds. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to identify saprophytic fungi capable of proliferating in commercial feeds, as well as determining their prevalence, extracellular enzymes profile, ability to assimilate carbon sources, and finally their ability to produce aflatoxins. In order to do that, twenty-two fungi were isolated from commercial fish feeds. After, the species Aspergillus chevalieri, A. cristatus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, A. flavus, A. creber, and Lichtheimia ramosa were identified. These fungi were able to produce extracellular enzymes, such as phosphatases, esterases, proteases, ß-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase. The isolated fungi showed no selective behavior in the assimilation of the different carbon sources, showing a strong metabolic diversity. Prevalence percentages above 85% were recorded. Among all fungi studied, A. flavus M3-C1 had the highest production of aflatoxins when this strain was inoculated directly in the feeds (295 ppb). The aflatoxin production by this strain under the experimental setting is above the permitted levels, and it has been established that high levels of aflatoxins in feeds can cause alterations in fish growth as well as the development of cancerous tumors in the liver, in addition to enhancing mortality.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Proliferação de Células , Peixes , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/patogenicidade
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