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1.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944501

RESUMO

The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been completely re-evaluated in the recent decades, and EVs are currently considered to be among the main players in intercellular communication. Beyond their functional aspects, there is strong interest in the development of faster and less expensive isolation protocols that are as reliable for post-isolation characterisations as already-established methods. Therefore, the identification of easy and accessible EV isolation techniques with a low price/performance ratio is of paramount importance. We isolated EVs from a wide spectrum of samples of biological and clinical interest by choosing two isolation techniques, based on their wide use and affordability: ultracentrifugation and salting-out. We collected EVs from human cancer and healthy cell culture media, yeast, bacteria and Drosophila culture media and human fluids (plasma, urine and saliva). The size distribution and concentration of EVs were measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis and dynamic light scattering, and protein depletion was measured by a colorimetric nanoplasmonic assay. Finally, the EVs were characterised by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the salting-out method had a good efficiency in EV separation and was more efficient in protein depletion than ultracentrifugation. Thus, salting-out may represent a good alternative to ultracentrifugation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/química , Células CACO-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Citometria de Fluxo , Fungos/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Ultracentrifugação
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944538

RESUMO

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a devastating complication, affecting around 15% of diabetic patients and representing a leading cause of non-traumatic amputations. Notably, the risk of mixed bacterial-fungal infection is elevated and highly associated with wound necrosis and poor clinical outcomes. However, it is often underestimated in the literature. Therefore, polymicrobial infection control must be considered for effective management of DFU. It is noteworthy that antimicrobial resistance is constantly rising overtime, therefore increasing the need for new alternatives to antibiotics and antifungals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are endogenous peptides that are naturally abundant in several organisms, such as bacteria, amphibians and mammals, particularly in the skin. These molecules have shown broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and some of them even have wound-healing activity, establishing themselves as ideal candidates for treating multi-kingdom infected wounds. Furthermore, the role of AMPs with antifungal activity in wound management is poorly described and deserves further investigation in association with antibacterial agents, such as antibiotics and AMPs with antibacterial activity, or alternatively the application of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that target both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as fungi. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which AMPs achieve their dual antimicrobial and wound-healing properties, and to discuss how these are currently being applied as promising therapies against polymicrobial-infected chronic wounds such as DFUs.


Assuntos
/uso terapêutico , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , /farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641623

RESUMO

Grape seed extract (GSE) is a natural source of polyphenolic compounds and secondary metabolites, which have been tested for their possible antimicrobial activities. In the current study, we tested the antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous GSE and the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles loaded with GSE (GSE-AgNPs) against different pathogens. The biosynthesized GSE-AgNPs were assessed by UV spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antimicrobial activities were assessed against different bacterial and fungal species. DLS analysis showed that GSE-AgNPs had a Z-Average of 91.89 nm while UV spectroscopy showed that GSE-AgNPs had the highest absorbance at a wavelength of ~415 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that both of GSE and GSE-AgNPs consisted of different functional groups, such as hydroxyl, alkenes, alkyne, and aromatic rings. Both FE-SEM and TEM showed that GSE-AgNPs had larger sizes and rough surfaces than GSE and AgNO3. The results showed significant antimicrobial activities of GSE-AgNPs against all tested species, unlike GSE, which had weaker and limited effects. More studies are needed to investigate the other antimicrobial activities of GSE.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5350, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504089

RESUMO

Relationships between biodiversity and multiple ecosystem functions (that is, ecosystem multifunctionality) are context-dependent. Both plant and soil microbial diversity have been reported to regulate ecosystem multifunctionality, but how their relative importance varies along environmental gradients remains poorly understood. Here, we relate plant and microbial diversity to soil multifunctionality across 130 dryland sites along a 4,000 km aridity gradient in northern China. Our results show a strong positive association between plant species richness and soil multifunctionality in less arid regions, whereas microbial diversity, in particular of fungi, is positively associated with multifunctionality in more arid regions. This shift in the relationships between plant or microbial diversity and soil multifunctionality occur at an aridity level of ∼0.8, the boundary between semiarid and arid climates, which is predicted to advance geographically ∼28% by the end of the current century. Our study highlights that biodiversity loss of plants and soil microorganisms may have especially strong consequences under low and high aridity conditions, respectively, which calls for climate-specific biodiversity conservation strategies to mitigate the effects of aridification.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima Desértico , Fungos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , China , Ecossistema , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Teóricos , Plantas/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Especificidade da Espécie , Água/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257823, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587206

RESUMO

Fungal hyphal growth and branching are essential traits that allow fungi to spread and proliferate in many environments. This sustained growth is essential for a myriad of applications in health, agriculture, and industry. However, comparisons between different fungi are difficult in the absence of standardized metrics. Here, we used a microfluidic device featuring four different maze patterns to compare the growth velocity and branching frequency of fourteen filamentous fungi. These measurements result from the collective work of several labs in the form of a competition named the "Fungus Olympics." The competing fungi included five ascomycete species (ten strains total), two basidiomycete species, and two zygomycete species. We found that growth velocity within a straight channel varied from 1 to 4 µm/min. We also found that the time to complete mazes when fungal hyphae branched or turned at various angles did not correlate with linear growth velocity. We discovered that fungi in our study used one of two distinct strategies to traverse mazes: high-frequency branching in which all possible paths were explored, and low-frequency branching in which only one or two paths were explored. While the high-frequency branching helped fungi escape mazes with sharp turns faster, the low-frequency turning had a significant advantage in mazes with shallower turns. Future work will more systematically examine these trends.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing/métodos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Biológicos , Fungos/classificação , Hifas/classificação , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103722, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391907

RESUMO

We assessed metal/metalloid pollutants (through multi-indices) in seawater, sediments, tissues and shells of gastropods using various indices such as contamination degree (modified/unmodified; Cd/mCd; 1875/187.5). From sediment indices; e.g. the potential ecological risk index/enrichment factor (Eri/EF; 3396.8/105.5) indicated the area to be highly contaminated with metal/metalloid pollutants. Indeed, bioaccumulation with these materials was gastropod size dependent. Antimicrobial and percentage activity indices (AMI/PAI) for; T. telescopium was (AMI/PAI; 1.59/159), N. albicilla (1.14/114) and L. coronata (0.95/95) against E. coli. Similarly T. telescopium (1.33/133), N. albicilla (1.19/119) and L. coronata (1.14/114) have AMI/PAI against A. terreus. The total activity index (TAI), for T. telescopium was the highest, while L. coronata has lowest for all pathogens. This study indicates, T. telescopium, N. albicilla and L. coronata, surviving under metal/metalloid stress exhibited altered natural defense to pathogens which was related to the degree of toxin bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Arsênio/metabolismo , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arsênio/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bioacumulação , Tamanho Corporal , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastrópodes/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Food Microbiol ; 100: 103850, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416954

RESUMO

This study aimed at assessing the impact of the physiological state of fungal spores on inactivation by sodium hypochlorite, 0.1% and 0.2% active chlorine, and 3% hydrogen peroxide. In this context, two physiological states were compared for 4 fungal species (5 strains). The first physiological state corresponded to fungal spores produced at 0.99 aw and harvested using an aqueous solution (laboratory conditions), while the second one corresponded to fungal spores produced under a moderate water stress (0.95 aw) and dry-harvested (mechanical harvesting without use of any water, mimicking food plant conditions). Aspergillus flavus "food plant" conidia were more resistant to all tested fungicide molecules than the "laboratory" ones. The same phenomenon was observed for Penicillium commune UBOCC-A-116003 conidia treated with hydrogen peroxide. However, this isolate did not exhibit any inactivation difference between "laboratory" and "food plant" conidia treated with sodium hypochlorite. Similarly, the physiological state of Cladosporium cladosporioides conidia did not impact the efficacy of the tested biocides. P. commune UBOCC-A-112059 "food plant" and "laboratory" conidia were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite, respectively. As for Mucor circinelloides, "laboratory" spores were more resistant to all disinfectant than the "food plant" ones. Noteworthy, regardless of the physiological state, all M. circinelloides and C. cladosporioides conidia were inactivated for 5 min treatment at 0.2% active chlorine and for 2.5 min treatment at 0.1% active chlorine, while the conidia of all the other species remained viable for these treatments. The obtained data indicate that the efficacy of disinfectant molecules depends not only on the encountered fungal species and its intraspecific diversity but also on the spore physiological state.


Assuntos
Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Food Microbiol ; 100: 103865, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416965

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) and benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC) on fungal growth and Ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Aspergillus ochraceus, A. carbonarius and A. niger. Here, we found that spore germination and fungal growth of the three fungi were significantly inhibited when the concentration of AITC and BITC was higher than 1.25 µg/mL. The inhibitory effect of AITC or BITC on A. carbonaceus and A. ochraceus was significantly stronger than that of A. niger. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the mycelia of all three fungi were changed by AITC and BITC. Compared with A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, the damage to A. niger was lower. For OTA production, AITC and BITC could significantly down-regulated the expression of all five OTA biosynthesis genes in A. niger and A. carbonarius. In A. ochraceus, although several OTA biosynthesis genes were up-regulated, the key PKS gene was down-regulated by AITC and BITC. Twenty-five µg/mL of AITC or BITC could reduce the infection of the three fungi on grapes with inhibition rates of 28%-36% during 14 days and prolong the shelf life of grapes. In maize, the OTA production of the three fungi was significantly reduced by 25 µg/mL of AITC and BITC with the inhibition rates 68.04%-93.49% and 65.87%-75.45%, respectively. These results suggest that AITC and BITC can be used as natural fungicides to prevent A. niger, A. carbonarius and A. ochraceus from infecting grapes and maize and control OTA contamination.


Assuntos
Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Ocratoxinas/biossíntese , Vitis/microbiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5577760, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423036

RESUMO

Aim: One of the main problems in dentistry is the injury caused by the long-term application of an ill-fitting denture. The existence of multiple microorganisms along with the susceptibility of the tissue conditioners to colonize them can lead to denture stomatitis. This study is aimed at developing a tissue conditioner incorporated with Carum copticum L. (C. copticum L.) for the effective treatment of these injuries. Materials and Methods: The Carum copticum L. essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass (GC-mass) spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against the standard strains of bacterial and fungal species was determined by broth microdilution methods as suggested by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The physical and chemical properties of the prepared tissue conditioner were investigated by viscoelasticity, FTIR assays, and the release study performed. Furthermore, the antibiofilm activity of the Carum copticum L. essential oil-loaded tissue conditioner was evaluated by using the XTT reduction assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: The main component of the essential oil is thymol, which possesses high antimicrobial activity. The broth microdilution assay showed that the essential oil has broad activity as the minimum inhibitory concentration was in the range of 32-128 µg mL-1. The viscoelasticity test showed that the essential oil significantly diminished the viscoelastic modulus on the first day. The FTIR test showed that Carum copticum L. essential oil was preserved as an independent component in the tissue conditioner. The release study showed that the essential oil was released in 3 days following a sustained release and with an ultimate cumulative release of 81%. Finally, the Carum copticum L. essential oil exhibited significant activity in the inhibition of microbial biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Indeed, the lowest and highest amounts of biofilm formation on the tissue conditioner disks are exhibited in the Streptococcus salivarius and Candida albicans by up to 22.4% and 71.4% at the 64 µg mL-1 concentration of C. copticum L. with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The obtained results showed that the Carum copticum L. essential oil-loaded tissue conditioner possessed suitable physical, biological, and release properties for use as a novel treatment for denture stomatitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carum/química , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química , Condicionamento de Tecido Mole Oral/instrumentação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Módulo de Elasticidade , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439820

RESUMO

Cold-loving microorganisms of all three domains of life have unique and special abilities that allow them to live in harsh environments. They have acquired structural and molecular mechanisms of adaptation to the cold that include the production of anti-freeze proteins, carbohydrate-based extracellular polymeric substances and lipids which serve as cryo- and osmoprotectants by maintaining the fluidity of their membranes. They also produce a wide diversity of pigmented molecules to obtain energy, carry out photosynthesis, increase their resistance to stress and provide them with ultraviolet light protection. Recently developed analytical techniques have been applied as high-throughoutput technologies for function discovery and for reconstructing functional networks in psychrophiles. Among them, omics deserve special mention, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, glycomics, lipidomics and metabolomics. These techniques have allowed the identification of microorganisms and the study of their biogeochemical activities. They have also made it possible to infer their metabolic capacities and identify the biomolecules that are parts of their structures or that they secrete into the environment, which can be useful in various fields of biotechnology. This Review summarizes current knowledge on psychrophiles as sources of biomolecules and the metabolic pathways for their production. New strategies and next-generation approaches are needed to increase the chances of discovering new biomolecules.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Proteínas Anticongelantes/biossíntese , Bactérias/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Proteínas Anticongelantes/genética , Regiões Árticas , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biotecnologia/métodos , Clorófitas/genética , Clorófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Lipídeos/genética , Fluidez de Membrana , Metagenoma , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299220

RESUMO

Phthalides are bioactive compounds that naturally occur in the family Apiaceae. Considering their potentially versatile applications, it is desirable to determine their physical properties, activity and metabolic pathways. This study aimed to examine the utility of whole-cell biocatalysts for obtaining 3-butyl-3-hydroxyphthalide, which is the metabolite formulated during mammalian metabolism of 3-n-butylidenephthalide. We performed transformations using 10 strains of fungi, five of which efficiently produced 3-butyl-3-hydroxyphthalide. The product yield, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, reached 97.6% when Aspergillus candidus AM 386 was used as the biocatalyst. Increasing the scale of the process resulted in isolation yields of 29-45% after purification via reversed-phase thin layer chromatography, depending on the strain of the microorganism used. We proposed different mechanisms for product formation; however, hydration of 3-n-butylidenephthalide seems to be the most probable. Additionally, all phthalides were tested against clinical strains of Candida albicans using the microdilution method. Two phthalides showed a minimum inhibitory concentration, required to inhibit the growth of 50% of organisms, below 50 µg/mL. The 3-n-butylidenephthalide metabolite was generally inactive, and this feature in combination with its low lipophilicity suggests its involvement in the detoxification pathway. The log P value of tested compounds was in the range of 2.09-3.38.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/química , Anidridos Ftálicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Mamíferos , Anidridos Ftálicos/química
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201486

RESUMO

Oleaginous filamentous fungi can accumulate large amount of cellular lipids and biopolymers and pigments and potentially serve as a major source of biochemicals for food, feed, chemical, pharmaceutical, and transport industries. We assessed suitability of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy for screening and process monitoring of filamentous fungi in biotechnology. Six Mucoromycota strains were cultivated in microbioreactors under six growth conditions (three phosphate concentrations in the presence and absence of calcium). FT-Raman and FT-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic data was assessed in respect to reference analyses of lipids, phosphorus, and carotenoids by using principal component analysis (PCA), multiblock or consensus PCA, partial least square regression (PLSR), and analysis of spectral variation due to different design factors by an ANOVA model. All main chemical biomass constituents were detected by FT-Raman spectroscopy, including lipids, proteins, cell wall carbohydrates, and polyphosphates, and carotenoids. FT-Raman spectra clearly show the effect of growth conditions on fungal biomass. PLSR models with high coefficients of determination (0.83-0.94) and low error (approximately 8%) for quantitative determination of total lipids, phosphates, and carotenoids were established. FT-Raman spectroscopy showed great potential for chemical analysis of biomass of oleaginous filamentous fungi. The study demonstrates that FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopies provide complementary information on main fungal biomass constituents.


Assuntos
Fungos/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Biomassa , Biotecnologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Fourier , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipídeos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202760

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation of the leaves of the medicinal plant Isodon rubescens led to the isolation of the two new degraded abietane lactone diterpenoids rubesanolides F (1) and G (2). Their structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the HRESIMS and 1D/2D NMR spectral data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD spectrum calculations and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Compounds 1 and 2, with a unique γ-lactone subgroup between C-8 and C-20, were found to form a carbonyl carbon at C-13 by removal of the isopropyl group in an abietane diterpene skeleton. Rubesanolide G (2) is a rare case of abietane that possesses a cis-fused configuration between rings B and C. The two isolates were evaluated for their biological activities against two cancer cell lines (A549 and HL60), three fungal strains (Candida alba, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus nigricans) and three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis).


Assuntos
Abietanos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isodon/química , Lactonas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química , Células A549 , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Abietanos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
14.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065753

RESUMO

The lignocellulosic biomass is comprised of three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Among these three, cellulose and hemicellulose were already used for the generation of simple sugars and subsequent value-added products. However, lignin is the least applied material in this regard because of its complex and highly variable nature. Regardless, lignin is the most abundant material, and it can be used to produce value-added products such as lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial lipids, vanillin, muconic acid, and many others. This review explores the potential of lignin as the microbial substrate to produce such products. A special focus was given to the different types of lignin and how each one can be used in different microbial and biochemical pathways to produce intermediate products, which can then be used as the value-added products or base to make other products. This review paper will summarize the effectiveness of lignin as a microbial substrate to produce value-added products through microbial fermentations. First, basic structures of lignin along with its types and chemistry are discussed. The subsequent sections highlight LMEs and how such enzymes can enhance the value of lignin by microbial degradation. A major focus was also given to the value-added products that can be produced from lignin.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lignina/química , Biotransformação , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11436, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075128

RESUMO

The hadal biosphere is one of the least understood ecosystems on our planet. Recent studies have revealed diverse and active communities of prokaryotes in hadal sediment. However, there have been few studies on fungi in hadal sediment. Here we report the first isolation and cultivation of 8 fungi from the Mariana Trench sediment. The individual colonies were isolated and identified as Stemphylium sp., Cladosporium sp., Arthrinium sp., Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., and Aspergillus sp. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) test was carried out to identify the piezophily of these hadal fungi. Among them, 7 out of the 8 fungal isolates exhibited the ability of germination after incubation under 40 MPa for 7 days. Vegetative growth of the isolates was also affected by HHP. Characterization of secondary metabolites under different pressure conditions was also performed. The production of secondary metabolites was affected by the HHP treatment, improving the potential of discovering novel natural products from hadal fungi. The antibacterial assay revealed the potential of discovering novel natural products. Our results suggest that fungal growth pressure plays an important role in the development and production of secondary metabolites of these hadal fungi under the extreme environment in the Mariana Trench.


Assuntos
Ambientes Extremos , Fungos , Microbiologia da Água , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Pressão Hidrostática , Oceano Pacífico
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13491, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188188

RESUMO

Ascophyllum nodosum extracts (ANE) are well-established plant biostimulants that improve stress tolerance and crop vigour, while also having been shown to stimulate soil microbes. The intersection of these two stimulatory activities, and how they combine to enhance plant health, however, remains poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate: (1) the direct effect of ANE on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, and (2) whether ANE influences endomycorrhization in plants. ANE enhanced development of R. irregularis in vitro, showing greater spore germination, germ tube length, and hyphal branching. Greenhouse-grown Medicago truncatula drench-treated with ANE formed mycorrhizal associations faster (3.1-fold higher mycorrhization at week 4) and grew larger (29% greater leaf area by week 8) than control plants. Foliar applications of ANE also increased root colonization and arbuscular maturity, but did not appear to enhance plant growth. Nonetheless, following either foliar or drench application, M. truncatula genes associated with establishment of mycorrhizae were expressed at significantly higher levels compared to controls. These results suggest that ANE enhances mycorrhization through both direct stimulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus growth and through stimulation of the plant's accommodation of the symbiont, together promoting the establishment of this agriculturally vital plant-microbe symbiosis.


Assuntos
Ascophyllum/química , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago truncatula , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Misturas Complexas/química , Medicago truncatula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253979, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191858

RESUMO

In order to develop a fast combined method for onychomycosis treatment using an in vitro and an ex vivo models, a combination of two dual-diode lasers at 405 nm and 639 nm wavelengths, in a continuous manner, together with different ozone concentrations (until 80 ppm), was used for performing the experiments on fungal strains growing on PDA agar medium or on pig's hooves samples. In the in vitro model experiments, with 30 min combined treatment, all species are inhibited at 40 ppm ozone concentration, except S. brevicaulis, which didn't show an inhibition in comparison with only ozone treatment. In the ex vivo model experiments, with the same duration and ozone concentration, A. chrysogenum and E. floccosum showed total inhibition; T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum showed a 75% growth inhibition; M. canis showed a delay in sporulation; and S. brevicaulis and A. terreus did not show growth inhibition. This combined laser and ozone treatment may be developed as a fast therapy for human onychomycosis, as a potential alternative to the use of antifungal drugs with potential side effects and long duration treatments.


Assuntos
Lasers , Modelos Biológicos , Onicomicose/terapia , Ozônio/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/fisiologia , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , Suínos
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(7): 127, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181131

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of inoculating Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum PS-8 in fermentation of alfalfa silages. We monitored the fermentation characteristics and bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling process. PacBio single molecule real time sequencing was combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to monitor the viable microbiota dynamics. We found that inoculating L. plantarum PS-8 may improve the silage quality by accelerating acidification, reducing the amounts of clostridia, coliform bacteria, molds and yeasts, elevating the protein and organic acid contents (except butyrate), and enhancing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) while suppressing harmful microorganisms. Some significant differential abundant taxa were found between the PMA-treated and non-treated microbiota. For example, the relative abundances of L. brevis, L. plantarum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus were significantly higher in the PMA-treated group than the non-PMA-treated group, suggesting obvious differences between the viable and non-viable microbiota. It would thus be necessary to distinguish between the viable and non-viable microbial communities to further understand their physiological contribution in silage fermentation. By tracking the dynamics of viable microbiota in relation with changes in the physico-chemical parameters, our study provided novel insights into the beneficial effects of inoculating L. plantarum PS-8 in silage fermentation and the physiological function of the viable bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Microbiota , Silagem/microbiologia , Azidas/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , DNA Bacteriano , Fermentação , Lactobacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Propídio/análogos & derivados , Propídio/análise
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(7): 113, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101035

RESUMO

Although several studies have already been carried out in investigating the general profile of the gut mycobiome across several countries, there has yet to be an officially established baseline of a healthy human gut mycobiome, to the best of our knowledge. Microbial composition within the gastrointestinal tract differ across individuals worldwide, and most human gut fungi studies concentrate specifically on individuals from developed countries or diseased cohorts. The present study is the first culture-dependent community study assessing the prevalence and diversity of gut fungi among different ethnic groups from South East Asia. Samples were obtained from a multi-ethnic semi-rural community from Segamat in southern Malaysia. Faecal samples were screened for culturable fungi and questionnaire data analysis was performed. Culturable fungi were present in 45% of the participants' stool samples. Ethnicity had an impact on fungal prevalence and density in stool samples. The prevalence of resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, from the Segamat community, were 14%, 14%, 11% and 7% respectively. It was found that Jakun individuals had lower levels of antifungal resistance irrespective of the drug tested, and male participants had more fluconazole resistant yeast in their stool samples. Two novel point mutations were identified in the ERG11 gene from one azole resistant Candida glabrata, suggesting a possible cause of the occurrence of antifungal resistant isolates in the participant's faecal sample.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Filogenia , Mutação Puntual , Prevalência , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
20.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103797, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119092

RESUMO

Postharvest treatments with sanitizers and fungicides are applied to increase the quality, safety and shelf life of fresh produce including cantaloupes (also known as rockmelons). The primary role of sanitizers during cantaloupe washing is to prevent cross contamination of potentially pathogenic bacteria in washwater. Postharvest fungicide sprays or dips are employed to inhibit spoilage-causing fungi. While assessing the compatibility of these antimicrobials based on the measurement of active ingredients levels provides some indication of antimicrobial capacity, there is limited data on whether the interaction between these chemicals in wash water modifies their overall efficacy against relevant microorganisms. The aim of this research was to determine how chlorine- and peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizers interact with commercial guazatine- and imazalil-based fungicide formulations used on cantaloupes, and whether mixing these augments or suppresses anti-microbial activity against relevant human pathogens and spoilage fungi in wash water. The results were unpredictable: while most combinations were antimicrobial, the chlorine-based sanitizer when mixed with the guazatine-based fungicide had significantly reduced efficacy against pathogenic Salmonella spp. (~2.7 log) and the fungal spoilage organisms, Trichothecium roseum and Rhizopus stolonifera. Mixing the chlorine-based sanitizer with an imazalil-based fungicide produced a range of outcomes with antagonistic, indifferent and synergistic interactions observed for the fungal species tested. The peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer led to indifferent interactions with the guazatine-based fungicide, while antagonism and synergy were observed when mixed with the imazalil-based fungicide. This study demonstrates that mixing postharvest agrichemicals used in the cantaloupe industry may increase the risk of microbial contamination and thereby potentially compromise food safety and quality.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Cloro/química , Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/química , Interações Medicamentosas , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Guanidinas/química , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Peracético/química , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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