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1.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(5): e16627, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733112

RESUMO

Soil structure and aggregation are crucial for soil functionality, particularly under drought conditions. Saprobic soil fungi, known for their resilience in low moisture conditions, are recognized for their influence on soil aggregate dynamics. In this study, we explored the potential of fungal amendments to enhance soil aggregation and hydrological properties across different moisture regimes. We used a selection of 29 fungal isolates, recovered from soils treated under drought conditions and varying in colony density and growth rate, for single-strain inoculation into sterilized soil microcosms under either low or high moisture (≤-0.96 and -0.03 MPa, respectively). After 8 weeks, we assessed soil aggregate formation and stability, along with soil properties such as soil water content, water hydrophobicity, sorptivity, total fungal biomass and water potential. Our findings indicate that fungal inoculation altered soil hydrological properties and improved soil aggregation, with effects varying based on the fungal strains and soil moisture levels. We found a positive correlation between fungal biomass and enhanced soil aggregate formation and stabilization, achieved by connecting soil particles via hyphae and modifying soil aggregate sorptivity. The improvement in soil water potential was observed only when the initial moisture level was not critical for fungal activity. Overall, our results highlight the potential of using fungal inoculation to improve the structure of agricultural soil under drought conditions, thereby introducing new possibilities for soil management in the context of climate change.


Assuntos
Fungos , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Água , Solo/química , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/química , Biomassa , Secas
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13063, 2022 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906471

RESUMO

Spodoptera frugiperda is a highly polyphagous pest worldwide with a wide host range that causes serious losses to many economically important crops. Recently, insect-microbe associations have become a hot spot in current entomology research, and the midgut microbiome of S. frugiperda has been investigated, while the effects of cruciferous vegetables remain unknown. In this study, the growth of S. frugiperda larvae fed on an artificial diet, Brassica campestris and Brassica oleracea for 7 days was analyzed. Besides, the microbial community and functional prediction analyses of the larval midguts of S. frugiperda fed with different diets were performed by high-throughput sequencing. Our results showed that B. oleracea inhibited the growth of S. frugiperda larvae. The larval midgut microbial community composition and structure were significantly affected by different diets. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) suggested 20 bacterial genera and 2 fungal genera contributed to different gut microbial community structures. The functional classification of the midgut microbiome analyzed by PICRUSt and FUNGuild showed that the most COG function categories of midgut bacterial function were changed by B. oleracea, while the guilds of fungal function were altered by B. campestris significantly. These results showed that the diversity and structure of the S. frugiperda midgut microbial community were affected by cruciferous vegetable feeding. Our study provided a preliminary understanding of the role of midgut microbes in S. frugiperda larvae in response to cruciferous vegetables.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Brassica , Fungos/classificação , Microbiota , Spodoptera/microbiologia , Verduras , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Micobioma
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11013, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773465

RESUMO

Plants harbor in their external surfaces and internal tissues a highly diverse and finely structured microbial assembly, the microbiota. Each plant compartment usually represents a unique ecological niche hosting a distinct microbial community and niche differentiation, which may mirror distinct functions of a specialized microbiota, has been mainly investigated for bacteria. Far less is known for the fungal components of the plant-associated microbiota. Here, we applied a metabarcoding approach to describe the fungal assemblages in different organs of Vaccinium myrtillus plants (Ericaceae) collected in a subalpine meadow in North-West Italy, and identified specific taxa enriched in internal tissues of roots, stems, leaves and flowers. We also traced the distribution of some important fungi commonly associated with plants of the family Ericaceae, namely the ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi and the dark septate endophytes (DSE), both playing important roles in plant growth and health. Operational taxonomic units attributed to established ErM fungal species in the genus Hyaloscypha and to DSE species in the Phialocephala-Acephala applanata complex (PAC) were found in all the plant organs. Mycorrhizal fungi are thought to be strictly associated with the plant roots, and this first observation of ErM fungi in the above-ground organs of the host plant may be explained by the evolutionary closeness of ErM fungi in the genus Hyaloscypha with non mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. This is also witnessed by the closer similarities of the ErM fungal genomes with the genomes of plant endophytes than with those of other mycorrhizal fungi, such as arbuscular or ectomycorrhizal fungi.


Assuntos
Ericaceae , Fungos/classificação , Micorrizas , Vaccinium myrtillus/microbiologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Itália , Micobioma , Micorrizas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
4.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35209034

RESUMO

In our attempt towards the synthesis and development of effective antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant agents, a novel series of 2,3-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one 7a-e and pyrrolo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazoles 9a-e were synthesized. The synthesis of 2-(1,3-benzo thiazol-2-yl)-3-(aryl)prop-2-enenitrile (5a-e) as the key intermediate was accomplished by a microwave efficient method. Via a new variety oriented synthetic microwave pathway, these highly functionalized building blocks allowed access to numerous fused heteroaromatic such as 7-amino-6-(1,3-benzo thiazol-2-yl)-5-(aryl)-2-thioxo-2,3dihydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(1H)-one 7a-e and 1-amino-2-(aryl)pyrrolo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole-3-carbonitrile derivatives 9a-e in order to study their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The present investigation offers effective and rapid new procedures for the synthesis of the newly polycondensed heterocyclic ring systems. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant activity. Compounds 7a,d, and 9a,d showed higher antimicrobial activity than cefotaxime and fluconazole while the remaining compounds exhibited good to moderate activity against bacteria and fungi. An anticancer evaluation of the newly synthesized compounds against the three tumor cell lines (lung cell NCI-H460, liver cancer HepG2 and colon cancer HCT-116) exhibited that compounds 7a, d, and 9a,d have higher cytotoxicity against the three human cell lines compared to doxorubicin as a reference drug. These compounds also exhibited higher antioxidant activity and a great ability to protect DNA from damage induced by bleomycin.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Benzotiazóis , Micro-Ondas , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/síntese química , Benzotiazóis/química , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202136

RESUMO

Spent coffee grounds (SCGs), which constitute 75% of original coffee beans, represent an integral part of sustainability. Contamination by toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins is a hazard that threatens food production. This investigation aimed to examine SCGs extract as antimycotic and anti-ochratoxigenic material. The SCGs were extracted in an eco-friendly way using isopropanol. Bioactive molecules of the extract were determined using the UPLC apparatus. The cytotoxicity on liver cancer cells (Hep-G2) showed moderate activity with selectivity compared with human healthy oral epithelial (OEC) cell lines but still lower than the positive control (Cisplatin). The antibacterial properties were examined against pathogenic strains, and the antifungal was examined against toxigenic fungi using two diffusion assays. Extract potency was investigated by two simulated models, a liquid medium and a food model. The results of the extract showed 15 phenolic acids and 8 flavonoids. Rosmarinic and syringic acids were the most abundant phenolic acids, while apigenin-7-glucoside, naringin, epicatechin, and catechin were the predominant flavonoids in the SCGs extract. The results reflected the degradation efficiency of the extract against the growth of Aspergillus strains. The SCGs recorded detoxification in liquid media for aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OCA). The incubation time of the extract within dough spiked with OCA was affected up to 2 h, where cooking was not affected. Therefore, SCGs in food products could be applied to reduce the mycotoxin contamination of raw materials to the acceptable regulated limits.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Café , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Resíduos , Aflatoxinas/química , Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ocratoxinas/química , Ocratoxinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/química
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2421, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165346

RESUMO

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is emerging as a simple and eco-friendly alternative to conventional chemical synthesis methods. The role of AgNPs is expanding as antimicrobial and anticancer agents, sensors, nanoelectronic devices, and imaging contrast agents. In this study, biogenic AgNPs were synthesized using extracts of different marine algae species, including Ulva rigida (green alga), Cystoseira myrica (brown alga), and Gracilaria foliifera (red alga), as reducing and capping agents. The Physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, anticancer and antimicrobial activities of the biosynthesized AgNPs were assessed. Surface plasmonic bands of the biosynthesized AgNPs capped with U. rigida, C. myrica, and G. foliifera extracts were visually observed to determine a colour change, and their peaks were observed at 424 nm, 409 nm, and 415 nm, respectively, by UV-Vis spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated an almost spherical shape of AgNPs with nanoscale sizes of 12 nm, 17 nm, and 24 nm, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis suggested that different molecules attached to AgNPs through OH, C=O, and amide groups. The major constituents of the aqueous algal extracts included, terpenoids, polyphenols, sulfonates, polysaccharides, fatty acids, chlorophylls, amide proteins, flavonoids, carotenoids, aliphatic fluoro compounds, volatile compounds, alkalines, pyruvic acid and agar groups. The cytotoxicity and anticancer activities of the biosynthesized AgNPs were assessed using Artemia salina nauplii, normal skin cell lines (HFb-4), and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 cell line). The lethality was found to be directly proportional to the AgNP concentration. The IC50 values of C. myrica and G. foliifera AgNPs against A. saline nauplii were 5 and 10 µg ml-1 after 4 h and 16 h, respectively, whereas U. rigida AgNPs did not exhibit cytotoxic effects. Anticancer activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs was dose dependent. The IC50 values of the biosynthesized AgNPs were 13, 13, and 43 µg ml-1 for U. rigida, C. myrica, and G. foliifera, respectively. U. rigida AgNPs particularly exhibited potent anticancer activity (92.62%) against a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) with high selectivity compared the normal cells (IC50 = 13 µg/ml, SI = 3.2), followed by C. myrica AgNPs (IC50 = 13 µg/ml, SI = 3.07). Furthermore, the biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited strong antifungal activity against dermatophyte pathogenic moulds and mild antibacterial activity against the food borne pathogen bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity was recorded for the U. rigida AgNPs, followed by those capped with C. myrica and G. foliifera extracts, respectively. AgNPs capped with the U. rigida extract exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton mantigrophytes (40 mm), followed by Trichosporon cataneum (30 mm) and E. coli (19 mm), with minimal lethal concentration of 32 and 64 µg ml-1 respectively. The study finally revealed that extracts of marine algal species, particularly U. rigida extracts, could be effectively used as reducing agents for the green synthesis of AgNPs. These AgNPs are considered efficient alternative antidermatophytes for skin infections and anticancer agents against the MCF-7 cell line.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Clorófitas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Phaeophyceae/química , Rodófitas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Artemia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases represent a significant global strain on public health security and impact on socio-economic stability all over the world. The increasing resistance to the current antimicrobial treatment has resulted in the crucial need for the discovery and development of novel entities for the infectious treatment with different modes of action that could target both sensitive and resistant strains. METHODS: Compounds were synthesized using the classical organic chemistry methods. Prediction of biological activity spectra was carried out using PASS and PASS-based web applications. Pharmacophore modeling in LigandScout software was used for quantitative modeling of the antibacterial activity. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the microdilution method. AutoDock 4.2® software was used to elucidate probable bacterial and fungal molecular targets of the studied compounds. RESULTS: All compounds exhibited better antibacterial potency than ampicillin against all bacteria tested. Three compounds were tested against resistant strains MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli and were found to be more potent than MRSA than reference drugs. All compounds demonstrated a higher degree of antifungal activity than the reference drugs bifonazole (6-17-fold) and ketoconazole (13-52-fold). Three of the most active compounds could be considered for further development of the new, more potent antimicrobial agents. CONCLUSION: Compounds 5b (Z)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-((1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one and 5g (Z)-3-[5-(1H-Indol-3-ylmethylene)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-3-yl]-benzoic acid as well as 5h (Z)-3-(5-((5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)benzoic acid can be considered as lead compounds for further development of more potent and safe antibacterial and antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tiazolidinas/síntese química , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazolidinas/química , Tiazolidinas/farmacologia
8.
Bioengineered ; 13(2): 3284-3299, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100087

RESUMO

Fungi play a significant role in wood fiber degradation since they possess enzymatic tools for the degradation of recalcitrant plant polymers. The study aims to demonstrate the interactive fungal traits when they grow together and its development with total dead wood fiber degradation speed. A lab experiment was designed to describe decomposition rates and fungal properties using nonlinear fitting model and logistic equation from preliminary data sets. The degradation speed of five (A, B, C, D, and E) different types of fungi with different growth rates were calculated at various relative humidity's (35, 50, 65, 80, and 95 g.kg-). Results showed that the mycelium length of fungus A, has faster ideal growth rate than that of fungus B, with ecological niche width A < B. Besides this the growth rate of fungus 1 was vg1 = 0.12 and the environmental-holding capacity k1 = 3000; vg2 = 0.15 and k2 = 2000 for fungus 2. Comparing the results of fiber decomposition with a single fungus, we were able to find that the overall efficiency of the two-fungal system decomposition model was higher in a defined environment. Besides this the successfully simulated the competitive relationship between different species of fungi and the effect of different environments on the decomposition rate of fungi, with a good fit and in accordance with the biological laws. Our model is well generalizable and can be extended to multiple environmental variables (light, temperature, and heat) with good accuracy.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madeira/microbiologia
9.
Bioengineered ; 13(1): 1666-1685, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986742

RESUMO

DNA methylation is a process in which methyl (CH3) groups are added to the DNA molecule. The DNA segment does not change in the sequence, but DNA methylation could alter the action of DNA. Different enzymes like DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) take part in methylation of cytosine/adenine nucleosides in DNA. In prokaryotes, DNA methylation is performed to prevent the attack of phage and also plays a role in the chromosome replication and repair. In fungi, DNA methylation is studied to see the transcriptional changes, as in insects, the DNA methylation is not that well-known, it plays a different role like other organisms. In mammals, the DNA methylation is related to different types of cancers and plays the most important role in the placental development and abnormal DNA methylation connected with diseases like cancer, autoimmune diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epigênese Genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Insetos/genética , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 207, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997057

RESUMO

Fungal communities associated with roots play a key role in nutrient uptake and in mitigating the abiotic and biotic stress of their host. In this study, we characterized the roots mycobiome of wild and cultivated pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., synonym: Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone] in three agro-ecological areas of Senegal following a rainfall gradient. We hypothesized that wild pearl millet could serve as a reservoir of endophytes for cultivated pearl millet. We therefore analyzed the soil factors influencing fungal community structure and whether cultivated and wild millet shared the same fungal communities. The fungal communities associated with pearl millet were significantly structured according to sites and plant type (wild vs cultivated). Besides, soil pH and phosphorus were the main factors influencing the fungal community structure. We observed a higher fungal diversity in cultivated compared to wild pearl millet. Interestingly, we detected higher relative abundance of putative pathotrophs, especially plant pathogen, in cultivated than in wild millet in semi-arid and semi-humid zones, and higher relative abundance of saprotrophs in wild millet in arid and semi-humid zones. A network analysis based on taxa co-occurrence patterns in the core mycobiome revealed that cultivated millet and wild relatives had dissimilar groups of hub taxa. The identification of the core mycobiome and hub taxa of cultivated and wild pearl millet could be an important step in developing microbiome engineering approaches for more sustainable management practices in pearl millet agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micobioma , Pennisetum/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Fúngico/genética , Fungos/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pennisetum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pennisetum/metabolismo , Fósforo/química , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Senegal , Solo/química
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(3): 898-907, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Filamentous fungi are the main contamination agent in the viticultural sector. Use of synthetic fungicides is the regular answer to these contaminations. Nevertheless, because of several problems associated with the use of synthetic compounds, the industry demands new and safer methods. In the present work, the biopreservation potential of four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains was studied against the principal grape contaminant fungi. RESULTS: Agar diffusion test evidenced that all four culture-free supernatant (CFS) had antifungal properties against all tested fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) test values evidenced that media fermented by the Lactobacillus plantarum E3 and Lactobacillus plantarum E4 strains showed the highest antifungal activity, resulting in an MFC from 6.3 to 100 g L-1 . Analysis of CFS evidenced the presence of different antifungal compounds, such as lactic acid, phenyllactic acid and pyrazines. In tests on red grapes, an average reduction of 1.32 log10 of the spores per gram of fruit was achieved by all CFS in grapes inoculated with Aspergillus ochraceus and by 0.94 log10 for L. plantarum E3 CFS against Botrytis cinerea. CONCLUSION: The antifungal activity of the fermented CFS by L. plantarum E3 reduced the growth of B. cinerea and A. ochraceus in grapes, which are the main contaminant and main producer of ochratoxin A in these crops, respectively. Therefore, based on the results obtained in this work, use of the strain L. plantarum E3 could be an interesting option for the biopreservation of grapes. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Vitis/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Lactatos/análise , Lactatos/metabolismo , Lactatos/farmacologia , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Pirazinas/análise , Pirazinas/metabolismo , Pirazinas/farmacologia
12.
J Microbiol Methods ; 192: 106382, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808146

RESUMO

Mycorrhizal colonization of roots is traditionally evaluated by empirical methods, such as root microscopy. We compared this method with data from using a real time PCR technique, and determined the correlation between methods, indicating particularities of a promising system for a quick and accurate molecular diagnostic of arbuscular mycorrhization.


Assuntos
Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brachiaria/microbiologia , Crotalaria/microbiologia , Fungos/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884951

RESUMO

Antimicrobial, membranotropic and cytotoxic properties of dicationic imidazolium surfactants of n-s-n (Im) series with variable length of alkyl group (n = 8, 10, 12, 14, 16) and spacer fragment (s = 2, 3, 4) were explored and compared with monocationic analogues. Their activity against a representative range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also fungi, is characterized. The relationship between the biological activity and the structural features of these compounds is revealed, with the hydrophobicity emphasized as a key factor. Among dicationic surfactants, decyl derivatives showed highest antimicrobial effect, while for monocationic analogues, the maximum activity is observed in the case of tetradecyl tail. The leading compounds are 2-4 times higher in activity compared to reference antibiotics and prove effective against resistant strains. It has been shown that the antimicrobial effect is not associated with the destruction of the cell membrane, but is due to specific interactions of surfactants and cell components. Importantly, they show strong selectivity for microorganism cells while being of low harm to healthy human cells, with a SI ranging from 30 to 100.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imidazóis/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tensoativos/síntese química , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/farmacologia
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941690

RESUMO

Fungal contamination of food, especially by mycotoxigenic fungi, not only reduces the quality of the food, but can also cause serious diseases, thus posing a major food safety challenge to humans. Apart from sound food control systems, there is also a continual need to explore antifungal agents that can inhibit fungal growth and mycotoxin production in food. Many types of fatty acids (FAs) and their oxidized derivatives, oxylipins, have been found to exhibit such effects. In this review, we provide an update on the most recent literature on the occurrence and formation of FAs and oxylipins in food, their effects on fungal growth and mycotoxin synthesis, as well as the genetic and molecular mechanisms of actions. Research gaps in the field and needs for further studies in order to realizing the potential of FAs and oxylipins as natural antifungal preservatives in food are also discussed.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais , Micotoxinas/biossíntese
15.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944501

RESUMO

The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been completely re-evaluated in the recent decades, and EVs are currently considered to be among the main players in intercellular communication. Beyond their functional aspects, there is strong interest in the development of faster and less expensive isolation protocols that are as reliable for post-isolation characterisations as already-established methods. Therefore, the identification of easy and accessible EV isolation techniques with a low price/performance ratio is of paramount importance. We isolated EVs from a wide spectrum of samples of biological and clinical interest by choosing two isolation techniques, based on their wide use and affordability: ultracentrifugation and salting-out. We collected EVs from human cancer and healthy cell culture media, yeast, bacteria and Drosophila culture media and human fluids (plasma, urine and saliva). The size distribution and concentration of EVs were measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis and dynamic light scattering, and protein depletion was measured by a colorimetric nanoplasmonic assay. Finally, the EVs were characterised by flow cytometry. Our results showed that the salting-out method had a good efficiency in EV separation and was more efficient in protein depletion than ultracentrifugation. Thus, salting-out may represent a good alternative to ultracentrifugation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/química , Células CACO-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Citometria de Fluxo , Fungos/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Tamanho da Partícula , Ultracentrifugação
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944538

RESUMO

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a devastating complication, affecting around 15% of diabetic patients and representing a leading cause of non-traumatic amputations. Notably, the risk of mixed bacterial-fungal infection is elevated and highly associated with wound necrosis and poor clinical outcomes. However, it is often underestimated in the literature. Therefore, polymicrobial infection control must be considered for effective management of DFU. It is noteworthy that antimicrobial resistance is constantly rising overtime, therefore increasing the need for new alternatives to antibiotics and antifungals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are endogenous peptides that are naturally abundant in several organisms, such as bacteria, amphibians and mammals, particularly in the skin. These molecules have shown broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and some of them even have wound-healing activity, establishing themselves as ideal candidates for treating multi-kingdom infected wounds. Furthermore, the role of AMPs with antifungal activity in wound management is poorly described and deserves further investigation in association with antibacterial agents, such as antibiotics and AMPs with antibacterial activity, or alternatively the application of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that target both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as fungi. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which AMPs achieve their dual antimicrobial and wound-healing properties, and to discuss how these are currently being applied as promising therapies against polymicrobial-infected chronic wounds such as DFUs.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Pé Diabético/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
17.
Molecules ; 26(23)2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885775

RESUMO

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the efficiency of Allium sativum hydro-alcoholic extract (ASE) againstFigure growth, biofilm development, and soluble factor production of more than 200 biodeteriogenic microbial strains isolated from cultural heritage objects and buildings. The plant extract composition and antioxidant activities were determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC-MS. The bioevaluation consisted of the qualitative (adapted diffusion method) and the quantitative evaluation of the inhibitory effect on planktonic growth (microdilution method), biofilm formation (violet crystal microtiter method), and production of microbial enzymes and organic acids. The garlic extract efficiency was correlated with microbial strain taxonomy and isolation source (the fungal strains isolated from paintings and paper and bacteria from wood, paper, and textiles were the most susceptible). The garlic extract contained thiosulfinate (307.66 ± 0.043 µM/g), flavonoids (64.33 ± 7.69 µg QE/g), and polyphenols (0.95 ± 0.011 mg GAE/g) as major compounds and demonstrated the highest efficiency against the Aspergillus versicolor (MIC 3.12-6.25 mg/mL), A. ochraceus (MIC: 3.12 mg/mL), Penicillium expansum (MIC 6.25-12.5 mg/mL), and A. niger (MIC 3.12-50 mg/mL) strains. The extract inhibited the adherence capacity (IIBG% 95.08-44.62%) and the production of cellulase, organic acids, and esterase. This eco-friendly solution shows promising potential for the conservation and safeguarding of tangible cultural heritage, successfully combating the biodeteriogenic microorganisms without undesirable side effects for the natural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Solubilidade
18.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946781

RESUMO

A series of 2-arylamino-1,3-selenazoles was synthesized and their reactivity was studied. The 2-arylamino-1,3-selenazoles and their reaction products were characterized by various spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the 2-arylamino-1,3-selenazoles in a panel of seven bacteria and fungi was examined.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Organosselênicos , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Compostos Organosselênicos/síntese química , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946791

RESUMO

In the present study, mace-mediated silver nanoparticles (mace-AgNPs) were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated against an array of pathogenic microorganisms. Mace, the arils of Myristica fragrans, are a rich source of several bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and aromatic compounds. During nano synthesis, the bioactive compounds in mace aqueous extracts serve as excellent bio reductants, stabilizers, and capping agents. The UV-VIS spectroscopy of the synthesized NPs showed an intense and broad SPR absorption peak at 456 nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed the size with a Z average of 50 nm, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies depicted the round shape and small size of the NPs, which ranged between 5-28 nm. The peaks related to important functional groups, such as phenols, alcohols, carbonyl groups, amides, alkanes and alkenes, were obtained on a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum. The peak at 3 keV on the energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX) validated the presence of silver (Ag). Mace-silver nanoparticles exhibited potent antifungal and antibacterial activity against several pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the synthesized mace-AgNPs displayed an excellent cytotoxic effect against the human cervical cancer cell line. The mace-AgNPs demonstrated robust antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity, indicating that the mace-AgNPs might be used in the agrochemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, and biomedical applications. However, future studies to understand its mode of action are needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Myristica/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citotoxinas/síntese química , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células HeLa , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia
20.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946528

RESUMO

Plants from the Ilex genus are known for properties such as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, can act as antiobesity agents and thus can be helpful in medicine. Some holly species, such as Ilex paraguariensis (widely known in the form of popular beverage: yerba mate), have been investigated, while others have been partially researched or remain unknown. Therefore, we performed qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses and screened antimicrobial properties of lesser-studied species (I. aquifolium L., I. aquifolium 'Argentea Marginata' and I. × meserveae 'Blue Angel'). I. paraguariensis was used as a standard species for comparison purposes. Investigations were performed on water extracts due to their expected activity and composition. Antimicrobial research included evaluating minimal inhibitory, bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and fungicidal concentration (Candida albicans, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus niger) of extracts. The influence of the extracts on the production, eradication, and viability of bacterial biofilms was also analysed. It was established that Ilex paraguariensis possesses the richest profile of hydroxycinnamic acids derivatives in terms of component concentration and diversity. Ilex spp., especially I. × meserveae, contain a slightly higher amount of flavonoids and more different flavonoid derivatives than I. paraguariensis. However, the strongest antibacterial activity was shown by I. aquifolium L. and its cultivar 'Argentea Marginata' in terms of minimal inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal concentration, and biofilm assays. Extracts from both species significantly reduced the biofilm viability of S. aureus as well, which may be of use in the production of multicomponent lavaseptics, antiseptics, diuretics (supporting urinary tract infection therapy) and, due to their action on fungi, additives to growth media for specific fungi. The significant content of saponins enables Ilex extracts to be used as natural emulsifiers, for example, in cosmetics. Moreover, relatively high chlorogenic acid and rutin content may suggest use of Ilex spp. to treat obesity, digestive problems, in chemoprevention, and as preservatives in the food industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/química
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