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1.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731487

RESUMO

The wheat scab caused by Fusarium graminearum (F. graminearum) has seriously affected the yield and quality of wheat in China. In this study, gallic acid (GA), a natural polyphenol, was used to synthesize three azole-modified gallic acid derivatives (AGAs1-3). The antifungal activity of GA and its derivatives against F. graminearum was studied through mycelial growth rate experiments and field efficacy experiments. The results of the mycelial growth rate test showed that the EC50 of AGAs-2 was 0.49 mg/mL, and that of AGAs-3 was 0.42 mg/mL. The biological activity of AGAs-3 on F. graminearum is significantly better than that of GA. The results of field efficacy tests showed that AGAs-2 and AGAs-3 significantly reduced the incidence rate and disease index of wheat scab, and the control effect reached 68.86% and 72.11%, respectively. In addition, preliminary investigation was performed on the possible interaction between AGAs-3 and F. graminearum using density functional theory (DFT). These results indicate that compound AGAs-3, because of its characteristic of imidazolium salts, has potential for use as a green and environmentally friendly plant-derived antifungal agent for plant pathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Azóis , Fusarium , Ácido Gálico , Triticum , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Azóis/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
2.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 40, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724915

RESUMO

Bulb rot, a highly damaging disease of tulip plants, has hindered their profitable cultivation worldwide. This rot occurs in both field and storage conditions posing significant challenges. While this disease has been attributed to a range of pathogens, previous investigations have solely examined it within the framework of a single-pathogen disease model. Our study took a different approach and identified four pathogens associated with the disease: Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Botrytis tulipae, and Aspergillus niger. The primary objective of our research was to examine the impact of co-infections on the overall virulence dynamics of these pathogens. Through co-inoculation experiments on potato dextrose agar, we delineated three primary interaction patterns: antibiosis, deadlock, and merging. In vitro trials involving individual pathogen inoculations on tulip bulbs revealed that B. tulipae,was the most virulent and induced complete bulb decay. Nonetheless, when these pathogens were simultaneously introduced in various combinations, outcomes ranged from partial bulb decay to elongated rotting periods. This indicated a notable degree of antagonistic behaviour among the pathogens. While synergistic interactions were evident in a few combinations, antagonism overwhelmingly prevailed. The complex interplay of these pathogens during co-infection led to a noticeable change in the overall severity of the disease. This underscores the significance of pathogen-pathogen interactions in the realm of plant pathology, opening new insights for understanding and managing tulip bulb rot.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Tulipa , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Tulipa/microbiologia , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Penicillium chrysogenum/patogenicidade , Aspergillus niger/patogenicidade , Virulência , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10970-10980, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708787

RESUMO

Eleven alkaloids (1-11) including seven new ones, 1-7, were isolated from the solid fermentation of Aspergillus fumigatus VDL36, an endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Vaccinium dunalianum Wight (Ericaceae), a perennial evergreen shrub distributed across the Southwest regions of China, Myanmar, and Vietnam. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. The isolates were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against five phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Coriolus versicolor, Fusarium solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum). As a result, the new compounds fumigaclavine I (1), 13-ethoxycyclotryprostatin A (5), 13-dehydroxycyclotryprostatin A (6), and 12ß-hydroxy-13-oxofumitremorgin C (7) exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 7.8-62.5 µg/mL which were comparable to the two positive controls ketoconazole (MIC = 7.8-31.25 µg/mL) and carbendazim (MIC = 1.95-7.8 µg/mL). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 5 demonstrated potent protective and curative effects against the tomato gray mold in vivo. Preliminary structure-activity relationships of the tested indole diketopiperazine alkaloids indicate that the introduction of a substituent group at position C-13 enhances their biological activities.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Aspergillus fumigatus , Endófitos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , China , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
4.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(3): e13363, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720588

RESUMO

There is still considerable controversy about the relative risk of mycotoxin exposure associated with the consumption of organic and conventional cereals. Using validated protocols, we carried out a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of data on the incidence and concentrations of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Claviceps, Penicillium, and Aspergillus species in organic and conventional cereal grains/products. The standard weighted meta-analysis of concentration data detected a significant effect of production system (organic vs. conventional) only for the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, with concentrations ∼50% higher in conventional than organic cereal grains/products (p < 0.0001). Weighted meta-analyses of incidence data and unweighted meta-analyses of concentration data also detected small, but significant effects of production system on the incidence and/or concentrations of T-2/HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, enniatin, beauvericin, ochratoxin A (OTA), and aflatoxins. Multilevel meta-analyses identified climatic conditions, cereal species, study type, and analytical methods used as important confounding factors for the effects of production system. Overall, results from this study suggest that (i) Fusarium mycotoxin contamination decreased between the 1990s and 2020, (ii) contamination levels are similar in organic and conventional cereals used for human consumption, and (iii) maintaining OTA concentrations below the maximum contamination levels (3.0 µg/kg) set by the EU remains a major challenge.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Contaminação de Alimentos , Micotoxinas , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium/química , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/microbiologia
5.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(6): 271, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767679

RESUMO

Secreted in Xylem (SIX) are small effector proteins released by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) into the plant's xylem sap disrupting the host's defence responses causing Fusarium wilt disease resulting in a significant decline in banana crop yields and economic losses. Notably, different races of Foc possess unique sets of SIX genes responsible for their virulence, however, these genes remain underutilized, despite their potential as biomarkers for early disease detection. Herein, we identified seven SIX genes i.e. SIX1, SIX2, SIX4, SIX6, SIX8a, SIX9a and SIX13 present in Foc Tropical Race 4 (FocTR4), while only SIX9b in Foc Race 1 (Foc1). Analysis of SIX gene expression in infected banana roots revealed differential patterns during infection providing valuable insights into host-pathogen interactions, virulence level, and early detection time points. Additionally, a comprehensive analysis of virulent Foc1_C2HIR and FocTR4_C1HIR isolates yielded informative genomic insights. Hence, these discoveries contribute to our comprehension of potential disease control targets in these plants, as well as enhancing plant diagnostics and breeding programs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Fusarium , Musa , Doenças das Plantas , Xilema , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Xilema/microbiologia , Musa/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica
6.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(3): e13365, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767863

RESUMO

Filamentous fungal mycoproteins have gained increasing attention as sustainable alternatives to animal and plant-based proteins. This comprehensive review summarizes the nutritional characteristics, toxicological aspects, and health-promoting effects of mycoproteins, focusing on those derived from filamentous fungi, notably Fusarium venenatum. Mycoproteins are characterized by their high protein content, and they have a superior essential amino acid profile compared to soybeans indicating excellent protein quality and benefits for human nutrition. Additionally, mycoproteins offer enhanced digestibility, further highlighting their suitability as a protein source. Furthermore, mycoproteins are rich in dietary fibers, which have been associated with health benefits, including protection against metabolic diseases. Moreover, their fatty acids profile, with significant proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids and absence of cholesterol, distinguishes them from animal-derived proteins. In conclusion, the future of mycoproteins as a health-promoting protein alternative and the development of functional foods relies on several key aspects. These include improving the acceptance of mycoproteins, conducting further research into their mechanisms of action, addressing consumer preferences and perceptions, and ensuring safety and regulatory compliance. To fully unlock the potential of mycoproteins and meet the evolving needs of a health-conscious society, continuous interdisciplinary research, collaboration among stakeholders, and proactive engagement with consumers will be vital.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Fusarium/química , Humanos , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Animais , Valor Nutritivo , Alimento Funcional , Proteínas Alimentares , Fibras na Dieta
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3934, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729938

RESUMO

A-to-I mRNA editing in animals is mediated by ADARs, but the mechanism underlying sexual stage-specific A-to-I mRNA editing in fungi remains unknown. Here, we show that the eukaryotic tRNA-specific heterodimeric deaminase FgTad2-FgTad3 is responsible for A-to-I mRNA editing in Fusarium graminearum. This editing capacity relies on the interaction between FgTad3 and a sexual stage-specific protein called Ame1. Although Ame1 orthologs are widely distributed in fungi, the interaction originates in Sordariomycetes. We have identified key residues responsible for the FgTad3-Ame1 interaction. The expression and activity of FgTad2-FgTad3 are regulated through alternative promoters, alternative translation initiation, and post-translational modifications. Our study demonstrates that the FgTad2-FgTad3-Ame1 complex can efficiently edit mRNA in yeasts, bacteria, and human cells, with important implications for the development of base editors in therapy and agriculture. Overall, this study uncovers mechanisms, regulation, and evolution of RNA editing in fungi, highlighting the role of protein-protein interactions in modulating deaminase function.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas , Fusarium , Edição de RNA , RNA Mensageiro , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Humanos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Evolução Molecular , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Inosina/metabolismo , Inosina/genética
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(7): 182, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769214

RESUMO

Fusarium proliferatum is the main pathogen that causes Panax notoginseng root rot. The shortcomings of strong volatility and poor water solubility of Illicium verum essential oil (EO) limit its utilization. In this study, we prepared traditional emulsion (BDT) and nanoemulsion (Bneo) of I. verum EO by ultrasonic method with Tween-80 and absolute ethanol as solvents. The chemical components of EO, BDT, and Bneo were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the antifungal activity and mechanism were compared. The results show that Bneo has good stability and its particle size is 34.86 nm. The contents of (-) -anethole and estragole in Bneo were significantly higher than those in BDT. The antifungal activity against F. proliferatum was 5.8-fold higher than BDT. In the presence of I. verum EO, the occurrence of P. notoginseng root rot was significantly reduced. By combining transcriptome and metabolomics analysis, I. verum EO was found to be involved in the mutual transformation of pentose and glucuronic acid, galactose metabolism, streptomycin biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and other metabolic pathways of F. proliferatum, and it interfered with the normal growth of F. proliferatum to exert antifungal effects. This study provide a theoretical basis for expanding the practical application of Bneo.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Emulsões , Fusarium , Illicium , Metabolômica , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/metabolismo , Illicium/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Emulsões/química , Transcriptoma , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
9.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 502, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium zanthoxyli is a destructive pathogen causing stem canker in prickly ash, an ecologically and economically important forest tree. However, the genome lack of F. zanthoxyli has hindered research on its interaction with prickly ash and the development of precise control strategies for stem canker. RESULTS: In this study, we sequenced and annotated a relatively high-quality genome of F. zanthoxyli with a size of 43.39 Mb, encoding 11,316 putative genes. Pathogenicity-related factors are predicted, comprising 495 CAZymes, 217 effectors, 156 CYP450s, and 202 enzymes associated with secondary metabolism. Besides, a comparative genomics analysis revealed Fusarium and Colletotrichum diverged from a shared ancestor approximately 141.1 ~ 88.4 million years ago (MYA). Additionally, a phylogenomic investigation of 12 different phytopathogens within Fusarium indicated that F. zanthoxyli originated approximately 34.6 ~ 26.9 MYA, and events of gene expansion and contraction within them were also unveiled. Finally, utilizing conserved domain prediction, the results revealed that among the 59 unique genes, the most enriched domains were PnbA and ULP1. Among the 783 expanded genes, the most enriched domains were PKc_like kinases and those belonging to the APH_ChoK_Like family. CONCLUSION: This study sheds light on the genetic basis of F. zanthoxyli's pathogenicity and evolution which provides valuable information for future research on its molecular interactions with prickly ash and the development of effective strategies to combat stem canker.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Fusarium , Genoma Fúngico , Genômica , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Genômica/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(20): 11716-11723, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728745

RESUMO

A total of 32 novel sulfoximines bearing cyanoguanidine and nitroguanidine moieties were designed and synthesized by a rational molecule design strategy. The bioactivities of the title compounds were evaluated and the results revealed that some of the target compounds possessed excellent antifungal activities against six agricultural fungi, including Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora capsici, Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pyricularia grisea. Among them, compounds 8e1 and 8e4 exhibited significant efficacy against P. grisea with EC50 values of 2.72 and 2.98 µg/mL, respectively, which were much higher than that of commercial fungicides boscalid (47.95 µg/mL). Interestingly, in vivo assays determined compound 8e1 possessed outstanding activity against S. sclerotiorum with protective and curative effectiveness of 98 and 95.6% at 50 µg/mL, which were comparable to those of boscalid (93.2, 91.9%). The further preliminary mechanism investigation disclosed that compound 8e1 could damage the structure of the cell membrane of S. sclerotiorum, increase its permeability, and suppress its growth. Overall, the findings enhanced that these novel sulfoximine derivatives could be potential lead compounds for the development of new fungicides.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Guanidinas , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/síntese química , Guanidinas/química , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Guanidinas/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Phytophthora/efeitos dos fármacos , Phytophthora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estrutura Molecular
11.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(3): 62, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771394

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) stands out as one of the most devastating wheat diseases and leads to significantly grain yield losses and quality reductions in epidemic years. Exploring quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance is a critical step for developing new FHB-resistant varieties. We previously constructed a genetic map of unigenes (UG-Map) according to the physical positions using a set of recombinant-inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of 'TN18 × LM6' (TL-RILs). Here, the number of diseased spikelets (NDS) and relative disease index (RDI) for FHB resistance were investigated under four environments using TL-RILs, which were distributed across 13 chromosomes. A number of 36 candidate genes for NDS and RDI from of 19 stable QTLs were identified. The average number of candidate genes per QTL was 1.89, with 14 (73.7%), two (10.5%), and three (15.8%) QTLs including one, two, and 3-10 candidate genes, respectively. Among the 24 candidate genes annotated in the reference genome RefSeq v1.1, the homologous genes of seven candidate genes, including TraesCS4B02G227300 for QNds/Rdi-4BL-4553, TraesCS5B02G303200, TraesCS5B02G303300, TraesCS5B02G303700, TraesCS5B02G303800 and TraesCS5B02G304000 for QNds/Rdi-5BL-9509, and TraesCS7A02G568400 for QNds/Rdi-7AL-14499, were previously reported to be related to FHB resistance in wheat, barely or Brachypodium distachyon. These genes should be closely associated with FHB resistance in wheat. In addition, the homologous genes of five genes, including TraesCS1A02G037600LC for QNds-1AS-2225, TraesCS1D02G017800 and TraesCS1D02G017900 for QNds-1DS-527, TraesCS1D02G018000 for QRdi-1DS-575, and TraesCS4B02G227400 for QNds/Rdi-4BL-4553, were involved in plant defense responses against pathogens. These genes should be likely associated with FHB resistance in wheat.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fusarium/fisiologia , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética
12.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(6): 147, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771491

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Thchit42 constitutive expression for fungal resistance showed synchronisation with leaf augmentation and transcriptome analysis revealed the Longifolia and Zinc finger RICESLEEPER gene is responsible for plant growth and development. Pelargonium graveolens essential oil possesses significant attributes, known for perfumery and aromatherapy. However, optimal yield and propagation are predominantly hindered by biotic stress. All biotechnological approaches have yet to prove effective in addressing fungal resistance. The current study developed transgenic geranium bridging molecular mechanism of fungal resistance and plant growth by introducing cassette 35S::Thchit42. Furthermore, 120 independently putative transformed explants were regenerated on kanamycin fortified medium. Primarily transgenic lines were demonstrated peak pathogenicity and antifungal activity against formidable Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum. Additionally, phenotypic analysis revealed ~ 2fold increase in leaf size and ~ 2.1fold enhanced oil content. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms for genotypic cause, de novo transcriptional profiles were analyzed to indicate that the auxin-regulated longifolia gene is accountable for augmentation in leaf size, and zinc finger (ZF) RICESLEEPER attributes growth upregulation. Collectively, data provides valuable insights into unravelling the mechanism of Thchit42-mediated crosstalk between morphological and chemical alteration in transgenic plants. This knowledge might create novel opportunities to cultivate fungal-resistant geranium throughout all seasons to fulfil demand.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Fusarium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pelargonium , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pelargonium/genética , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Fusarium/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Geranium/genética
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(5): e1012215, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701108

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum species complexes (FGSG), is an epidemic disease in wheat and poses a serious threat to wheat production and security worldwide. Profilins are a class of actin-binding proteins that participate in actin depolymerization. However, the roles of profilins in plant fungal pathogens remain largely unexplored. Here, we identified FgPfn, a homolog to profilins in F. graminearum, and the deletion of FgPfn resulted in severe defects in mycelial growth, conidia production, and pathogenicity, accompanied by marked disruptions in toxisomes formation and deoxynivalenol (DON) transport, while sexual development was aborted. Additionally, FgPfn interacted with Fgα1 and Fgß2, the significant components of microtubules. The organization of microtubules in the ΔFgPfn was strongly inhibited under the treatment of 0.4 µg/mL carbendazim, a well-known group of tubulin interferers, resulting in increased sensitivity to carbendazim. Moreover, FgPfn interacted with both myosin-5 (FgMyo5) and actin (FgAct), the targets of the fungicide phenamacril, and these interactions were reduced after phenamacril treatment. The deletion of FgPfn disrupted the normal organization of FgMyo5 and FgAct cytoskeleton, weakened the interaction between FgMyo5 and FgAct, and resulting in increased sensitivity to phenamacril. The core region of the interaction between FgPfn and FgAct was investigated, revealing that the integrity of both proteins was necessary for their interaction. Furthermore, mutations in R72, R77, R86, G91, I101, A112, G113, and D124 caused the non-interaction between FgPfn and FgAct. The R86K, I101E, and D124E mutants in FgPfn resulted in severe defects in actin organization, development, and pathogenicity. Taken together, this study revealed the role of FgPfn-dependent cytoskeleton in development, DON production and transport, fungicides sensitivity in F. graminearum.


Assuntos
Actinas , Proteínas Fúngicas , Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Microtúbulos , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11336, 2024 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760441

RESUMO

Chitosan is a natural non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, and mucoadhesive polymer. It also has a broad spectrum of applications such as agriculture, medical fields, cosmetics and food industries. In this investigation, chitosan nanoparticles were produced by an aqueous extract of Cympopogon citratus leaves as a reducing agent. According to the SEM and TEM micrographs, CNPs had a spherical shape, and size ranging from 8.08 to 12.01 nm. CNPs have a positively charged surface with a Zeta potential of + 26 mV. The crystalline feature of CNPs is determined by X-ray diffraction. There are many functional groups, including C꞊C, CH2-OH, C-O, C-S, N-H, CN, CH and OH were detected by FTIR analysis. As shown by the thermogravimetric study, CNPs have a high thermal stability. For the optimization of the green synthesis of CNPs, a Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) with 30 trials was used. The maximum yield of CNPs (13.99 mg CNPs/mL) was produced with chitosan concentration 1.5%, pH 4.5 at 40 °C, and incubation period of 30 min. The antifungal activity of CNPs was evaluated against phytopathogenic fungus; Fusarium culmorum. A 100% rate of mycelial growth inhibition was gained by the application of 20 mg CNPs/mL. The antitumor activity of the green synthesized CNPs was examined using 6 different cell lines, the viability of the cells reduced when the concentration of green synthesized CNPs increased, the IC50 dose of the green synthesized CNPs on the examined cell lines HePG-2, MCF-7, HCT-116, PC-3, Hela and WI-38 was 36.25 ± 2.3, 31.21 ± 2.2, 67.45 ± 3.5, 56.30 ± 3.3, 44.62 ± 2.6 and 74.90 ± 3.8; respectively.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Antineoplásicos , Quitosana , Fusarium , Química Verde , Nanopartículas , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300791, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758965

RESUMO

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) applications have emerged as an ideal substitute for synthetic chemicals by their ability to improve plant nutrition and resistance against pathogens. In this study, we isolated fourteen root endophytes from healthy wheat roots cultivated in Tunisia. The isolates were identified based from their 16S rRNA gene sequences. They belonged to Bacillota and Pseudomonadota taxa. Fourteen strains were tested for their growth-promoting and defense-eliciting potentials on durum wheat under greenhouse conditions, and for their in vitro biocontrol power against Fusarium culmorum, an ascomycete responsible for seedling blight, foot and root rot, and head blight diseases of wheat. We found that all the strains improved shoot and/or root biomass accumulation, with Bacillus mojavensis, Paenibacillus peoriae and Variovorax paradoxus showing the strongest promoting effects. These physiological effects were correlated with the plant growth-promoting traits of the bacterial endophytes, which produced indole-related compounds, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and solubilized phosphate and zinc. Likewise, plant defense accumulations were modulated lastingly and systematically in roots and leaves by all the strains. Testing in vitro antagonism against F. culmorum revealed an inhibition activity exceeding 40% for five strains: Bacillus cereus, Paenibacillus peoriae, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Pantoae agglomerans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These strains exhibited significant inhibitory effects on F. culmorum mycelia growth, sporulation, and/or macroconidia germination. P. peoriae performed best, with total inhibition of sporulation and macroconidia germination. These finding highlight the effectiveness of root bacterial endophytes in promoting plant growth and resistance, and in controlling phytopathogens such as F. culmorum. This is the first report identifying 14 bacterial candidates as potential agents for the control of F. culmorum, of which Paenibacillus peoriae and/or its intracellular metabolites have potential for development as biopesticides.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Endófitos , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Triticum , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tunísia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Mycoses ; 67(5): e13728, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal keratitis is a severe eye infection that can result in blindness and visual impairment, particularly in developing countries. Fusarium spp. are the primary causative agents of this condition. Diagnosis of Fusarium keratitis (FK) is challenging, and delayed treatment can lead to serious complications. However, there is limited epidemiological data on FK, especially in tropical areas. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the clinical, laboratorial and epidemiological characteristics of FK in a tropical semi-arid region of Brazil. PATIENTS/METHODS: Adult patients with laboratory-confirmed FK diagnosed between October 2019 and March 2022 were evaluated. Fusarium isolates were characterized at molecular level and evaluated regarding antifungal susceptibility. RESULTS: A total of 226 clinical samples from patients suspected of keratitis were evaluated; fungal growth was detected in 50 samples (22.12%); out of which 42 were suggestive of Fusarium spp. (84%). Molecular analysis of a randomly selected set of 27 isolates identified F. solani species complex (n = 14); F. fujikuroi sensu lato (n = 6) and F. dimerum sensu lato (n = 7); a total of 10 haplotypes were identified among the strains. All but one Fusarium strains were inhibited by amphotericin B, natamycin and fluconazole. Most patients were male (71.42%; 30 out of 42), aged from 27 to 73 years old. Trauma was the most important risk factor for FK (40.47%; 17 out of 42). Patients were treated with antifungals, corticoids and antibiotics; keratoplasty and eye enucleation were also performed. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided insights into the characteristics of FK in tropical regions and emphasized the importance of enhanced surveillance and management strategies.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Fusariose , Fusarium , Ceratite , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/classificação , Masculino , Feminino , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Ceratite/microbiologia , Ceratite/epidemiologia , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fusariose/microbiologia , Fusariose/epidemiologia , Fusariose/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Clima Tropical , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10131, 2024 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698085

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a significantly important disease in cereals primarily caused by Fusarium species. FHB control is largely executed through chemical strategies, which are costlier to sustainable wheat production, resulting in leaning towards sustainable sources such as resistance breeding and biological control methods for FHB. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating newly identified bacterial consortium (BCM) as biocontrol agents for FHB and understanding the morpho-physiological traits associated with the disease resistance of spring wheat. Preliminary evaluation through antagonistic plate assay and in vivo assessment indicated that BCM effectively inhibited Fusarium growth in spring wheat, reducing area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) and deoxynivalenol (DON), potentially causing type II and V resistance, and improving single spike yield (SSPY). Endurance to FHB infection with the application of BCM is associated with better sustenance of spike photosynthetic performance by improving the light energy harvesting and its utilization. Correlation and path-coefficient analysis indicated that maximum quantum yield (QY_max) is directly influencing the improvement of SSPY and reduction of grain DON accumulation, which is corroborated by principal component analysis. The chlorophyll fluorescence traits identified in the present investigation might be applied as a phenotyping tool for the large-scale identification of wheat sensitivity to FHB.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum , Triticum/microbiologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Consórcios Microbianos/fisiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(5): 235, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722413

RESUMO

In recent years, blueberry root rot has been caused mainly by Fusarium commune, and there is an urgent need for a green and efficient method to control this disease. To date, research on Schizophyllum commune has focused on antioxidant mechanisms, reactive dye degradation, etc., but the mechanism underlying the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms is still unclear. Here, the control effects of S. commune on F. commune and blueberry root rot were studied using adversarial culture, tissue culture, and greenhouse pot experiments. The results showed that S. commune can dissolve insoluble phosphorus and secrete various extracellular hydrolases. The results of hyphal confrontation and fermentation broth antagonism experiments showed that S. commune had a significant inhibitory effect on F. commune, with inhibition rates of 70.30% and 22.86%, respectively. Microscopy results showed distortion of F. commune hyphae, indicating that S. commune is strongly parasitic. S. commune had a significant growth-promoting effect on blueberry tissue-cultured seedlings. After inoculation with S. commune, inoculation with the pathogenic fungus, or inoculation at a later time, the strain significantly reduced the root rot disease index in the potted blueberry seedlings, with relative control effects of 79.14% and 62.57%, respectively. In addition, S. commune G18 significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme contents in the aboveground and underground parts of potted blueberry seedlings. We can conclude that S. commune is a potential biocontrol agent that can be used to effectively control blueberry root rot caused by F. commune in the field.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Schizophyllum , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Fusarium/fisiologia , Schizophyllum/metabolismo , Schizophyllum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibiose , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Plântula/microbiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 205, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755302

RESUMO

Jojoba shrubs are wild plants cultivated in arid and semiarid lands and characterized by tolerance to drought, salinity, and high temperatures. Fungi associated with such plants may be attributed to the tolerance of host plants against biotic stress in addition to the promotion of plant growth. Previous studies showed the importance of jojoba as jojoba oil in the agricultural field; however, no prior study discussed the role of jojoba-associated fungi (JAF) in reflecting plant health and the possibility of using JAF in biocontrol. Here, the culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches were performed to study the diversity of the jojoba-associated fungi. Then, the cultivable fungi were evaluated for in-vitro antagonistic activity and in vitro plant growth promotion assays. The metagenome analysis revealed the existence of four fungal phyla: Ascomycota, Aphelidiomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota. The phylum Ascomycota was the most common and had the highest relative abundance in soil, root, branch, and fruit samples (59.7%, 50.7%, 49.8%, and 52.4%, respectively). Alternaria was the most abundant genus in aboveground tissues: branch (43.7%) and fruit (32.1%), while the genus Discosia had the highest abundance in the underground samples: soil (24%) and root (30.7%). For the culture-dependent method, a total of 14 fungi were isolated, identified, and screened for their chitinolytic and antagonist activity against three phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata and Rhizoctonia solani) as well as their in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) activity. Based on ITS sequence analysis, the selected potent isolates were identified as Aspergillus stellatusEJ-JFF3, Aspergillus flavus EJ-JFF4, Stilbocrea sp. EJ-JLF1, Fusarium solani EJ-JRF3, and Amesia atrobrunneaEJ-JSF4. The endophyte strain A. flavus EJ-JFF4 exhibited the highest chitinolytic activity (9 Enzyme Index) and antagonistic potential against Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, and Rhizoctonia solani phytopathogens with inhibitory percentages of 72, 70, and 80 respectively. Also, A. flavus EJ-JFF4 had significant multiple PGP properties, including siderophore production (69.3%), phosphate solubilization (95.4 µg ml-1). The greatest production of Indol-3-Acetic Acid was belonged to A. atrobrunnea EJ-JSF4 (114.5 µg ml-1). The analysis of FUNGuild revealed the abundance of symbiotrophs over other trophic modes, and the guild of endophytes was commonly assigned in all samples. For the first time, this study uncovered fungal diversity associated with jojoba plants using a culture-independent approach and in-vitro assessed the roles of cultivable fungal strains in promoting plant growth and biocontrol. The present study indicated the significance of jojoba shrubs as a potential source of diverse fungi with high biocontrol and PGP activities.


Assuntos
Alternaria , Fungos , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Alternaria/genética , Alternaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metagenoma , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibiose , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
20.
Arch Virol ; 169(6): 126, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753067

RESUMO

A novel mitovirus was identified in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis strain T-SD3 and designated as "Fusarium oxysporum mitovirus 3" (FoMV3). The virus was isolated from diseased muskmelon plants with the typical symptom of fusarium wilt. The complete genome of FoMV3 is 2269 nt in length with a predicted AU content of 61.40% and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code. The ORF was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 679 amino acids (aa) containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain with a molecular mass of 77.39 kDa, which contains six conserved motifs with the highly conserved GDD tripeptide in motif IV. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 3'-UTR of FoMV3 were predicted to fold into stem-loop structures. BLASTp analysis revealed that the RdRp of FoMV3 shared the highest aa sequence identity (83.85%) with that of Fusarium asiaticum mitovirus 5 (FaMV5, a member of the family Mitoviridae) infecting F. asiaticum, the causal agent of wheat fusarium head blight. Phylogenetic analysis further suggested that FoMV3 is a new member of the genus Unuamitovirus within the family Mitoviridae. This is the first report of a new mitovirus associated with F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis.


Assuntos
Micovírus , Fusarium , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Fusarium/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Micovírus/genética , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Micovírus/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Cucumis melo/virologia , Cucumis melo/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Sequência de Bases
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