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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0277582, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743739

RESUMO

Although a fifth metatarsal stress fracture is the most frequent stress fracture in soccer players, awareness of fifth metatarsal stress fractures among soccer coaches is unclear. Therefore, we performed an online survey of soccer coaches affiliated with the Japan Football Association to assess their awareness of fifth metatarsal stress fractures. A total of 150 soccer coaches were invited for an original online survey. Data on participants' age, sex, types of coaching licence, coaching category, types of training surface, awareness of fifth metatarsal stress fractures, and measures employed to prevent fifth metatarsal stress fractures were collected using the survey. Data from 117 coaches were analysed. Eighty-seven of the 117 coaches were aware of fifth metatarsal stress fractures; however, only 30% reported awareness of preventive and treatment measures for fifth metatarsal stress fractures. Licensed coaches (i.e., licensed higher than level C) were also more likely to be aware of fifth metatarsal stress fractures than unlicensed coaches were. Furthermore, although playing on artificial turf is an established risk factor for numerous sports injuries, soccer coaches who usually trained on artificial turf were more likely to be unaware of the risks associated with fifth metatarsal stress fractures than coaches who trained on other surfaces were (e.g., clay fields). Soccer coaches in the study population were generally aware of fifth metatarsal stress fractures; however, most were unaware of specific treatment or preventive training strategies for fifth metatarsal stress fractures. Additionally, coaches who practised on artificial turf were not well educated on fifth metatarsal stress fractures. Our findings suggest the need for increased awareness of fifth metatarsal stress fractures and improved education of soccer coaches regarding injury prevention strategies. .


Assuntos
Fraturas de Estresse , Ossos do Metatarso , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/lesões , Fraturas de Estresse/prevenção & controle , Fraturas de Estresse/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Masculino , Ossos do Metatarso/lesões , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10970, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745037

RESUMO

This study aimed to achieve two objectives: firstly, to analyze the relationships between aerobic fitness, as represented by the VIFT, and the heart rate and locomotor responses of youth male soccer players across various teams; and secondly, to compare players with lower and higher VIFT in terms of performance outcomes extracted during small-sided games (SSGs). A total of twenty-six youth male soccer players, aged 16.5 ± 0.32 years, with 3.4 ± 1.1 years of experience, voluntarily participated in the study. These players belonged to two regional-level tier 2 teams (trained/developmental). In the initial week of observation, the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test was implemented to measure the final velocity (VIFT) achieved by the players. Subsequently, the 5v5 format of play was conducted twice a week over two consecutive weeks, during which heart rate responses and locomotor demands were measured. The Pearson product-moment correlation test revealed a significant correlation between VIFT and the total distance covered during the 5v5 format (r = 0.471 [95% CI: 0.093; 0.721], p = 0.015). Conversely, small and non-significant correlations were identified between VIFT and mean heart rate (r = 0.280 [95% CI: - 0.126; 0.598]; p = 0.166), VIFT and peak heart rate (r = 0.237 [95% CI: - 0.170; 0.569]; p = 0.243), as well as VIFT and high-speed running (r = 0.254 [95% CI: - 0.153; 0.580]; p = 0.211). Players with higher VIFT demonstrated a significantly greater total distance, with a large effect size (+ 6.64%; p = 0.015; d = 1.033), compared to those with lower VIFT. Our findings suggest that improved performance in VIFT may lead to covering more distance in 5v5 matches. However, the lack of significant associations between VIFT and heart rate levels during SSGs suggests that they are not strongly correlated, possibly because VIFT is more closely linked to locomotor profile. As a practical implication, coaches may consider organizing players during SSGs based on their VIFT if the goal is to standardize locomotor demands.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Frequência Cardíaca , Aptidão Física , Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Locomoção/fisiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10225, 2024 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702374

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the effect of laterality and instructional video on the soccer goalkeepers' dive kinematics in penalty. Eight goalkeepers from youth categories (U15, U17, U20) were randomly divided into control (CG) and video instruction groups (VG). The latter performed 20 penalty defense trials on the field with balls launched by a machine, ten before and after watching a video instruction to improve the diving kinematics. The CG only performed the dives. Three cameras recorded the collections. A markerless motion capture technique (OpenPose) was used for identification and tracking of joints and anatomical references on video. The pose data were used for 3D reconstruction. In the post-instruction situation, the VG presented differences in comparison to the CG in the: knee flexion/extension angle, time to reach peak resultant velocity, frontal step distance, and frontal departure angle, which generated greater acceleration during the dive. Non-dominant leg side dives had higher resultant velocity during 88.4 - 100% of the diving cycle, different knee flexion/extension angle, and higher values ​​in the frontal step distance. The instructional video generated an acute change in the diving movement pattern of young goalkeepers when comparing the control and the video instruction group in the post condition.


Assuntos
Futebol , Gravação em Vídeo , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Adolescente , Masculino , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia
4.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(5): e14646, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700046

RESUMO

There is limited research on female football players, especially related to their physical and cognitive performance under different climactic conditions. We analyzed the impact of a hot environmental temperature on physical performance and anticipation in elite female football players during a fatigue-inducing intermittent protocol. Elite female players (n = 21) performed the countermovement jump (CMJ) and responded to filmed sequences of offensive play under two distinct environmental temperatures (i.e., mild environment temperature- 20°C and 30% rh versus hot environment temperature- 38°C and 80% rh), interspersed by 1-week interval. Linear mixed models were used. CMJ performance declined following the intermittent protocol on both temperature conditions (p < 0.05). Moreover, there were significant main effects for protocol on CMJ speed (m/s) (p = 0.001; ηp 2 = 0.12), CMJ power (p = 0.002; ηp 2 = 0.11), and CMJ Heightmax (p = 0.002; ηp 2 = 0.12). After performing the intermittent protocol, exposure to a hot temperature caused a greater decline in anticipation accuracy (mild temperature = 64.41% vs. hot temperature = 53.44%; p < 0.001). Our study shows impaired performance in elite female football players following an intermittent protocol under hot compared with mild environmental conditions. We report decreased performance in both CMJ and anticipation performance under hotter conditions. The results reveal that exposure to hot temperatures had a negative effect on the accuracy of their anticipatory behaviors. We consider the implication of the work for research and training interventions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Cognição , Temperatura Alta , Futebol , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Futebol/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Adulto
5.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732571

RESUMO

The use of creatine monohydrate (Cr) in professional soccer is widely documented. However, the effect of low doses of Cr on the physical performance of young soccer players is unknown. This study determined the effect of a low dose of orally administered Cr on muscle power after acute intra-session fatigue in young soccer players. Twenty-eight young soccer players (mean age = 17.1 ± 0.9 years) were randomly assigned to either a Cr (n = 14, 0.3 g·kg-1·day-1 for 14 days) or placebo group (n = 14), using a two-group matched, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Before and after supplementation, participants performed 21 repetitions of 30 m (fatigue induction), and then, to measure muscle power, they performed four repetitions in half back squat (HBS) at 65% of 1RM. Statistical analysis included a two-factor ANOVA (p ˂ 0.05). Bar velocity at HBS, time: p = 0.0006, ŋp2 = 0.22; group: p = 0.0431, ŋp2 = 0.12, time × group p = 0.0744, ŋp2 = 0.02. Power at HBS, time: p = 0.0006, ŋp2 = 0.12; group: p = 0.16, ŋp2 = 0.06, time × group: p = 0.17, ŋp2 = 0.009. At the end of the study, it was found that, after the induction of acute intra-session fatigue, a low dose of Cr administered orally increases muscle power in young soccer players.


Assuntos
Creatina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fadiga Muscular , Força Muscular , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Método Duplo-Cego , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Atletas
6.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732581

RESUMO

Nutrition periodization in football training is an important determinant of adaptation to cyclic training loads. Personalizing an athlete's diet is crucial to ensure optimal performance and body composition, depending on the phase of training. The purpose of this review is to answer the question of how the body composition of football players changes over the training macrocycle and how dietary recommendations should be tailored to specific training periods. The review of scientific evidence was conducted based on the available literature, typing in phrases related to training and nutrition periodization using the PubMed and Google Scholar database methodology tools. A literature search resulted in the selection of 346 sources directly related to the topic of the study, and then those with the highest scientific value were selected. There is a need to adjust energy and nutrient intake according to the different training phases in a football player's preparation cycle. During the preparatory phase, it is recommended to increase protein and energy intake to support anabolic processes and muscle mass development. During the competitive period, due to the intensity of matches and training, the importance of carbohydrates for glycogen replenishment and recovery is emphasized. The transition phase requires the regulation of caloric intake to prevent adverse changes in body composition. Hydration has been identified as a key element in each phase of training. Cooperation between coaches, nutritionists, and players is essential to optimize sports performance and rapid recovery, and the authors recommend continuous adaptation and nutritional optimization as an integral part of football training.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Adaptação Fisiológica , Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Masculino
7.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e082902, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663922

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although limited, recent research suggests that contact sport participation might have an adverse long-term effect on brain health. Further work is required to determine whether this includes an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease and/or subsequent changes in cognition and behaviour. The Advanced BiomaRker, Advanced Imaging and Neurocognitive Health Study will prospectively examine the neurological, psychiatric, psychological and general health of retired elite-level rugby union and association football/soccer players. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 400 retired athletes will be recruited (200 rugby union and 200 association football players, male and female). Athletes will undergo a detailed clinical assessment, advanced neuroimaging, blood testing for a range of brain health outcomes and neuropsychological assessment longitudinally. Follow-up assessments will be completed at 2 and 4 years after baseline visit. 60 healthy volunteers will be recruited and undergo an aligned assessment protocol including advanced neuroimaging, blood testing and neuropsychological assessment. We will describe the previous exposure to head injuries across the cohort and investigate relationships between biomarkers of brain injury and clinical outcomes including cognitive performance, clinical diagnoses and psychiatric symptom burden. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Relevant ethical approvals have been granted by the Camberwell St Giles Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 17/LO/2066). The study findings will be disseminated through manuscripts in clinical/academic journals, presentations at professional conferences and through participant and stakeholder communications.


Assuntos
Atletas , Biomarcadores , Futebol Americano , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Masculino , Futebol Americano/lesões , Neuroimagem/métodos , Feminino , Atletas/psicologia , Aposentadoria , Cognição , Projetos de Pesquisa , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Futebol/lesões
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(8)2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676078

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of regulatory modifications in competitive situations on cinematic variables, considering maturity stage as a moderating factor, in youth football players. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in which 45 players with a mean age of 9.47 ± 0.54 participated. The independent variable analysed was the modification of rules (playing time, scoring, and specific rules). The dependent variables analysed were cinematic variables. These variables were recorded with WimuTM. The maturity stage was considered a moderating factor in this effect. The main results indicate that the modified competition reduced the total distance covered, maximum acceleration speed, and distance covered in acceleration and deceleration in different speed zones. In addition, the maturity stage was found to moderate the effect of the intervention on the total distance covered, distance covered by accelerating in zone 3, and distance covered by decelerating in zone 3. Thus, the proposed modification appeared to reduce the physical demand for competition. Furthermore, it reduced the differences between players with early maturational development and those with late maturational development.


Assuntos
Futebol , Humanos , Criança , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Masculino , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Atletas
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(8)2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676194

RESUMO

Sprinting is a decisive action in soccer that is considerably taxing from a neuromuscular and energetic perspective. This study compared different calculation methods for the metabolic power (MP) and energy cost (EC) of sprinting using global positioning system (GPS) metrics and electromyography (EMG), with the aim of identifying potential differences in performance markers. Sixteen elite U17 male soccer players (age: 16.4 ± 0.5 years; body mass: 64.6 ± 4.4 kg; and height: 177.4 ± 4.3 cm) participated in the study and completed four different submaximal constant running efforts followed by sprinting actions while using portable GPS-IMU units and surface EMG. GPS-derived MP was determined based on GPS velocity, and the EMG-MP and EC were calculated based on individual profiles plotting the MP of the GPS and all EMG signals acquired. The goodness of fit of the linear regressions was assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2), and a repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect changes. A linear trend was found in EMG activity during submaximal speed runs (R2 = 1), but when the sprint effort was considered, the trend became exponential (R2 = 0.89). The EMG/force ratio displayed two different trends: linear up to a 30 m sprint (R2 = 0.99) and polynomial up to a 50 m sprint (R2 = 0.96). Statistically significant differences between the GPS and EMG were observed for MP splits at 0-5 m, 5-10 m, 25-30 m, 30-35 m, and 35-40 m and for EC splits at 5-10 m, 25-30 m, 30-35 m, and 35-40 m (p ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the determination of the MP and EC based on GPS technology underestimated the neuromuscular and metabolic engagement during the sprinting efforts. Thus, the EMG-derived method seems to be more accurate for calculating the MP and EC in this type of action.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Metabolismo Energético , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Masculino , Eletromiografia/métodos , Adolescente , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(8)2024 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676261

RESUMO

This study aimed to use a data-driven approach to identify individualized speed thresholds to characterize running demands and athlete workload during games and practices in skill and linemen football players. Data were recorded from wearable sensors over 28 sessions from 30 male Canadian varsity football athletes, resulting in a total of 287 performances analyzed, including 137 games and 150 practices, using a global positioning system. Speed zones were identified for each performance by fitting a 5-dimensional Gaussian mixture model (GMM) corresponding to 5 running intensity zones from minimal (zone 1) to maximal (zone 5). Skill players had significantly higher (p < 0.001) speed thresholds, percentage of time spent, and distance covered in maximal intensity zones compared to linemen. The distance covered in game settings was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to practices. This study highlighted the use of individualized speed thresholds to determine running intensity and athlete workloads for American and Canadian football athletes, as well as compare running performances between practice and game scenarios. This approach can be used to monitor physical workload in athletes with respect to their tactical positions during practices and games, and to ensure that athletes are adequately trained to meet in-game physical demands.


Assuntos
Atletas , Corrida , Humanos , Corrida/fisiologia , Masculino , Canadá , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Adulto Jovem , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Adulto , Futebol/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8542, 2024 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609417

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to explore the correlation between repeated sprint sets (RSS) ability and several physical attributes, including maximum sprint speed, maximal aerobic speed, maximal anaerobic speed, aerobic capacity, and explosive strength. Moreover, the aim was to assess the suitability of RSS as a comprehensive evaluation tool for physical qualities and to determine which physical field tests most accurately predict RSS in elite young male soccer players. A total of thirty-two young elite male soccer players (mean age 14.6 ± 0.3 years; predicted years from peak height velocity (PHV): - 0.4 ± 0.3; years in training: 3.7 ± 0.5) voluntarily participated in the study. The players participated in eight consecutive specific physical tests, with a minimum 72-h recovery between each session to minimize the impact of fatigue during the second trial. The participants completed the tests in the following order: RSS test, Vam-Eval test, a constant velocity test performed until exhaustion at 100% of vVO2max (tlim100), 20-m Multi-Stage Shuttle Run test (VMSRT), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (VMASRT), Maximal Sprinting Speed Test (20-m flying sprint), Countermovement Jump (CMJ), and Standing Long Jump test (SLJ). The results of the study showed that there were very large negative correlations between tlim100 and SST (sum of sprint times), and large negative correlations between Yo-Yo IR1, Vam-Eval, and SST during RSS in young elite male soccer players (p < 0.05). Additionally, VMASRT and SLJ demonstrated a moderate negative correlation with SST (p < 0.05). In contrast, significant positive correlations were found between 20-m flying sprint and the SST (p < 0.05). According to the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, the primary predictors of SST, ranked by importance, were tlim100 and Yo-Yo IR1. These two predictors collectively accounted for 72% of the variance in players' SST (p < 0.0001). Due to the importance of aerobic capacity and short repeated accelerations/sprint sets for overall competitive performance in soccer, in conclusion, our results suggest that elite young male soccer players should perform both high intensity interval training and aeorobic capactity exercises as part of soccer training if the primary outcome is to improve repeated sprint ability performance.


Assuntos
Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Aceleração
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610469

RESUMO

Aerobic capacity plays a crucial role in football performance, making it a focal point in training processes. Small-sided games (SSGs) are widely used in football training, but the relationship between aerobic capacity and running performance during SSGs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate possible correlations between maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running performance in youth football players in SSGs (4:4, 3:3, 2:2, 1:1) with three different pitch sizes per player (150, 100, 75 m2/player). Sixteen male U15 football players participated in the study. Players underwent the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1, and their VO2max was estimated based on their performance. Subsequently, players participated in SSGs wearing GPS devices to measure internal and external load. Pearson or Spearman correlation was applied for statistical analysis depending on the normal distribution of the data. The results reveal that, for 4:4 and 3:3 relationships, larger pitches led to a greater impact of aerobic capacity (total distance (TD): 4:4, 150 m2/pl, r = 0.715, p = 0.002; 100 m2/pl, r = 0.656, p = 0.006; 75 m2/pl, r = 0.586, p = 0.017). In the 2:2 relationship, the opposite was observed, with more correlations appearing on smaller pitches (TD: 2:2, 100 m2/pl, r = 0.581, p = 0.018; 75 m2/pl, r = 0.747, p < 0.001). In the 1:1 relationship, correlations with VO2max, total distance, and speed were observed only on the larger pitch. In conclusion, the aerobic capacity of young football players can influence running performance indicators in SSGs. Therefore, aerobic capacity could serve as a criterion for team composition, making SSGs more competitive. Additionally, the variation in correlations in the 2:2 relationship and their limited presence in the 1:1 relationship may be attributed to technical-tactical factors, such as increased ball contacts and one-on-one situations typically occurring in smaller setups.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio
13.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of eating disorders and attitudes toward one's own body among football players at amateur and professional levels. METHODS: The study included 90 players from football clubs located in the Upper Silesia Metropolitan Area, participating in the 4th and 5th leagues in Poland. A survey questionnaire was used to conduct the study, which consisted of a metric section, an Eating Attitudes Test, and Body Esteem Scale questionnaires. The players were divided into two groups according to their sports level. RESULTS: Results showed that 24.4% of players were overweight, while 75.6% had a normative body weight. Approximately 16.7% met the criteria indicating susceptibility to an eating disorder. Body Esteem Scale interpretations revealed moderate body appraisal among players. CONCLUSIONS: Both amateur and professional athletes showed no significant difference in eating disorder risk, but professionals rated their bodies higher. Social media use, particularly on Twitter and Instagram, is correlated with eating disorders, with longer daily use associated with lower body ratings.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Futebol , Humanos , Atletas , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
14.
J Sports Sci ; 42(5): 465-474, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574361

RESUMO

Assessing the intensity characteristics of specific soccer drills (matches, small-side game, and match-based exercises) could help practitioners to plan training sessions by providing the optimal stimulus for every player. In this paper, we propose a data analytics framework to assess the neuromuscular or metabolic characteristics of a soccer-specific exercise in relation with the expected match intensity. GPS data describing the physical tasks' external intensity during an entire season of twenty-eight semi-professional soccer players competing at the fourth Italian division were used in this study. A supervised machine-learning approach was tested in order to detect difference in playing positions in different sport-specific drills. Moreover, a non-supervised machine-learning model was used to profile the match neuromuscular and metabolic characteristics. Players' playing positions during matches and match-based exercises are characterised by specific metabolic and neuromuscular characteristics related to tactical demands, while in the small-side game these differences are not detected. Additionally, our framework permits to evaluate if the match performance request is mirrored during training drills. Practitioners could evaluate the type of stimulus performed by a player in a specific training drill in order to assess if they reflect the matches characteristics of their specific playing position.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Aprendizado de Máquina , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Masculino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Adulto
15.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302474, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669272

RESUMO

Evaluation of muscle strength imbalance can be an important element in optimizing the training process of soccer players. The purpose of the study was to examine isokinetic peak torque (PT) and total work (TW) exerted by both knee extensors (quadriceps or Q) and flexors (hamstrings or H), intra-limb imbalance and the magnitude and direction of inter-limb asymmetry in top elite senior (n = 109) and junior (n = 74) soccer players. An isokinetic dynamometry was used to measure maximum peak torque of quadriceps (PT-Q) and hamstrings (PT-H) at an angular velocity of 60° ·s-1, as well as the total work for extensors (TW-Q) and flexors (TW-H) at an angular velocity of 240° ·s-1 in the dominant (DL) and non-dominant leg (NDL) during concentric muscle contraction. Intra-limb imbalance and inter-limb asymmetries were calculated using a standard equation. Statistical analysis using t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test revealed: (a) no differences (p > 0.05) between groups for PT-Q and PT-H, (b) greater strength levels (p < 0.05) for TW-Q and TW-H of senior players than juniors, and (c) no differences (p > 0.05) between groups for intra-limb imbalance and inter-limb asymmetry. Additionally, Pearson's chi-kwadrat (χ2) analysis showed no differences (p > 0.05) between groups for intra-limb imbalance and inter-limb asymmetry in relation to the 'normative' values accepted in the literature that indicate an increase in the risk of knee injury. This study shows that isokinetic assessment can be an important tool to identify imbalances/asymmetries and to develop strategies to reduce the risk of muscle injury.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Futebol , Torque , Futebol/fisiologia , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Atletas , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297951, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiac stress for veteran football players during match is considerable. In this specific elderly population, the kinetics of exercise-induced cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and B-Type natriuretic peptide (BNP) could potentially be related to cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cardiovascular disease and are therefore be investigated for their usefulness as an complement to established screening measures. METHODS: cTnI and BNP was measured in 112 veteran football players (age: 51 ± 10 years) within 30 minutes pre- and post-match. Players with elevated cTnI (cTnI-positive) and a control group (out of the 112 veteran players) with normal cTnI (cTnI-negative) underwent cardiac follow-up 4.2 ± 3.5 months post-match, comprising history, resting and stress ECG (including 30 minutes pre- and post cTnI and BNP), and echocardiography. RESULTS: In 33 players (29%) cTnI and in 6 players BNP (5%) exceeded the upper range limit for increased risk of myocardial damage (cTnI ≥ 5 ng/l) and myocardial wall stress (BNP ≥ 100 pg/ml) post-match, respectively. No correlation was observed between Δ cTnI (pre- vs. post-match) and the number of CVRF (r = -0.06, p = 0.50). Follow-up was conducted in 62 players (31 cTnI-positive and 31 cTnI-negative players) of which 6 (10%, 3 cTnI positive and 3 cTnI negative players) had cardiac abnormalities (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy n = 2, coronary artery disease n = 2, coronary artery anomaly n = 1, hypertensive heart disease n = 1). CONCLUSION: Veterans' football matches elicit increases in BNP and particularly cTnI in a considerable number of players. However, these biochemical alterations do not indicate acute cardiac damage as evidenced by follow-up. Routine determination of cardiac biomarkers is unlikely to improve cardiovascular screening in veteran football players.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Futebol , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Seguimentos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298107, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635802

RESUMO

With recent technological advancements, quantitative analysis has become an increasingly important area within professional sports. However, the manual process of collecting data on relevant match events like passes, goals and tacklings comes with considerable costs and limited consistency across providers, affecting both research and practice. In football, while automatic detection of events from positional data of the players and the ball could alleviate these issues, it is not entirely clear what accuracy current state-of-the-art methods realistically achieve because there is a lack of high-quality validations on realistic and diverse data sets. This paper adds context to existing research by validating a two-step rule-based pass and shot detection algorithm on four different data sets using a comprehensive validation routine that accounts for the temporal, hierarchical and imbalanced nature of the task. Our evaluation shows that pass and shot detection performance is highly dependent on the specifics of the data set. In accordance with previous studies, we achieve F-scores of up to 0.92 for passes, but only when there is an inherent dependency between event and positional data. We find a significantly lower accuracy with F-scores of 0.71 for passes and 0.65 for shots if event and positional data are independent. This result, together with a critical evaluation of existing methodologies, suggests that the accuracy of current football event detection algorithms operating on positional data is currently overestimated. Further analysis reveals that the temporal extraction of passes and shots from positional data poses the main challenge for rule-based approaches. Our results further indicate that the classification of plays into shots and passes is a relatively straightforward task, achieving F-scores between 0.83 to 0.91 ro rule-based classifiers and up to 0.95 for machine learning classifiers. We show that there exist simple classifiers that accurately differentiate shots from passes in different data sets using a low number of human-understandable rules. Operating on basic spatial features, our classifiers provide a simple, objective event definition that can be used as a foundation for more reliable event-based match analysis.


Assuntos
Futebol , Humanos , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299853, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593160

RESUMO

Transfers in the football world have become a hot topic in academic studies in recent years. Spanish league (La Liga) is one of the men's professional football leagues that have driven some of the most notorious transfers. In this way, we test determinants for the transfer relationships of football players in the Spanish League in the most expensive seasons with records (2018/2019 and 2019/2020 seasons). Furthermore, we identify determinants for the values of the observed transfers. The empirical analysis shows relevant findings. We recognize two implications. First, Spanish soccer transfers are not random and this evidence reflects the environment of imperfect competition characterizing La Liga. Second, the nonrandomness of the transfer process can be associated with an increasing inequality among teams and with a threat to the competitive balance in professional sports.


Assuntos
Futebol , Masculino , Humanos , Estações do Ano
19.
Sleep Med ; 117: 193-200, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe components of night-to-night variation in objective measures of sleep. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of consecutive and chronologically ordered actigraphy-based measurements for time in bed (min), time asleep (min), and wake-after-sleep onset (min). This investigation examined 575 individual night-based measures available for a sub-sample of fifty-two, male youth Middle Eastern football players tracked over a 14-day surveillance period (chronological age range: 12.1 to 16 years). Distinct multivariable-adjusted generalized additive models included each objective sleep outcome measure as dependent variable and disaggregated components of variation for night measurement-by-sleep period interaction, week part (weekday or weekend), and study participant random effects from within-subject night-to-night sleep variation. RESULTS: The within-subject standard deviation (SD) of ±98 min (95% confidence interval [CI], 92 to 104 min) for time in bed, ±87 min (95%CI, 82 to 93 min) for time asleep, and ±23 min (95%CI, 22 to 25 min) for wake-after-sleep-onset overwhelmed other sources of variability and accounted for ∼44% to 53% of the overall night-to-night variation. The night measurement-by-fragmented sleep period interaction SD was ±83 min (95%CI, 44 to 156 min) for time in bed, ±67 min (95%CI, 34 to 131 min) for time asleep, and ±15 min (95%CI, 7 to 32 min) for wake-after-sleep-onset that accounted for ∼22% to 32% of each sleep outcome measure overall variability. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial random night-to-night within-subject variability poses additional challenges for strategies aiming to mitigate problems of insufficient and inconsistent sleep that are detrimental to school learning and youth athlete development processes.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Futebol , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Actigrafia , Polissonografia , Sono
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e081942, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games, there were the rule and goal size changes at the blind football competition. This study aimed to compare the scoring and head impact characteristics during blind football competition between the Rio 2016 and Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games using the official videos. DESIGN: Video-based observational study. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 36 blind football (men's football 5-a-side) game videos were obtained from the official International Paralympic Committee. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Head impact was defined as the sudden contact of any object with the head. Videos were analysed to assess the number of scores and head impacts along with their corresponding details (ie, round, playing phase, scoring situation, impact situation, occurrence area, impact object, head impact site, fall and foul). RESULTS: The total number of goals scored at the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games was nearly double that at the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. Regarding head impacts, a total of 2036 cases (Rio 2016, n=1105; Tokyo 2020, n=931) were evaluated. Significant differences were observed in head impact characteristics between the Rio 2016 and Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games among seven outcomes (round, scoring situation, impact situation, occurrence area, impact object, site of head impact and fall). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games, the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games showed an increase in the number of points scored and different head impact characteristics.


Assuntos
Futebol , Humanos , Masculino , Tóquio , Gravação em Vídeo
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