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1.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 120-146, 20210630. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281356

RESUMO

Estádios periféricos como o Castor Cifuentes/MG e o Farião/MG, com capacidade inferior a 10 mil presentes, representam 77,4% do total de estádios brasileiros. Objetivamos aqui analisar a percepção que os torcedores de estádios periféricos têm sobre estádios e arenas. Para tanto, realizamos 19 incursões a campo, todas em dias de jogos. Para busca dos dados utilizamos a observação não participante e aplicação de formulários. Os dados foram analisados através do programa de análises estatísticas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) e da análise de conteúdo. Ao fim, participaram do estudo 107 torcedores. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que os participantes são favoráveis a tais transformações, mesmo cientes dos pontos negativos. Inclusive do risco de serem excluídos da vivência cotidiana nos estádios.


Peripheral stadiums like Castor Cifuentes/MG and Farião/MG, with a capacity below 10.000 people, represent 77.4% of the total Brazilian stadiums. We aim here to analyze the perception that fans who go to peripheral stadiums have of bigger stadiums and arenas. To do so, we conducted 19 visits to the stadiums, all on game days. Data were collected through non-participant observation and application of forms. Data were analyzed through the statistical analysis program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and content analysis. We had the participation of 107 individual fans. The main results show that fans are in favor of the changes even though they are aware of the negatives, including the risk of being hindered of frequent active life in stadiums.


Assuntos
Futebol
2.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 147-172, 20210630. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281359

RESUMO

A discussão sobre o racismo no Brasil é um tema relevante e atual, sendo enfrentado cotidianamente pelos afro-brasileiros. No cenário futebolístico não é diferente e este artigo ocupa-se a fazer uma revisão sistemática qualitativa das produções sobre o negro no futebol brasileiro, publicadas em periódicos científicos com escopo na Educação Física que, no Qualis/Capes do quadriênio 2013-2016, foram classificadas pela área 21 no extrato B2 ou superior. Divididos em cinco temáticas, encontrou-se resultados específicos: os jogos, Preto X Branco buscaram reforçar a integração racial; a imprensa negra atuava no combate ao racismo; a culpa do jogador negro, Barbosa, na derrota de 1950 não se deveu às análises esportivas à época; a cultura negra como atributo fundamental no estilo brasileiro de jogar; por fim, a discriminação racial no meio é uma prática recorrente e as autoridades pouco têm feito para combatê-lo.


Racism in Brazil is a relevant and current discussion, being faced daily by the Afro-Brazilians. As it also happens in the football scenario, this article engages a systematic qualitative review of the scientific productions concerning black people in Brazilian soccer published in academic journals focused on Physical Education, classified in area 21, stratum B2 or higher in Qualis/Capes four-year period 2013-2016. Five subjects compose the specific results found: first, the Black X White games sought to reinforce racial integration; second, the black press acted to fight racism; third, Barbosa's fault, a black player, in 1950's defeat was not due to sports analyses at the time. Fourth, black culture is a fundamental attribute to the Brazilian play style, and lastly, racial discrimination in this environment is an iterant practice, and authorities have done little to fight it.


Assuntos
Futebol , Esportes , Racismo
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502586

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the between-match and between-halves match variability of various Global Positioning System (GPS) variables and metabolic power average (MPA) in competitions, based on the match results obtained by professional soccer players over a full season. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on thirteen outfield players competing in the Iranian Premier League. The measures selected for analysis included total duration, accelerations in zones (AccZ1, 2, and 3), decelerations in zones (DecZ1, 2, and 3), and MPA collected by the Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit (WIMU). The GPS manufacturer set the thresholds for the variables analyzed as follows: AccZ1 (<2 m·s-2); AccZ2 (2 to 4 m·s-2); AccZ3 (>4 m·s-2); DecZ1 (<-2 m·s-2); DecZ2 (-2 to -4 m·s-2); DecZ3 (>-4 m·s-2). The results revealed significant differences between wins and draws for the duration of the match and draws compared to wins for the first- half duration (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.36 [-0.43, 1.12]), (p ≤ 0.05; ES = -7.0 [-8.78, -4.78], respectively. There were significant differences on AccZ1 during the first-half between draws and defeats (p ≤ 0.05; ES = -0.43 [-1.32, 0.46]), for AccZ3 in the second-half between draws and defeats (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 1.37 [0.48, 2.25]). In addition, there were significant differences between wins and draws (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.22 [-0.62, 1.10]), and wins and defeats for MPA in the first- half (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.34 [-0.65, 1.22]). MPA showed further differences between draws and defeats in the second- half (p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.57 [-0.22, 1.35]). Descriptive analysis revealed differences between the first and second half for wins in AccZ2 (p = 0.005), DecZ2 (p = 0.029), and MPA (p = 0.048). In addition, draws showed significant differences between the first and second half in duration, AccZ1, AccZ2, and DecZ2 (p = 0.008), (p = 0.017), (p = 0.040), and (p = 0.037) respectively. Defeats showed differences between the first and second half in AccZ1, AccZ3, and MPA (p = 0.001), (p = 0.018), and (p = 0.003) respectively. In summary, the study reveals large variations between the match duration, accelerometer variables, and MPA both within and between matches. Regardless of the match outcome, the first half seems to produce greater outputs. The results should be considered when performing a half-time re-warm-up, as this may be an additional factor influencing the drop in the intensity markers in the second half in conjunction with factors such as fatigue, pacing strategies, and other contextual variables that may influence the results.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Aceleração , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Estações do Ano
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360252

RESUMO

The current study was conducted to compare muscle damage biomarkers in single- vs. multi-match weeks in elite soccer players for two consecutive seasons. A secondary objective was to analyze the influence of playing position and exposure time on muscle damage in single- vs. multi-match weeks. This is a prospective cohort study performed in a professional elite soccer club in the English Premier League during the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 seasons up until the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected in the Medical Department Room of an English Premier League Club before and after the soccer game from a total of 29 elite soccer players (mean ± S.D.; age = 27.59 ± 3.83 years; height = 1.83 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 80.16 ± 7.45 kg) who were enrolled in the club during both seasons. The main outcome measurements were creatine kinase (CK), weight, lean mass, % fat DEXA, high speed running, total distance, density of total distance and high-speed running and wellbeing questionnaires. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Players who completed more than 60 min in the previous game had significantly increased pregame CK levels and fatigue in multi-match weeks. Midfielders had both significantly increased pregame CK and muscle soreness in multi-match weeks. Midfielders and players with an exposure time of at least 60 min showed higher pregame CK values that should play a key role for deciding substitutions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , COVID-19 , Futebol , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Músculos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360295

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the intragroup differences in weekly training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) between starter and non-starter male professional soccer players at accelerometry based variables throughout the periods of a season. TM and TS of different accelerations and decelerations zones for twenty-one players were followed for forty-eight weeks. Regardless of group, players obtained the highest mean TM (starters = 3.3 ± 0.6, non-starters = 2.2 ± 1.1, in arbitrary unit, AU) and TS (starters = 1288.9 ± 265.2, non-starters = 765.4 ± 547.5, AU) scores in the pre-season for accelerations at Zone 1 (<2 m/s2). The results also indicated that both groups exhibited similar TM and TS scores in accelerations at Zones 2 (2 to 4 m/s2) and 3 (>4 m/s2) across the entire season. While the starters showed the highest TM and TS scores at deceleration Zone 1 (<-2 m/s2) in the end-season, the non-starters exhibited the highest scores at the deceleration Zone 1 in pre-season. It seems that in pre-season, coaches applied higher levels of training with greater emphasis on deceleration for non-starters. This tendency was reduced over time for non-starters, while starters presented higher values of deceleration Zone 1. These results highlight the variations in TM and TS across the different periods of a full season according to match starting status among professional soccer players, and the results suggest that non-starter players should receive higher levels of load to compensate for non-participation in matches throughout a soccer season.


Assuntos
Futebol , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Aceleração , Acelerometria , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During a soccer game, the most diversified stimuli occur all the time, the physical condition level plays a determinant role, and there may be variations according to the competitive level. In this sense, the present study aimed to verify differences in body composition, lower limbs power, and anaerobic power, comparing senior soccer players of different competitive levels. METHODS: Participants were 81 players belonging to six soccer teams, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a mean age of 23.14 ± 4.23 years, who were divided into three distinct competitive levels: Elite, Sub-Elite and Non-Elite. The players performed bioimpedance evaluations on a tetrapolarInbody270 scale (body composition), the Countermovement Jump (CMJ) through the ChronoJump (lower limbs power), and Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) (anaerobic power). RESULTS: Based on the competitive level analysis, we verified that the players present body composition values similar to each other regardless of the competitive level in which they play. Concerning the performance evaluations, we verified that the elite players present higher values of highest jump (p = 0.012; d = 0.76, moderate; and p = 0.022; d = 0.71, moderate) and maximum force produced (p = 0.05; d = 0.64, moderate; and p = 0.002; d = 1.00, moderate), together with higher values of anaerobic power (p < 0.001; d = 2.43, very large; and p < 0.001; d = 2.22, very large), compared to the others. CONCLUSIONS: We can thus conclude that there is a homogeneity regarding the body composition of soccer players, regardless of their competitive level; in turn, elite players show better performance indicators in all variables.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Anaerobiose , Composição Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360523

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to implement an athletic program to improve the explosive force in order to optimize physical fitness at the level of elite football-tennis players and evaluate the progress made through specific tests using the Opto Jump. The research included 10 elite European and world-class players, on whom an experimental program was applied in order to improve the explosive force of the limbs in conditions of speed, endurance, and dynamic balance. Study tests: five vertical jumps on the spot, on the left/right leg; five back and forth jumps on the left/right leg; five left/right side jumps on the left/right leg; vertical jumps on both legs 60 s; BFS vertical jumps. For each test, the following parameters specific to the explosive force were statistically analyzed: contact time (s); flight time (s); jump height (cm), jump power (w/kg); RSI-Reactive Strength Index, defined as Height (m/s). In the study, the average value of the parameters specific to the jumps performed in each test was taken into account. During the study, the tests were performed and processed on the Opto Jump device and software. In all tests of the experiment monitored through Opto Jump, significant progress was made in the final test compared to the initial one, which demonstrates the efficiency of the physical training program implemented for the development of explosive force, with an impact on the sports performance of elite players. The most relevant results obtained for the left leg regarding the improvement of the explosive force of the lower limbs materialized in the jump height parameter was in the test of five vertical jumps on one leg on the spot, and for the right leg in the tests of: five back and forth jumps and five left/right side jumps. The most significant advances in the study were in the tests, in descending order of their weight: 60 s vertical jumps on both legs; five back-and-forth jumps and five left/right side jumps, five vertical jumps on one leg standing, and BFS vertical jumps.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Tênis , Força Muscular , Aptidão Física
8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(8): 2279-2286, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398078

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Nowak, R, Kostrzerwa-Nowak, D, and Buryta, R. Analysis of selected lymphocyte (CD45+) subset distribution in capillary blood of young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2279-2286, 2021-Mechanisms responsible for increasing athletes' physical capacity and induction of exercise-induced immunosuppression processes are not fully understood. The aim of the study was to monitor changes in percentages of lymphocyte subsets: T, Th, Tc, B, and NK cells in capillary blood of junior soccer players. Ten subjects median aged 18 years (range 17-19 years) were recruited form young soccer players. Capillary blood was collected 24 hours after each soccer match during the 8 weeks of the final phase of Central Junior League competition, and white blood cell (WBC) phenotyping was performed to determine the percentages of B lymphocytes, NK cells, and T-lymphocyte subsets. Cumulative match-time (a sum of time spend playing the game by each athlete during the observation period) was also calculated. Significant changes in the percentage of total lymphocytes (p = 0.00005) and T cells (p = 0.00006) were observed. The slight increases in lymphocytes' and Th cells' median percentages correlated with increasing cumulative match-time of studied subjects, although the correlation was not strong (R = 0.24; p = 0.0205 and R = 0.30; p = 0.0035, for lymphocytes and Th cells, respectively). It seems that the exercise bouts are among considerable factors influencing the changes in WBC subsets, especially in CD3+ cells, among young soccer players. Regarding the number of games played and training loads, they are more susceptible to immunosuppression and subsequent infections and thus should be monitored regarding WBC phenotype assessment.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Humanos , Linfócitos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 256-264, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391242

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recurrent ankle sprains are common in soccer players, characterized by restricted range of motion, pain, and decreased proprioception, strength, and postural control. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a fascial therapy and strength training program, combined with kinesiotaping, in improving ankle range of motion, pain, strength and stability in footballers with recurrent sprains. METHOD: A simple blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on soccer players. Thirty-six federated footballers were recruited and randomized to the two study groups. The experimental group received an intervention using myofascial techniques applied to the subastragaline joint, eccentric training with an isoinertial device and neuromuscular taping. The control group was administered an intervention using myofascial techniques on the subastragaline joint and eccentric training with an isoinertial device. The results were recorded for all players at baseline, after 4 weeks of intervention, and at the end of the 4-week follow-up period. RESULTS: Subsequent to intervention and follow-up, we found statistically significant improvements in the experimental group in ankle mobility, strength and stability. The control group exhibited improvements in all study variables. No differences in the improvement of variables were found based on the allocation of athletes to one group or another. CONCLUSION: The combination of fascial therapy and eccentric strength training with an isoinertial device improves ankle mobility, strength and stability in footballers with recurrent ankle sprains. The use of taping techniques failed to provide a greater improvement of the study variables when combined with manual therapy and strength techniques.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Futebol , Entorses e Distensões , Articulação do Tornozelo , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos
10.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 573-578, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hamstring strain is one of the most common among sports injuries. A previous history of this injury is considered a strong predictor of recurrent hamstring strain injury. It has been suggested that fascial tissue alters after muscle strain injury. However, the association between previous hamstring strain injury and tissue stiffness and vibration sense detection has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether a previous history of hamstring strain injury affects tissue stiffness and vibration sense in professional soccer players. METHOD: The stiffness (MyotonPRO®) and vibration disappearance threshold (tuning fork) were measured in eight professional soccer players with previous history of hamstring strain and eight uninjured players. The differences between two groups' means were analyzed. Side-to-side differences between injured and uninjured legs were also analyzed. RESULTS: The tissue stiffness was higher, and the vibration disappearance threshold was lower, in previously injured players when compared to uninjured players. Similar differences were found between injured and uninjured legs. No significant relationship was detected between the age or body mass index (BMI) for both tissue stiffness and vibration disappearance threshold (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Soccer players with a previous history of hamstring strain injury exhibited higher tissue stiffness and lower vibration sensitivity in the injured leg, regardless of the age and BMI. The results that players who have a previous hamstring strain injury with altered tissue stiffness and vibration sense will be useful and feasible evaluation for chronic muscle strain condition.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Músculos Isquiossurais , Doenças Musculares , Futebol , Músculos Isquiossurais/lesões , Humanos , Vibração
11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431484

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fields, JB, Merigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. External and internal load measures during preseason training in men collegiate soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021-Collegiate athletes are exposed to high volume loads during preseason training. Monitoring training load can inform training and recovery periods. Therefore, the purpose was to examine changes in and bidirectional relationship between external and internal load metrics in men collegiate soccer athletes (n = 20; age, 20 ± 1 year). Internal load measures of heart rate variability (HRV), salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C), and self-assessment wellness and ratings of perceived exertion scales were collected daily. External load measures of total distance, player load, high-speed distance, high inertial movement analysis, and repeated high-intensity efforts were collected in each training session using global positioning system/global navigation satellite system technology. A 1-way analysis of variance determined weekly changes in external load, physiological, hormonal, and subjective self-assessment measures of internal load. Bidirectional prediction of external load markers and self-assessment measures on physiological and hormonal markers of internal load were assessed by hierarchical linear regression models (p < 0.05). External load measures, C, energy, sleep, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) decreased (p < 0.01), whereas T, T:C ratio, anger, depression, and vigor increased (p < 0.01) from week 1 to week 2. Morning C positively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); T:C ratio negatively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); and morning HRV negatively predicted post-training RPE (p = 0.031). Despite reduced hormonal stress and external load across weeks, negative perceptions of fatigue increased, suggesting fatigue patterns may have a delayed response. Load may have a more belated, chronic effect on perceptions of fatigue, whereas hormonal changes may be more immediate and sensitive to change. Practitioners may wish to use a variety of external and internal load measures to understand athletes' stress responses to training.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(11): 3014-3020, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sports-related fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common in professional athletes. Data regarding outcomes of surgical management including refracture, complications, and return-to-play statistics are available for other professional American sports with a notable exception of soccer. PURPOSE: To quantify the burden of operative fifth metatarsal fractures in Major League Soccer (MLS) athletes, to compare outcomes as well as refracture and complication rates with other professional sports, to analyze factors that may contribute to treatment failure, and to report on return-to-play characteristics for affected players. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: We searched all injuries in the prospectively collected HealtheAthlete database for MLS for operative fifth metatarsal fractures for seasons 2013 to 2017. Additional information regarding each fracture including demographics, treatment, postoperative course, and return-to-play statistics were compiled from HealtheAthlete and supplemented by teams' chief medical officers, coaches, trainers, and online sources. RESULTS: There were 21 fractures in 18 players during the study period. Mean time to radiographic healing was 8.5 weeks (n = 17). Mean time to return to play was 11.1 weeks (n = 19). Of 21 fractures, 20 (95%) players returned to sport. Of 18 players, 4 (22.2%) experienced refracture. Of 18 players, 5 (27.8%) and 2 (11.1%) reported previous stress injuries on the contralateral and ipsilateral limb, respectively. Player performance characteristics showed small declines in the first year of return that improved by the second year. CONCLUSION: MLS athletes who sustain a sports-related fifth metatarsal fracture can expect a high rate of return to sport with time to radiographic healing and return to play as well as risk of refracture similar to other professional cohorts.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Pé , Fraturas Ósseas , Ossos do Metatarso , Futebol , Atletas , Traumatismos do Pé/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Ossos do Metatarso/cirurgia
13.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(11): 3076-3087, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiteam, multi-institution prospective studies of both women's and men's sports are essential for collectively investigating injury and primary to the generalization and individualization of injury prevention strategies. HYPOTHESIS: Characteristics of workload, sleep, and contextual factors will be associated with injury risk in collegiate soccer athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Injuries, workload, and sleep characteristics were recorded daily throughout a complete season for 256 athletes from 12 separate National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's and women's soccer teams. Workload and contextual factors were assessed via multilevel Poisson regression to capture differences in injury incidence rate ratio (IRR). Paired t test and multilevel logistic regressions were used to assess the relationship between sleep behavior and injury. RESULTS: Collegiate soccer athletes had lower rates of noncontact injury in the in-season (IRR, 0.42) and postseason (IRR, 0.48) compared with preseason, lower rates of injury in training (IRR, 0.64) compared with matches, and higher injury rates with only 1 day of rest in the previous week (IRR, 1.58) compared with >1 day. Injury rates peaked when training occurred 4 days before a match (IRR, 2.24) compared with a match. Injury rate increased exponentially with increases in the number of noncontact injuries incurred throughout the season (IRR, 2.23). Lower chronic loading, higher training monotony, and acute spikes and lulls in workload were associated with higher noncontact injury rates. Alterations in previous week sleep quality were associated with injury, while chronic sleep behavior and acute alterations (<7 days) in sleep behavior were not (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Athlete and schedule-specific contextual factors, combined with characteristics of workload and weekly sleep behavior, are significantly associated with injury in collegiate soccer. Multiteam prospective cohort studies involving objective and subjective monitoring allow for the identification of multiple injury risk factors in sports, which can be used to guide injury prevention strategies. Maintaining higher chronic workloads, lowering training monotony, minimizing acute spikes or lulls in workloads, managing workloads during preseason and for athletes with previous injury, integrating more rest and recovery during congested periods, and optimizing sleep quality are all practical considerations for reducing injury risk in collegiate soccer.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Universidades
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444159

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between the level of physical fitness and the physical performance parameters recorded by GPS in official FIFA matches of the Chilean women's senior national football team in the period 2018-2020. Twenty-six female field players (age (mean ± SD) 26.8 ± 3.3 years, height 157.8 ± 21.5 cm, weight 58.9 ± 4.9 kg) participated in the study. Physical fitness variables were assessed: muscular strength, countermovement jump (CMJ), speed, agility and aerobic fitness. Physical performance variables were recorded by GPS in 26 official FIFA matches. The most notable associations with significant statistical significance (p < 0.001) were those observed between neuromuscular variables such as time to run 10 m (T10; r = -0.629) and jump (CMJ; r = 0.502) and the number of accelerations; aerobic fitness showed a highly significant relationship with meters run per minute (M/M; r = 0.589). The findings of this study provide evidence of how the level of physical fitness (neuromuscular and aerobic) relates to physical performance parameters recorded in official competitions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Adulto , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study compared the effects of performing the lateral squat exercise in three different formats from eccentric overload training on concentric/eccentric peak/mean power and inter-limb asymmetries in young soccer players. METHODS: Forty-five young male (U-17) soccer players were distributed into three groups. Two groups performed the same training volume with both legs, beginning with the weaker leg (SVW, n = 15) or with the stronger leg (SVS, n = 15). The third group executed double volume with the weaker leg and also commenced with such leg (DVW, n = 15) in the lateral squat during a 10-week period. Pre- and post-intervention metrics included concentric and eccentric peak/mean power during the lateral squat test and their corresponding asymmetries. RESULTS: All groups improved all power variables. Concentric mean and peak power asymmetry were substantially reduced in the SVW (ES: 0.89), DVW (ES: 0.43), and in SVW (ES: 1.60). Eccentric mean and peak power asymmetry were also substantially decreased in SVW (ES: 0.81) and in DVW (ES: 0.68). Between-group analyses showed substantially better performance in concentric and eccentric variables with stronger and weaker legs in SVW and DVW groups compared with SVS. CONCLUSIONS: Those groups which started with the weaker leg showed greater both power enhancements and reductions on inter-limb asymmetries.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Treinamento de Força , Futebol , Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Força Muscular
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444026

RESUMO

Hamstring Strain Injuries (HSIs) are the most common type of lesion in professional footballers and the leading cause of absence days from sports. However, recent studies have shown that high-level football teams apparently do not apply any HSI prevention protocol. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of preventive strategies and protocols in reducing the incidence of hamstring muscle injuries in professional and semi-professional football teams. A literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science and Scopus databases was conducted with the keywords "hamstring* and (injury* or strain) and prevent* and (soccer or football)". Quality and bias assessment was completed through the Kennelly modified scale. The Injury Incidence Rate (IIR) and the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) were assessed in the statistical analysis. In the meta-analysis, data were extracted, pooled and analysed with "Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 3.3.070" software. In total, 8 of the 1017 original search studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. The total exposure of the studies was 170,221.8 h, while the number of HSIs recorded was 165 in the intervention groups and 224 in the control groups. The average score of the quality assessment was 23.6/34. The meta-analysis of six of the eight included studies provided strong evidence that interventions are effective in reducing hamstring injuries. The IRR of the effect size was 0.443, with p-value = 0.001. The studies analysed applied different preventive strategies: the Nordic hamstring exercise, the FIFA 11+ programme and exercises for core stability or balance training. All these interventions proved to have a successful effect on prevention of hamstring injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Músculos Isquiossurais , Traumatismos da Perna , Futebol , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Músculos Isquiossurais/lesões , Humanos
17.
J Athl Train ; 56(6): 542-547, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375980

RESUMO

CONTEXT: As sports are reinitiated around the United States, the incidence of COVID-19 among youth soccer athletes remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of COVID-19 among youth soccer athletes and the risk-mitigation practices used by youth soccer organizations. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Survey distributed to Elite Clubs National League member clubs. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Youth soccer club directors throughout the United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Surveys were completed in late August 2020 regarding the club's current phase of return to soccer (individual only, group noncontact, group contact), date of reinitiation, number of players, cases of COVID-19, and risk-reduction procedures being implemented. Case and incidence rates were compared with national pediatric data and county data from the prior 10 weeks. A negative binomial regression model was developed to predict club COVID-19 cases using the local incidence rate and phase of return as covariates and the log of club player-days as an offset. RESULTS: A total of 124 respondents had reinitiated soccer, representing 91 007 players with a median duration of 73 days (interquartile range = 53-83 days) since restarting. Of the 119 clubs that had progressed to group activities, 218 cases of COVID-19 were reported among 85 861 players. Youth soccer players had a lower case rate and incidence rate than children in the United States (254 versus 477 cases per 100 000; incidence rate ratio = 0.511, 95% CI = 0.40, 0.57; P < .001) and the general population in the counties where data were available (268 versus 864 cases per 100 000; incidence rate ratio = 0.202, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.21; P < .001). After adjusting for the local COVID-19 incidence, we found no relationship between the club COVID-19 incidence and the phase of return (noncontact: b = 0.35 ± 0.67, P = .61; contact: b = 0.18 ± 0.67, P = .79). Soccer clubs reported using a median of 8 (interquartile range = 6-10) risk-reduction procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of COVID-19 among youth soccer athletes was relatively low when compared with the background incidence among children in the United States during the summer of 2020. No relationship was identified between the club COVID-19 incidence and the phase of return to soccer.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Futebol , Adolescente , Atletas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Esportes Juvenis
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444722

RESUMO

Dietary patterns, exercise, sport, and physical activity have been shown to improve body composition in children. This systematic review with meta-analysis analyzed the effects of practicing football on body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, and bone mineral content) in children. An initial search in PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus was carried out in April 2021 to identify relevant articles. Inclusion criteria required children up to 12 years of age with a minimum football intervention duration of 10 weeks. Methodological quality of the articles was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Between the 1803 articles originally founded, only 14 articles were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 1643 subjects between the 14 studies were identified. The review and meta-analysis were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and used Review Manager and Full Meta-Analysis software. The results between the control and experimental groups showed significantly better lean body mass and fat mass values in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Football practice was positively associated with increases in lean body mass (mean difference of 1.55; 95% CI, 0.96, 2.15), decreases in fat mass (mean difference of -0.81; 95% CI, -1.49, -0.13), and increases in whole body bone mineral content (mean difference of 117.68; 95% CI, 83.69, 151.67). In conclusion, the results of this systematic review with meta-analysis suggest that football positively affects body composition in children. However, further research is needed to confirm the results for bone mineral content.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Estado Nutricional , Futebol , Esportes Juvenis , Tecido Adiposo , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 42-47, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kinesiotape (KT) is a technique commonly used in sports practice. It may be beneficial in enhancing muscle function by additional cutaneous afferent stimulation. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of KT on countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20-m sprints (sp) immediately and 24 h after its application on the quadriceps and gluteus maximus. METHODS: 37 male soccer players (19.7 ± 0.9 years old) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: experimental group: KT activation (KTact), placebo group: sham tape (KTst), and control group (CG). Participants performed a 30-min preliminary warm-up, after which they conducted CMJ and 20-m sp tests. These tests were repeated later (with KT application or not) and after 24 h. RESULTS: Intergroup results found no significant differences either post-test (CMJ, p = 0.115; sp, p = 0.307) or after 24 h (p = 0.053). Intragroup results showed no significant results for CMJ, although 20-m sp seemed to display significant differences in the (KTst) (p = 0.002, post-hoc: 0.015 in pre_sp vs post_sp) and the (KTact) (0.021, in post-hoc: 0.007 in pre_sp vs post_sp), with a moderate effect in pre_sp vs post_sp (0.66) in the (KTact) after KT was applied. CONCLUSION: KT application on the gluteus maximus and quadriceps in young soccer players increases the sprint execution time immediately and 24 h after application, even that the sprint execution time had not been grater that one tenth of the second (0.08 s). It also has no effect on CMJ.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Fita Atlética , Corrida , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Nádegas , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 620-627, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of core stability-based corrective exercises, on gait parameters in elite soccer players diagnosed with middle crossed syndrome. METHODS: 15 male elite soccer players (aged 18-28) were enrolled in a same-subject intervention trial to assess if the middle crossed syndrome could be influenced through core stability exercise. Core stability-based corrective exercises were completed 3 times per week for 8 weeks and changes in gait parameters (pre- and post- intervention) were measured. RESULTS: The results showed that most gait parameters including stride length (p = 0.025), gait speed (p = 0.023), number of strides (p = 0.007), length of shots (p = 0.003), and also soccer players' height (p = 0.011) improved significantly in post-intervention in comparison to pre-intervention. Stride width in post-intervention did not show changes in comparison with pre-intervention (p = 0.083). CONCLUSION: The results indicate the significant effectiveness of core stability-based corrective exercises on gait parameters in those with middle crossed syndrome. By doing corrective exercises based on core stability during the study period, gait parameters in the post-intervention surpass the results in the pre-intervention in most parameters. Therefore, it is proposed that corrective exercises based on core stability is a safe and useful method for improving function in those with middle crossed syndrome and it could be used as a therapy to help players identified with this finding. In this regard, it is suggested to researchers and coaches to correct imbalances in order to achieve better results in training programs.


Assuntos
Futebol , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular
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