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Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 45(1): 30-37, ene.-feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214692


Objetivo Comparar los efectos de un estiramiento pasivo del músculo cuádriceps frente a un autoestiramiento en la flexibilidad de los músculos del muslo y el rango de movimiento (ROM) de la cadera en jugadores de fútbol. Métodos Se diseñó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado en el que se incluyeron 34 jugadores de fútbol amateur con déficit de flexibilidad en el músculo cuádriceps. Los jugadores fueron aleatorizados en dos grupos (grupo estiramiento o grupo autoestiramiento). Cada participante recibió una única sesión de estiramiento pasivo o autoestiramiento del cuádriceps en su pierna dominante. Se valoró la flexibilidad del cuádriceps mediante el test de Ely, la flexibilidad de los isquiotibiales mediante el Passive Knee Extension test, y ROM de flexión y extensión de la cadera. Resultados Ambos grupos mostraron un aumento estadísticamente significativo de la flexibilidad del cuádriceps, de la flexibilidad de los isquiotibiales y del ROM de extensión de la cadera sin diferencias significativas entre ellos (p>0,05). El grupo estiramiento mostró unos tamaños del efecto grandes en la flexibilidad y el ROM de extensión (d>0,8), siendo superiores a los registrados en el grupo autoestiramiento. Conclusiones La flexibilidad de los músculos cuádriceps e isquiotibiales, así como el ROM de extensión de cadera aumentaron tras el estiramiento y el autoestiramiento del músculo cuádriceps. Los tamaños del efecto mostrados por el grupo estiramiento fueron superiores a los del grupo autoestiramiento (AU)

Objective To compare the effects of quadriceps passive stretching or quadriceps self-stretching in muscle flexibility and hip range of motion (ROM) in football athletes. Methods A randomized clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-four football athletes with lack of flexibility in the quadriceps muscle were included and randomized in two groups (Stretching group or self-stretching group) and received a single session of quadriceps passive stretching or quadriceps self-stretching in the dominant lower limb. The outcome variables were: quadriceps flexibility measured with the Ely's test, hamstring flexibility measured with the Passive Knee Extension test and hip flexion and extension ROM. Results Both groups achieved a statistically significant improvement of quadriceps flexibility, hamstrings flexibility and hip extension ROM without statistically significant differences between them (p>0.05). The stretching group reported large effect sizes in muscle flexibility and hip extension ROM (d>0.8), and the effect sizes of the stretching group were higher than the self-stretching group. Conclusions Flexibility of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles as well as hip extension ROM increased after stretching and self-stretching of the quadriceps muscle. The effect sizes shown by the stretching group were higher than those of the self-stretching group (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Atletas , Método Simples-Cego
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673841


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 6 weeks (conducted twice per week for a total of 12 sessions) of plyometric training with resistance bands on different neuromuscular characteristics among the sample of junior tennis players. Thirty junior tennis players between the ages of 12 and 14 years (age 13.5 ± 1.8 years; weight 51.3 ± 12.5 kg; height 162.7 ± 12.6 cm) were allocated to either the control group (standard in-season regimen) (CG; n = 15) or the experimental group, which received additional plyometric training with resistance bands (TG; n = 15). Pre- and post-tests included: anthropometric measures; 20 m sprint time (with 5, 10, and 20 m splits), squat jump (SQ Jump); vertical countermovement jump (CMJ); vertical countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ_free arms); single leg (left) countermovement jump (CMJ_L); single leg (right) countermovement jump (CMJ_R); standing long jump (L_Jump); single leg (left) triple jump (SLTH-L); single leg (right) triple jump (SLTH-R); generic change of direction speed (CODS) (20Y test and T-test); reactive agility test (WS-S). After the training intervention, the TG showed significant ("p < 0.05") improvements in CMJ (F = 7.90, p = 0.01), CMJ_L (F = 5.30, p = 0.03), CMJ_R (F = 11.45, p = 0.00), and SLTH-L (F = 4.49, p = 0.04) tests. No significant changes were observed in the CG after the training intervention. Our findings provide useful information for coaches to create a wide range of tennis-specific situations to develop a proper performance, especially for their player's neuromuscular fitness.

Desempenho Atlético , Exercício Pliométrico , Futebol , Tênis , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Força Muscular
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 865, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650263


In soccer game analysis, the widespread availability of play-by-play and tracking data has made it possible to test mathematical models that have been discussed mainly theoretically. One of the essential models in soccer game analysis is a motion model that predicts the arrival point of a player in t s. Although many space evaluation and pass prediction methods rely on motion models, the validity of each has not been fully clarified. This study focuses on the motion model proposed by Fujimura and Sugihara (Fujimura-Sugihara model) under sprint conditions based on the equation of motion. A previous study indicated that the Fujimura-Sugihara model is ineffective for soccer games because it generates a circular arrival region. This study aims to examine the validity of the Fujimura-Sugihara model using soccer tracking data. Specifically, we quantitatively compare the arrival regions of players between the model and real data. We show that the boundary of the player's arrival region is circular rather than elliptical, which is consistent with the model. We also show that the initial speed dependence of the arrival region satisfies the solution of the model. Furthermore, we propose a method for estimating valid kinetic parameters in the model directly from tracking data and discuss the limitations of the model for soccer games based on the estimated parameters.

Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Modelos Teóricos , Movimento (Física) , Psicoterapia
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 55(2): 301-310, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635860


INTRODUCTION: Scheduling concurrent training (CT) during the in-season microcycle in field-based team sport is driven by prematch and postmatch recovery. This study examined the neuromuscular function, fatigue, and soreness responses to CT administered 48 h (match day (MD) + 2) versus 72 h (MD + 3) after match. METHODS: Ten male recreational-level team sport athletes were monitored daily during two 5-d microcycles, which began with a simulated match (Soccer-specific Aerobic Field Test (SAFT90)) and CT performed either 48 or 72 h after match. Maximal voluntary force, quadriceps maximum EMG, voluntary activation, muscle contractile function (evoked twitch responses), muscle soreness, and fatigue were assessed immediately before and after the SAFT90, and every 24 up to 96 h after match. Outcome measures were also assessed immediately after CT. The CT consisted of an intermittent sprint protocol and a lower limb resistance training session separated by 1 h. RESULTS: Immediately after the SAFT90 in both conditions, maximal voluntary force was below baseline (mean change (Δ), -14.6% ± 10.0%; P = 0.03), recovering 48 h post. Quadriceps contractile function (Δ, -31.5% ± 11.4%; P = 0.003) and voluntary activation (Δ, -8.9 ± 6.2%; P = 0.003) were also hampered after the SAFT90, recovering 24 h post in both conditions. In addition, the SAFT90 elicited elevated levels of fatigue and muscle soreness that recovered 24 h after the SAFT90 before increasing at 72 and 96 h post in the MD + 2 and MD + 3 conditions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of fatigue was only observed at the end of the microcycle when CT was prescribed on MD + 2. Therefore, CT scheduled early (MD + 2) in the microcycle might avoid compromising forthcoming match preparation.

Mialgia , Futebol , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Fadiga
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 39, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593266


The evolution of female soccer is related to the increase in high-intensity actions and choosing the abilities that best characterize the players' performance. Determining the capabilities that best describe the players' performance becomes essential for coaches and technical staff to obtain the results more efficiently within the competitive calendar. Thus, the study aimed to analyze the correlations between performance in the 20-m sprint tests with and without the ball and the Zigzag 20-m change-of-direction (COD) test without the ball in professional female soccer players. Thirty-three high-level professional female soccer players performed the 20-m sprint tests without a ball, 20-m sprint tests with the ball, and the Zigzag 20-m COD test without the ball. The shortest time obtained in the three trials was used for each test. The fastest time in the three trials was used for each test to calculate the average test speed. The Pearson product-moment correlation test was applied to analyze the correlation between the performance in the tests. Pearson's product-moment correlation test was used to analyze the correlation between the performance in the trials, with a significance level of α < 0.05. The average speed in the 20-m sprint tests with ball showed very large and significant correlations with the speed in the Zigzag 20-m COD test (r = 0.822; p < 0.001; 95% CI = 0.666 to 0.909). The 20-m sprint tests with ball and 20-m sprint tests without ball showed moderate, positive and significant correlation (r = 0.363; p = 0.038; 95% CI = 0.023-0.628). The tests of 20-m sprint tests without ball and Zigzag 20-m COD test also showed moderate, positive and significant correlation (r = 0.415; p = 0.016; 95% CI = 0.084-0.664). The female-female soccer players with a better ability to change direction may also have a better technical ability to drive the ball at high speed. However, they will not necessarily be the fastest in the linear sprint without the ball. Coaches and technical staff may choose to perform tests seeking efficiency and practicality, especially in a congested competitive period.

Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Feminino , Correlação de Dados , Teste de Esforço/métodos
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e052772, 2023 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693686


BACKGROUND: In elite football, periodic health examination (PHE) may be useful for injury risk prediction. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether PHE-derived variables are prognostic factors for indirect muscle injuries (IMIs) in elite players. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: An English Premier League football club. PARTICIPANTS: 134 outfield elite male players, over 5 seasons (1 July 2013-19 May 2018). OUTCOME AND ANALYSIS: The outcome was any time-loss, lower extremity index IMI (I-IMI). Prognostic associations were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding statistical significance for 36 variables, derived from univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Missing data were handled using multiple imputation. Non-linear associations were explored using fractional polynomials. RESULTS: During 317 participant-seasons, 138 I-IMIs were recorded. Univariable associations were determined for previous calf IMI frequency (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.97), hamstring IMI frequency (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.09), if the most recent hamstring IMI occurred >12 months but <3 years prior to PHE (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.51 to 5.73) and age (OR 1.12 per 1-year increase, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18). Multivariable analyses showed that if a player's most recent previous hamstring IMI was >12 months but <3 years prior to PHE (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.53), this was the only variable with added prognostic value over and above age, which was a confirmed prognostic factor (OR 1.12 per 1-year increase, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.18). Allowing non-linear associations conferred no advantage over linear associations. CONCLUSION: PHE has limited use for injury risk prediction. Most variables did not add prognostic value over and above age, other than if a player experienced a hamstring IMI >12 months but <3 years prior to PHE. However, the precision of this prognostic association should be confirmed in future. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03782389.

Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Músculos Isquiossurais , Doenças Musculares , Futebol , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Futebol Americano/lesões , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Futebol/lesões
Health Promot Int ; 38(1)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617291


The UEFA EURO 2020 football tournament was one of the largest Sporting Mega Events (SMEs) to take place during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mitigating the risk of virus transmission requires a multi-layered approach for any large event, more so in this case due to staging the tournament across eleven host countries. Yet, little is known about COVID-19 risks and mitigation from attending an event of this scale and nature. We examined the implementation of mitigation and messaging at EURO 2020 matches hosted at venues in the UK. The tournament was postponed from the summer of 2020 and played in June and July of 2021. Structured observations were conducted by 11 trained fieldwork-supporters at 10 matches played at Wembley Stadium, London, or Hampden Park, Glasgow. Fieldwork-supporters observed one-way systems and signage, and hand sanitizing stations inside the stadia, but reported significant variation in the implementation of staggered timeslots, testing upon entry, and procedures for exit. Adherence to planned measures by ticket holders and implementation by stewards waned as the tournament progressed culminating in an absence of enforced measures at the final. The non-compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures was likely to have led to a significantly increased risk of transmission. Future events should consider how COVID-19 mitigation measures could become 'new norms' of fan behaviour, learning from what is already known about football fandom. Tournament organizers of SMEs can use these findings to promote clearer messaging on pandemic-driven changes in fan behaviour and best practices in mitigating risk at future sporting and cultural events.

The UEFA EURO 2020 football tournament saw one of the largest returns to spectating at sporting events during the COVID-19 pandemic. With the tournament taking place across 11 different countries, several measures (e.g. mask-wearing and social distancing) were put in place to protect ticket holders from spreading and catching COVID-19, and these were communicated to spectators before and during matches. This study considers how these measures were implemented at EURO 2020 matches hosted in the UK. Despite retaining the name 'EURO 2020', the tournament was postponed from the summer of 2020 and played in June and July of 2021. We recruited and trained 11 ticket holders who became observers at 10 matches played at Wembley Stadium, London, or Hampden Park, Glasgow. The results demonstrate that supporting normally at football matches during the pandemic times increased the risk of virus transmission. There were inconsistencies in how mitigation measures were planned and implemented by tournament organizers. Ticket holders were also less compliant with mitigation measures as the tournament progressed, likely made more difficult with relaxations in government restrictions. To limit virus transmission at future sporting and cultural events, messaging on mitigation measures must be clear, consistent and implemented as planned.

COVID-19 , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 1-20, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214806


El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir distintos perfiles subclínicos relacionados con riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno alimentario (TA) en futbolistas de ambos sexos. Para ello, 95 jugadores (58 hombres y 37 mujeres; media de edad M=22.9 DT=5.7) de 11 equipos de las Federaciones Territoriales de Fútbol de España; 25 de categoría juvenil y 70 senior, cumplimentaron el cuestionario de hábitos alimentarios del deportista (CHAD), la escala de medición de la identidad deportiva (AIMS), el inventario de perfeccionismo multidimensional en el deporte en competición (MIPS), la escala de impulsividad estado (EIE), la escala de dificultades de regulación emocional (DERS) y el cuestionario de satisfacción (CS) con el peso, la imagen corporal, la capacidad física, el talento técnico y el rendimiento. Se realizaron análisis descriptivo, comparativo y correlacional. Los resultados mostraron que el 22% de los deportistas presentaban hábitos alimentarios con riesgo de desarrollar TA, diferenciándose por puntajes altos en perfeccionismo e identidad deportiva respecto a los demás. Los hábitos alimentarios con riesgo de TA referidos al miedo a engordar o el malestar psicológico asociado al peso y la figura, presentaban correlación positiva con identidad deportiva (p<.001), perfeccionismo (p<.001) y dificultad en regulación emocional (p<.05); y correlación negativa con satisfacción manifiesta con el peso, la imagen corporal y la capacidad física (p<.001), Estos últimos tuvieron correlación negativa con la dificultad en regulación emocional (p<.001) y correlación positiva con satisfacción con el talento y el rendimiento (p<.05). Los perfiles subclínicos presentaron, por porcentaje de aparición: dificultad en la regulación emocional en un 45%, identidad deportiva en un 31%, perfeccionismo en un 27% e impulsividad en 27%. (AU)

The aim of this research was to describe different subclinical profiles related to risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in male and female football players. For this purpose, 95 players (58 males and 37 females; mean age M=22.9 SD=5. 7) from 11 teamsof the Spanish Territorial Football Federations; 25 youth and 70 seniors, completed the questionnaire of eating habits of the athlete (CHAD), the sport identity measurement scale (AIMS), the multidimensional perfectionism inventory in competitive sport (MIPS), the state impulsivity scale (EIE), thedifficulties of emotional regulation scale (DERS) and the satisfaction questionnaire (CS) with weight, body image, physical ability, technical talent and performance. Descriptive, comparative and correlational analyses were performed. The results showed that 22% of the athletes had eating habits at risk of developing AT, differentiated by high scores in perfectionism and sport identity compared to the others. Eating habits with risk of AT referred to fear of gaining weight or psychological discomfort associated with weight and shape were positively correlated with sport identity (p<.001), perfectionism (p<.001) and difficulty in emotional regulation (p<.05); and negatively correlated with apparent satisfaction with weight, body image and physical ability (p<.001). The latter were negatively correlated with difficulty in emotional regulation (p<.001) and positively correlated with satisfaction with talent and performance (p<.05). The subclinical profiles presented, by percentage of appearance: difficulty in emotional regulation in 45%, sport identity in 31%, perfectionism in 27% and impulsivity in 27%. (AU)

O objectivo desta investigação eradescrever diferentes perfis subclínicos relacionados com o risco de desenvolver um distúrbio alimentar (DE) em jogadores de futebol masculinos e femininos. Para este fim, 95 jogadores (58 homens e 37 mulheres; idade média M=22,9 SD=5. 7) de 11 equipas dasFederações Territoriais de Futebol Espanhol; 25 jovens e 70 seniores, preencheram o questionário de hábitos alimentares do atleta (CHAD), a escala de medição da identidade desportiva (AIMS), o inventário de perfeccionismo multidimensional no desporto de competição (MIPS), a escala de impulso estatal (EIE), as dificuldades da escala de regulação emocional (DERS) e o questionário de satisfação (CS) com peso, imagem corporal, capacidade física, talento técnico e desempenho. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, comparativas e correlacionais. Os resultados mostraram que 22% dos atletas tinham hábitos alimentares em risco de desenvolver TA, diferenciados por pontuações elevadas em perfeccionismo e identidade desportiva em comparação com os outros. Os hábitos alimentares com risco de TA referidos ao medo de ganhar peso ou desconforto psicológico associado ao peso e à forma foram positivamente correlacionados com a identidade desportiva (p<.001), o perfeccionismo (p<.001) e a dificuldade na regulação emocional (p<.05); e negativamente correlacionados com a aparente satisfação com o peso, a imagem corporal e a capacidade física (p<.001). Estes últimos foram negativamente correlacionados com a dificuldade na regulação emocional (p<.001) e positivamente correlacionados com a satisfação com o talento e o desempenho (p<.05). Os perfis subclínicos apresentados, por percentagem de aparência: dificuldade na regulação emocional em 45%, identidade desportiva em 31%, perfeccionismo em 27% e impulsividade em 27%. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Futebol , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Atletas , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Espanha
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 234-247, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214822


El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el proceso de planificación y toma de decisiones de los entrenadores españoles de fútbol en función variables sociodemográficas, de formación y del contexto del equipo. A través de un diseño descriptivo, comparativo y transversal, se administraron los cuestionarios de estilos de decisión y planificación en el deporte a una muestra de 315 de entrenadores de fútbol en activo. Se analizó la validez y fiabilidad de las escalas empleadas y se realizó un análisis correlacional entre los factores de cada escala. Los resultados indican que los entrenadores puntúan más alto la toma de decisiones democráticas (M= 3,77 ±,74) y la planificación flexible (M= 4,04 ±,69). De igual modo, se encontraron correlaciones entre la toma de decisiones y planificación siendo los pares: democrática-flexible y autoritaria-rígida. También se encontraron diferencias significativas en relación a la edad, características del equipo, formación universitaria y deportiva. (AU)

The objective of this research is to analyse the planning and decision-making process of Spanish football coaches according to socio-demographic, educational and team context variables. Using a descriptive, comparative and cross-sectional design, the questionnaires on decision-making and planning styles in sport were administered to a sample of 315 active football coaches. The validity and reliability of the scales used were analysed and a correlational analysis was carried out between the factors of each scale. The results indicate that coaches scored democratic decision-making (M= 3.77 ±.74) and flexible planning (M= 4.04 ±.69) higher. Similarly, correlations were found between decision-making and planning with the pairs being democratic-flexible and authoritarian-rigid. Significant differences were also found in relation to age, team characteristics, university and sports training. (AU)

O objectivo desta investigação era analisar o processo de planeamento e tomada de decisões dos treinadores espanhóis de futebol de acordo com variáveis sociodemográficas, educacionais e de contexto de equipa. Através de um desenho descritivo, comparativo e transversal, os questionários de estilos de decisão e planeamento no desporto foram administrados a uma amostra de 315 treinadores de futebol activos. A validade e fiabilidade das escalas utilizadas foram analisadas e foi efectuada uma análise correlacional entre os factores de cada escala. Os resultados indicam que os treinadores pontuaram a tomada de decisão democrática (M= 3,77 ±,74) e o planeamento flexível (M= 4,04 ±,69) mais alto. Do mesmo modo, foram encontradas correlações entre a tomada de decisões e o planeamento, sendo os pares democrático-flexível e autoritário-rígido. Foram também encontradas diferenças significativas em relação à idade, características da equipa, formação universitária e desportiva. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomada de Decisões , Futebol , Liderança , Planejamento , Espanha , Estudos Transversais
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 282-295, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214825


El fútbol femenino está experimentando un notable crecimiento desde hace unos años a esta parte. La investigación científica debe estar a la vanguardia de este crecimiento, proponiendo recomendaciones con aval científico que ayude a mejorar la toma de decisiones en el campo aplicado. En el presente estudio se analiza una de las variables contextuales más estudiadas en fútbol masculino de alto rendimiento, como es la influencia del resultado parcial en las posesiones de balón. Para ello, se han recogido y analizado 6063 posesiones de balón realizadas durante los dos campeonatos del mundo más recientes, el FIFA Women ́s World Cup 2015 y 2019. Para ello, se han llevado a cabo dos tipos de análisis: en primer lugar, un análisis univariado para conocer incidencia,eficacia y prácticas habituales de este tipo de acciones; en segundo lugar, a nivel bivariado, se pretende conocer la posible influencia del resultado parcial (ganando, empatando o perdiendo) en los diferentes criterios considerados. Los resultados disponibles indican que las posesiones de balón son acciones que tienen una alta incidencia durante los partidos, pero con un índice de eficacia muy reducido). A nivel bivariado, el resultado parcial sí modula el comportamiento de ciertos criterios como la formade inicio de la posesión, la duración, el número de pases o el contexto de interacción. Los resultados del presente estudio pueden ayudar a las entrenadoras de fútbol durante su labor al frente de los equipos. (AU)

Women's football has been experiencing notable growth for a few years now. Scientific research must be at the forefront of this growth, proposing scientifically backed recommendations that help improve decision-making in the applied field. In the present study, one of the most studied contextual variables in high performance men's soccer is analyzed, such as the influence of the partial result on ball possessions. To do this, 6063 ball possessions made during the two most recent world championships, the FIFA Women's World Cup 2015 and 2019, have been collected and analyzed. To do this, two types of analysis have been carried out: firstly, a univariate analysis to find out the incidence, efficacy andhabitual practices of this type of actions; secondly, at a bivariate level, it is intended to know the possible influence of the partial result (winning, drawing or losing) on the different criteria considered. The available results indicate that ball possessions are actions that have a high incidence during matches, but with a very low efficiency rate). At a bivariate level, the partial result does modulate the behavior of certain criteria such as the manner in which possession begins, the duration, the number of passes or the context of interaction. The results of this study can help soccer coaches during their work in charge of the teams. (AU)

O futebol feminino vem experimentando um crescimento notável há alguns anos. A pesquisa científica deve estar na vanguarda desse crescimento, propondo recomendações cientificamente respaldadas que ajudem a melhorar a tomada de decisões no campo aplicado. No presente estudo, analisa-se uma das variáveis contextuais mais estudadas no futebol masculino de alto rendimento, como a influência do resultado parcial na posse de bola. Para isso, foram coletadas e analisadas 6.063 posses de bola feitas durante os dois últimos campeonatos mundiais, a Copa do Mundo Feminina da FIFA 2015 e 2019. Para isso, dois tipos de análise foram realizados: em primeiro lugar, uma análise univariada para conhecer a incidência, eficácia e práticas habituais deste tipo de ação; em segundo lugar, a nível bivariado, pretende-se conhecer a possível influência do resultado parcial (vitória, empate ou derrota) nos diferentes critérios considerados. Os resultados disponíveis indicam que as posses de bola são ações com alta incidência duranteas partidas, mas com baixíssimo índice de eficiência). A nível bivariado, o resultado parcial modula o comportamento de certos critérios como a forma de início da posse, a duração, o número de passes ou o contexto da interação. Os resultados deste estudo podem auxiliar os treinadores de futebol durante seu trabalho à frente das equipes. (AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Futebol , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Incidência
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679427


Football is a very demanding sport which requires players to exert maximum effort, producing fatigue and eventually injuries. Thermography can be used to detect fatigue and prevent its consequences through thermal asymmetries in the bilateral body areas; however, its adequacy for elite footballers has not been widely studied. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the suitability of thermography to detect fatigue in male football players. For this reason, twenty participants were gathered into a pair of subgroups (low [<0.2 °C] vs. high thermal asymmetry [≥0.2 °C]) based on a thermography session of the lower limbs (thighs, calves, and hamstrings). After the thermography session, players performed CMJs before and after an RSA test (6 × 30 m/20″). A mixed two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc pairwise comparisons were undertaken to analyse the results. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in any of the RSA test variables between low and high thermal asymmetry groups for thighs and calves. On the other hand, the low thermal asymmetry hamstring group reported a smaller percentage difference in sprints for the first sprint (%Diff) and a larger percentage difference in sprints two and three with respect to the best sprint (%Best). For CMJs, the low thermal asymmetry hamstring group reported significantly higher values post-RSA test, indicating better performance. Accordingly, thermography can provide information about performance in CMJ and RSA tests through hamstring asymmetries over 0.2 °C. Meanwhile, larger asymmetries than 0.2 °C in calves and thighs do not seem to be related to performance in these tests; therefore, coaches should consider if it is optimal to align players with high hamstring asymmetries.

Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Corrida , Futebol , Humanos , Masculino , Termografia , Fadiga
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0265372, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652409


Sports sciences are increasingly data-intensive nowadays since computational tools can extract information from large amounts of data and derive insights from athlete performances during the competition. This paper addresses a performance prediction problem in soccer, a popular collective sport modality played by two teams competing against each other in the same field. In a soccer game, teams score points by placing the ball into the opponent's goal and the winner is the team with the highest count of goals. Retaining possession of the ball is one key to success, but it is not enough since a team needs to score to achieve victory, which requires an offensive toward the opponent's goal. The focus of this work is to determine if analyzing the first five seconds after the control of the ball is taken by one of the teams provides enough information to determine whether the ball will reach the final quarter of the soccer field, therefore creating a goal-scoring chance. By doing so, we can further investigate which conditions increase strategic leverage. Our approach comprises modeling players' interactions as graph structures and extracting metrics from these structures. These metrics, when combined, form time series that we encode in two-dimensional representations of visual rhythms, allowing feature extraction through deep convolutional networks, coupled with a classifier to predict the outcome (whether the final quarter of the field is reached). The results indicate that offensive play near the adversary penalty area can be predicted by looking at the first five seconds. Finally, the explainability of our models reveals the main metrics along with its contributions for the final inference result, which corroborates other studies found in the literature for soccer match analysis.

Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Humanos , Logro , Fatores de Tempo
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 122, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653337


Large-scale events like the UEFA Euro 2020 football (soccer) championship offer a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of gatherings on the spread of COVID-19, as the number and dates of matches played by participating countries resembles a randomized study. Using Bayesian modeling and the gender imbalance in COVID-19 data, we attribute 840,000 (95% CI: [0.39M, 1.26M]) COVID-19 cases across 12 countries to the championship. The impact depends non-linearly on the initial incidence, the reproduction number R, and the number of matches played. The strongest effects are seen in Scotland and England, where as much as 10,000 primary cases per million inhabitants occur from championship-related gatherings. The average match-induced increase in R was 0.46 [0.18, 0.75] on match days, but important matches caused an increase as large as +3. Altogether, our results provide quantitative insights that help judge and mitigate the impact of large-scale events on pandemic spread.

COVID-19 , Futebol , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Inglaterra , Escócia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673698


Chronic stress may represent one of the most important factors that negatively affects the health and performance of athletes. Finding a way to introduce psychological strategies to manage stress in everyday training routines is challenging, particularly in junior teams. We also must consider that a stress management intervention should be regarded as "efficacious" only if its application results in improvement of the complex underlying pathogenetic substratum, which considers mechanistically interrelated factors, such as immunological, endocrine and autonomic controls further to psychological functioning and behavior. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of implementing, in a standard training routine of the junior team of the Italian major soccer league, a stress management program based on mental relaxation training (MRT). We evaluated its effects on stress perception and cardiac autonomic regulation as assessed by means of ANSI, a single composite percentile-ranked proxy of autonomic balance, which is free of gender and age bias, economical, and simple to apply in a clinical setting. We observed that the simple employed MRT intervention was feasible in a female junior soccer team and was associated with a reduced perception of stress, an improved perception of overall health, and a betterment of cardiac autonomic control. This data may corroborate the scientific literature that indicates psychological intervention based on MRT as an efficacious strategy to improve performance, managing negative stress effects on cardiac autonomic control.

Relaxamento , Futebol , Estresse Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , Atletas , Nível de Saúde , Coração , Percepção , Intervenção Psicossocial , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Saúde Mental
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673875


One of the most challenging issues professional football players face throughout their careers is injuries. Those injuries often result from suboptimal training programs that were not designed according to the players' individual needs. This prospective study aimed to examine in detail the effects of sports injuries on professional football players' weekly external load performances. Thirty-three male professional football players were monitored using 10-Hz Global Positioning System (GPS) units (Apex pro series, StatSports) during an entire season. The variables considered in the analysis were total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR), accelerations (ACC), and decelerations (DEC). The comparisons were made between the four-week block before injury (-4T), four-week block after return (+4T), and players' season averages (S). Players displayed significantly higher values of TD, HSR, ACC, and DEC in the -4T, compared to the other two moments (+4T and S). Furthermore, the comparison between the +4T and S showed no significant variations in the GPS metrics. It was shown that a significant increase in players' weekly external load performance over a four-week period may have a negative effect on the occurrence of injuries from a professional football standpoint. Future research should consider the effects of injury severity on players' external load variations.

Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Futebol/lesões , Aceleração
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674053


BACKGROUND: Soccer is the most widely practiced sport in the world, demanding high-speed activities such as jumps, sprints and changes of direction. Therefore, having optimal levels of muscle strength improves performance and reduces the injury rate. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of our study were (i) to determine the dynamometric profile of hip muscle strength in young soccer players by position, evaluated at different isokinetic speeds, (ii) to describe the conventional and functional unilateral muscle strength ratios, (iii) to analyze the bilateral balance. METHODS: Thirty-seven male soccer players (age 17.02 ± 0.92 years) participated in the study. Strength assessment was performed with a functional electromechanical dynamometer, and concentric and eccentric strength of abductors, adductors, extensors and hip flexors were measured bilaterally at 0.5 m/s and 1 m/s. RESULTS: For eccentric right hip abduction at 0.5 m/s, defenders are significantly stronger than midfielders (p = 0.013) and stronger than forwards (p = 0.140). For eccentric right hip adduction at 0.5 m/s, defenders are significantly stronger than midfielders (p = 0.005) and stronger than forwards (p = 0.253), as for eccentric right hip adduction at 1 m/s, defenders are significantly stronger than midfielders (p = 0.014) and stronger than forwards (p = 0.084). There is a significant effect for the conventional strength ratio of left abduction/adduction at 1 m/s. The conventional strength ratio of forwards is significantly higher than that of defenders (p = 0.045) and higher than that of midfielders (p = 0.152). CONCLUSIONS: Concentric and eccentric hip strength values differ according to playing position.

Futebol , Esportes , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Futebol/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674082


Contemporary top-division soccer is characterized by high-intensity activity throughout the entire match, which also requires high levels of a wide range of the players' functional and motor abilities. Furthermore, motor and functional requirements vary in relation to the players' position on the pitch. In view of the above, the objective of this study was to determine any differences in body composition and specific motor abilities in relation to position. Twenty elite female soccer players (age: 20.90 ± 3.70 years; height: 166.95 ± 5.83 cm; weight: 58.97 ± 7.50 kg; training experience: 9.50 ± 4.11 years) were recruited for the purpose of this study. Based on their position within the team, the players were divided into three groups: defenders (N-7), midfielders (N-6), and forwards (N-7). The instruments used included the InBody770 (for body composition assessment), Optojump and Polar for the assessment of specific motor abilities. The results obtained indicate a strong link between the parameters body composition and specific motor abilities; however, the level of significance varies, as do the variables concerning specific motor abilities and body composition in relation to the players' position on the pitch. In accordance with these results, coaches and others working in the soccer industry should be apprised of the necessity of a tailored approach when it comes to planning the development of specific motor abilities, as well of with the importance of balanced body composition as prerequisites for achieving top results.

Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Composição Corporal
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674293


Studying fatigue is challenging because it is influenced by physiological, psychological, and sociological states. Fatigue can be assessed objectively or subjectively, but the literature has difficulty understanding how an analytical test relates to a response via a questionnaire. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between objective fatigue variables (Squat Jump (SJ) and Countermovement Jump (CMJ)) measured on day-2 to the game and subjective fatigue (Rating Perceived Exertion (RPE) measured on day-3 to the game and Hooper Index (HI) measured on day-2). The sample comprised 32 professional football players from the First Portuguese League aged 25.86 ± 3.15 years. The Spearman correlations and regression analyses were used to study the relationships between the variables. The results showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) but small correlations (0.113-0.172) between several objective metrics and the subjective metrics evaluated. In addition, we found two weak models with statistical significance (p < 0.05) between the dependent objective variables (contact time, height, and elasticity index) and the HI (R2 = 3.7%) and RPE (R2 = 1.6%). Also, nine statistically significant (p < 0.05) but weak models were observed between the subjective dependent variables (HI and RPE) and contact time (R2 = 1.8-2.7%), flight time (R2 = 1.1-1.9%), height (R2 = 1.2-2.3%), power (R2 = 1.4%), pace (R2 = 1.2-2.1%), and elasticity index (R2 = 1.6%). In conclusion, objective and subjective fatigue-monitoring tests in professional soccer do not measure identical but rather complementary aspects of fatigue, and therefore, both need to be considered to gain a holistic perspective.

Futebol Americano , Futebol , Humanos , Futebol/fisiologia , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Postura
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674376


The present study examined the effects of stressful constraints during soccer trainings on psychological skill development and internal load when compared with control (nonstressful) trainings. A total of 51 elite male youth soccer players (27 in the experimental group, M = 16.54 years; 24 in the control group, M = 15.44 years) participated in the study. In a 12-week longitudinal survey, team resilience, using the Spanish version of the Characteristics of Resilience in Sports Teams Inventory, and anxiety, using the Sport Anxiety Scale, were measured at baseline (after 4 weeks of regular trainings), postprotocol (after 4 weeks of control or experimental trainings), and follow-up (after 4 weeks of regular trainings). Results show that, when compared with the control group, a program with stressful constraints helped young soccer players to develop better psychological skills: specifically, increased ability to cope with impairments in resilience (both resilience characteristics and team vulnerability under pressure; p < 0.001). Increases in anxiety (p = 0.06) and decreases in preoccupation (p < 0.001) and lack of concentration (p < 0.001) were also observed. The adaptation of human behavior to specific trainings may explain these results. In conclusion, the regular exposure of young soccer players to stressful situations during trainings shows benefits for their psychological skill development in soccer. Then, benefits on internal load were also observed.

Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ansiedade , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos de Ansiedade